WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced hydrodynamicand microbiological

  1. Microbiological Advances in Biohydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Watling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most exciting advances in biohydrometallurgy are occurring in the field of microbiology. The two main technologies employed in biohydrometallurgy, agitated tanks for the processing of refractory concentrates and heaps and dumps for the processing of low-grade ores, are technologically sound and widely practised at commercial scale, but their development began at a time when very little was known of the microorganisms that assisted metals extraction from sulfide ores. During and subsequent to those developments it has been shown that microbial communities in metals extraction are more diverse than originally thought, and extremely robust and adaptable to different and variable environments. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics, exploiting hugely increased computing power and speed, have made it possible to describe not only which microorganisms are present in bioleaching systems, but also what physiological functions are being exercised. The body of knowledge being acquired through the application of molecular biology methods will be used increasingly to monitor microbial behaviour, optimise conditions for more appropriate microbiological activity and/or infer the “microbiological health” of bioreactors (tanks and heaps.

  2. Recent advances in silage microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and use the amplified regions to identify strains of microorganisms is at the core of the changes occurring recently in silage microbiology. These dev...

  3. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosys...

  4. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and extents of desulfurization. Bacterial processes are being commercialized for removal of H2S and sulfoxides from petrochemical waste streams. Microbes also have potential for use in removal of nitrogen from crude oil leading to reduced nitric oxide emissions provided that technical problems similar to those experienced in biodesulfurization can be solved. Enzymes

  5. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories. PMID:26220303

  6. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  7. Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes various types of training programs carried out in the study of microbiology. Indicates that the need for new energy sources and the expansion of medical schools and food industry may lead to an increasing demand for qualified microbiologists. (CC)

  8. Advances and applications of molecular cloning in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mehraj, Vikram; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2014-10-01

    Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines. Culture-based methods in polymicrobial infection have many limitation, which has been overcome by cloning techniques and provide gold standard technique. Recombinant antigens produced by cloning technique are now being used for screening of HIV, HCV, HBV, CMV, Treponema pallidum, and other clinical infectious agents. Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis B, cholera, influenza A, and other diseases also use recombinant antigens which have replaced the use of live vaccines and thus reduce the risk for adverse effects. Gene probes developed by gene cloning have many applications including in early diagnosis of hereditary diseases, forensic investigations, and routine diagnosis. Industrial application of this technology produces new antibiotics in the form of antimicrobial peptides and recombinant cytokines that can be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:25023463

  9. Advances in the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of acid mine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2000-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a plethora of research related to the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of acid mine waters and associated tailings and waste-rock waters. Numerous books, reviews, technical papers, and proceedings have been published that examine the complex bio-geochemical process of sulfide mineral oxidation, develop and apply geochemical models to site characterization, and characterize the microbial ecology of these environments. This review summarizes many of these recent works, and provides references for those investigating this field. Comparisons of measured versus calculated Eh and measured versus calculated pH for water samples from several field sites demonstrate the reliability of some current geochemical models for aqueous speciation and mass balances. Geochemical models are not, however, used to predict accurately time-dependent processes but to improve our understanding of these systems and to constrain possible processes that contribute to actual or potential water quality issues. Microbiological studies are demonstrating that there is much we have yet to learn about the types of different microorganisms and their function and ecology in mine-waste environments. A broad diversity of green algae, bacteria, archaea, yeasts, and fungi are encountered in acid mine waters, and a better understanding of their ecology and function may potentially enhance remediation possibilities as well as our understanding of the evolution of life.

  10. Clinical Relevance of the Advanced Microbiologic and Biochemical Investigations in Periodontal Diagnosis: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to periodontal diagnosis, including advanced microbiologic, biochemical, and genetic tests, have been shown to provide the clinician with the information not available by traditional means. The purpose of a diagnostic test is to confirm, exclude, classify, or monitor disease to guide treatment. Their clinical value depends on whether the information they provide leads to improved patient outcomes. This can be assessed by randomized trials, which compare patient outcomes from the new diagnostic test versus the old test strategy. Being nonmandatory for marketing approval, such trials are not always feasible because of large sample sizes requirements. So, many diagnostic tests enter the practice without being critically analysed for any additional benefits. Effective diagnosis is just as essential as the selection of effective treatments for the success of periodontal therapy. So, the current paper aims to focus on the practical utility of this rapidly emerging plethora of periodontal diagnostic tools, emphasizing the critical issues surrounding the clinical application of microbiologic and biochemical investigations, employed for periodontal diagnosis.

  11. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS life sciences symposium on advances in microbiology of food, agriculture, health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enormous quantities of food and agricultural produce are spoiled by microbial activity, which is a major challenge to food security today. Besides, contamination of foods by pathogens or their toxins pose serious problems affecting food safety worldwide. Development of cost effective, reliable, and user friendly methods for detection and identification of microbial pathogens has always remained a challenge in microbiology. Microbial research has also aided development of probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals, which are important for health. The objective of the symposium was to address and dwell upon the recent advances in some of the mentioned research areas pertaining to microbiology of food, agriculture, health and environment. The major themes of the symposium were: Adaptation to Stresses, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Sustainable Agriculture, Food Safety, Food Security and Nutrition, Environmental Microbiology etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. High-resolution X-ray imaging for microbiology at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exciting new applications of high-resolution x-ray imaging have emerged recently due to major advances in high-brilliance synchrotrons sources and high-performance zone plate optics. Imaging with submicron resolution is now routine with hard x-rays: the authors have demonstrated 150 run in the 6--10 keV range with x-ray microscopes at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotrons radiation facility. This has fueled interest in using x-ray imaging in applications ranging from the biomedical, environmental, and materials science fields to the microelectronics industry. One important application they have pursued at the APS is a study of the microbiology of bacteria and their associated extracellular material (biofilms) using fluorescence microanalysis. No microscopy techniques were previously available with sufficient resolution to study live bacteria (∼1 microm x 4 microm in size) and biofilms in their natural hydrated state with better than part-per-million elemental sensitivity and the capability of determining g chemical speciation. In vivo x-ray imaging minimizes artifacts due to sample fixation, drying, and staining. This provides key insights into the transport of metal contaminants by bacteria in the environment and potential new designs for remediation and sequestration strategies

  13. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in the Federal Register of August 8, 2011 (76 FR 48169). In the notice, FDA requested public comments... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and...

  14. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  15. Microbiology of ensiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and then separate those portions by the strains of microorganisms that have produced them has been at the core of the changes that have occurred recen...

  16. Coral microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Kellogg, Christina A.; Rohwer, Forest

    2007-01-01

    In the last 30 years, there has been approximately a 30% loss of corals worldwide, largely due to emerging diseases (Harvell et al., 2002, 2007; Hughes et al., 2003). Coral microbiology is a new field, driven largely by a desire to understand the interactions between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms and to use this knowledge to eventually prevent the spread of coral diseases.

  17. Manual of Environmental Microbiology - Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of environmental microbiology has made tremendous strides since the original microscopic observations of Antony van Leeuwenhock in 1677. The Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 3rd edition embraces these technological advances and is perhaps the most comprehensive and informative book s...

  18. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  19. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  20. If it's good enough for Paris : U of C professor says microbiology advances will improve production and operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2009-07-15

    Nitrite has been used in Paris to prevent the formation of sulphide (H{sub 2}S) odour since the early 1900s. Yara International ASA is the biggest nitrate-producing company in the world and the City of Paris is its biggest customer. A microbiology professor at the University of Calgary is researching molecular physiology of sulphate-reducing bacteria and management of the sulphur cycle in oilfields. The microbiology research may lead to better hydrocarbon recoveries and reduce environmental impacts. The objective is to establish a critical mass of expertise in petroleum microbiology and to improve ways to reduce souring and corrosion, lower industry costs and extend the life of conventional production and offshore fields. The research team has been awarded funding of $680,000 per year for five years from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Alberta Energy Research Institute and 8 companies, including Yara International ASA. The program is focused on sulphur cycle management, corrosion prevention and enhanced recovery. It is expected that managing the sulphur cycle by using nitrate in the field will lower the concentration of sulphide produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate activates nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), which can oxidize the sulphide formed by SRB back to sulphate. Efforts will also be made to evaluate the corrosion risk associated with sulphide removal with nitrate. The research program will also focus on stimulating resident bacteria to make biomass, biosurfactants or viscosity-breaking chemicals that can improve production from conventional fields and oilsands with reduced environmental impacts. This may also involve converting residual oil to methane. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  1. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  2. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. PMID:27465488

  3. Egg Microbiology Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbiology is the study of living microorganisms. This includes any single living animal not visible to the naked eye most of which are less than 0.1 mm in diameter. Bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, some algae and protozoans are considered microorganisms. Microbiology is a diverse field and fo...

  4. Consolidated Clinical Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Sautter, Robert L.; Thomson, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laborat...

  5. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (Editor); Mishra, S. K. (Editor); Wogan, Christine F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  6. Microbiology Made Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Lois S.; Metz, Mildred C.

    1976-01-01

    Described are two hospital-based laboratory exercises which helped students perceive the relationship between the principles of microbiology and the practice of nursing. The exercises involved an environmental study focusing on problems of nosocomial infection and a study of patients hospitalized with infectious diseases. (Author/MS)

  7. Microbiology--Safety Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sheryl K.

    This paper discusses the risk assessment associated with microbiology instruction based on grade level, general control measures, appropriate activities for middle school and high school students, the preparation and sterilization of equipment, and safe handling techniques. Appended are instructions and figures on making wire loops and the…

  8. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  9. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Rein and Zheng Elected to American Academy of Microbiology | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, Alan Rein, Ph.D., and Zhi-Ming (Thomas) Zheng, M.D., Ph.D., were elected to fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology, the honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). They were among 88 microbiologists who were elected to the academy “through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology,” according to the society’s website.

  11. Rein and Zheng Elected to American Academy of Microbiology | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, Alan Rein, Ph.D., and Zhi-Ming (Thomas) Zheng, M.D., Ph.D., were elected to fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology, the honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). They were among 88 microbiologists who were elected to the academy “through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology,” according to the society’s website.

  12. Microbiological aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is now recognized as commonly occurring in power plants as well as other industries. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored survey and the case histories it contained implicated MIC in fire protection systems, heat exchangers, and the structural reliability and functioning of a variety of service water system components at nuclear power plants. A similar study covering various components of fossil-fired plants found that heat exchangers, piping and storage vessels were susceptible to MIC. A more recent publication sponsored by EPRI contained additional case histories covering MIC of carbon steels, stainless steels, copper alloys and high nickel alloys in a variety of components in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors present field and laboratory experiences in MIC of various alloys and present a model for the pitting corrosion of carbon steel. In the case of other alloys, more speculative information is presented attempting to relate the microbes and their activities to the corrosion

  13. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  14. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Burmeister, Alita R.; James J. Smith

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the...

  15. BiOutils: an interface to connect university laboratories with microbiology classes in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Caine, Massimo; Zuchuat, Sandrine; Weber, Aurélia; Ducret, Verena; Linder, Patrick; Perron, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of microbiology to the scientific advances of modern experimental biology has very often made the difference. Despite this, its role as an independent discipline has slowly started to fade away. This situation has been worsening due to (i) a marginal role of microbiology in academic curricula and (ii) a low or misplaced interest by the public at large towards this field of study. In order to counter this phenomenon, microbiology researchers and passionate scientists have made...

  16. MICROBIOLOGY OF ITCHY EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijin Ravindran Nambiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study microbiology of external auditory canal in patients with itchy ears and to also study susceptibility profiles of pathogenic organisms to aid in appropriate management. Materials & Methods: A total of hundred patients were selected. An external ear canal swab was taken. For recovery of bacteria, the samples were emulsified in a solution of BHI broth to study aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fungal microbiology was studied by KOH mount and fungal culture. Culture and sensitivity was done for the pathogenic organisms. Results: Of the total hundred patients, 48% patients had no growth. There were no anaerobes isolated. Of the remaining 52% cases, 33% of the growth was aerobic bacteria and 19% of the growth was fungi. Of the aerobic bacteria, coagulase negative staphylococcus was isolated from 22 patients, staphylococcus aureus from 9 patients and pseudomonas aeruginosa from 2 patients. Of the fungal species, candida was isolated from 11 patients and aspergillus niger from 8 patients. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there need not be an underlying bacterial or fungal infection to cause itching as evidenced by a condition called asteatosis. Hence, asteatosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis for chronic and persistent itching when all other causes have been ruled out. We also found that topical ciprofloxacin drops is equally effective against the common bacterial pathogens.

  17. Microbiology of chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, I

    2016-07-01

    Most sinus infections are viral and only a small percentage develop bacterial infection. Rhino-, influenza, and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral causes of sinusitis. The most common bacterial isolates from children and adult patients with community-acquired acute bacterial sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic organisms (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp.) are the commonest isolates in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Aerobic and anaerobic beta lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB) were recovered from over a third of these patients. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for over 60 % of S. aureus isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic and facultative Gram-negative rods are frequently recovered in nosocomial sinusitis, the immunocompromised host, individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection, and in cystic fibrosis. The CRS infection evolves the formation of a biofilm that might play a significant role in the pathogenesis and persistence of CRS. The microbiology of sinusitis is influenced by previous antimicrobial therapy, vaccinations, and the presence of normal flora capable of interfering with the growth of pathogens. Recognition of the unique microbiology of CRS and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of great importance when selecting antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27086363

  18. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  19. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R; Smith, James J

    2016-05-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27158306

  20. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  1. Transdisciplinarity and Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A graphical representation of the transdisciplinary pyramid, as a tool, helps us in the design of practical classroom activities that deal with transdisciplinarity, microbiology, and, more generally, with biology. As regard to classroom implementation, we propose two main practical approaches. On the one hand, we can concretize/realize transdisciplinarity through a new design of the lesson, which shall rely on a team of four teachers/professors representing disciplines from all the four levels of the pyramid. On the other hand, a class debate with a teacher–moderator shall be used as a Trojan horse to launch the insights into the newly proposed point of view. The presence of four teachers/professors provides a rigorous study of the topics together with a concretized high-quality transdisciplinarity. Conversely, the class discussion promotes student involvement and the development of critical thought.

  2. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  3. Statistics of sampling for microbiological testing of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the many recent advances in protocols for testing for pathogens in foods, a number of challenges still exist. For example, the microbiological safety of food cannot be completely ensured by testing because microorganisms are not evenly distributed throughout the food. Therefore, since it i...

  4. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  5. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  6. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  7. Research Advance in Microbiological Synthesis of Biodegradable Plastic from Food Wastes%食品废弃物合成可生物降解塑料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳萍

    2012-01-01

    The researches on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) microbiological synthesis from food wastes were summarized and analyzed. The structure and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates, microorganisms of PHAs synthesis and PHAs microbiological synthesis using food wastes were discribed in this paper. The prospects of future research in special microbial screening of PHAs synthesis and comprehensive utiliza- tion of activated sludge and food wastes were proposed to researchers as a reference.%针对利用食品废弃物合成可生物降解塑料——聚羟基烷酸酯(PHAs)方面的研究,通过分析近年国内外文献,介绍了PHAs的结构与性能、合成PHAs的微生物、利用食品废弃物合成PHAs等方面的研究现状,展望了合成PHAs微生物筛选和使用、活性污泥混合菌群与食品废弃物合成PHAs的资源化利用前景,以期对相关人员的研究工作提供参考.

  8. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  9. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  10. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652. ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  11. Microbiological Principles in Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the important microbiological objectives of irradiation treatments, with special reference to the definitions of the proposed new terms, radappertization, radicidation and radurization. Emphasis is placed on the nature of the food in determining the microbiological requirements of the irradiation treatment. It is suggested that, just as with heat-processed foods, classifications into the major groups of ''acid'' or ''cured'' foods will remain valid with the irradiation process, and that different microbiological criteria will apply to these different classes of foods. The differences depend in part on the influence which the nature of the food has on the effectiveness of the irradiation treatment itself, but more especially on the way in which the nature of the food affects the activities of those microorganisms which might survive irradiation. The principles used to calculate the appropriate doses of radiation are discussed, with comments on the reliability of the fundamental assumptions or the need for further experimentation. The microbiological characteristics of irradiated foods are compared with those of corresponding heat- processed foods, to emphasize points of difference, with special reference to the appropriateness of suggested classifications for heat-processed foods. Finally, some general difficulties are considered, such as uncertainty about the significance and behaviour of food-borne viruses, and about the significance of the mutations which might conceivably be induced in microorganisms surviving-an irradiation process. (author)

  12. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are...

  13. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes...

  14. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  16. Microbiological examination of sebeel water.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, Z H; Dirar, H A

    1982-01-01

    Water samples from clay storage jugs ("zeers") located in homes and at public watering stands ("sebeels") at streets, mosques, and schools were examined. Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were detected in 100, 69, 88, and 91.56% of the samples, respectively. The general microbiology of the water and some factors affecting microbial load were studied. The predominant bacterial genera of sebeel water were found to be Staphylococcus. Aerococcus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Bacil...

  17. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Tokunaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the endoperiodontal lesion. Literature review: The search strategy comprised the electronic studies of databases such as PubMed and Cochrane on the microbiology of the endodontic and periodontal systems through employing the following keywords: microbiology, endodontics, periodontal pocket. Results: There were similarities in the endodontic and periodontal microflora. However, the number of microorganisms within the cross infection is limited, including Bacteroides, Eubacteria, Fusobacteria, spirochaetes, Wolinella. The bacterias forming the red complex are closely related to the severity of the periodontal disease and can also participate in the pathogenesis of the periradicular abscesses. Conclusion: There are many communication routes between the periodontium and pulpal tissue, therefore the contamination from um tissue to another can occur, existing a microbiological inter-relationship between these tissues.

  18. BiOutils: an interface to connect university laboratories with microbiology classes in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Massimo; Zuchuat, Sandrine; Weber, Aurélia; Ducret, Verena; Linder, Patrick; Perron, Karl

    2015-10-01

    The contribution of microbiology to the scientific advances of modern experimental biology has very often made the difference. Despite this, its role as an independent discipline has slowly started to fade away. This situation has been worsening due to (i) a marginal role of microbiology in academic curricula and (ii) a low or misplaced interest by the public at large towards this field of study. In order to counter this phenomenon, microbiology researchers and passionate scientists have made several efforts to engage and inform the broad public and academic policymakers about the importance of microbiology as an independent discipline. One of the approaches used in this direction is to support the teaching of microbiology in schools. BiOutils, a science communication platform based within a microbiology lab, has been committed to this goal since its creation in 2007. In this article, we describe how the platform is able to work in synergy with school teachers, providing engaging activities that can be performed in schools' classrooms. Our aim is to provide a perspective on how every microbiology lab with little costs and efforts can support the teaching of a discipline that will remain independent thanks to the fascination that they will be able to transmit. PMID:26391525

  19. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Applications in Diagnostic Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordo B. A. Saeed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has revolutionized the detection of DNA and RNA. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR is becoming the gold standard test for accurate, sensitive and fast diagnosis for a large range of infectious agents. Benefits of this procedure over conventional methods for measuring RNA include its sensitivity, high throughout and quantification. RT-PCR assays have advanced the diagnostic abilities of clinical laboratories particularly microbiology and infectious diseases. In this review we would like to briefly discuss RT-PCR in diagnostic microbiology laboratory, beginning with a general introduction to RT-PCR and its principles, setting up an RT PCR, including multiplex systems and the avoidance and remediation of contamination issues. A segment of the review would be devoted to the application of RT-PCR in clinical practice concentrating on its role in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

  20. The Integrated Burn Information System - Microbiology Module

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, A T; Henderson, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Infection is the most common serious complication occurring in hospitalized burn patients. Since this institute was established more than 35 years ago, the Microbiology section has provided direct clinical microbiology support and has collected epidemiological and historical data concerning the identification, incidence and treatment of infections in burn patients. With the availability of a centralized computer facility, microbiology data were added to the integrated burn information system,...

  1. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Pei; Ning Li; Yunchang Guo; Xiumei Liu; Lin Yan; Ying Li; Shuran Yang; Jing Hu; Jianghui Zhu; Dajin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the na...

  2. Perspectives in biotechnology and applied microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alani, D.I.

    1986-01-01

    Upon an invitation from Arab Burea of Education for the Gulf States 'ABEGS', an International Converence on Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology was held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The conference was sponsored by ABEGS and organised through cooperation with Saudi Biological Society (SEBS). The main topics were grouped into sections representing seven themes of Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology-production of microbial proteins; utilization of microorganisms for the production of chemicals; microbial treatment and utilization of waste; continuous culture; application of biotechnology in plant science; applied microbiology and environment and applied microbiology and biotechnology; international cooperation between developed and developing countries.

  3. Microbiology Learning and Education Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Niño, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    The ubiquity of devices that connect to the Internet has exploded, allowing for easy dissemination of information. Many teachers from kindergarten to universities use the information obtained online or post material they want their students to access. Online media readily places articles, books, videos, and games at our fingertips. The public in general also gathers health information from the Internet. The following review will explore what has been published regarding microbiology education and learning online and the use of electronic media by microbiologists for scientific purposes. PMID:26935727

  4. Microbiological aspects of radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of microorganism, mainly bacteria and, less frequently, moulds and yeasts, have been found on many medical devices and pharmaceuticals. Complete eradication of these microorganisms (sterilization) is essential to the safety of medical devices and pharmaceutical products. The sterilization process must be validated to verify that it effectively and reliably kills any microorganisms that may be present on the presterilized product. Radiation sterilization, as a physical cold process, has been widely used in many developed and developing countries for the sterilization of health care products. Earlier, a minimum dose of 25 kGy was routinely applied for many medical devices, pharmaceutical products and biological tissues. Now, as recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the sterilization dose must be set for each type of product depending on its bioburden. Generally, the determination of sterilization dose is the responsibility of the principal manufacturer of the medical product, who must have access to a well qualified microbiology laboratory. Radiation sterilization is currently regulated by two standards, ISO 11137:1995 and EN 552. These standards will be harmonized in the very near future and published by the ISO as ISO 11137 part 1, part 2 and part 3. Currently, all three parts of the revised ISO 11137 are at the Final Draft International Standard stage (FDIS), and they are expected to be published together. These three parts then will replace ISO 11137:1995 and EN552. In this section, the requirements of ISO 11137:1995 have been followed, which is valid at the time of writing. A sterile product is one that is free from viable microorganisms. Items produced under controlled manufacturing conditions can, prior to sterilization, have microorganisms on them, although ordinarily in low numbers. Such products are, by definition, non-sterile. The purpose of sterilization processing is to destroy the microbiological

  5. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting... entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The purpose of the public meeting is to provide stakeholders an opportunity to present information regarding cosmetic microbiological safety and to...

  6. Rapid methods and automation in dairy microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, P C

    1993-10-01

    The importance of microbiology to the dairy industry has been demonstrated by recent outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with consumption of milk and dairy products that had been contaminated with pathogenic organisms or toxins. Undesirable microorganisms constitute the primary hazard to safety, quality, and wholesomeness of milk and dairy foods. Consequently, increased emphasis has been placed on the microbiological analysis of milk and dairy products designed to evaluate quality and to ensure safety and regulatory compliance. The focus of dairy microbiology, however, remains largely on conventional methods: plate counts, most probable numbers, and dye reduction tests. These methods are slow, tedious, intensive in their requirements for material and labor, and often not suitable for assessing the quality and shelf-life of perishable dairy foods. With the exception of coliforms, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus, isolation and characterization of various organisms occurring in milk and milk products are seldom a part of the routine microbiological analysis in the dairy industry. Recent emphasis on the programs based on HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) for total quality management in the dairy industry and increased demand for microbiological surveillance of products, process, and environment have led to increased interest in rapid methods and automation in microbiology. Several methods for rapid detection, isolation, enumeration, and characterization of microorganisms are being adapted by the dairy industry. This presentation reviews rapid methods and automation in microbiology for microbiological analysis of milk and dairy products. PMID:8227634

  7. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  8. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  9. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland;

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...... information generated through conducting a risk assessment, such as a risk estimate, ranking of risks, identification of key controlling or risk-generating factors, or highlighting of data gaps,can assist governments in their role of setting national policies, criteria or providing public health advice, and...

  10. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  11. Microbiological Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah; Castro, Victoria A.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of being the centerpiece of NASA s human spacecraft, the Space Shuttle will retire. This highly successful program provided many valuable lessons for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Major microbiological risks to crewmembers include food, water, air, surfaces, payloads, animals, other crewmembers, and ground support personnel. Adverse effects of microorganisms are varied and can jeopardize crew health and safety, spacecraft systems, and mission objectives. Engineering practices and operational procedures can minimize the negative effects of microorganisms. To minimize problems associated with microorganisms, appropriate steps must begin in the design phase of new spacecraft or space habitats. Spacecraft design must include requirements to control accumulation of water including humidity, leaks, and condensate on surfaces. Materials used in habitable volumes must not contribute to microbial growth. Use of appropriate materials and the implementation of robust housekeeping that utilizes periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Air filtration can ensure low levels of bioaerosols and particulates in the breathing air. The use of physical and chemical steps to disinfect drinking water coupled with filtration can provide safe drinking water. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. The advances in knowledge of living and working onboard the Space Shuttle formed the foundation for environmental microbiology requirements and operations for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Research conducted during the Space Shuttle Program resulted in an improved understanding of the effects of spaceflight on human physiology, microbial properties, and specifically the host-microbe interactions. Host-microbe interactions are substantially affected by spaceflight. Astronaut immune

  12. Making microbiology of the built environment relevant to design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G Z; Kline, Jeff; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Northcutt, Dale; Stenson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Architects are enthusiastic about "bioinformed design" as occupant well-being is a primary measure of architectural success. However, architects are also under mounting pressure to create more sustainable buildings. Scientists have a critical opportunity to make the emerging field of microbiology of the built environment more relevant and applicable to real-world design problems by addressing health and sustainability in tandem. Practice-based research, which complements evidence-based design, represents a promising approach to advancing knowledge of the indoor microbiome and translating it to architectural practice. PMID:26880354

  13. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. Cisar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

  14. 70th Anniversary Collection for the Microbiology Society: Journal of Medical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, Kalai; Silver, Lynn L; Tatke, Gorakh

    2015-12-01

    In the last 70 years, we have seen a radical change in our perception and understanding of the microbial world. During this period, we learned from Woese and Fox there exists a third kingdom called 'Archea' based on the phylogenetic studies of the 16S rRNA that revolutionized microbiology (Woese & Fox, 1977; Woese et al., 1978). Furthermore, we were forced to reckon with the fact that Koch and Pasteur's way of growing cells in test-tubes or flasks planktonically does not necessarily translate to the real-life scenario of bacterial lifestyle, where they prefer to live and function as a closely knit microbial community called biofilm. Thanks are due to Costerton, who led the crusade on the concept of biofilms and expanded its scope of inquiry, which forced scientists and clinicians worldwide to rethink how we evaluate and apply the data. Then progressively, disbelief turned into belief, and now it is universally accepted that the micro-organisms hobnob with the members of their community to communicate and coordinate their behaviour, especially in regard to growth patterns and virulence traits via signalling molecules. Just when we thought that we were losing the battle against bacteria, antimicrobials were discovered. We then witnessed the rise and fall of antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance. Due to space and choice limitation, we will focus on the three areas that caused this major paradigm shift (i) antimicrobial resistance (AMR), (ii) biofilm and (iii) quorum sensing (QS), and how the Journal of Medical Microbiology played a major role in advancing the shift. PMID:26689963

  15. Clinical microbiology: Should microbiology be a clinical or a laboratory speciality?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Clinical microbiology is a specific combination of knowledge, attitude and practice aimed at direct clinical involvement in infectious disease management using the core principles of medical microbiology and clinical medicine. In this article certain areas in microbiology, where a more proactive approach could make a significant difference in clinical outcome has been delineated. The article reiterates the role of a medical microbiologist in a hospital setting. The practices described are the...

  16. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne J. Dobbins

    2010-01-01

    Review of: Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, and Christopher J. Woolverton. 2011. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, NewYork, NY. 1070 pages. ISBN- 978-0-07-337526-7.

  17. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study...

  18. Microbiology facilities aboard Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, L. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive microbiological facility is being designed for use on board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Its purpose will be to conduct microbial surveillance of the SSF environment and to examine clinical specimens. Air, water, and internal surfaces will be periodically monitored to satisfy requirements for a safe environment. Crew health will remain a principle objective for every mission. This paper will review the Microbiology Subsystem capabilities planned for SSF application.

  19. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. PMID:26299932

  20. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rautemaa-Richardson, Riina; Wil A van der Reijden; Dahlen, Gunnar; Andrew J. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB) Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into...

  1. Changing needs, opportunities and constraints for the 21st century microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eldere, J

    2005-04-01

    Clinical microbiologists and microbiology laboratories are experiencing changes due to evolving views on 'healthcare delivery' as an economic activity, due to changes in the medical environment and the demographics of the workforce, and technical evolution. Cost-effectiveness of laboratory procedures has been achieved through consolidation and integration of laboratories. Consolidation offers economy of scale and reduction in numbers of on-site staff, but also leads to separation of microbiologists from their clinical colleagues. Integration puts different laboratory disciplines under a single management, and leads to reorganisation of laboratories along common work-lines. Cost-savings combined with on-site availability of laboratories are achieved at the expense of a reduction in the influence of microbiologists in the daily running of the laboratory. Medically, there is growing emphasis on evidence-based diagnostics. Because of time-delays inherent in culturing, microbiology through rapid testing is mandatory. There is an increasing shortage in Europe and the USA of trained microbiology laboratory technicians and microbiologists. This reinforces the trend towards more automation and integration. Technological advances, particularly in molecular diagnostics, offer the possibility of rapid reporting and improvement of the impact of clinical microbiology on patient management. Molecular tests, however, fit perfectly the concept of an integrated laboratory and may further loosen the link between microbiologist and microbiology tests. The challenge for clinical microbiology will be to use new techniques to improve its cost-effectiveness and impact on infectious disease management. The future organisation of microbiology laboratories must support this but is itself of secondary importance. The training of future microbiologist must prepare them for this changing environment. PMID:15816102

  2. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  3. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  4. Frontiers in Microbiology: Envisioning a Curriculum Unit for High School Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Bloom

    2004-06-18

    Microbiology is undergoing a quiet revolution. Techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, high throughput DNA sequencing, whole genome shotgun sequencing, DNA microarrays, and bioinformatics analyses are greatly aiding our understanding of the estimated one billion species of microbes that inhabit the Earth. Unfortunately, the rapid pace of research in microbiology stands in contrast to the much slower pace of change in educational reform. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) hosted a two-day planning meeting to discuss whether or not a new curriculum unit on microbiology is desirable for the high school audience. Attending the meeting were microbiologists, high school biology teachers, and science educators. The consensus of the participants was that an inquiry-based unit dealing with advances in microbiology should be developed for a high school biology audience. Participants established content priorities for the unit, discussed the unit's conceptual flow, brainstormed potential student activities, and discussed the role of educational technology for the unit. As a result of the planning meeting discussions, BSCS staff sought additional funding to develop, disseminate, and evaluate the Frontiers in Microbiology curriculum unit. This unit was intended to be developed as a replacement unit suitable for an introductory biology course. The unit would feature inquiry-based student activities and provide approximately four weeks of instruction. As appropriate, activities would make use of multimedia. The development and production processes would require about two years for completion. Unfortunately, BSCS staff was not able to attract sufficient funding to develop the proposed curriculum unit. Since there were some unexpended funds left over from the planning meeting, BSCS requested and received permission from DOE to use the balance of the funds to prepare background materials about advances in microbiology that would be useful to teachers. These

  5. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  6. Cost analysis in a clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezmes, M F; Ochoa, C; Eiros, J M

    2002-08-01

    The use of models for business management and cost control in public hospitals has led to a need for microbiology laboratories to know the real cost of the different products they offer. For this reason, a catalogue of microbiological products was prepared, and the costs (direct and indirect) for each product were analysed, along with estimated profitability. All tests performed in the microbiology laboratory of the "Virgen de la Concha" Hospital in Zamora over a 2-year period (73192 tests) were studied. The microbiological product catalogue was designed using homogeneity criteria with respect to procedures used, workloads and costs. For each product, the direct personnel costs (estimated from workloads following the method of the College of American Pathologists, 1992 version), the indirect personnel costs, the direct and indirect material costs and the portion of costs corresponding to the remaining laboratory costs (capital and structural costs) were calculated. The average product cost was 16.05 euros. The average cost of a urine culture (considered, for purposes of this study, as a relative value unit) reached 13.59 euros, with a significant difference observed between positive and negative cultures (negative urine culture, 10.72 euros; positive culture, 29.65 euros). Significant heterogeneity exists, both in the costs of different products and especially in the cost per positive test. The application of a detailed methodology of cost analysis facilitates the calculation of the real cost of microbiological products. This information provides a basic tool for establishing clinical management strategies. PMID:12226688

  7. Recent advances in marine microbiology: the Indian scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    . Other areas covered include microbial antagonism, metal-microbe interactions, and pollution studies. Deep-sea bacteriological studies have suggested the oxidative role of bacteria in the formation of deep-sea polymetallic nodules. The use of some...

  8. Microbiological quality of milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kozačinski

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work microbiological acceptability has been determined for 802 samples of consume milk and dairy products produced in Križevci region, by 11 producers from northwest Croatia. From the total number of analysed samples the requirements for microbiological acceptability did not fulfilled 147 (18.33% samples: 42.86% goat’s milk, 36.36% fruit yoghurt, 20.51% consume milk, 33.33% sweet cream, 31.51% sour cream, 26.77% soft (fresh cheeses, 20% cheese spreads, 15% semi-hard cheeses, 2.63% butters, 1.72% processed cheese, and 1.16% yoghurts. The main reasons for microbiological not-acceptability of the samples were higher number of enterobacteriae, yeast and moulds, higher number of total bacteria, E. coli and Staphyloccocus aureus. In the same samples Streptococcus faecalis, S. pyogenes and Pseudomonas were found.

  9. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  10. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  11. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion

  12. OpenStax: Microbiology Provides a Cost-Effective and Accessible Resource for Undergraduate Microbiology Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lyn Gunn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Openstax: Microbiology, a textbook that has been put together by a collaborative effort between Openstax College and the American Society for Microbiology.  The text will be offered in a variety of formats including web-based, PDF, and hardcopy, and is set for publication Spring 2016. Review of: OpenStax: Microbiology. Nina Parker, Mark Schneegurt, and Anh-Hue Tu; (2016. OpenStax and ASM. 1100 pages. (Note: At time of journal printing, this book was not yet published. Certain publication details may change slightly.

  13. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  14. 77 FR 16126 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid-Based Systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid... the Microbiology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee (Microbiology Devices Panel.... VI. Risks to Health After considering the information discussed by the Microbiology Devices...

  15. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-01-01

    While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and a...

  16. 7 CFR 58.528 - Microbiological requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements. 58.528 Section 58.528 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT...

  17. Basics of radiation microbiology for food protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbiological basics of food poisoning, food spoilage, and ionizing energy treatments are presented. Factors influencing the microbial resistance of ionizing radiation, including the use of physical agents for combination treatments, are briefly reviewed, and parameters involved in dose selection are considered

  18. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamenta

  19. Predictive microbiology in food packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology including growth, inactivation, surface transfer (or cross-contamination), and survival, plays important roles in understanding microbial food safety. Growth models may involve the growth potential of a specified pathogen under different stresses, e.g., temperature, pH, wate...

  20. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  1. A Selected Bibliography on Microbiological Laboratory Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Design Notes, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Reference sources on microbiological laboratory design are cited. Subjects covered include--(1) policies and general requirements, (2) ventilated cabinets, (3) animal isolation equipment, (4) air handling, ventilation, and filtration, (5) germicidal ultraviolet irradiation, (6) aerosol test facilities, (7) process production of microorganisms, and…

  2. A Cartoon History of Soil Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of cartoons in presenting a historical perspective of soil microbiology that makes this information more entertaining to introductory students. Presents basic historical facts and major accomplishments of the pioneering soil microbiologists in a factual but tongue-in-cheek survey. (Author/JRH)

  3. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper;

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  4. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne J. Dobbins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, and Christopher J. Woolverton. 2011. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, NewYork, NY. 1070 pages. ISBN- 978-0-07-337526-7.

  5. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teufel, P.

    1981-08-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas.

  6. Applications for predictive microbiology to food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology has been used for several years in the food industry to predict microbial growth, inactivation and survival. Predictive models provide a useful tool in risk assessment, HACCP set-up and GMP for the food industry to enhance microbial food safety. This report introduces the c...

  7. The Microbiology of Counterflow Scalding Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most of the thousands of years that humans have used scalding to make it easier to remove feathers from birds, no one knew about the microbiological implications of scalding. The hot water in scald tanks kills many bacteria, but scalding multiple birds in the same tank gives surviving bacteria ...

  8. Predictive Microbiology and Food Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical modeling is the science of systematic study of recurrent events or phenomena. When models are properly developed, their applications may save costs and time. For microbial food safety research and applications, predictive microbiology models may be developed based on the fact that most ...

  9. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological assay culture medium. 866.2350 Section 866.2350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Microbiological assay culture medium. (a) Identification. A microbiological assay culture medium is a device...

  11. [Validation and verfication of microbiology methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaró-Sala, María Luisa; Martínez-García, Rosana; Olmos-Martínez, Piedad; Catalá-Cuenca, Vicente; Ocete-Mochón, María Dolores; Gimeno-Cardona, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    Clinical microbiologists should ensure, to the maximum level allowed by the scientific and technical development, the reliability of the results. This implies that, in addition to meeting the technical criteria to ensure their validity, they must be performed with a number of conditions that allows comparable results to be obtained, regardless of the laboratory that performs the test. In this sense, the use of recognized and accepted reference methodsis the most effective tool for these guarantees. The activities related to verification and validation of analytical methods has become very important, as there is continuous development, as well as updating techniques and increasingly complex analytical equipment, and an interest of professionals to ensure quality processes and results. The definitions of validation and verification are described, along with the different types of validation/verification, and the types of methods, and the level of validation necessary depending on the degree of standardization. The situations in which validation/verification is mandatory and/or recommended is discussed, including those particularly related to validation in Microbiology. It stresses the importance of promoting the use of reference strains as controls in Microbiology and the use of standard controls, as well as the importance of participation in External Quality Assessment programs to demonstrate technical competence. The emphasis is on how to calculate some of the parameters required for validation/verification, such as the accuracy and precision. The development of these concepts can be found in the microbiological process SEIMC number 48: «Validation and verification of microbiological methods» www.seimc.org/protocols/microbiology. PMID:24958671

  12. WGS Analysis and Interpretation in Clinical and Public Health Microbiology Laboratories: What Are the Requirements and How Do Existing Tools Compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Wyres, Kelly L.; Conway, Thomas C.; Saurabh Garg; Carlos Queiroz; Matthias Reumann; Kathryn Holt; Rusu, Laura I.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have the potential to transform the field of clinical and public health microbiology, and in the last few years numerous case studies have demonstrated successful applications in this context. Among other considerations, a lack of user-friendly data analysis and interpretation tools has been frequently cited as a major barrier to routine use of these techniques. Here we consider the requirements of microbiology laboratories for the analysis, clin...

  13. Microbiología de la tuberculosis Microbiology of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dorronsoro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante un siglo, el diagnóstico microbiológico de la tuberculosis, basado en la baciloscopia y en el aislamiento e identificación de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en los cultivos, ha sido poco sensible y lento lo que obligaba en ocasiones a iniciar de forma empírica tratamiento con tuberculostáticos. La incorporación rutinaria de medios de cultivo líquidos y técnicas de genética molecular, en la última década del siglo XX, ha supuesto un avance importante al aumentar claramente la sensibilidad, precisión y rapidez en el diagnóstico. La actual eclosión de las técnicas moleculares está permitiendo un mejor conocimiento de la epidemiología de la enfermedad, de los factores de virulencia y de los mecanismos de resistencia lo que dará lugar, en un futuro inmediato, a nuevas estrategias de prevención y tratamiento de la enfermedad.For a century, the diagnosis of tuberculosis, based on bacilloscopy and the isolation and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cultures, has been slow and not very sensitive. This has made it necessary on occasions to initiate treatment with tuberculostatics in an empirical way. The routine incorporation of liquid mediums and molecular genetic techniques in the final decade of the XX century brought an important advance by clearly increasing the sensitivity, precision and rapidity of diagnosis. The present blossoming of molecular techniques is making possible a better understanding of the disease’s epidemiology, the factors of virulence and the mechanisms of resistance, which in the near future will give rise to new strategies of prevention and for treating the disease.

  14. Microbiological safety and quality of Mozzarella cheese assessed by the microbiological survey method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Francesca; Arienzo, Alyexandra; Bottini, Giorgia; Priolisi, Francesca Romana; Mari, Alberto; Antonini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are characterized by reduced shelf life because they are an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to monitor the microbiological quality of dairy products and, in particular, the total viable count and concentration of Escherichia coli, as they are indicators of the hygienic state of these products. In addition, in dairy products such as Mozzarella cheese, it is important to monitor the concentration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as they are the major components of starter cultures used in cheese production, contributing to the taste and texture of fermented products and inhibiting food spoilage bacteria by producing growth-inhibiting substances. For these reasons, to ensure the quality and safety of their products, cheese makers should monitor frequently, during fresh cheese production, the concentration of LAB and spoilage bacteria. However, usually, small- to medium-size dairy factories do not have an internal microbiological laboratory and external laboratories of analysis are often too expensive and require several days for the results. Compared with traditional methods, the microbiological survey (MBS) method developed by Roma Tre University (Rome, Italy) allows faster and less-expensive microbiological analyses to be conducted wherever they are necessary, without the need for a microbiological laboratory or any instrumentation other than MBS vials and a thermostat. In this paper, we report the primary validation of the MBS method to monitor LAB concentration in Mozzarella cheese and the analysis, using the MBS method, of total viable count, E. coli, and LAB concentrations in the production line of Mozzarella cheese as well as during the shelf life of the product stored at 20°C. The results obtained indicate that the MBS method may be successfully used by small- to medium-size dairy factories that do not have an internal microbiological laboratory. Using the MBS method, these dairy

  15. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STAPHYLO- COCCAL INFECTIONS TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarenko S.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Overview summarizes the data of the domestic and for-eign literature about the prevalence and biological prop-erties of S. aureus. S. аureus enzymes of aggression andpathogenicity factors (capsular polysaccharides, differentextracellular protein substances (hemolysins, leuko-cidins, phospholipase, hyaluronidase, fibrinolysin, co-agulase etc. which disintegrate structural components ofconnective tissue and eukaryotic cells are described interms of improvement and enhancement of microbiologi-cal technologies. Detailed information about the prob-lem of Staphylococcus aureus multidrugresistance andmechanisms of methicillin resistance formation is given.The necessity of targeted monitoring of the biologicalproperties of S. aureus selected clinical isolates in orderto optimize detection of the pathogen aggressiveness isproved.

  16. [Microbiologic evaluation of instant soup concentrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Stopczyńska, Barbara; Falkowski, Joachim; Jakubowska, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The microbiological condition of instant soup powders purchased in retail network has been assessed. The study included 37 instant soups (8 types) manufactured by four Polish companies. The microbiological quality of a majority of soup powders fulfilled the requirements of the standard. No pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus) were detected, nor were there any spores of sulphitereducing anaerobic bacteria found. However, some samples of powders, mainly from one manufacturer, did have an excessive total number of bacteria (> 10(5) cfu/g) and a reduced (down to 0.01 g) level of coliform count. Aerobic bacteria occurring in powders were of vegetative and spore forms and exhibited the activity of amylo-, lipo- and proteolytic exoenzymes. The quantity of moulds did not exceed 100 cfu/g in a majority of samples. They were mainly represented by Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. PMID:12235671

  17. Radiometric microbiological estimation of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of vitamin B12 in blood is very important to determine in deficiency and diagnosis of anemic patients. Vitamin B12 in blood can be estimated by spectrochemical, enzymatic, radioisotopic and microbiological methods. In the present study vitamin B12 was determined in 48 normal subjects of Rawalpindi/Islamabad by radiometric microbiological assay (RMA) technique using a very rapid, sensitive and automated instrument Bactec 460. In this procedure 14C-glucose media and microorganisms Lactobacillus leichmannii were used. The sensitivity of the method for vitamin B12 is 1 pg/ml and the vitamin B12 found in normal subjects was in the range of 105-535 pg/ml with a median value of 246±6 pg/ml. (author) 26 refs.; 1 fig

  18. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency

  19. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  20. 9 Microbiological quality of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Karen Reis Barbosa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992. The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% of these were creepers. The results also showed that 57% of plants acquired in organic cultivation systems and having fungal infections were pilous plants. However, it was noted in the determination of fecal coliforms that all the samples had infections lower than the maximum established limit. Since medicinal plants are often used in natura, there is no need to maintain a higher microbiological quality.

  1. Microbiological Contamination of Cosmetic Creams in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Keshtvarz, M. (Msc); Pourmand MR; Shirazi, MH. (PhD); Yousefi, M.; Hajikhani, S. (BSc)

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Transmission of pathogens by cosmetics is one of the major health complications. Direct contact with contaminated non-standard cosmetics can have irreparable side effects for the consumers. Thus, the evaluation of microbial contamination in cosmetic products is important. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological contamination of one of frequently used cream. Material and Methods: In the present study, 135 samples of a special moisturizing cream wer...

  2. Quantitative Microbiologic Models for Preterm Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Lee, Mei-Ling; Lieberman, Ellice; Delaney, Mary L; Tuomala, Ruth E.

    2003-01-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. An epidemiological association between PTD and various bacteria that are part of the vaginal microflora has been reported. No single bacterial species has been identified as being causally associated with PTD, suggesting a multifactorial etiology. Quantitative microbiologic cultures have been used previously to define normal vaginal microflora in a predictive model. These techniques have been a...

  3. Microbiological quality and safety of zoo food.

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, E R; al-Sheddy, I

    1990-01-01

    Two types of commercial products for feeding zoo animals (a frozen meat product, referred to as zoo food, and a dry product, referred to as dry food) were microbiologically examined for spoilage organisms (aerobic, psychrotrophic, coliform, Escherichia coli, mold, and yeasts) and pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni). Levels of microorganisms in frozen ground zoo food were compared with those in frozen ground beef and frozen ground turkey meat. The leve...

  4. Aeromonas spp. clinical microbiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer L; Shaw, Jonathan G

    2011-02-01

    Members of the genus Aeromonas inhabit various aquatic environments and are responsible for, and are implicated in, a number of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans as well as other animals. This review focuses on invasive human infection and disease and summarizes available findings regarding the microbiology and detection of Aeromonas spp., with emphasis on successful identification and diagnosis, and the control of disease in the population. Antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. is also discussed. PMID:21163298

  5. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Nasso; Francesco Saverio Romolo

    2007-01-01

    The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of...

  6. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Perestrelo; A. N. Norberg; F. Guerra-Sanches; Torres, A.C.; E Pile

    2006-01-01

    Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each) were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatu...

  7. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamental understanding of MIC processes in ship ballast tanks (SBTs) as a basis for the development of effective counterstrategies that offer an appropriate protection against MIC attack. Local conditions...

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING OF SELECTED CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality and water activity of confectionery products as corpus of desserts, stuffing cakes and finished cakes. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts, microscopic filamentous fungi, counts of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. were observed. These confectionery products were evaluated: 5 corpus of Kremeš, 5 stuffing of Kremeš and 5 Venček cake. For microbiological tests 15 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 2.9 to 3.65 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria ranged from 2.00 to 3.28 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0.00 to 3.15 CFU.g-1, number of yeasts ranged from 0.00 to 3.30 log CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0.00 to 2.90 CFU.g-1. None of the samples showed any growth of coliforms bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. From microscopic fungi were isolated genera Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Eight from fifteen investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. The lowest water activity was found in Kremeš corpus samples (0.953 and higher in Venček samples (0.973.

  9. Microbiology studies in the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Past space microbiology studies have evaluated three general areas: microbe detection in extraterrestrial materials; monitoring of autoflora and medically important species on crewmembers, equipment, and cabin air; and in vitro evaluations of isolated terrestrial species carried on manned and unmanned spaceflights. These areas are briefly reviewed to establish a basis for presenting probable experiment subjects applicable to the Space Shuttle era. Most extraterrestrial life detection studies involve visitations to other heavenly bodies. Although this is not applicable to the first series of Shuttle flights, attempts to capture meteors and spores in space could be important. Human pathogen and autoflora monitoring will become more important with increased variety among crewmembers. Inclusion of contaminated animal and plant specimens in the space lab will necessitate inflight evaluation of cross-contamination and infection potentials. The majority of Shuttle microbiology studies will doubtless fall into the third study area. Presence of a space lab will permit a whole range of experimentation under conditions similar to these experienced in earth-based laboratories. The recommendations of various study groups are analyzed, and probable inflight microbiological experiment areas are identified for the Life Sciences Shuttle Laboratory.

  10. Microbiology of Olkiluoto Groundwater 2004 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater in Olkiluoto, Finland, was analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. The extensive sampling and analysis programme produced a substantial database, including 60 analytical datasets on the microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater, which is described and interpreted here. One part of this database comprises 39 complete analytical datasets on microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas composition assembled on four sampling campaigns from measurements from 16 shallow observation tubes and boreholes ranging in depth from 3.5 to 24.5 m. The second part of the database contains 21 datasets on microbiology and chemistry covering 13 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 35 to 450 m. In addition, the database contains 33 completed analyses of gas covering 14 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 40 to 742 m. Most of these analyses were completed before the onset of ONKALO construction, and the remaining samples were collected before ONKALO construction had extended below a depth of 100 m; therefore, this dataset captures the undisturbed conditions before the building of ONKALO. Shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto contained dissolved oxygen at approximately 10% or less of saturation. The presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been documented. The data confirm earlier suggested processes of oxygen reduction in the shallow part of the bedrock. These microbial processes reduce intruding oxygen in the shallow groundwater using dissolved organic carbon and methane as the main electron donors. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggest that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth down to approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto, as has been suggested previously, based on interpretations of geochemical data. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms is needed before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto

  11. Variability in Urine Culture Reporting by Canadian Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Michael A.; Nikiforuk, Shirley

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of microbiology laboratories to perform and to report urine colony counts.DESIGN: Clinical Microbiology Proficiency Testing program participants received stabilized simulated urine samples. Laboratories were asked to perform the appropriate test and report results.PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and nine clinical microbiology laboratories in British Columbia, Alberta and Nova Scotia.OUTCOME MEASURES: Consistency of reporting was compared with standards for report...

  12. Microbiological risk assessment for safe food design & management

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Andrés; Busschaert, Pieter; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2010-01-01

    An important element of microbiological risk analysis, is risk assessment; a process in which the dynamics of microbiological hazards in the food chain are identified and characterized, and the exposure of consumers to the particular hazards is estimated. The current focus of microbiological risk assessment studies is “how it can best be utilized in food safety management to understand the magnitude of prevailing risk regarding a pathogen/product combination, to design risk ...

  13. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and active learning techniques. All of these techniques have been applied in the engineering class, but the results indicate that these techniques are often inadequate for students. Learning difficulties have to be identified to enhance students’ learning.

  14. Development of a website for clinical microbiology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, F; Andreazzi, D; Chao, L W

    2002-01-01

    The quality of Brazilian health services, including clinical microbiology laboratories, varies enormously. We established a Website to provide different professionals with up-to-date information and to create a virtual Brazilian microbiology community. The Website became operational in February 2000 and had 198,976 hits in the subsequent 20 months. There were 1031 user registrations in its virtual community. Different microbiology topics were discussed and three virtual training courses (representing about 300 printed pages of information) were given. The e-learning centre and the Brazilian virtual community created by this Website have facilitated distance learning, and have encouraged professional integration within Brazilian clinical microbiology. PMID:12217118

  15. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan. PMID:26555520

  16. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide...... and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within...

  17. Cathodic protection to control microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the cathodic protection performance in environments with microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) effects is very fragmented and often contradictory. Not enough is known about the microbial effects on cathodic protection effectiveness, criteria, calcareous deposits, corrosion rates and possible hydrogen embrittlement of titanium and some stainless steel condenser tubes. This paper presents a review of cathodic protection systems, describes several examples of cathodic protection in environments with MIC effects and provides preliminary conclusions about cathodic protection design parameters, criteria and effectiveness in MIC environments. 30 refs

  18. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia......, Syria and Turkey between 2000 and 2012. A positive culture, PCR or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was mandatory for inclusion of meningitis patients. A total of 506 TBM patients were included. The sensitivities of the tests were as follows: interferon-γ release...

  19. [Microbiology laboratory management: an (almost) pending matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Javier; Nogueira, José Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Many professionals from distinct disciplines work in health centers and consequently these workplaces should be considered as service companies, involving human, material and financial resources aimed at providing a service required by society. Hospitals are one of the most complex types of company, in which diverse goods and services are produced and consumed. Like the hospital as a whole, the various units and departments in which the hospital is divided, including the microbiology department, are sufficiently different to be called distinct, but related, branches of the same company, given that none can perform their function without the others. Viewing a hospital service as a branch of a large company (the hospital as a whole) allows its production, the resources used in this production, and its clients to be identified more clearly. The healthcare model based on clinical management units aims to constitute a new organizational model for public health systems in which health strategies are performed that allow innovation and decentralization of the healthcare network. Clinical management provides the framework for attending to the population's healthcare needs through a person-centered approach and involves all the professionals in any of the settings in which healthcare is provided. Among the aims of this model is to guarantee continuity of care, facilitate comprehensive health promotion and deliver daily healthcare effectively. The main instruments of clinical management are structured knowledge of the population's health needs, the use of the best scientific knowledge available, and a comprehensive and participatory practical model, together with assessment tools. Three possible clinical management models are proposed for the work of specialists in microbiology and parasitology: a) a microbiology clinical management unit; b) a biological diagnosis clinical management unit, and c) a multidisciplinary clinical management unit with cross-competencies with

  20. Cystic Fibrosis: Microbiology and Host Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanick, Edith T; Hoffman, Lucas R

    2016-08-01

    The earliest descriptions of lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) showed the involvement of 3 interacting pathophysiologic elements in CF airways: mucus obstruction, inflammation, and infection. Over the past 7 decades, our understanding of CF respiratory microbiology and inflammation has evolved with the introduction of new treatments, increased longevity, and increasingly sophisticated laboratory techniques. This article reviews the current understanding of infection and inflammation and their roles in CF lung disease. It also discusses how this constantly evolving information is used to inform current therapeutic strategies, measures and predictors of disease severity, and research priorities. PMID:27469179

  1. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  3. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica. PMID:27389286

  4. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  5. 2009 Applied and Environmental Microbiology GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicole Dubilier

    2009-07-12

    The topic of the 2009 Gordon Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology is: From Single Cells to the Environment. The Conference will present and discuss cutting-edge research on applied and environmental microbiology with a focus on understanding interactions between microorganisms and the environment at levels ranging from single cells to complex communities. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics such as single cell techniques (including genomics, imaging, and NanoSIMS), microbial diversity at scales ranging from clonal to global, environmental 'meta-omics', biodegradation and bioremediation, metal - microbe interactions, animal microbiomes and symbioses. The Conference will bring together investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with extensive discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an ideal setting for scientists from different disciplines to exchange ideas, brainstorm and discuss cross-disciplinary collaborations.

  6. Microscopic and microbiological investigations of Mississippian sylvite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Pikuta, Elena V.

    2012-11-01

    Sylvite is a potassium chloride (KCl) mineral that was first discovered in 1832 in evaporite deposits in sedimentary basins of Mt. Vesuvius. Sylvite is colorless (grey or white) but it is often found in association with red deposits of halite and a variety of other minerals (e.g., hilgardite, volkovskite, trembathite and strontioginorite). We have conducted an Optical Microscopy and Microbiological study of freshly fractured interior material of core samples of Sylvite and Halite from the Penobsquis Mines of Kings County, New Brunswick. These samples are dated as Early Carboniferous period, and of Mississippian sub-period (Toumaisian stage 345-359 Myr) from the Upper Halite Member of the Windsor Group Evaporites. During this study, viable microorganisms were isolated in enrichment cultures that represent an ancient life of the deposits. Currently, in microbiology, there are several records of the isolation of viable bacterial cultures from the Permian salt crystals and oil. In this article, we present the preliminary results of the study of ancient anaerobic enrichment cultures isolated from Mississippian Sylvite and Halite samples. Therefore, this study extends by more than 50 million years the paleontological record of viable and culturable microorganisms preserved in ancient salt crystals.

  7. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  8. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  9. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 103-104 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10-3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  10. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECYCLED PAPER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the microbiological safety of sanitary tissues made of recycled scrap papers in Iran, random samples were taken for one year with the cooperation of the Iranian Standard and Industrial Research Institute (Karaj unit, of 44 types of sanitary tissues, two samples of each type including tissues, toilet papers and dippers as well as a control sample and their probable contamination with microbiological elements (bacterial & fungal were assessed using proper ordinary and specific culture environments while also performing confirmation tests. Considering all aspects of this study including easy identification, high precision, simplicity of application, economic justification and observation of better results, the method which applies ringer 1/4 solution as the thinner environment was preferable to the saline peptone water solution. No contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E.coli bacteria was observed, but the excessive contamination with the mesophillic bacteria was confirmed. Among the 27 samples tested with the ringer 1/4 method, 8 cases (29.6% were excessively contaminated with the mesophillic bacteria and one case (3.7% with fungi. Meanwhile, out of the 43 samples that were tested with the saline peptone water solution, there was no excessive contamination with mesophillic bacteria and only one case (2.3% of fungal contamination was observed.

  11. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  12. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts †

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS EDISON E. DELA CRUZ

    2014-01-01

    Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Castigliego; L. Vallone; A. Armani; M.A. Marzano; Li, X. N.; F Fanzone; Fusco, S.; E. Facibeni; I. Dragoni; D. Gianfaldoni; A Guidi

    2009-01-01

    A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  14. Collaboration between courses in the interdisciplinary course Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2014-01-01

    Food Microbiology is an interdisciplinary 12.5 ETCS second-year) course in a CDIO-based Bachelor of Engineering program in Food Science at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course was first offered in 2011. Each session in the Food Microbiology course combines theory and practice...

  15. Development of soil microbiology methods: from respirometry to molecular approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriel, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 12 (2010), s. 1289-1297. ISSN 1367-5435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Soil microbiology * Continuous cultivation * Microbial growth Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2010

  16. Towards a Portuguese database of food microbiological occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, M.Ascenção; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To expand the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) by building the Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network (RPIMA) including users, stakeholders, food microbiological data producers that will provide data and information from research, monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance. The integration of food data in a national database will improve foodborne risk management. Methods and results Potential members were identified and...

  17. Fluorescence-based tools for single-cell approaches in food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridier, A; Hammes, F; Canette, A; Bouchez, T; Briandet, R

    2015-11-20

    The better understanding of the functioning of microbial communities is a challenging and crucial issue in the field of food microbiology, as it constitutes a prerequisite to the optimization of positive and technological microbial population functioning, as well as for the better control of pathogen contamination of food. Heterogeneity appears now as an intrinsic and multi-origin feature of microbial populations and is a major determinant of their beneficial or detrimental functional properties. The understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind the behavior of bacteria in microbial communities requires therefore observations at the single-cell level in order to overcome "averaging" effects inherent to traditional global approaches. Recent advances in the development of fluorescence-based approaches dedicated to single-cell analysis provide the opportunity to study microbial communities with an unprecedented level of resolution and to obtain detailed insights on the cell structure, metabolism activity, multicellular behavior and bacterial interactions in complex communities. These methods are now increasingly applied in the field of food microbiology in different areas ranging from research laboratories to industry. In this perspective, we reviewed the main fluorescence-based tools used for single-cell approaches and their concrete applications with specific focus on food microbiology. PMID:26163933

  18. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  19. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. PMID:27412169

  20. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students

  1. Examination of reproducibility in microbiological degredation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Spliid, Henrik; Holst, Helle;

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that certain microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility. Nine identical batch experiments were carried out on 3 different days to examine reproducibility. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with toluene as the only carbon and energy...... source. Toluene was degraded under aerobic conditions at a constant temperature of 28 degreesC. The experiments were modelled by a Monod model - extended to meet the air/liquid system, and the parameter values were estimated using a statistical nonlinear estimation procedure. Model reduction analysis....... The limited reproducibility may be caused by variability in the preculture, or more precisely, variations in the physiological state of the bacteria in the precultures just before used as inoculum....

  2. A review of microbiological studies. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the work carried out by countries, other than the UK, involved in nuclear waste disposal programmes, since 1978, concerning the role of microbial activity in nuclear waste isolation. In terms of research the UK and Switzerland appear to have been most active in fundamental site specific research and basic modelling. Overall, there is still a need to show unequivocally that microorganisms will be active in a real repository and it is recommended that any future studies work towards this area. Intermediate-level wastes (ILW) and low-level wastes (LLW) contain a high organic content which can, in addition to chemical and radiolytic attack, be degraded to radionuclide complexing agents creating problems of solubility and transport. If microbiological effects are significant, steps need to be taken to minimise these. At present there appears to be no evidence that microorganisms will have a long term effect on the stability of repositories for ILW and LLW. (Author)

  3. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  4. [The microbiological diagnosis in severe infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piédrola Angulo, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious processes has been marked as any other laboratory test, two fundamental criteria: sensitivity and specificity of the results. But inserious infections in the hospital, once achieved the above criteria, it is claimed more and more third requirement: the speed at which the agent get the picture producer and antimicrobial susceptibility. In recent years there has been significant progress in this regard, which have always been behind the biochemical and hematological tests. Lately there ultrafast techniques such as mass spectrometry soft ionization, which can detect proteins of bacteria, fungi and yeasts, in a very short time. These techniques have some tangible gains in reducing hospitalization times, reduced health care costs per patient-oriented management and allow early and more effective antibiotics in areas such as ICU, pediatric ICU, Unit of Infectious and decreased waiting times in emergency patients. PMID:22263356

  5. Microbiological Contamination of Cosmetic Creams in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtvarz, M. (Msc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Transmission of pathogens by cosmetics is one of the major health complications. Direct contact with contaminated non-standard cosmetics can have irreparable side effects for the consumers. Thus, the evaluation of microbial contamination in cosmetic products is important. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological contamination of one of frequently used cream. Material and Methods: In the present study, 135 samples of a special moisturizing cream were randomly selected from pharmacies in Tehran. The microbial contamination assessment, sampling and culturing method were based on the protocol (No.3978 of Iranian Institute of Standard and Industrial Research. Results: sixty-two (46% out of 135 samples were contaminated. The highest and lowest contaminations observed were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high contamination rate of cosmetic creams, we recommend extremely monitoring and controlling these products by health centers. Keywords: Cosmetics, Microbial Contamination, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

  6. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  7. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  8. [Vinogradskiĭ and modern microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A

    2006-01-01

    The 150th anniversary of the birth of Sergei N. Winogradsky is a special date for general microbiology. Apart from the discovery of chemosynthesis, the development of the elective method, the application of the direct method, and formulation of microbial ecology problems, Winogradsky, in his pioneering studies, addressed fundamental aspects of the naturalistic Weltanschauung from the position of a microbiologist who studies the role of microorganisms in nature. These problems are still important today. Expanding knowledge throws light on them from different angles of view and highlights them with varying degrees of completeness, but the problems remain beyond time. It may be useful for contemporary microbiologists to realize the extent to which they would recognize their own work in the system of questions and answers stated a hundred years ago. PMID:17091583

  9. Microbiological waste decomposition in drilling pit at the oil-gas-condensate fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article considers microbiological processes in drilling mud pits in the result of keeping in storage solid and liquid drilling mud wastes in them. It was proved that in the result of microorgans activity in the pit toxic biogases are formed-hydrogen sulfide, methane, carbon dioxide. In some cases these processes advanced sulfate access from the well and continued up to gas saturated productive formations opening. The usage of bactericides, such as cuprates, potassium bichromate, paraform and etc, inhibits microorgans activity and first of all SRB, which produce hydrogen sulfide in anaerobic conditions. In the result of microorgans inactivation environmental contamination is prevented

  10. Microbiological surveillance in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gualdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and therapy in cystic fibrosis, lead to the necessary collaboration between clinical and laboratory to identify effective strategies and appropriate solutions to address the problems inherent isolation micro-organisms, antibiotic strategies, overcoming of bacterial resistance and other problems management of these patients. The task of the microbiology laboratory and research in quickly and accurately, the agents responsible for these infectious processes, in order to isolate them from material, identify and determine their sensitivity antibiotics. A microbiological surveillance on 34 patients (13 males and 21 females with CF and related to the “Support Services Provincial Trento for the treatment of cystic fibrosis “in the period July 2005 - August 2008, was carried out. 180 Gram positive and 278 of Gram negative bacteria as well as 235 fungi wre collected. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently organism found in patients with CF with an incidence of 23% on 156 strains isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was collected 19% of all microorganisms isolated corresponding to 131 strains, Candida albicans is the yeast often isolated with a frequency 22% equal to 149 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated at a rate of 8%. From the data we collected and processed has been noted that the local epidemiology of CF patients reflects as reported in the scientific literature and national international consulting, both as a type microorganisms that frequency also isolated compared to age groups. Considering the score of Bartlett as discriminating respiratory fitness of the material, it has been observed that only 32 samples over 327 total (10% would materials insignificant. It follows therefore that the time of sample collection, followed by personnel (physiotherapists dedicated to CF patients, represents a crucial step

  11. A Critical Assessment of Microbiological Biogas to Biomethane Upgrading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological biogas upgrading could become a promising technology for production of methane (CH(4)). This is, storage of irregular generated electricity results in a need to store electricity generated at peak times for use at non-peak times, which could be achieved in an intermediate step by electrolysis of water to molecular hydrogen (H(2)). Microbiological biogas upgrading can be performed by contacting carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2) and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea either in situ in an anaerobic digester, or ex situ in a separate bioreactor. In situ microbiological biogas upgrading is indicated to require thorough bioprocess development, because only low volumetric CH(4) production rates and low CH(4) fermentation offgas content have been achieved. Higher volumetric production rates are shown for the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading compared to in situ microbiological biogas upgrading. However, the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading currently suffers from H(2) gas liquid mass transfer limitation, which results in low volumetric CH(4) productivity compared to pure H(2)/CO(2) conversion to CH(4). If waste gas utilization from biological and industrial sources can be shown without reduction in volumetric CH(4) productivity, as well as if the aim of a single stage conversion to a CH(4) fermentation offgas content exceeding 95 vol% can be demonstrated, ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading with pure or enrichment cultures of methanogens could become a promising future technology for almost CO(2)-neutral biomethane production. PMID:26337846

  12. Structuring Free-text Microbiology Culture Reports For Secondary Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Wen-wai; Evans, Heather L.; Yetisgen, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology lab culture reports are a frequently used diagnostic tool for clinical providers. However, their incorporation into clinical surveillance applications and evidence-based medicine can be severely hindered by the free-text nature of these reports. In this work, we (1) created a microbiology culture template to structure free-text microbiology reports, (2) generated an annotated microbiology report corpus, and (3) built a microbiology information extraction system. Specifically, we combined rule-based, hybrid, and statistical techniques to extract microbiology entities and fill templates for structuring data. System performances were favorable, with entity f1-score 0.889 and relation f1-score 0.795. We plan to incorporate these extractions as features for our ongoing ventilator-associated pneumonia surveillance project, though this tool can be used as an upstream process in other applications. Our newly created corpus includes 1442 unique gram stain and culture microbiology reports generated from a cohort of 715 patients at the University of Washington Medical Facilities. PMID:26306288

  13. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K; Lundgren, Bettina; Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Hansen, Dennis Schrøder; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Jensen, Thøger Gorm; Dessau, Ram; Møller, Jens K.; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Lomborg, Steen; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Kjældgaard, Poul; Truberg, Kjeld; Hoffmann, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...... of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of...

  14. Preventive biocenosis of oil strata and combatting microbiological corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asfandiyarov, F.A.; Kildibekov, I.G.; Nizamov, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    The following conclusions are drawn on the basis of the conducted studies: the use of chemical reagents (bactericides or bacterial corrosion inhibitors) is a rational way to combat sulfate reduction in oil strata and microbiological corrosion; the use of bactericides in the early stage of development is an effective method for sterilizing the pumped water to prevent contamination of the productive strata with sulfate reducing bacteria (SVB) and microbiological corrosion and the use of bacterial corrosion inhibitors is an effective method for suppressing microbiological corrosion and reducing sulfate reduction in the later stage of development.

  15. Biomedical mass spectrometry in today's and tomorrow's clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Alex; Welker, Martin; Erhard, Marcel; Chatellier, Sonia

    2012-05-01

    Clinical microbiology is a conservative laboratory exercise where base technologies introduced in the 19th century remained essentially unaltered. High-tech mass spectrometry (MS) has changed that. Within a few years following its adaptation to microbiological diagnostics, MS has been introduced, embraced, and broadly accepted by clinical microbiology laboratories throughout the world as an innovative tool for definitive bacterial species identification. Herein, we review the current state of the art with respect to this exciting new technology and discuss potential future applications. PMID:22357505

  16. Droplet microfluidics for microbiology: techniques, applications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Tomasz S; Scheler, Ott; Garstecki, Piotr

    2016-06-21

    Droplet microfluidics has rapidly emerged as one of the key technologies opening up new experimental possibilities in microbiology. The ability to generate, manipulate and monitor droplets carrying single cells or small populations of bacteria in a highly parallel and high throughput manner creates new approaches for solving problems in diagnostics and for research on bacterial evolution. This review presents applications of droplet microfluidics in various fields of microbiology: i) detection and identification of pathogens, ii) antibiotic susceptibility testing, iii) studies of microbial physiology and iv) biotechnological selection and improvement of strains. We also list the challenges in the dynamically developing field and new potential uses of droplets in microbiology. PMID:27212581

  17. Colloquium and Report on Systems Microbiology: Beyond Microbial Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry R. Buckley

    2004-12-13

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium June 4-6, 2004 to confer about the scientific promise of systems microbiology. Participants discussed the power of applying a systems approach to the study of biology and to microbiology in particular, specifics about current research efforts, technical bottlenecks, requirements for data acquisition and maintenance, educational needs, and communication issues surrounding the field. A number of recommendations were made for removing barriers to progress in systems microbiology and for improving opportunities in education and collaboration. Systems biology, as a concept, is not new, but the recent explosion of genomic sequences and related data has revived interest in the field. Systems microbiology, a subset of systems biology, represents a different approach to investigating biological systems. It attempts to examine the emergent properties of microorganisms that arise from the interplay of genes, proteins, other macromolecules, small molecules, organelles, and the environment. It is these interactions, often nonlinear, that lead to the emergent properties of biological systems that are generally not tractable by traditional approaches. As a complement to the long-standing trend toward reductionism, systems microbiology seeks to treat the organism or community as a whole, integrating fundamental biological knowledge with genomics, metabolomics, and other data to create an integrated picture of how a microbial cell or community operates. Systems microbiology promises not only to shed light on the activities of microbes, but will also provide biology the tools and approaches necessary for achieving a better understanding of life and ecosystems. Microorganisms are ideal candidates for systems biology research because they are relatively easy to manipulate and because they play critical roles in health, environment, agriculture, and energy production. Potential applications of systems microbiology research

  18. Learning through Teaching: A Microbiology Service-Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Webb

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Service learning is defined as a strategy in which students apply what they have learned in the classroom to a community service project. Many educators would agree that students often learn best through teaching others. This premise was the motivation for a new service-learning project in which undergraduate microbiology students developed and taught hands-on microbiology lessons to local elementary school children. The lessons included teaching basic information about microbes, disease transmission, antibiotics, vaccines, and methods of disease prevention. This service-learning project benefitted the college students by enforcing their knowledge of microbiology and provided them an opportunity to reach out to children within their community. This project also benefitted the local schools by teaching the younger students about microbes, infections, and handwashing. In this paper, I discuss the development and implementation of this new microbiology service-learning project, as well as the observed impact it had on everyone involved.

  19. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  20. A Review of Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Mixter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications, 2nd ed.; Colin Munn; (2011. Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, NY. Paperback, 364 pages. ISBN 9780815365174.

  1. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  2. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of new technologies

  3. Microbiological and Chemical Properties of Raw Milk Consumed in Burdur

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya Tasci

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological and chemical properties of raw milk consumed in Burdur. A total of 100 samples obtained from different producers were analyzed for microbiological and chemical properties. For this purpose, counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, E. coli, Enterococci, yeast, mold and Micrococcus-Staphylococcus, Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus microorganisms were made. In the raw milk samples, the mean level of tot...

  4. Microbiological and mycotoxicological correctness of protein feed ingredients in Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.; Salma Nataša M.; Pantić Vladimir R.; Adamović Milan J.; Miljković Aleksandra D.; Suzić Svetlana V.

    2011-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, the microbiological tests of a total of 40 samples of protein feed ingredients (sunflower meal, soybean, soybean cake, soybean grits and soybean meal) originating from Vojvodina were carried out. The most of the samples (57.5%) matched the Serbian regulations on feed. Microbiologically, there was not adequate quality of protein ingredients, which was a consequence of the presence of pathogenic bacteria: Proteus spp. in 12 samples of sunflower meal, 1 sample of soyb...

  5. MICROBIOLOGY OF RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Petrová; Ľubomíra Juhaniaková; Margarita Terentjeva; Simona Kunová; Henrieta Blaškovičová; Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw materials used for preparation of confectionery products. For microbiological evaluation total count of bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi in samples of raw materials used in the manufacture and creams of confectionery products were detected. In addition to these groups of microorganisms the presence of pathogenic microorganisms Salmonella spp. and Staphylococ...

  6. Microbiology Services for External Company Sampling from 2009 until 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological Laboratory Medical Technology Division is committed in providing microbiological test service to internal and outside customer of Nuclear Malaysia. This paper presents a report on tests that have been performed on various type of samples received from outside customer from year 2009 to year 2012. Between 600 and 800 requests received ever year and 6 companies are our regular customers. Regular tests are sterility test, endotoxin limit test and incubation. Charge for the service contributes to agency's income every year. (author)

  7. Whole genome sequencing in clinical and public health microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, J. C.; McCallum, N; Sintchenko, V.; Howden, B. P.

    2015-01-01

    SummaryGenomics and whole genome sequencing (WGS) have the capacity to greatly enhance knowledge and understanding of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology. The growth and availability of bench-top WGS analysers has facilitated the feasibility of genomics in clinical and public health microbiology. Given current resource and infrastructure limitations, WGS is most applicable to use in public health laboratories, reference laboratories, and hospital infection control-affiliated laborat...

  8. Microbiological evaluation of poultry sausages stored at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Alica Bobková; Ľubomír Lopašovský; Miroslava Kačániová

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of poultry sausages, which were stored at different temperatures (4 °C, 15 °C). Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeasts and filamentous microscopic fungi were detected in poultry sausages. Microbiological quality was evaluated using the horizontal method for the determination number of microorganisms. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 in sa...

  9. Toxic Metals in Aquatic Ecosystems: A Microbiological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, David P; Ford, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the microbiological aspects of metal-cycling in the water column. Constant resuspension of sediments provides a microbiologically rich aggregate-based sys...

  10. The Influence of Rickettsiologists on Post-Modern Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Kalliopi; Merhej, Vicky; Raoult, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Many of the definitions in microbiology are currently false. We have reviewed the great denominations of microbiology and attempted to free microorganisms from the theories of the twentieth century. The presence of compartmentation and a nucleoid in Planctomycetes clearly calls into question the accuracy of the definitions of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Archaea are viewed as prokaryotes resembling bacteria. However, the name archaea, suggesting an archaic origin of lifestyle, is inconsistent ...

  11. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  12. Alternatives to control microbiological cheese defects: use of aromatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    LIBRÁN CUERVAS-MONS, CELIA MARÍA

    2013-01-01

    ALTERNATIVES TO CONTROL MICROBIOLOGICAL CHEESE DEFECTS: USE OF AROMATIC PLANTS 1. Introduction Cheeses are traditionally affected by microbiological spoilage that leads to great economic loss. On the one hand, bacteria such as coliforms or butyric acid are some of the responsible for early and late cheese blowing, respectively (COGAN, 2011; GARDE et al., 2011). These are two cheese paste defects characterised by the internal presence of numerous and odorous holes (MCSWEENEY, 2007; MULLA...

  13. Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

  14. Environmental Monitoring Of Microbiological Laboratory: Expose Plate Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of microorganism is important and conducted regularly on environment of microbiological laboratory at Medical Technology Division. Its objective is to ensure the quality of working environment is maintained according to microbial contamination, consequently to assure the quality of microbiological tests. This paper presents report of environmental monitoring since year 2007. The test involved was bacterial colony counts after the growth media was exposed to air at identified location. (author)

  15. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castigliego

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  16. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of new technologies to ensure food quality and safety. Predictive microbiology is one such technology, where growth responses of homogenous pure broth cultures of microorganism to the environment are quantified. In t...

  17. Sensory evaluation and microbiological characterization of autochthonous Sombor cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Mijačević Zora; Bulajić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the results of organoleptic evaluation, chemical and microbiological analysis of Sombor cheese were presented. Sombor cheese is a type of autochthonous cheese whose traditional processing method is still in use in areas of northern part of Serbia. The sensory profile, chemical and microbiological analysis were performed on 19 samples of traditionally made cheese collected from two households. The sensory evaluation of cheese samples showed its variation in taste and consistency,...

  18. The Metagenomic in the Service of the Food Microbiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Taminiau, Bernard; Nezer, Carine; Poullet, Jean-Baptiste; Adolphe, Ysabelle; Clinquart, Antoine; Daube, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Food products represent great biotopes for bacteria. The optimisation of foodstuffs conservation, mattering so economically as from the point of view of the public health, pass by a better understanding of those biotopes and their spoilage. Microbiologists had already tried to resolve this problem throughout several approaches. Studies based on classical microbiology cultures were completed by strategies centred on approaches independent from the microbiological culture. Pur...

  19. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  20. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion and the bacterial density cannot be estimated separately, not even in a multiple dilution experiment. Only the product can be estimated, changing the interpretation of the most probable number estimator. The asymptotic power of the likelihood ratio statistic for comparing an alternative method with the compendial method, is optimal for a single dilution experiment. The bacterial density should either be close to two CFUs per test unit or equal to zero, depending on differences in the model parameters between the two test methods. The proposed strategy for method validation is to use these two dilutions and test for differences in the two model parameters, addressing the validation parameters specificity and accuracy. Robustness of these two parameters might still be required, but all other validation parameters can be omitted. A confidence interval-based approach for the ratio of the detection proportions for the two methods is recommended, since it is most informative and close to the power of the likelihood ratio test. PMID:25412584

  1. Utilization of whey with microbiological processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, M.

    1981-08-01

    Besides biogas production, the following processes and technologies are available in practice for microbiological processing: 1) Lactic acid Using thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus, the procedure is economically performed at 45-50/sup 0/C. Since the bacteria are sensitive to high lactate concentrations, buffering with CaCO/sub 3/ or lime-milk is necessary. 2) Ethanol Using lactose-fermenting yeasts, such as Kluyvermyces fragilis, alcohol production is easily performed at 25/sup 0/C and at pH-values between 4 and 6, the dry matter contents varying between 5 and 15% (concentrated whey or permeate). Addition of ammonium sulphate is necessary. 3) Single Cell Protein One-stage production of single cell protein (SCP) is possible using lactose-fermenting aerobic yeasts (K. fragilis, Candida utilis etc.). The yeast procuced and utilized in animal feeding (as Milke replacement in calf rearing) is currently offered in the Federal Republic of Germany at a price of approximately DM 1.40/kg. Two-stage fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following lactic acid fermentation and addition of enzymatically hydrolyzed starch can be performed effluent-free.

  2. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  3. WGS Analysis and Interpretation in Clinical and Public Health Microbiology Laboratories: What Are the Requirements and How Do Existing Tools Compare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Wyres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have the potential to transform the field of clinical and public health microbiology, and in the last few years numerous case studies have demonstrated successful applications in this context. Among other considerations, a lack of user-friendly data analysis and interpretation tools has been frequently cited as a major barrier to routine use of these techniques. Here we consider the requirements of microbiology laboratories for the analysis, clinical interpretation and management of bacterial whole-genome sequence (WGS data. Then we discuss relevant, existing WGS analysis tools. We highlight many essential and useful features that are represented among existing tools, but find that no single tool fulfils all of the necessary requirements. We conclude that to fully realise the potential of WGS analyses for clinical and public health microbiology laboratories of all scales, we will need to develop tools specifically with the needs of these laboratories in mind.

  4. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms

  5. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Antarctic Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, I. B.; Sheppard, D.

    2000-08-01

    Samples of ancient soils from horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains (Aztec and New Mountain areas of the Antarctic Dry Valleys) were analyzed for their chemical composition and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents. The salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived in part from nearby oceanic and high altitude atmospheric sources. The geochemistry of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of till, derived principally from dolerite and sandstone source rock, in association with airborne-influxed salts. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of chlorine, and farther inland near the Inland Ice Sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, to the order of several million years. Iron, both in total concentration and in the form of various extracts, indicates it can be used as a geochronometer to assess the buildup of goethite plus hematite over time in the paleosols. Trends for ferrihydrite, a partially soluble Fe-hydroxide, shows limited profile translocation that might be related to the movement of salt. Six of the eight selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in three soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between three to eight centimeters yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium spp., indicating some input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic

  6. Transforming a Sequence of Microbiology Courses Using Student Profile Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa J. Buxeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in the General Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology courses to increase research awareness at an early stage of the educational process and to establish collaboration between students in an Industrial Microbiology program and industry. In both courses, the professor helped students determine their learning styles and then used these data to design activities in order to accomplish the above objectives. In both the treatment and the control sections, students learned about strategies to optimize learning based on their learning styles. A cooperative learning format was introduced to promote active learning and team-building skills. The diverse learning styles data profile was used by students during cooperative learning activities for effective team integration. In the General Microbiology course, a mentor-mentee structure was introduced to expose students to research in microbiology by visiting research facilities on campus. This structure was an addition to the regular curriculum, which meets American Society for Microbiology curriculum recommendations. The results suggest an increase in interest in research by students. In the Industrial Microbiology course, a strategy was introduced to establish collaboration with industry in which students visit the workplace and identify microbial processes, microbiologist roles, and skills needed by microbiologists. Evaluation of these topics using pre- and posttest data indicates a significant increase in acquired knowledge relevant to daily workplace environments with the reformed course. In both courses, students gain information early in their academic experience to help them consider participation in research experiences while providing them with real-world experience toward the end of their academic careers, when they see the need for it.

  7. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautemaa-Richardson, Riina; der Reijden Wa, Wil A Van; Dahlen, Gunnar; Smith, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB) Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135) number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections. PMID:22084647

  8. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Smith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  9. Microbiology in the oil patch: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of bacteria in the oil and natural gas industry was reviewed. Current applications in exploration, in microbial secondary oil recovery techniques, minimization of microbial induced corrosion and reservoir souring, bioprocessing of fossil fuels, and in environmental technology, were highlighted. Potential future advances into the field of genetic engineering and in-situ simulation for eventual field application were also explored. 28 refs

  10. Microbiological Analysis on Romanian Dairy Products Obtained from Buffalo Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ștețca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw milk hygiene, expressed mainly by the chemical composition and microbiological stability, has a influence on the quality of the dairy products. The major hazard is the microbial contamination, related to the content in pathogens such as as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. The present research aimed the microbiological analysis of dairy products obtained from buffalo milk. Research consisted on the evaluation of coliform bacteria, yeast and mold number and the pathogen germs of Salmonella and Stafilococcus. The obtained results permitted the classification of samples according to Regulation. High contamination with coliform bacteria, yeast and mould was recorded in almost all analyzed products. No Salmonella contamination was detected. The improper microbiological content was related to unsatisfactory hygiene standards in the production process and due to a possible recontamination after pasteurization.

  11. [Microbiological quality of street-vendor ice cream in Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïdara-Kane, A; Ranaivo, A; Spiegel, A; Catteau, M; Rocourt, J

    2000-01-01

    During a multicenter study initiated by the International Network of Pasteur Institutes and Associated Institutes, microbiological quality of street-vended ice creams in Dakar was evaluated. 313 samples of ice creams from 170 street-vendors were collected and tested for common foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms. Results showed that microbiological quality of 45% of tested samples was unsatisfactory because of large populations of aerobic mesophilic organisms (36.7%), thermotolerant coliforms bacteria (21.4%) and sometimes E. coli. (10.6%). Strict pathogens as Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio cholerae were not found. An investigation conducted among vendors showed a lack of education and training; these vendors need information about food preparation and storage practices that reduce microbiological contamination of foods. PMID:14666784

  12. [Infection control team (ICT) in cooperation with microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Mitsuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Infection control as a medical safety measure is an important issue in all medical facilities. In order to tackle this measure, cooperation between the infection control team (ICT) and microbiological laboratory is indispensable. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria have shifted from Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacilli within the last ten years. There are also a variety of bacilli, complicating the examination method and test results further. Therefore, cooperation between the ICT and microbiological laboratory has become important to understand examination results and to use them. In order to maintain functional cooperation, explanatory and communicative ability between the microbiological laboratory and ICT is required every day. Such positive information exchange will develop into efficient and functional ICT activity. PMID:23323467

  13. Preflight and postflight microbiological results from 25 space shuttle crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Bassinger, Virginia J.; Molina, Thomas C.; Gunter, Emelie G.; Groves, Theron O.; Cioletti, Louis J.; Mishra, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical-microbiological investigations are an important aspect of the crew health stabilization program. To ensure that space crews have neither active nor latent infections, clinical specimens, including throat and nasal swabs and urine samples, are collected at 10 days (L-10) and 2days (L-2) before launch, and immediately after landing (L+0). All samples are examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi. In addition, fecal samples are collected at L-10 and examined for bacteria, fungi and parasites. This paper describes clinical-microbiological findings from 144 astronauts participating in 25 Space Shuttle missions spanning Space Transportation System (STS)-26 to STS-50. The spectrum of microbiological findings from the specimens included 25 bacterial and 11 fungal species. Among the bacteria isolated most frequently were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus agalactiae. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal pathogen.

  14. Using Small Group Debates to Actively Engage Students in an Introductory Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce A. Shaw

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Debates stimulate critical thinking and can be a highly effective way to actively engage students in the classroom. This paper describes a small group debate format in which groups of four to six students debated preassigned topics in microbiology in front of the rest of the class. Rapid advancements in science, especially in microbiology, provide the scaffolding for students to locate and share evidence-based information from a plethora of complex and often conflicting sources. Student-generated debate presentations can be a welcome respite from the lecture format. Debates were scheduled throughout the course to coincide with topics being covered. Questionnaires distributed immediately after each debate revealed that the debates were well received by students and were effective in changing student attitudes and misconceptions. Debate preparation provided students the opportunity to gain proficiency in accessing information from electronic databases, to use resources from professional organizations, and to synthesize and analyze information. In addition, the debate process gave students experience in developing oral communication skills.

  15. Phosphorus Mobility in the Landscape: First Steps to Linking Hydrology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Regan, J.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous resources are spent each year to control phosphorus (P) nonpoint source pollution around the world. Despite these efforts, high P levels in freshwater bodies are still a persistent issue. Eutrophication and subsequent algal bloom die-offs, brought about by excess P, can harm local economies as well as human and ecosystem health. To overcome this disconnect between nutrient management strategies and observed P concentrations, scientists must advance research beyond the physical and chemical mechanisms commonly included in P transport experiments. Microbiological techniques (e.g. PCR and flow cytometry) are making it easier to tease out the influence of specific microorganisms on nutrient transport. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are often used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to remove P from effluent water but have rarely been studied in natural settings. In this study, we combined field and laboratory column experiments to identifying the influence of changing water content and temperature on PAO-facilitated P mobility. In the field, we collected a gridded network of soil samples and measured the temperature, water content, and P concentrations (bioavailable and total P) for each. We also quantified PAO presence using qPCR techniques. In the lab, we added various concentrations of WWTP sludge (with PAO present) to autoclaved soils. We measured dissolved P concentrations in effluent water with respect to moisture content and temperature. Based on the results to these experiments, we hope to draw attention to the importance of microbiological controls on P mobility in freshwater ecosystems.

  16. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Palese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  17. Spaceflight Microbiology: Benefits for Long Duration Spaceflight and Our Understanding of Microorganisms on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight microbiology is composed of both operational and experimental components that complement each other in our understanding of microbial interactions and their responses in the microgravity of spaceflight. Operationally, efforts to mitigate microbiological risk to the crew and the spacecraft have historically focused on minimizing the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and stringent microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for earlier missions; however, the construction and long-term habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has created the need for additional inflight monitoring of the environment and potable water systems using hardware designed for both in-flight microbial enumeration and sample collection and return to Earth. In addition to operational activities, the ISS is providing a research platform to advance our understanding of microbiomes in the built environment. Adding to the research possibilities of this system are multiple reports of unique changes in microbial gene expression and phenotypic responses, including virulence and biofilm formation, in response to spaceflight culture. The tremendous potential of the ISS research platform led the National Research Council to recommend that NASA utilize the ISS as a microbial observatory. Collectively, the findings from operational and research activities on the ISS are expected to both enable future space exploration and translate to basic and applied research on Earth.

  18. Microbiology and pathology of fibrinous pericarditis in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, J.; Friis, N.F.; Aalbaek, B.;

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of fibrinous pericarditis detected at slaughter in Danish slaughter pigs is approximately 0.02 %. The microbiology and pathology of this disorder was studied through 46 field cases collected at slaughter from May 1994 to August 1995. Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M...... from the pericardium in three cases. The pericardium was sterile in three cases and contained a low grade mixed flora in two; the latter is believed to be a result of the slaughter procedure rather than an infection. No chlamydiae were found in connection with the microbiological examination...

  19. Collaboration between courses in the interdisciplinary course Food Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Birk, Tina; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2014-01-01

    Food Microbiology is an interdisciplinary 12.5 ETCS second-year) course in a CDIO-based Bachelor of Engineering program in Food Science at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The course was first offered in 2011. Each session in the Food Microbiology course combines theory and practice in order to strengthen the students’ application-oriented competences and engagement. In this paper the results from the evaluation of the course will be presented and a discussion will be carried out ab...

  20. INFLUENCE MATURATION OF VEAL ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL INDICATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Juraj Čuboň Peter Haščík; Miroslava Kačániová; Ľubomír Lopašovský; Maciej Kluz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate microbial and pH changes in veal meat during maturation. Total viable counts, coliform bacteria and pH changes in chilling meat were evaluated after 24 hours, 7 days and 14 days of meat maturation. There were analysed 8 samples of veal meeat. Results of microbiological analysis were compared with Commission regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Total viable counts (TVC) in samples after 24 hours of chilling ranged...

  1. A study on the microbiological surveillance before irradiaton sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the microbiological surveillance of workshops in seven factories are repoted. The data obtained showed that the use of the general sterile measures are the better methods for microbiological surveillance. The microbes in the environment can be controlled at the permitted number (≤ 500 CFU/m3) and the high standard of the biological load (≤ 1 CFU/m3) in medical instruments is ensured. The resistance among the common micro-organisms has not been found. This can provide a scientific basis for selecting the dosage of irradiation and safe clinical use

  2. Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Konyalı; O. Dagliogli; Gumus, T

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirdağ province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g), coliform bacteria (83.3%of the tota...

  3. Toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems: a microbiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, T; Ryan, D

    1995-02-01

    Microbe-metal interactions in aquatic environments and their exact role in transport and transformations of toxic metals are poorly understood. This paper will briefly review our understanding of these interactions. Ongoing research in Lake Chapala, Mexico, the major water source for the City of Guadalajara, provides an opportunity to study the microbiological aspects of metal-cycling in the water column. Constant resuspension of sediments provides a microbiologically rich aggregate-based system. Data indicate that toxic metals are concentrated on aggregate material and bioaccumulate in the food chain. A provisional model is presented for involvement of microbial aggregates in metal-cycling in Lake Chapala. PMID:7621793

  4. Short Videos to Enhance Student Learning in Microbiological Laboratory Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann

    This poster describes the use of short videos demonstrating basic microbiological techniques in a second semester course in Biological Chemistry at the Technical University of Denmark. Videos were a useful complement to the laboratory compendium, allowing students to focus on conceptual understan......This poster describes the use of short videos demonstrating basic microbiological techniques in a second semester course in Biological Chemistry at the Technical University of Denmark. Videos were a useful complement to the laboratory compendium, allowing students to focus on conceptual...

  5. Microbiological indication of municipal solid waste landfill non-stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; SYLVESTER Runyuzi; YU Ji-yu; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2004-01-01

    Accidental collapse resulted from unstable factors is an important technological problem to be solved in sanitary landfill. Microbiological degradation of organic matters in landfilled solid waste are an important unstable factor. A landfill reactor was thus manufactured and installed to examine quantitative and population dynamics of microorganisms during degradation of landfilled solid waste. It was showed that unstable landfill can be reflected and indicated by microbiological features such as rapidly decreased growth amount of microorganisms, no detection of fungi and actinomyces, and changing the dominant population into methanogenic bacteria and Acinotobacter.

  6. Implementation Plans for a Systems Microbiology and Extremophile Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-04-20

    solve DOE problems. Recent advances in whole-genome sequencing for a variety of organisms and improvements in high-throughput instrumentation have contributed to a rapid transition of the biological research paradigm towards understanding biology at a systems level. As a result, biology is evolving from a descriptive to a quantitative, ultimately predictive science where the ability to collect and productively use large amounts of biological data is crucial. Understanding how the ensemble of proteins in cells gives rise to biological outcomes is fundamental to systems biology. These advances will require new technologies and approaches to measure and track the temporal and spatial disposition of proteins in cells and how networks of proteins and other regulatory molecules give rise to specific activities. The DOE has a strong interest in promoting the application of systems biology to understanding microbial function and this comprises a major focus of its Genomics:GTL program. A major problem in pursuing what has been termed “systems microbiology” is the lack of the facilities and infrastructure for conducting this new style of research. To solve this problem, the Genomics:GTL program has funded a number of large-scale research centers focused on either mission-oriented outcomes, such as bioenergy, or basic technologies, such as gene sequencing, high-throughput proteomics or the identification of protein complexes. Although these centers generate data that will be useful to the research community, their scientific goals are relatively narrow and are not designed to accommodate the general community need for advanced capabilities for systems microbiology research.

  7. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil tillage significantly affects organic carbon accumulation, microbial biomass, and subsequently enzymatic activity in surface soil. Microbial activity in soil is a crucial parameter contributing to soil functioning, and thus a basic quality factor for soil. Since enzymes remain soil after excretion by living or disintegrating cells, shifts in their activities reflect long-term fluctuations in microbial biomass. In order to study the effects of no-till on biochemical and microbiological properties in comparison to conventional tillage in a representative soil from South Spain, an experiment was conducted since 1982 on the experimental farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research of Andalusia (IFAPA) in Carmona, SW Spain (37o24'07''N, 5o35'10''W). The soil at the experimental site was a very fine, montomorillonitic, thermic Chromic Haploxerert (Soil Survey Staff, 2010). A randomized complete block design involving three replications and the following two tillage treatments was performed: (i) Conventional tillage, which involved mouldboard plowing to a depth of 50 cm in the summer (once every three years), followed by field cultivation to a depth of 15 cm before sowing; crop residues being burnt, (ii) No tillage, which involved controlling weeds before sowing by spraying glyphosate and sowing directly into the crop residue from the previous year by using a planter with double-disk openers. For all tillage treatments, the crop rotation (annual crops) consisted of winter wheat, sunflower, and legumes (pea, chickpea, or faba bean, depending on the year), which were grown under rainfed conditions. Enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase, dehydrogenase, aryl-sulphatase, acid phosphatase, and urease), soil microbial biomass by total viable cells number by acridine orange direct count, the density of cultivable groups of bacteria and fungi by dilution plating on semi-selective media, the physiological profiles of the microbial communities by BiologR, and the

  8. 76 FR 63615 - Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... discussions which will be held at the EPA Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory. DATES:...

  9. 7 CFR 58.653 - Microbiological requirements for sherbet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for sherbet. 58.653 Section 58.653 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  10. Relationship between teat morphology and microbiological quality of sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Bielińska-Nowak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the size of the udder and morphological changes in ewe’s teats, as well as relationship of these features with microbiological quality of milk. The examinations of morphological structures of ewe’s teats were performed with 10 MHz ultrasound linear probe. The experiment was conducted on 40 dairy sheep, in three consecutive calendar years. To clarify the correlation between total bacteria count, teat morphology and size of the udder, the results of determination of the microbiological quality of milk were grouped in four ranges: total bacteria count < 50 000, 50 000-100 000, 100 000-200 000 and > 200 000 in 1 cm3 of milk. The width of the udders increased with increasing concentration of total bacteria count (p < 0.001. The widest udders were observed in sheep with the highest total bacteria count concentration – up to 200 000 of bacteria in 1 cm3 of milk: 122.7 mm. With increasing concentration of total bacteria count in milk, decreased udder height (p < 0.001. The smallest height of udder was found in ewes producing milk of the lowest microbiological quality (p < 0.001. The experiment showed no statistically significant correlations between teat’s length, width, morphological structures and total bacteria count (p > 0.05. Therefore, the application of these features in a rapid evaluation of the microbiological quality of sheep milk is unusable.  

  11. Bugs and Movies: Using Film to Teach Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    A YouTube channel has been created to watch commented video fragments from famous movies or TV series that can be used to teach microbiology. Although microbes are usually depicted in terms of their roles in causing infectious disease, numerous movies reflect other scientific aspects, such as biotechnological applications or bioethical issues.

  12. The development and evaluation of reference materials for food microbiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Veld, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1986 the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has worked on the development and evaluation of microbiological reference materials (RMs) with support from the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR), now called Standards Measurement and Testing (SM&T). The RMs a

  13. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  14. Use of tablets for instruction and learning in microbiology labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karen Louise; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Georgsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In the Bachelor Programme of Biomedical Laboratory Analysis at University College VIA, the students work in a classified microbiology laboratory. This means that they are not allowed to bring their personal computers into the lab. Until now the students have used paper based lab instructions...

  15. Respiratory virology and microbiology in intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby, Anne-Cathrine; Gubbels, Sophie; Baake, Gerben;

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the frequency of 12 common respiratory viruses in patients admitted to intensive care units with respiratory symptoms, evaluate the clinical characteristics and to compare the results to routine microbiological diagnostics. Throat swabs from 122 intensive care-patients >18...

  16. Management of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Risk Based Inspection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Hillier, Elizabeth; Andersen, Erlend S.

    2016-01-01

    . Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a degradation mechanism that has received increased attention from corrosion engineers and asset operators in the past decades. In this paper, the most recent models that have been developed in order to assess the impact of MIC on asset integrity will be presented and...

  17. A Review of Microbiology: An Evolving Science, Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara May

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Microbiology: An Evolving Science, 2nd ed.; Joan L Slonczweski and John W. Foster; (2011. W.W. Norton & Company, New York NY. 1096 pages. ISBN: 978-0-393-93447-2. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  18. IPMP 2013 - A comprehensive data analysis tool for predictive microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology is an area of applied research in food science that uses mathematical models to predict the changes in the population of pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms in foods undergoing complex environmental changes during processing, transportation, distribution, and storage. It f...

  19. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  20. Introduction of Molecular Methods into a Food Microbiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitner, Aaron M.; Hammons, Susan R.; McKenzie, Emily; Cho, Young-Hee; Oliver, Haley F.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining current, relevant curriculum in undergraduate Food Microbiology courses is essential for training future experts in food quality and safety. Having an understanding of the fundamental techniques (for example, polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) that are used in the food industry and regulatory agencies is critical for students entering…

  1. The Effect of Vocabulary on Introductory Microbiology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…

  2. Level of chemical and microbiological contaminations in chili bo (paste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Nurul Aqilah Mohd; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Olusesan, Akanbi Taiwo; Zulkifli, Anwarul Hidayah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Osman, Azizah; Hamid, Azizah Abd; Saari, Nazamid

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of preservatives and microbiological loads in various brands of commercially available chili bo (paste). Fifteen different brands of chili bo obtained from the local market and hypermarkets were analyzed for pH, moisture and benzoic acid content, microbiological loads (aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic spores, and fungi), and thermophilic microorganisms. Results showed that both moisture content and pH vary among samples. The concentrations of benzoic acid detected in chili bo were found to be in the range of 537 to 5,435 mg/kg. Nine of fifteen brands were found to exceed the maximum level permitted by the Malaysian Food Law in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius (1,000 mg/kg for benzoic acid). An apparent correlation between benzoic acid concentration and microbiological loads present in the chili bo was observed. The microbiological loads were found to be relatively low in the end products containing high amounts of benzoic acid. The heat-resistant (70 to 80 degrees C) microorganisms present in chili bo were identified as Ochrobacterum tritici, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium maritypicum, Roseomonas spp., CDC group II-E subgroup A, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with M. maritypicum being the most frequently found (in 9 of 15 samples) microorganism. Most of these identified microorganisms were not known to cause foodborne illnesses. PMID:20202342

  3. Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease And Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velea Oana A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Scientists are constantly showing a high interest for the relationship between Periodontal Disease (PD and Diabetes Mellitus (DM. PD, “the sixth complication” of DM is recognized to be a chronic gram-negative anaerobic infectious disease. This paper is aimed at reviewing and evaluating the correlations between PD and DM from a microbiological point of view. Treatment implications of PD’s management as an important component of DM care is reviewed in the light of microbiological current knowledge. Materials and Methods. Microbiological studies and clinical trials were selected from medical and dental journals, and studied thoroughly. Results. Plaque biofilm and prolonged hyperglycemia increase the risk of PD development in DM. These two features determine inflammatory reactions that end-up in tissue destruction and impaired healing responses. Few pathogens are considered highly prevalent periodontal pathogens, with destructive actions. Studies have shown that metabolic balance or lack of balance determines bacterial variations in diabetic patients with PD. Other results demonstrate the importance of microbial tests (especially PCR techniques as indicators for healing or disease progression. Conclusions. There aren’t many studies assessing the relationship between PD and DM from microbiological points of view. In light of increasing evidence, larger interventional studies are needed

  4. Bugs and Movies: Using Film to Teach Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A YouTube channel has been created to watch commented video fragments from famous movies or TV series that can be used to teach microbiology. Although microbes are usually depicted in terms of their roles in causing infectious disease, numerous movies reflect other scientific aspects, such as biotechnological applications or bioethical issues.

  5. Microbiological and Sensory Quality of Milk on the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the microbiological and sensory quality of 30 assortments of market milk was the objective of the presented research. The study also compared the sensory profile of selected samples of milk differing in preservation method. Microbiological tests included determination of the presence and number of Enterobacteriaceae and the total number of microorganisms. Sensory characteristics of all the milk samples was performed by scaling method (5-points scale. Selected samples of milk were additionally assessed by means of profile method. Microbiological tests showed satisfactory microbiological purity of milk, which indicates the effectiveness of the heat treatment and the lack of secondary contamination. Regardless of the preservation method, all the evaluated milk samples were characterised by a high sensory quality (4.25-5 points. There were no changes in smell and taste, resulting from the development of undesirable microflora. The tested samples of milk differing in the preservation method (sterilisation, pasteurisation at high temperature and subjected to microfiltration and low pasteurisation varied in the sensory profile. Milk pasteurised at high temperature was characterised by the most harmonised overall quality.

  6. External Quality Assessments for Microbiologic Diagnosis of Diphtheria in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Both, Leonard; Neal, Shona; De Zoysa, Aruni; Mann, Ginder; Czumbel, Ida; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2014-01-01

    The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) ensures the reliable epidemiological and microbiologic assessment of disease prevalence in the European Union. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment (EQA) schemes performed between 2010 and 2014.

  7. Campylobacter in: Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter species are enteric pathogens and are considered one of the leading foodborne disease agents in the United States causing an estimated 2.1 to 2.4 million cases of gastroenteritis annually. This chapter, intended for inclusion in the book, Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Indust...

  8. Microbiological risk assessment of foods in international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van M.

    2002-01-01

    The international workshop on "Promotion of Technical Harmonisation on Risk-Based Decision Making" reviewed the use of risk-based decision making across a range of industry sectors and countries. This paper presents the contribution to the workshop covering microbiological risk assessment of foods i

  9. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization; Zagadnienia mikrobiologiczne w sterylizacji radiacyjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, E. [Lodz Univ. (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs.

  10. Critical Readiness Review EHS Water Quality and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Presentation reviews the status in reference to the Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) of the water quality and microbiology for the International Space Station. It includes information about crew training, hardware delivery, and those items that will be returned for study.

  11. Scalding: Effects of Additives on Carcass Microbiology and Wastewater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalding poultry before removing feathers has been practiced for thousands of years, but spoilage and pathogenic bacteria were discovered relatively recently by comparison. The microbiological consequences of scalding and other practices used in converting live birds to food was unknown, although i...

  12. Novel technologies in rumen microbiology: What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in the 1950s, rumen microbiology enjoyed a golden age in which the secrets of the rumen began to be teased out through the isolation of numerous new microbial species and the discovery of such important concepts as interspecies hydrogen transfer and the quantitative aspects of bacterial gr...

  13. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.;

    1999-01-01

    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined for the...

  14. Microbiological and Morphological Analysis of Dental Implants Removed for Incomplete Osseointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Passariello, C.; Berlutti, F.; Selan, L.; C Amodeo; Comodi-Ballanti, M R; L. Serafino; Thaller, M C

    2011-01-01

    Dental implants may share both severe infection and incomplete osseointegration in the absence of obvious clinical signs of infection. While microbiological data have been collected on peri-implant infections, no previous studies have investigated microbiologically incompletely osseointegrated implants. This paper presents microbiological and scanning electron microscopy observations on 30 implants showing incomplete osseointegration. All the 30 implants were colonised by bacterial species th...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological specimen collection and transport... § 866.2900 Microbiological specimen collection and transport device. (a) Identification. A microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for...

  16. 76 FR 69033 - Microbiology Devices; Classification of In Vitro Diagnostic Device for Yersinia Species Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... 866 Microbiology Devices; Classification of In Vitro Diagnostic Device for Yersinia Species Detection...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Microbiology Devices...), in accordance with the recommendation of the Microbiology Devices Advisory Panel (the panel). FDA...

  17. 76 FR 28689 - Microbiology Devices; Classification of In Vitro Diagnostic Device for Bacillus Species Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Microbiology Devices; Classification of In... recommendation of the Microbiology Devices Advisory Panel (the Panel). In addition, the proposed rule would.... Transcript of the FDA Microbiology Devices Panel meeting, March 7, 2002, at...

  18. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  19. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents. PMID:27321680

  20. Pertussis: Microbiology, Disease, Treatment, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Zervos, Marcus J; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef

    2016-07-01

    Pertussis is a severe respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis, and in 2008, pertussis was associated with an estimated 16 million cases and 195,000 deaths globally. Sizeable outbreaks of pertussis have been reported over the past 5 years, and disease reemergence has been the focus of international attention to develop a deeper understanding of pathogen virulence and genetic evolution of B. pertussis strains. During the past 20 years, the scientific community has recognized pertussis among adults as well as infants and children. Increased recognition that older children and adolescents are at risk for disease and may transmit B. pertussis to younger siblings has underscored the need to better understand the role of innate, humoral, and cell-mediated immunity, including the role of waning immunity. Although recognition of adult pertussis has increased in tandem with a better understanding of B. pertussis pathogenesis, pertussis in neonates and adults can manifest with atypical clinical presentations. Such disease patterns make pertussis recognition difficult and lead to delays in treatment. Ongoing research using newer tools for molecular analysis holds promise for improved understanding of pertussis epidemiology, bacterial pathogenesis, bioinformatics, and immunology. Together, these advances provide a foundation for the development of new-generation diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. PMID:27029594

  1. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  2. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  3. Practical application of predictive microbiology software programs to HACCP plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, H; Kokubo, Y

    2001-08-01

    We studied how predictive microbiology models could practically be applied to HACCP plans with two predictive software programs that are currently available. The software programs were the Food Micromodel elaborated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, U.K. and the Pathogen Modeling Program of Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture. They successfully provided useful information on (i) the determination of Critical Control Points (CCPs), (ii) the estimation of critical limits at CCPs, (iii) the decision of abused products, (iv) the assessment of equivalence of HACCP plans, and further (v) the development of new products. With the information simulated by the software programs, HACCP teams could make scientific and objective decisions for developing their individual plans. It was also confirmed that microbiological process standards for food processing are indispensable for the application of the predictive programs to HACCP plans. PMID:11817141

  4. Microbiology of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter’ in activated sludge

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shaomei; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter’ is a biotechnologically important bacterial group that can accumulate large amounts of intracellular polyphosphate, contributing to biological phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment. Since its first molecular identification more than a decade ago, this bacterial group has drawn significant research attention due to its high abundance in many biological phosphorus removal systems. In the past 6 years, our understanding of Accumulibacter microbiology and ...

  5. Microbiological stability of homeopathic medicines using purified water as vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Teresa Cegalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homeopathic medicines are prepared in homeopathic pharmacies. This leads to freedom of prescription but requires more knowledge of the clinicians to achieve the best results. Preparations made of purified water receive a validity of 24 hours, but there are prescriptions for up to 30 days. This contradiction raises tensions among physicians, pharmacists and patients. Aims: to evaluate the increase in microbiological contamination in homeopathic medicines using purified water as vehicle compared with the microbiological stability of purified water. Contribute to the quality of homeopathic medicine and treatment. Methodology: daily microbiological analysis for one week to assess the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, Pseudomonas, yeasts and molds. The reference used was the USP 32/NF 27 and the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 5th edition. Results: there was a higher growth of microorganisms on the medicine, compared with purified water. From the 2nd day on, this growth has been beyond the legal limits. Discussion: medicines for oral use are not sterile preparations, but they must remain stable during its shelf life. Our results indicate that contamination occurs from the earliest days of use. This shows the need to change the prescription in relation of the vehicle, to ensure hygiene and avoid potential contamination of the patient. It is necessary to prevent conflict of information between pharmacists and patients, and the contradiction of the doctor's advice, besides the potential risk of responsibility to be attributed to the pharmacy. It is necessary to promote a discussion between pharmacists and clinicians, to spread this information for those that prescribe. Conclusion: there was an increased of microbiological contamination of the medicines dispensed in purified water, which harms the quality of homeopathic medicine and homeopathic treatment.

  6. Microbiological transformations of phosphorus and sulphur compounds in acid soils

    OpenAIRE

    Stamenov Dragana; Jarak Mirjana; Đurić Simonida; Jafari Hajnal Timea; Bjelić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of phosphorus and sulphur in soil is closely related to the dynamics of the biological cycle in which microorganisms play a central role. There is not much microbiological activity in acid soils because aerobes are scarce, rhizosphere is restricted to the shallow surface layer, and the biomass of microorganisms decreases with higher acidity. The aim of the research was to investigate the number of microorganisms, which decompose organic and inorganic phosphorus compounds an...

  7. Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Olla Wasfi; Mary Power; Slavcev, Roderick A.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians.In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not) the primary clinical professions to accommodate the...

  8. Researches Regarding Microbiological Parameters Values of Telemea Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Suler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were microbiological parameters which characterized the Telemea cheese for each season, assessment of technologies and thus assortment defects as well as projection of hygienic solution for obtaining qualitative products according to actual standards. We studied 5 units of Telemea cheese processing replaced in different area. For obtaining concrete results we used STAS methodologies and analyze procedure was based on observation, mathematical estimation and experiments (in lab and processing units.

  9. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    M. Falasconi; Concina, I.; Gobbi, E; V. Sberveglieri; Pulvirenti, A.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic noses (ENs) have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a) Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b) early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c) screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination ...

  10. Clinical and microbiologic features of dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladis, Edward J; Shinder, Roman; LeFebvre, Daniel R; Sokol, Jason A; Boyce, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis is a relatively rare condition, and large case series of this clinical entity have been reported. This study was undertaken to identify a larger cohort of patients with this ailment, with the intent of defining its clinical and microbiologic features. Case logs from four institutions were reviewed to identify patients that suffered from dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis. A retrospective chart review was then performed to identify clinical features, management strategies, microbiologic features, and outcomes. A dedicated statistical software package was utilized to identify correlations between these variables. 13 patients (7 females, 6 males; mean age = 57.2 years, range = 7-89 years) were identified. One patient carried a diagnosis of immunosuppressive disease. All patients underwent emergent surgical drainage and received intravenous antibiotics. Primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction was found to be the underlying etiology in nine cases (69.2%), whereas four patients suffered from specific causes of their obstructions. An average of 1.07 organisms/patient (standard deviation = 0.49 organisms/patient) were recovered from microbiologic cultures, and Gram-positive bacteria represented the majority of cultured organisms. All patients experienced either stable or improved vision upon discharge. The relationships between a specific etiology and the possibility of vision loss or the number of organisms cultured, between the number of organisms cultured and vision loss, and immunosuppression and vision loss or the number of organisms cultured were all not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Dacryocystitis-related orbital cellulitis most commonly occurs in adult patients who do not carry immunosuppressive diagnoses and suffer from primary obstructions. Multiple microbiologic species may cause this problem, although Gram-positive organisms are most common. With appropriate management, stable or improved vision

  11. Semester-Long Assessment of Aseptic Technique in Microbiology Labs

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Aruscavage

    2013-01-01

    Biology educators emphasize aseptic technique when teaching lab courses. Aseptic technique is very important in microbiology to ensure safety and prevent cross-contamination. Although it can be assessed throughout the semester by examining the students’ technique and observation of contamination, this tool offers a simple semester-long graded assessment of each student’s technique. The procedures allow the students to perform a quick exercise that can determine if cross-contamination occurs, ...

  12. Microbiological contamination of food at self-service restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Jose Oliveira von Dolinger; Poliana de Castro Melo; Gilsimeire Rodrigues Morais; Carlos Roberto Menezes da Silva; Denise Von Dolinger de Brito

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological conditions of food served in self-service restaurants in Itumbiara-GO. In total, we studied 23 restaurants and the foods collected were: pasta, tomato and cucumber salad, mayonnaise and meat from the pan. The samples were acquired with the support of the municipality’s sanitary inspectors. Our research was focused on total mesophiles, coagulase positive staphylococci and heat tolerant coliforms. The sample preparations and their di...

  13. Determination of some chemical and microbiological characteristics of Kaymak

    OpenAIRE

    Ökten, Sevtap; Ünal, Gülfem; Gönç, Siddik; Sibel Akalin, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream, which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow’s milk in Turkey. It is generally consumed with honey at breakfast and some traditional Turkish desserts. The aim of this study was to determine some chemical and microbiological properties of kaymak. The samples were obtained from different dairy plants producing kaymak from cow’s milk and local markets located in Zmir. They were examined for total solids and fat contents, acidity, pH ...

  14. Simulated acid rain effects on soil chemistry and microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research study was carried out regarding the effects of artificial rains at different pH's (3.1, 4.0, 5.6) on soil samples from Appiano Gentile pinewood. Chemical parameters, biological activities and microbiological groups, particularly sensitive to possible variations in the presence of pH changes, were monitored after 2, 4 and 6 months of treatment of the soil on eluate obtained from treatment with artificial acid rains. The paper reports the results research

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora

    Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.

  16. Microbiology of the white coat in a dental operatory

    OpenAIRE

    Malini, M.; Titus K Thomas; Darpan Bhargava; Smiline Girija

    2012-01-01

    Background: It remains important to have a thorough knowledge of the micro-flora harboring the white coats of doctors to minimize cross-contamination and improve patient safety by reducing the risk of nosocomial infections. This study presents the microbiological analysis of the white coats in clinical departments of a dental college and hospital. Materials and Methods: The swabs for the study were taken from the white coats of undergraduate students posted in various clinical departments...

  17. Culture-Independent Molecular Tools for Soil and Rhizosphere Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Peer M.; Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Vivian A. Rincon-Florez

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in plant health and soil quality. Researchers have developed a wide range of methods for studying the structure, diversity, and activity of microbes to better understand soil biology and plant-microbe interactions. Functional microbiological analyses of the rhizosphere have given new insights into the role of microbial communities in plant nutrition and plant protection against diseases. In this review, we present the most commonly used tradit...

  18. Qualitative Microbiological Risk Assessment of Unpasteurized Fruit Juice and Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlovic, Biljana; Dixon, Brent; Couture, Hélène; Farber, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Until recent decades, unpasteurized fruit juice and cider have been considered non-hazardous with respect to microbiological pathogens due to their acidic nature. However, in light of the many global foodborne illness outbreaks associated with these products, it is apparent that certain bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens can survive these acidic conditions and remain infectious. Specifically, outbreaks of human illness have been attributed to infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Sal...

  19. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Páll, Emőke; Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; Şandru, Carmen Dana; SPÎNU, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human invo...

  20. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Smoked Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Nagy; Sonia A. Socaci; Maria Tofană; Crina Mureșan; Ana Viorica Pop (Cuceu); Carmen Pop

    2015-01-01

    Meat and meat products continue to supply nutrients and play a vital role in human life because of their high biological value protein, iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12 contents, being a crucial component of a well balanced diet. The objective of this paper was to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of smoked sausage obtain by a modern recipe. The meat  material was obtained from local butchery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania). The physicochemical analyses highlighted th...

  1. Forensic microbiology and the bioterrorism risk (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Nasso; Francesco Saverio Romolo

    2007-01-01

    The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of...

  2. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of a bioactive food blend

    OpenAIRE

    Rosângela dos Santos Ferreira; Priscila Aiko Hiane; Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães; Maria Isabel Lima Ramos; Daniel Pecoraro Demarque; Júnia Elisa Carvalho de Meira

    2014-01-01

    The potential of functional foods to decrease the risks of chronic non-communicable diseases has motivated the development of products with beneficial effects on fat and carbohydrate metabolism. The present study aimed at analyzing the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of a bioactive food blend developed to help the nutritional therapy provided to hypolipidemic and hyperglycemic patients with HIV/AIDS treated with antiretroviral therapy. The food blend was evaluated for...

  3. Space Habitation and Microbiology: Status and Roadmap of Space Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Mark; Pierson, Duane; Shirakawa, Masaki; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Hida, Masamitsu; Yamazaki, Takashi; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of microbiology is reflected in the diversity of microbiological research and operational efforts at NASA. For example, the impact of microorganisms on other planets and the protection of Earth from the potential of microbial life elsewhere is the responsibility of the Office of Planetary Protection (http://planetaryprotection.nasa.gov/ about). While the Office of Planetary Protection does not include forward or back contamination to or from a low Earth orbit, research platforms, such as the ISS, are being used to better understand the survival of microorganisms and corresponding contamination control in the extreme conditions of space (2, 4, 10). Another example is the NASA Center for Astrobiology, which focuses on the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe (https:// astrobiology.nasa.gov/). The large focus on microbiology is within its human exploration operations. NASA has historically set microbiological requirements, including stringent monitoring regimes, to mitigate risks to the health and performance of astronauts. Microorganisms can have both positive and negative impacts on many aspects of human spaceflight, including the risk and prevention of infectious diseases, performance of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), spaceflight foods, and vehicle design and integrity. Even though a great amount of information has been obtained, several key questions regarding the impact of microorganisms on human spaceflight still remain. Research into the uncertainties of risks that may affect crew health are the responsibility of the NASA Human Research Program (http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/human research/). The research that addresses our fundamental understanding of space life science and its translation for benefits to the general public on Earth is the responsibility of NASA Space Biology.

  4. Microbiological quality of some iced fishes of Imphal market, Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Lilabati, H.; Vishwanath, W.

    1994-01-01

    Imphal is the main marketing centre of fish in Manipur. As fish production of the state is not sufficient to meet the demands, about 120 metric tons of iced fishes are annually brought from other states and sold in this market. Microbiological quality of iced Wallago attu, Labeo rohita, L. gonius and Aorichthy aor in respect of total fungal count (TFC), total plate count of bacteria (TPC), Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliforms, Streptococci, Staphylococcus, Salmonella and Escherichia coli i...

  5. The development and evaluation of reference materials for food microbiology.

    OpenAIRE

    in 't Veld, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1986 the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has worked on the development and evaluation of microbiological reference materials (RMs) with support from the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR), now called Standards Measurement and Testing (SM&T). The RMs are the result of efforts, which was started many years ago, to develop standardised samples that could be used in collaborative studies and in particular for the evaluation of methods for the detec...

  6. Single-Cell Microbiology: Tools, Technologies, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Brehm-Stecher, Byron F.; Johnson, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    The field of microbiology has traditionally been concerned with and focused on studies at the population level. Information on how cells respond to their environment, interact with each other, or undergo complex processes such as cellular differentiation or gene expression has been obtained mostly by inference from population-level data. Individual microorganisms, even those in supposedly “clonal” populations, may differ widely from each other in terms of their genetic composition, physiology...

  7. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro; Lucas Ghedin Ghizzi; Natacha Deboni Cereser; Helenice Gonzalez de Lima; Cláudio Dias Timm

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese sam...

  8. Commercial babassu mesocarp: microbiological evaluation and analysis of label information

    OpenAIRE

    Laisa Lis Fontinele Sá; Tamyres Andrade Macedo; Sean Teles Pereira; Nouga Cardoso Batista; Lívio Cesar Cunha Nunes; Waleska Ferreira Albuguergue

    2015-01-01

    The babassu mesocarp is easily found in supermarkets and other commercial establishments in Brazil. Despite its widespread use in both pharmaceutical and food industries, the literature has neither scientific studies about microbial contamination for these products nor about legal information expressed on label. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in babassu mesocarp sold in commercial establishments in Teresina-PI/Brazil besides the conformity of ...

  9. Sheep milk: physical-chemical characteristics and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin Junior, Ivandré Antonio; dos Santos, Joice Sifuentes; Costa, Ligia Grecco; Costa, Renan Grecco; Ludovico, Agostinho; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; de Santana, Elsa Helena Walter

    2015-09-01

    Sheep milk is the third most consumed milk in Brazil. It is much appreciated for its nutritional status and is important for children that have problems with cow milk. Little information is known about the chemical, physical and microbiological composition of sheep milk from South Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe chemical and microbiological characteristics of sheep milk produced on two rural properties located in southern Brazil (ParanA and Rio Grande do Sul). The chemical composition of sheep milk was 17.32 g/100 g total solids, 5.86 g/100 g total protein, 4.46 g/100 g casein, 1.08 g/100 g whey protein, 7.28 g/100 g fat, 0.93 g/100 g ash, and 3.41 g/100 g lactose. High somatic cell count (1.7x106 cells/mL), total mesophilic bacterias (16.0 x 106 CFU/mL) and psychrotrophics (5.8 x 106 CFU/mL) were observed. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and coliforms occurred in 100% of the samples, and 45% of the samples showed growth of Escherichia coli. The sheep milk physical-chemical and microbiology parameters are similar to those presented in the literature for other countries but somatic cell count presented high levels. PMID:26821492

  10. Microbiologic handbook for biogas plants; Mikrobiologisk handbok foer biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aasa; Schnuerer, Anna

    2009-05-15

    There is today great interest in the biogas process. The reason for interest is that this process offers an opportunity to stabilize and reduce various types of organic waste, while also generating clean renewable energy in the form of biogas. Purified biogas is a good alternative to gasoline and diesel as motor fuel and can also be used for heating and electricity production. Behind efficient biogas production lies a complex microbiological process. For biogas to be formed many different species of microorganisms have to be active. A disturbance of this teamwork leads to a reduction in biogas production or in the worst case that the process stops. In order to operate a biogas process in an efficient manner, it is necessary to have knowledge of the underlying microbiology and how microorganisms function. Today Swedish biogas plants have personnel with great technical knowledge, while the biological knowledge often is more limited. It has been difficult to find appropriate Swedish language literature in the field. This handbook aims to increase the microbiological expertise of staff at the biogas plants and thus to facilitate the stable operation and optimization of gas production

  11. Validation of duckweed microbiological test for assessing hazardous substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Soukupova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For this study, we used modified EN ISO 20079. The modificationconsists in application of polystyrene macroplates, with the advantageof requiring low sample volumes for the test (10 ml. Lemna minorwas cultivated as a monoculture by various dosesof chemicals for seven days. The aim of our work was to compare theacute toxicity (168hEC50 obtained from conventional testing (100 mland from microbiological tests (10 ml using reference toxicants:potassium chloride and 3.5 – dichlorphenol. The resulting value168hEC50 for potassium chloride using conventional test was 9.78 g.l-1 and for 3.5 – dichlorphenol it was 5.71 mg.l-1. The resulting valuesfrom microbiological tests were 8.69 g.l-1 and 4.24 mg.l-1,respectively. The comparison of measured values of acute toxicityfrom conventional tests and microbiological tests indicates thatmicrobiological tests are an appropriate alternative to todaycommonly used ecotoxicological biotests, for measuring andassessing of biological effects of toxic substances in the aquaticenvironment.

  12. Nutritional, immunological and microbiological profiles of burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAA Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a lesion on an organic tissue resultant from direct or indirect action of heat on the organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, immunological and microbiological status of burn patients at the Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2007. Eight patients, aged more than 18 years and injured up to 24 hours, were evaluated at the moment of hospitalization and seven days later. All victims were males with a mean age of 38 years. On average, 17.5% of their body surfaces were burned and 50% of the patients were eutrophic. There were significant alterations in levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and albumin due to increased endothelial permeability, direct destruction of proteins in the heat-affected area and blood loss from lesions or debridement. At a second moment, cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α had augmented significantly, with IL-6 presenting elevated levels in relation to controls at the first moment. Microbiological analysis showed that 100% of the samples collected at hospital admission were negative and after one week Staphylococcus aureus was found in all cultures. Therefore, a burn patient may be considered immunosuppressed and these results indicate significant nutritional, immunological and microbiological alterations that can interfere in his recovery.

  13. Edging into the future: education in microbiology and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2016-04-01

    State-of-the-art papers from around the globe addressing current topics in education were published in the FEMS Microbiology Letters virtual Thematic Issue 'Education' in November 2015 (http://femsle.oxfordjournals.org/content/thematic-issue-education), which was innovative and well received by microbiologists and other educators. Its unique content is reviewed here to facilitate broader access and further discussions in the professional community. Best practice in supporting school teaching and exposing students to concepts from other disciplines is presented in context of inspiring the next generations, where also historical microbiology can be drawn upon. Technology-enhanced education is discussed including its applications (e.g. lecture podcasts for flipped learning, learning from experts via videoconference). Authentic learning is covered with examples of research-led teaching, water and showerhead biofilm analyses and participation in the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition. Enhancing employability is focussed on, including supporting personal development and work-readiness in general and for the changing nature of the microbiology profession. International mobility develops international awareness but challenges teachers. Teaching training, teaching excellence and dissemination of best practice are reviewed. Times of challenge and change in the Higher Education landscape motivate us to improve educational approaches and frameworks, so that we are prepared for new topics to emerge as current topics in education. PMID:26940289

  14. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. PMID:27506422

  15. Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Konyalı

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirdağ province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (83.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (26.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (88.3% of the total >103 cfu/g. On the other hand, 60, 56, 19 and 55 out of 60 fruit cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (100 % >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (93.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (31.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (91.6% of the total >103 cfu/g. Salmonella were not detected in any of the chocolate and fruit cake samples. Obtained results showed that the microbiological qualities of cakes were poor due to poor hygiene and poor food handling practices in pastry shops.

  16. The Microbiology of Perchlorate in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    at pH values as low as pH 5. Although studies have demonstrated microbial perchlorate reduction in salt brines as concentrated as 11% NaCl, to date no microorganism isolated has been demonstrated to grow by perchlorate respiration in salinities greater than 2%. The metabolism is negatively regulated by oxygen and nitrate. Preference for oxygen is observed even at low oxygen partial pressures while preference for nitrate is observed regardless of the nitrate to perchlorate ratio. Even when the DPRB are pre-grown anaerobically in perchlorate, nitrate is still preferentially reduced prior to perchlorate. Molecular studies reveal that electron acceptor utilization is regulated at the genetic level and is not simply a matter of chemical kinetics. Whole genome sequencing of Dechlormonas aromatica revealed a large number of signaling proteins, a high proportion of which were two component histidine kinase systems suggesting that this organism has exquisite sensitivity to its environment. This supported by the observed ability of this organism to sense, distinguish, and chemotax towards perchlorate or nitrate depending on the growth conditions. These studies demonstrate how the concerted efforts over the last decade have resulted in significant advances in our understanding of the geobiology of microorganisms capable of reductively transforming perchlorate into innocuous chloride. Several in-situ and ex-situ bioremediative processes have been engineered and many monitoring tools based on immunology, molecular biology, and stable isotope content are now available. As such, the rapid scientific response to this emerging contaminant offers great hope for its successful elimination from contaminated environments in the future.

  17. Microbiological Pollution of Water in the Bay of Durrës

    OpenAIRE

    ORNELA SHOSHI; SULEJMAN SULÇE; PJERIN SHOSHI; ZAMIRA RADA

    2014-01-01

    Several microorganisms with human or animal origin can be the cause of the diseases transmitted through water (microbiological effects). The discharges of used waters, contaminated with pathogen microbes, constitute the main cause of the microbiological pollution of the water. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the water microbiological status in Durrës bay, compared with the EEA resolution (European Environmental Agency), with a view of identifying the risk factors and the...

  18. The Use of Stuffed Microbes in an Undergraduate Microbiology Course Increases Engagement and Student Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ginny Webb

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement, attention, and attendance during a microbiology lecture are crucial for student learning.  In addition, it is challenging to cover a large number of infectious diseases during a one-semester introductory microbiology course.  The use of visual aids helps students retain the information presented during a lecture.  Here, I discuss the use of stuffed, plush microbes as visual aids during an introductory microbiology course.  The incorporation of these stuffed microbes during...

  19. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Meral Karaman

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrie...

  20. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Galfrè; Dorio Vacca; Patrizia Meloni; Antonio Contu; Piergiorgio Bolasco

    2012-01-01

    Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, ...

  1. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Karaman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrier system (Germ free, GF, with Colonization-Resistant Flora; CRF, animals bred with a partial barrier system (Specified Pathogen Free, SPF, and animals bred by conventional methods in units without barriers (Conventional; CV. Monitoring of microbiological standardization is carried out in two ways. One is controlling barrier systems (process control and the other is controlling laboratory animals (product control. In controlling barrier systems samples are taken routinely from ambient air, surfaces, base plate materials of animals, foods and waters, and microbiological tests are carried out. FELASA guidelines are frequently used in monitoring laboratory animals. These guidelines where the monitoring frequency, sample size, micro-organisms to be tested, vary according to the microbiological quality of the animals, and test methods and are frequently updated by FELASA and shared in their web pages. In our country, in general, laboratory animals used for experimental studies present no microbiological standardization, and follow-up protocols are not implemented. Therefore, construction of facilities for the production of microbiologically standard animals and establishment of backup laboratories testing microbiological quality should be established.

  2. The Use of Stuffed Microbes in an Undergraduate Microbiology Course Increases Engagement and Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Webb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Student engagement, attention, and attendance during a microbiology lecture are crucial for student learning.  In addition, it is challenging to cover a large number of infectious diseases during a one-semester introductory microbiology course.  The use of visual aids helps students retain the information presented during a lecture.  Here, I discuss the use of stuffed, plush microbes as visual aids during an introductory microbiology course.  The incorporation of these stuffed microbes during a microbiology lecture results in an increase in engagement, interest, attendance, and retention of material.

  3. Honeybee propolis extract in periodontal treatment: A clinical and microbiological study of propolis in periodontal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Coutinho

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Subgingival irrigation with propolis extract as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment was more effective than scaling and root planing as assessed by clinical and microbiological parameters.

  4. Professor Philip D. Marsh is New Associate Editor of Journal of Oral Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Ingar

    2014-01-01

    Philip D. Marsh is Professor of Oral Microbiology at the School of Dentistry, University of Leeds, UK, and is Programme Leader for the TB & Public Health Microbiology group at Public Health England, Salisbury, UK. He has published over 240 research papers and review articles, and is co-author of a leading text book on oral microbiology.(Published: 25 November 2014)Citation: Journal of Oral Microbiology 2014, 6: 26584 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jom.v6.26584

  5. [THE EVALUATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF MICROFLORA OF OROPHARYNX AND INTESTINE USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TECHNIQUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevalov, A V; Elkova, E P; Afanasiev, S S; Aleshkin, A V; Mironov, A Yu; Gusarova, M P; Gudova, N V

    2016-02-01

    The analysis was applied to microflora of feces and oropharinx and concentration of volatile fatty acids in saliva from patients of consultative diagnostic center of G.N. Gabrichevskii Moscow research institute of epidemiology and microbiology. The computer classification program is developed on the basis of determining degree of microbiological disorders on the basis of received data and using artificial neural networks and discriminant analysis. The analysis established decreasing of probability of false classification in case of increasing of degree of microbiological disorders of microflora of intestine and absence of such a correlation for microbiological and metabolic disorders of microflora of intestine. PMID:27455568

  6. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  7. Microbiology: lessons from a first attempt at Lake Ellsworth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, D A; Magiopoulos, I; Mowlem, M; Tranter, M; Holt, G; Woodward, J; Siegert, M J

    2016-01-28

    During the attempt to directly access, measure and sample Subglacial Lake Ellsworth in 2012-2013, we conducted microbiological analyses of the drilling equipment, scientific instrumentation, field camp and natural surroundings. From these studies, a number of lessons can be learned about the cleanliness of deep Antarctic subglacial lake access leading to, in particular, knowledge of the limitations of some of the most basic relevant microbiological principles. Here, we focus on five of the core challenges faced and describe how cleanliness and sterilization were implemented in the field. In the light of our field experiences, we consider how effective these actions were, and what can be learnt for future subglacial exploration missions. The five areas covered are: (i) field camp environment and activities, (ii) the engineering processes surrounding the hot water drilling, (iii) sample handling, including recovery, stability and preservation, (iv) clean access methodologies and removal of sample material, and (v) the biodiversity and distribution of bacteria around the Antarctic. Comparisons are made between the microbiology of the Lake Ellsworth field site and other Antarctic systems, including the lakes on Signy Island, and on the Antarctic Peninsula at Lake Hodgson. Ongoing research to better define and characterize the behaviour of natural and introduced microbial populations in response to deep-ice drilling is also discussed. We recommend that future access programmes: (i) assess each specific local environment in enhanced detail due to the potential for local contamination, (ii) consider the sterility of the access in more detail, specifically focusing on single cell colonization and the introduction of new species through contamination of pre-existing microbial communities, (iii) consider experimental bias in methodological approaches, (iv) undertake in situ biodiversity detection to mitigate risk of non-sample return and post-sample contamination, and (v

  8. Microbiological profile of milk: Impact of household practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is susceptible to contamination by many microorganisms including microbial pathogens responsible for causing diseases. Various processes including pasteurization, boiling or storage under refrigerated conditions are undertaken to minimize the microbial contamination of milk. Objective: This study was undertaken with an objective to evaluate the effect of household practices on the microbiological profile of milk. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of pasteurized, ultra heat treated (UHT as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor′s milk were collected. The effect of different storage practices and treatments on the microbiological profile (standard plate count (SPC, coliform, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, yeast and moulds, anaerobic spore count, and Listeria monocytogenes of milk was studied using National/ International Standard Test Methods. Results: Average SPC in vendor′s milk was found very high as compared to pasteurized milk. Coliform, yeast and moulds, E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in the samples of vendor′s as well as pasteurized milk. Boiling the milk reduces SPC and kills the other microorganisms. Storage of boiled milk under room temperature or refrigerated condition resulted in a similar increase in SPC at the end of 24 h, but storage of un-boiled milk even under refrigerated conditions increased SPC manifold after 24 h. Conclusion: The pasteurization process and hygienic conditions at the milk processing units along with cold chain of milk from suppliers to end users needs improvement. Currently, even pasteurized milk does not match the microbiological standards. It is recommended that milk should be boiled before consumption and refrigerated for storage to improve its shelf life/keeping quality.

  9. MICROBIOLOGY OF RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw materials used for preparation of confectionery products. For microbiological evaluation total count of bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi in samples of raw materials used in the manufacture and creams of confectionery products were detected. In addition to these groups of microorganisms the presence of pathogenic microorganisms Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in creams was monitored. Products are assessed according to the limit values of the number of microorganisms defined in the Codex Alimentary of the Slovak Republic. For microbiological analysis of confectionery products, sampling of components of confectionary products and cream was carried out according to current health regulations and altogether 65 samples of components and creams were collected: 10 samples of raw materials sugar, 10 samples of flour, 10 samples of butter and 10 samples of eggs, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag without rum addition, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag with rum addition, 5 samples of cream-filled multiple use paid bag, 5 samples of cream-filled newly purchased paid bag, 5 samples of Venček corpus and 5 samples of the French cubes corpus. From raw material the highest TBC (2.65log CFU was in flour, but the lowest in sugar (1.35 log CFU, the highest years counts was found on flour (2.42, but lowest in butter (1.18, while wasn’t in egg. In samples of creams and corpus were increased occurrence of yeast, coliform bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus weren’t isolated from any tested sample.

  10. Microbiological quality of cakes and pastries sold in Skopje, Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbiological quality of cakes and pastries sold directly to the consumers in Skopje, Macedonia. Sampling took place in 16 sampling points (bakeries, confectioneries with total number of 70 samples being investigated. All the samples were tested for S. aureus, nterobacteriaceae, aerobic colony count, E.coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The samples were tested in the Food microbiology laboratory at the Faculty of veterinary medicine in Skopje using standard ethods accredited by the Macedonian Institute for Accreditation. Results were interpreted according to the guidelines for the Interpretation of Results of Microbiological Analysis of Some Ready-To-Eat Foods Placed on the Market (HPA, UK. After the analysis of the results the following data was obtained: S.aureus: 68.57% (n= 48 of the samples were satisfactory, 31.42% (n=22 were acceptable and 0.0% (n=0 were unsatisfactory; Enterobacteriaceae: 60.0% (n= 42 of the samples were satisfactory, 40.0% (n=28 were acceptable and 0.0% (n=0 were unsatisfactory; Aerobic colony count: 51.42% (n= 36 of the samples were satisfactory, 45.71 (n=32 were acceptable and 2.85% (n= 2 were unsatisfactory; Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and E.coli: None of these microorganisms were detected in the samples taken. High levels of ACC, Enterobacteriaceae and S. aureus reflect unsatisfactory hygienic practice during processing of food from source to table. This often indicate contaminated raw materials or unsatisfactory processing and unsuitable time/temperature control during storage. The established level of acceptable and unsatisfactory results highlight the need for targeted inspection and education program in order to address the potential food safety risk from hygienic practice issues.

  11. The effect of microstructure on microbiologically influenced corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Dan; Pope, Dan; Danford, Merlin; Huff, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Results of several investigations involving stainless steels, aluminum alloys, and low-alloy steels are reviewed, and the effect of welding on microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) susceptibility in these materials is discussed. Emphasis is placed on research performed at California Polytechnic State University on the relationship between MIC and metallurgical microstructure. Topics addressed include initial stages of film development in materials with different microstructure and surface conditions, effects of inclusion on the MIC response of materials, aluminum 2219, effects of welding, and constitutional liquation.

  12. Determination of the Microbiological Quality of Some Dairy Desserts

    OpenAIRE

    ALİŞARLI, Mustafa; SANCAK, Yakup Can; Akkaya, Levent; ELİBOL, Cihangir

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the microbiological qualities of cream pastries and puddings obtained from five different confectioneries in Van. A total of 175 samples, consisting of 100 pudding samples (sütlaç 25, keşkül 30, supangile 25, kazandibi 20) and 75 cream pastries (butter-cream 25, chocolate-cream 25, fruit-cream 25), were analysed. The drop plate technique was used to determine the numbers of total anaerobic bacteria, enterobactericeae, lactobacilli, pseudomonas and yeasts...

  13. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  14. Impedance technique for measuring dielectrophoretic collection of microbiological particles

    CERN Document Server

    Allsopp, D W E; Brown, A P; Betts, W B

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of the impedance change resulting from the collection of microbiological particles at coplanar electrodes is shown to be an effective and potentially quantitative method of detecting dielectrophoresis. Strong correlations between the frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic collection characteristics measured by impedance change and those observed using an established counting method based on image analysis have been obtained for Escherichia coli. In addition it is shown that the new electrical method can be used to sense dielectrophoretic collection of 19 nm diameter latex beads, particles too small to be resolved by conventional optical detection systems. (author)

  15. Microbiological aspects of the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarchuk, Oleksandr; Nahaichuk, Vasyl; Paliy, Viktor; Kovalenko, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Nazarchuk Oleksandr, Nahaichuk Vasyl, Paliy Viktor, Kovalenko Iryna. Microbiological aspects of the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(6):19-28. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.18203 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%286%29%3A19-28 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/562794 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.18203 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. Archives 2011 – 2014 ht...

  16. MICROBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON MOZZARELLA CHEESE SAMPLES NEAR THEIR EXPIRY DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franzoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological investigation was carried out on 30 mozzarella cheese samples to evaluate their quality near the expiry date. Total coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. were detected at high levels in 70% and in 30% of the samples, respectively. Pseudomonadaceae were considered as the microorganisms responsible of the texture changing spoilage symptoms that were observed in 13,3% of the samples. Isolated strains were identified by PCR-TGGE analysis as P. rhodesiae (37,5%, P. putida (33,3% and P. poae (29,2%.

  17. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory changes in irradiated pico de gallo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma processing (1 kGy) and refrigerated storage (2 degrees C) on microbiological, sensory, and chemical quality of pico de gallo was studied. Color, flavor, texture, odor, and heat sensory attributes were not affected by radiation treatment. The treatment decreased populations of aerobic mesophilic, heterofermentative, and total lactic microflora during storage. L-ascorbic acid content declined 50% in response to gamma processing, but levels were similar in irradiated and non-irradiated samples after 6 wk. Pectin solubility was affected by radiation treatment. Gamma processing caused a reduction in pectin degree of estenfication, and conversion of chelator soluble to dilute alkali soluble and nonextractable pectins

  18. Microbiologically influenced corrosion. Final report for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious concern when considering measures to guard against long-term corrosion of waste package containers at Yucca Mountain. An experimental program has been initiated to gain a better fundamental understanding of MIC in repository environments. Some engineering objectives will be achieved during the investigation: a reproducible apparatus and procedure for electrochemical monitoring of MIC will be developed; the most aggressive combinations of bacteria will be determined, and the MIC resistance of various candidate alloys for the multipurpose container (MPC) will be measured

  19. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  20. Semester-Long Assessment of Aseptic Technique in Microbiology Labs

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    Daniel Aruscavage

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biology educators emphasize aseptic technique when teaching lab courses. Aseptic technique is very important in microbiology to ensure safety and prevent cross-contamination. Although it can be assessed throughout the semester by examining the students’ technique and observation of contamination, this tool offers a simple semester-long graded assessment of each student’s technique. The procedures allow the students to perform a quick exercise that can determine if cross-contamination occurs, thus determining if aseptic technique was observed. Instructors can quickly check for the presence of cross-contamination. After implementing this procedure, a quantifiable improvement in my students’ aseptic technique throughout the semester was observed. It was noted that between the middle and end of the semester there was a slight increase in the amount of cross-contamination but still well below the contamination observed at the beginning of the semester. This procedure was a valuable way to assess aseptic technique during the course of a semester. A search for “aseptic technique” on the American Society of Microbiology website reveals that several lab experiments and job opportunities mention the importance of aseptic technique. It is a skill that must be used for all laboratory procedures when working with microorganisms. It is important for both the safety of the students and for the proper handling of microorganisms. There are several good explanations of aseptic technique on the Internet, and the Nuffield Foundation provides a very good description of techniques (1. The goal of this project is to provide instructors with a tool to assess the aseptic technique of their students by using simple transfers of bacteria to fresh media to identify cross-contamination. When class experiments do not work students may not understand how poor aseptic technique impacted the project. This tool would work best for undergraduate students in an

  1. Microbiologically influenced corrosion. Final report for fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.A. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Amy, P.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-06-06

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious concern when considering measures to guard against long-term corrosion of waste package containers at Yucca Mountain. An experimental program has been initiated to gain a better fundamental understanding of MIC in repository environments. Some engineering objectives will be achieved during the investigation: a reproducible apparatus and procedure for electrochemical monitoring of MIC will be developed; the most aggressive combinations of bacteria will be determined, and the MIC resistance of various candidate alloys for the multipurpose container (MPC) will be measured.

  2. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided. PMID:23489044

  3. [Microbiological diagnosis of bacterial infection associated with delivery and postpartum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Ortega, Belén; Delgado-Palacio, Susana; García-Garrote, Fernando; Rodríguez-Gómez, Juan Miguel; Romero-Hernández, Beatriz

    2016-05-01

    The newborn may acquire infections during delivery due to maternal colonization of the birth canal, by microorganisms such as Streptococcus agalactiae that caused early neonatal infection, or acquisition through the placenta, amniotic fluid or birth products. After birth, the newborn that needs hospitalization can develop nosocomial infections during their care and exceptionally through lactation by infectious mastitis or incorrect handling of human milk, which does not require to stop breastfeeding in most cases. It is important and necessary to perform microbiological diagnosis for the correct treatment of perinatal infections, especially relevant in preterm infants with low or very low weight with high mortality rates. PMID:26706393

  4. Advancing our knowledge in biochemistry, genetics, and microbiology through studies on tryptophan metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanofsky, C

    2001-01-01

    I was fortunate to practice science during the last half of the previous century, when many basic biological and biochemical concepts could be experimentally addressed for the first time. My introduction to research involved isolating and identifying intermediates in the niacin biosynthetic pathway. These studies were followed by investigations focused on determining the properties of genes and enzymes essential to metabolism and examining how they were alterable by mutation. The most challenging problem I initially attacked was establishing the colinear relationship between gene and protein. Subsequent research emphasized identification and characterization of regulatory mechanisms that microorganisms use to control gene expression. An elaborate regulatory strategy, transcription attenuation, was discovered that is often based on selection between alternative RNA structures. Throughout my career I enjoyed the excitement of solving basic scientific problems. Most rewarding, however, was the feeling that I was helping young scientists experience the pleasure of performing creative research. PMID:11395401

  5. Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation. Report of a Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is a technique that may increasingly be employed to help preserve the world's food supplies. Some countries have already given public-health clearance for particular irradiated foodstuffs, and pilot and semi-industrial irradiation plants have already been established or are under construction. Wide-spread industrial application is likely in the not too distant future. However, there are still problems to be solved; some of these are microbiological. A Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation was organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture on 27 June to 1 July 1966. A detailed evaluation was made of research and development needs in radicidation (i.e. destroying micro-organisms harmful to human health), in radurization (i.e. extending the shelf life of perishable foods by reducing the spoilage micro-organisms in it), in the elimination of viruses and in the inactivation of preformed toxins. The Panel also considered the unification and standardization of experimental methodology. Recommendations were drawn up for the Directors General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these two organizations could best fulfil their roles in this field. It was considered important to continue sponsoring and co-ordinating research.. Establishing an international pilot and demonstration plant was thought essential for progress in development work, especially on radicidation. Experts on radio- and food microbiology and a representative of the World Health Organization attended the meeting. The proceedings contains the contributions of the members of the Panel together with the general conclusions and recommendations

  6. Ionization of bovine meat products. Microbiological, nutritional and organoleptic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the author analyses simultaneously the characteristics of sliced beef steaks, of minced beef steaks from industrial making and of beef and calf ionized liver rounds: microbiological quality, nutritional quality, and organoleptic quality. These analyses are systematically effected during 3 to 4 weeks on vacuum packaged products and stored at 3-4 deg C. The influence of ionization on microbiological, nutritional and organoleptic qualities is studied. These products are vacuum packaged in oxygen-porous films, ionized under accelerated electron with radiation doses from 1 to 5 kGy and stored at 3-4 deg C during 3-4 weeks. Then, other parameters are studied : fats rate of minced steaks (5 and 10%), packing quality (oxygen-tight packing and oxygen-porous film) and finally, the radiation dose rate (X or gamma-radiation and accelerated electrons). In conclusion, the ionization allows to improve the preservation time of vacuum packaged beef and calf liver rounds. Meat can be preserved during 10-14 days after having received a radiation dose of 3-4 kGy, without nutritional quality alteration

  7. A microbiological study on Rashid black sand sediments, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microbiological study was carried out to isolate and identify radio-tolerant bacteria present in a high radiation background area namely Rashid. Rashid is considered as one of the natural high radiation background areas in the world. It has been observed as the highest background radiation station along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. This is due to the presence of black sand deposits in its sediments. Black sand contains monazite and zirconium minerals, which have uranium and thorium inclusions in their mineral structures. Gamma absorbed dose rate from Rashid black sand reached 0.72 μGy/h. The microbiological examination of Rashid black sand revealed that, few bacterial strains, which are adapted and tolerant to this area were present. These strains were isolated, cultured and identified. Identification was carried out according to Bergey's manual. Confirmatory identification was carried out using API-20E kits for Enterobacteriacae and Gram-negative isolates. Other Gram-positive isolates were partially identified based on the morphological features of colonies and cells. The identified strains were found to be Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida, P. aeruginosa, Chryseomonas luteola, Xanthomonas maltophilia, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Micrococcus spp. The isolated bacteria could be used in several beneficial applications since other studies have proved that they can accumulate some radioactive materials. Further studies are needed to construct an efficient, inexpensive and feasible method to remove uranium and other metals from aqueous environment

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SCLICED FRUITS SOLD IN MINNA METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan S.Y

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh cut fruits processed by peeling, slicing or trimming with or without further processing or cooking before consumption. Fresh cut fruits collected from different stationary vendors and hawkers in Minna metropolis were analysed to determine their microbiological safety. All samples examined were contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The bacteria count ranged from 1.60x108 -8.40x104 cfu/g for cut pineapples sold in stalls, 1.50x108 -8.20x109 cfu/g for hawked cut pineapples, 3.50x104 – 9.00x105 cfu/g for cut watermelons sold in stalls, 1.50x104 -1.70x105 cfu/g for hawked cut watermelons, 1.80x105 -2.50x105 cfu/g for cut pawpaw sold in stalls, 2.60x105 – 3.00x105 cfu/g for hawked pawpaw. The bacteria isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus species, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes species. Fungal isolates identified were species of Mucor, Penicillum, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results obtained suggest the fresh cut fruits hawked and sold in stalls in Minna are of poor microbiological quality. It is therefore recommended that fresh cut fruit should be processed and sold under hygienic conditions. Several other recommendations were suggested.

  9. Effect of staff attitudes on quality in clinical microbiology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Sarah J; Sands, Richard L

    2002-01-01

    Technical quality of the work of clinical pathology laboratories is monitored regularly by both internal and external sources. Among the factors that might affect quality, laboratory staff attitudes are rarely considered. In this study, the psychological concepts of 'job satisfaction' and 'climate' are measured among microbiology biomedical scientists in the United Kingdom. A self-report questionnaire was developed and distributed (between November 1998 and February 1999) to biomedical scientists in 161 microbiology laboratories throughout the UK From 2415 questionnaires distributed, 931 replies were received--a response rate of 39%. A separate set of questions covering customer service and participation in internal and external quality assurance schemes was sent to laboratory managers. Biomedical scientists reported lower job satisfaction than did medical technologists in a previous study in the USA. Perception of climate was influenced by several demographic factors, the most important of which being the size of the laboratory. Optimal number of staff in a department was found to be less than 30. Aggregation of climate scores from members of the same department showed that a positive laboratory climate was important for good performance in internal and external measures of technical quality. For the best service, laboratory climate must be supported by a staff perception that the department is committed to enhancing quality--a climate for laboratory quality. PMID:12113406

  10. The influence of rickettsiologists on post-modern microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Kalliopi; Merhej, Vicky; Raoult, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Many of the definitions in microbiology are currently false. We have reviewed the great denominations of microbiology and attempted to free microorganisms from the theories of the twentieth century. The presence of compartmentation and a nucleoid in Planctomycetes clearly calls into question the accuracy of the definitions of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Archaea are viewed as prokaryotes resembling bacteria. However, the name archaea, suggesting an archaic origin of lifestyle, is inconsistent with the lifestyle of this family. Viruses are defined as small, filterable infectious agents, but giant viruses challenge the size criteria used for the definition of a virus. Pathogenicity does not require the acquisition of virulence factors (except for toxins), and in many cases, gene loss is significantly inked to the emergence of virulence. Species classification based on 16S rRNA is useless for taxonomic purposes of human pathogens, as a 2% divergence would classify all Rickettsiae within the same species and would not identify bacteria specialized for mammal infection. The use of metagenomics helps us to understand evolution and physiology by elucidating the structure, function, and interactions of the major microbial communities, but it neglects the minority populations. Finally, Darwin's descent with modification theory, as represented by the tree of life, no longer matches our current genomic knowledge because genomics has revealed the occurrence of de novo-created genes and the mosaic structure of genomes, the Rhizome of life is therefore more appropriate. PMID:22919574

  11. Assessment of water quality of Buna River using microbiological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANILË MEDHA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Buna River is situated near Shkodra town, between the hill of Rozafa castle and Taraboshi Mountain. It is the only emissary of the Shkodra Lake. Buna River is exposed to different sources of pollution related to urban pollution, sewerage discharge, agricultural activity, and climate change which are associated with an increase in water levels, erosion and floods. This research assesses the quality of water in Buna River, based on the microbiological and physical-chemical analysis. Samples were taken at three different points during years 2013-2014. The analysis will stress out data about heterotrophic and fecal coliform general characteristics, figures, and the role as indicators of water pollution and also information about PH, conductibility and the temperature of water. Microbiological contamination tests show relatively large water contamination, especially in the first sample point where Buna River begins. The high level presence of these microorganisms indicates that the water quality of the river is bad according to standards, presenting a risk to health for all the organisms that inhabit the sweet waters of Buna River.

  12. Effect of prolonged storage on microbiological quality of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Perko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The changing of milk microbiota composition in collection tank due to two-day collection was investigated. Each out of 10 independent cycles of every two-day collection was sampled 4 times and microbiologically examined. PCA medium supplemented with skim milk powder was used to determine the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, psychrotrophic and proteolytic psychrotrophic bacteria, respectively. MRS and M17 media were used to determine the counts of lactobacilli and cocci (lactococci and enterococci, respectively. As expected the counts of microbial groups increased but particularly the ratio between the groups of microorganisms was changed. The most evident shift in composition of milk microbiota was detected for psychrotrophic, particularly proteolytic psychrotrophic bacteria that are of particular concern to the dairy industry. Proteolytic psychrotrophs are notorious for their proteolytic activities which adversely influence milk proteins. Moreover, secreted proteolytic enzymes cannot be destroyed by heat treatment processes that are normally used in milk processing. The counts of microbial groups sharply increased on the second day of two-day collection. From selected bacterial consortia, the presence of the individual group of microbes was also PCR examined. Results indicate that the microbiological quality of milk in a two-day collection system is remarkably lower in comparison with daily collection system.

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN MEAT, MILK AND EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jabbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological tests are widely used to detect antibiotic residues in the meat, milk and eggs for better care of the quality and health safety. In the present study microbiological inhibition test i.e. Swab Test on Animal Food (STAF was developed indigenously for screening of animal foods for presence of antibiotic residues. In this test local isolated culture of Bacillus subtilis was used as a test microorganism due to its high sensitivity to detect a wide range of antibiotics commonly used in animal disorders. The concentration of spore suspension of Bacillus subtilis JS2004 used in the formation of STAF plate was optimized at 2x107 spores/ ml. At this concentration, inhibition zone around Neomycin control disc was 10-16 mm. Nutrient agar was used as a medium in spore suspension and 0.4% dextrose was added as a constituent of medium. Zones of inhibition around swab samples and Neomycin control disc were observed and the diameter was measured. All swab samples showing a minimum of 2 mm wide inhibition zone around them were considered as positive for presence of antibiotic residues. The swab samples showing no zone of inhibition or a zone measuring less than 2 mm were considered as negative. Results of application of STAF test was on animal food samples revealed the high incidence of antibiotic residues.

  14. Microbiological Seal of Two Types of Tapered Implant Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzetto, Wheslley M; Martinez, Elizabeth F; Peruzzo, Daiane C; Joly, Júlio Cesar; Napimoga, Marcelo H

    2016-01-01

    Tapered implant connections have gained wide popularity for being more resistant to fatigue and for promoting a better seal against bacterial infiltration than conventional connections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial seal at the implant-abutment interface using two Morse taper implant models, by in vitro microbiological analysis. Eleven non-indexed and 11 indexed abutments were selected and connected to their respective implants with a 20 N torque, according to manufacturer's recommendation. Microbiological analysis was carried out using colonies of Escherichia coli transported directly from a culture dish to the prosthetic component. For control, one non-contaminated abutment-implant set from each group (negative control) and one contaminated implant with no abutment (positive control) were used. The specimens were immersed in BHI broth and maintained in an incubator at 37 °C for 14 days to assess the development of bacterial contamination. The results revealed that 36.4% (n=4) of the indexed components and 90.9% (n=10) of the non-indexed components allowed bacterial leakage, with significant difference between groups (p=0.0237). In conclusion, both tapered components failed to provide adequate sealing to bacterial leakage, although the indexed type components showed a superior seal compared with non-indexed components. PMID:27224559

  15. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of a bioactive food blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela dos Santos Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of functional foods to decrease the risks of chronic non-communicable diseases has motivated the development of products with beneficial effects on fat and carbohydrate metabolism. The present study aimed at analyzing the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of a bioactive food blend developed to help the nutritional therapy provided to hypolipidemic and hyperglycemic patients with HIV/AIDS treated with antiretroviral therapy. The food blend was evaluated for moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fats, fixed mineral residue, total fiber content, and fatty acid composition, according to the standards established by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Food safety was assessed by microbiological analyses for Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp, and coliforms. Sensory acceptance and intention to purchase were also evaluated. The food blend showed good nutritional potential, with low atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes, good macronutrient balance, and high energy value. The adoption of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP resulted in a product suitable for consumption. With respect to sensory aspects, the food blend showed satisfactory indexes of acceptability and promising marketing potential.

  16. Microbiological contamination of food at self-service restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Jose Oliveira von Dolinger

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological conditions of food served in self-service restaurants in Itumbiara-GO. In total, we studied 23 restaurants and the foods collected were: pasta, tomato and cucumber salad, mayonnaise and meat from the pan. The samples were acquired with the support of the municipality’s sanitary inspectors. Our research was focused on total mesophiles, coagulase positive staphylococci and heat tolerant coliforms. The sample preparations and their dilutions were performed according to the technique recommended by the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. Non-contamination of food was confirmed in only one restaurant. In 16 restaurants (69.6%, there were at least three types of food contaminated with scores above the standard allowed by law. All the pathogens studies were detected in at least one type of food. The most common pathogen was coagulase positive Staphylococcus (86.5%. These results are alarming. The presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the food demonstrates the poor sanitary conditions under which it was prepared.

  17. A microbiological and clinical review on Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauch, Andreas; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Soriano, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The genus Corynebacterium represents a taxon of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in the genomic DNA. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii is an unusual member of this taxon as it lacks the characteristic mycolic acids in the cell envelope. Genome sequence analysis of the C. kroppenstedtii type strain has revealed a lipophilic (lipid-requiring) lifestyle and a remarkable repertoire of carbohydrate uptake and utilization systems. Clinical isolates of C. kroppenstedtii have been obtained almost exclusively from female patients and mainly from breast abscesses and cases of granulomatous mastitis. However, the role of C. kroppenstedtii in breast pathologies remains unclear. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the taxonomy, microbiology, and microbiological identification of C. kroppenstedtii, including polyphasic phenotypic approaches, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A clinical review presents reported cases, various antimicrobial treatments, antibiotic susceptibility assays, and antibiotic resistance genes detected during genome sequencing. C. kroppenstedtii must be considered a potential opportunistic human pathogen and should be identified accurately in clinical laboratories. PMID:27155209

  18. The influence of Rickettsiologists on post-modern microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi eGeorgiades

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the definitions in microbiology are factually false. We have revised the great denominations of microbiology and attempted to free microorganisms from the theories of the 20th century. The presence of compartmentation and a nucleoid in Planctomycetes clearly calls into question the accuracy of the definitions of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Archaea are viewed as prokaryotes resembling bacteria. However, the name archaea, suggesting an archaic origin of lifestyle, is inconsistent with the actual history of this family. Viruses are defined as small, filterable infectious agents, but giant viruses challenge the size criteria used for the definition of a virus. Pathogenicity does not require the acquisition of virulence factors (except for toxins, and in many cases, gene loss seems to be implicated in the emergence of virulence. Species classification based on 16S rRNA is useless for taxonomic purposes of human pathogens, as a 2% divergence would classify all Rickettsiae within the same species and would not identify bacteria specialized for the infection of mammals. The use of metagenomics helps us to understand evolution and physiology by elucidating the structure, function and interactions of microbial communities, but it neglects the minority populations. Finally, the tree of life (TOL theory, as established by Darwin, no longer matches our current genomic knowledge because genomics has revealed the occurrence of de novo-created genes and the mosaic structure of genomes.

  19. A SURVEY OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF WATER USED IN DENTAL TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the microbiological quality of water used in dental water systems. The purpose of this study was to conduct a microbiological survey of dental water units within the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Water samples were collected and ...

  20. Learning Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases by Means of a Board Game: Can It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwig, Magdalena C.; Beylefeld, Adriana A.; Joubert, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Innovative teaching and learning is increasingly becoming part of medical education. We report the evaluation of a medical microbiology board game, Med Micro Fun With Facts (MMFWF), based on Trivial Pursuit™ principles. The game was developed to stimulate medical students' interest in microbiology and expose students to the subject content of…

  1. 78 FR 36698 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid-Based Systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of... subsequently convened a meeting of the Microbiology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee on... notification requirements. VI. Risks to Health After considering the information discussed by the...

  2. 77 FR 14272 - Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Norovirus Serological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology... AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 866 continues to read as...

  3. 76 FR 14414 - Microbiology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Microbiology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Microbiology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

  4. 78 FR 26786 - Microbiology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Microbiology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Microbiology Devices Panel of the...

  5. 75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Background of the Device In the Federal Register of April 3, 2007 (72 FR 15830), FDA published a final rule... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Immunology and Microbiology Devices... proposed that 21 CFR part 866 be amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 1....

  6. MICROBIO : A web-based program for processing and evaluation of microbiological controls on aseptic dispensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, D.J.; Boom, F.A.; Bijleveld, Y.A.; Touw, D.J.; Veenbaas, T.; Essink-Tjebbes, C.M.; Verbrugge, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: According to the Dutch GMP-hospital pharmacy directive (1) three types of microbiological controls are required when aseptic dispensing is performed: 1. microbiological monitoring of the air in the working area, the gloved hands of the operator and the work surface at the critical place

  7. Microbiology of destructive periodontal disease in adolescent patients with congenital neutropenia - A report of 3 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, AJ; Schouten-van Meeteren, AYN; Baart, JA; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, CMJE

    2000-01-01

    Background, aims: Congenital neutropenia is one condition that may predispose for destructive periodontal disease at a young age. In this report, we describe the microbiology of 3 adolescent patients with congenital neutropenia two of whom suffered from severe periodontitis. Method: Microbiological

  8. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.)

  9. Pasado, presente y futuro de la microbiología de la periodontitis Past, present and future of the microbiology of periodontis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escribano

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Es bien sabido que la periodontitis es una enfermedad de origen infeccioso, pero posee características propias que hacen difícil su conocimiento etiopatogénico, y en consecuencia, su tratamiento. Numerosos avances relacionados con el estudio microbiológico de la placa bacteriana se están llevando a cabo en los últimos años, con el objetivo de optimizar los recursos terapéuticos y ofrecer a los pacientes una atención clínica predecible basada en la evidencia científica. El objetivo de este artículo es el de revisar la literatura actual y hacer énfasis en los nuevos conceptos microbiológicos que determinarán el futuro de las investigaciones acerca del diagnóstico y tratamiento de la periodontitis.It is well known in our days that periodontitis can be considered as an infectious disease with certain features in common with other diseases, but with some other features that make it different and unique, what makes it difficult to reach a good knowledge of its etiopathogenesis and, in consequence, of its treatment. Many advances in relation to the composition of the dental plaque have been done in the last years, with the aim of improving the treatments and being able to offer our patients a good clinical attention based on scientific evidence. The aim of this article is to review the literature and make emphasis on the new microbiological concepts which will give place to the future investigations about the diagnose and treatment of the periodontitis.

  10. A Retrospective Examination of Two Professional Society–Sponsored Fellowships for Predoctoral Microbiology Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At the American Society for Microbiology (ASM, fellowships are a key means of providing immersive research opportunities for the student sector. To assess the impact of ASM student activities and inform their planning, the Society commissioned a study of two long-standing initiatives in 2015, namely the ASM Undergraduate Research Fellowship (URF, established in 1993, and the ASM Robert D. Watkins Graduate Research Fellowship (Watkins Program, established in 1980. A mixed-methods approach was used to collect data about the participants’ fellowship experience, track educational and employment status, and determine program impacts from 325 individuals (223 URF and 73 Watkins fellows. Challenges presented by the study include the fact that inherent in fellowships is the provision of financial support that affords participants opportunities that might otherwise be unavailable to them. As a result, participant feelings of indebtedness to the Society may have introduced biased study responses. Some respondents were asked to reflect on experiences from 20 to 30 years ago—a lapse in time that may have challenged their memories. Based on measures such as enrollment in or completion of advanced degree programs, employment in science, and publication and presentation history, project participants show evidence of accomplishment. Participants also reported gains in affective behaviors such as confidence and belonging.

  11. A Retrospective Examination of Two Professional Society-Sponsored Fellowships for Predoctoral Microbiology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L

    2016-05-01

    At the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), fellowships are a key means of providing immersive research opportunities for the student sector. To assess the impact of ASM student activities and inform their planning, the Society commissioned a study of two long-standing initiatives in 2015, namely the ASM Undergraduate Research Fellowship (URF), established in 1993, and the ASM Robert D. Watkins Graduate Research Fellowship (Watkins) Program, established in 1980. A mixed-methods approach was used to collect data about the participants' fellowship experience, track educational and employment status, and determine program impacts from 325 individuals (223 URF and 73 Watkins fellows). Challenges presented by the study include the fact that inherent in fellowships is the provision of financial support that affords participants opportunities that might otherwise be unavailable to them. As a result, participant feelings of indebtedness to the Society may have introduced biased study responses. In addition, some respondents were asked to reflect on experiences from 20 to 30 years ago-a lapse in time that may have challenged their memories. Based on measures such as enrollment in or completion of advanced degree programs, employment in science, and publication and presentation history, project participants show evidence of accomplishment. Participants also reported gains in affective behaviors such as confidence and belonging. PMID:27158299

  12. A Retrospective Examination of Two Professional Society–Sponsored Fellowships for Predoctoral Microbiology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    At the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), fellowships are a key means of providing immersive research opportunities for the student sector. To assess the impact of ASM student activities and inform their planning, the Society commissioned a study of two long-standing initiatives in 2015, namely the ASM Undergraduate Research Fellowship (URF), established in 1993, and the ASM Robert D. Watkins Graduate Research Fellowship (Watkins) Program, established in 1980. A mixed-methods approach was used to collect data about the participants’ fellowship experience, track educational and employment status, and determine program impacts from 325 individuals (223 URF and 73 Watkins fellows). Challenges presented by the study include the fact that inherent in fellowships is the provision of financial support that affords participants opportunities that might otherwise be unavailable to them. As a result, participant feelings of indebtedness to the Society may have introduced biased study responses. In addition, some respondents were asked to reflect on experiences from 20 to 30 years ago—a lapse in time that may have challenged their memories. Based on measures such as enrollment in or completion of advanced degree programs, employment in science, and publication and presentation history, project participants show evidence of accomplishment. Participants also reported gains in affective behaviors such as confidence and belonging. PMID:27158299

  13. "The post-antibiotic apocalypse" and the "war on superbugs": catastrophe discourse in microbiology, its rhetorical form and political function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Brigitte

    2009-09-01

    Discourses evoking an antibiotic apocalypse and a war on superbugs are emerging just at a time when so-called "catastrophe discourses" are undergoing critical and reflexive scrutiny in the context of global warming and climate change. This article combines insights from social science research into climate change discourses with applied metaphor research based on recent advances in cognitive linguistics, especially with relation to "discourse metaphors." It traces the emergence of a new apocalyptic discourse in microbiology and health care, examines its rhetorical and political function and discusses its advantages and disadvantages. It contains a reply by the author of the central discourse metaphor, "the post-antibiotic apocalypse," examined in the article. PMID:20027773

  14. Importance of microbiological research of bioaerosols during horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol KORZEKWA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate microbiological quality of bioaerosols sampled from indoor and outdoor air of stables. Two types of closed stables (type 1 and 2 and one opened were tested during winter, spring and summer periods. Summary the highest number of bacteria was in closed stable type 2 (above 105 CFU×m-3, then opened (up to 105 CFU×m-3 and stable type 1 (near low 104 CFU×m-3. The number of fungi did not exceed 104 CFU×m-3 and was the greatest in stable type 1. Pool of mesophilic bacteria isolated from bioaerosols of both closed stables represented almost the same genetic profile, as well as between psychrophilic bacteria isolated from opened stable and background.

  15. Microbiological examination of foods sold via vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J S; Wu, S M; Yih, P; Tsai, W C

    1985-05-01

    A total of 153 food specimens obtained from vending machines in Taipei city were subjects for the microbiological examination. Based on the standards for total microbial counts and total coliform counts established by the Department of Public Health, Republic of China, the unsatisfactory percentage of such counts for foods sold from vending machines were: 14% for carbonated beverages, 71% for non-carbonated beverages, 73% for ice cubes, and 100% for soft ice cream. Among the non-carbonic acid beverages examined, the unsatisfactory percentage for iced coffee, cocoa, chocolate milk, and fruit milk reached 90%. Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci each were found once. None of the pathogens causing food-poisoning were found during the study. As for the sanitation control of vending machines examined, 66 to 74% percent were unsatisfactory. PMID:4042756

  16. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Popova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious disease concerning supporting tissues of the teeth. The primary etiological agent for disease development and progression is the subgingival biofilm, but recently it is known that host factors may modify the pathological process or may affect the severity and /or extent. The increasing levels of some specific pathogenic subgingival bacteria such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and others can result in periodontal destruction and possibly correlate with disease severity. Data from controlled studies show high prevalence of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and Tr. denticola which represent the red complex (coexistence of these three species in patients with moderate and severe chronic periodontitis. Parallel investigation of probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL with the microbiological testing may give a confirmation of relation between subgingival pathogenic bacteria and severity of periodontitis.

  17. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF OTOMYCOSIS : OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Otomycosis is fungal infection of external auditory canal, which is common throughout the world. Otomycosis may be refractory to treatment prescribed and hence challenges the clinician. AIM: To identify the organism causing otomycosis and to explore speci fic predisposing factors and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive study of cases of otomycosis attending ENT outpatient department of Govt. Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram which were evaluated clinically and microbiologically for one year. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: The commonest predisposing factor for otomycosis is trauma due to self - cleaning and water entering the ear. Common in females. Common presentation is itching of ear and ear ache. Commonest organism isolated is Aspergillus Nige r. Usually respond to treatment with topical antifungal agent especially clotrimazole. Most of the cases responded satisfactorily with topical clotrimazole.

  18. Rheological and microbiological study of flour treated by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the aim this work is to study the effectiveness of radio treatment and its effect on the conservation of flour and their various parameters (physico-chemical and rheological). The flour has been treated with different doses (0, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 kGy), physico-chemical, rheological, microbiological and sensory analyses were made.The results show that the irradiation as a treatment for decontamination gave a highly effective. Indeed, a dose of 1.5 kGy allows a total destruction of yeasts and molds. Thus, from the point of view physico-chemical, increasing the dose of radiation causes a change in physical and chemical properties and rheological of flour. for the characteristics of bread, increasing the dose of radiation affects the quality of bread. (Author). 38 refs

  19. Variability in microbiological degradation experiments, analysis and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    1997-01-01

    experiment carried out on different days (between runs). In the single substrate system a common sets of parameter estimates for experiments within runs fitted the data very well, whereas common sets of parameter estimates for experiments between runs fitted the data poorly and were moreover strongly...... were carried out by the nonlinear estimation program Dekimo (developed at IMM by Bilbo and Sommer), available on request. The program successfully fitted all experiments. A few estimations were also carried out by the Lineweaver-Burk linearization, but the estimated parameters fitted the data poorly.......html Experimental observations indicate that these microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility, i.e. that a common set of parameter estimates could not be employed to describe all experiments. However, experiments carried out on the same days (within runs) were more uniform than...

  20. The Point-of-Care Laboratory in Clinical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, Michel; Michel-Lepage, Audrey; Boyer, Sylvie; Raoult, Didier

    2016-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) laboratories that deliver rapid diagnoses of infectious diseases were invented to balance the centralization of core laboratories. POC laboratories operate 24 h a day and 7 days a week to provide diagnoses within 2 h, largely based on immunochromatography and real-time PCR tests. In our experience, these tests are conveniently combined into syndrome-based kits that facilitate sampling, including self-sampling and test operations, as POC laboratories can be operated by trained operators who are not necessarily biologists. POC laboratories are a way of easily providing clinical microbiology testing for populations distant from laboratories in developing and developed countries and on ships. Modern Internet connections enable support from core laboratories. The cost-effectiveness of POC laboratories has been established for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections in both developed and developing countries. PMID:27029593

  1. Clinical, microbiological and radiographic considerations observed around dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Amaral Chiapinotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periimplantitis is characterized by the inflammation of the soft tissues, bleeding, and suppuration, as well as rapid bone loss around dental implants that are in function. The lesion is associated with the presence of subgingival plaque, which contains a wide variety of Gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms. Objective: This review aimed to expose some clinical, microbiological and radiographic characteristics found in periodontal tissues and around dental implants. Literature review: Despite the anatomical differences between the periodontium and the tissues around implants, several studies have indicated some similarities, such as the production of inflammatory mediators and active microbiota. Conclusion: Regular maintenance and daily plaque control may be important factors in the long-term maintenance of implant-supported prostheses.

  2. Microbiological investigations of rainwater and graywater collected for toilet flushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    the reference toilets supplied with drinking water. However, in 12 of the 27 analysed samples one or more pathogens were observed (Aeromonas sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella non-pneumophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Mycobacterium avium, and Cryptosporidium sp.). These pathogens were not found in......Seven Danish rainwater systems were investigated with respect to the microbial water quality. The general microbiological quality (total numbers of bacteria (AODC)), and heterotrophic plate counts on R2A and Plate Count Agar in the toilets supplied with rainwater were approximately the same as in...... any of the reference toilets (32 toilets). This means that the use of rainwater introduced new, potentially pathogenic microorganisms into the households which would normally not occur in toilets supplied with water from waterworks. Furthermore, four graywater systems were investigated where water...

  3. Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmad Chaudhry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

  4. Microbiological method for presumptive identification of irradiated poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of a microbiological procedure for the detection of irradiated poultry meat has been evaluated. The methodology is based on the differences of the log microbial countings obtained through a direct microscopic method (DEFT) and traditional plate counting (APC). In particular, the presumptive detection of irradiated samples is based on the fact that the difference between the two counting is higher than 2 log cycles. In fact, in such conditions, the uncapability of many cells, detected by means of DEFT method, to form colonies on plates is due to the presence of lethal or sublethal damages induced by stabilizing treatments. In poultry meat, in absence of declared or evident treatments, the reduction of viability of the microbial cells can be presumptively attributed to irradiation treatments

  5. Microbiological determination of neomycin in feeds: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, G L; Kratzer, D D; Kasson, C W

    1989-01-01

    A modification of the AOAC microbiological determination of neomycin in feeds was collaboratively studied by 12 laboratories. The official method was modified by substituting a constant salt concentration diluent for the feed extract diluent, preparing the agar medium in tris buffer, and performing the test with a monolayer plating system. Each laboratory performed single assays on 8 samples in a randomized sequence. The samples included duplicates of a cattle and swine feed at 2 different marketed concentrations. The mean recovery across all laboratories was 110.7% of theory with a range of means of 69.4-128.6 across the 12 laboratories. The results of one laboratory and 2 additional values from different laboratories were deemed outliers and excluded from statistical analysis. The statistical analysis gave a confidence interval of +/- 26% for individual assays. PMID:2651392

  6. Microbiological method for assaying lincomycin in animal feed: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, A W; Thomas, R W

    1978-09-01

    A microbiological assay for determining lincomycin in swine feed, supplement, and a vitamin-mineral premix was studied collaboratively in 16 laboratories. The design of the study involved a complete feed, feed supplement, and a vitamin-mineral premix covering a range of fortification from 20 to 80 g/ton and 80 to 2600 g/ton. Two methods of sample preparation were used depending on the concentration of lincomycin in the sample. Statistical evaluation of the results from the 2 methods indicated that 10 and 11 collaborators, respectively, had mean recoveries which were not significantly different from one another. Ten laboratories obtained a mean recovery of 112.2% (range 102.3--123.5%) for the lower level, and 11 laboratories obtained a mean recovery of 104.4% (range 100.0--107.7%) for the higher level. The method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:363677

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF POTABLE WATER IN DEHRADUN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapkota Rajendra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the water quality of the Dehradun City the Capital of Uttarakhand (India by an affable means. The physiochemical and the microbiological studies are most important regions by which we were able to test the portability of water. The isolation and characterization of the pathogenic microorganism from the water sample collected were the main emphasized area of the study. The sample collected from three areas of Dehradun city. Ballupur chowk, Railway station and Doon Hospital. The safest water sample was of the Doon Hospital while the most contaminated sample was from the Railway Station. The bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp. The sample were inoculated and were incubated at 370C for 24 hrs or 48 hrs for appropriate bacterial growth. Thus we can use this study for the assessment of the water sample and to resolve the hygienic problems of the water.

  8. Nanomedicine, microarrays and their applications in clinical microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Deveci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest in the future medical applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new scientific field that called as “nanomedicine”. Nanomedicine may be defined as the investigating, treating, reconstructing and controlling human biology and health at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. Microarray technology is a revolutionary tool for elucidating roles of genes in infectious diseases, shifting from traditional methods of research to integrated approaches. This technology has great potential to provide medical diagnosis, monitor treatment and help in the development of new tools for infectious disease prevention and/or management. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current application of microarray platforms and nanomedicine in the study of experimental microbiology and the impact of this technology in clinical settings.

  9. Gamma-irradiation of wet corn. Microbiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of a survey of several years work on microbiological decontamination and control of wet corn by gamma-irradiation the following factors are studied: inhibiting and selective effect of gamma-irradiation (100 to 500krads) on the microflora of grains; evolution of residual microflora of irradiated wet grains (moisture content about 35%), during storage experiments under ventilated or airtight conditions. Two important points emerge from those studies. The microflora which develops on irradiated sample is much less varied than that of the control sample. The microbial population of an irradiated sample rises up in a few days on a level with the initial one of the control, then goes on increasing while remaining, as a rule, slightly inferior to that of the control placed under the same conditions. This greatly lowers the practical interest of irradiation, which can only be used together with another treatment able to inhibit the quick growth of the residual microflora

  10. Microbiology and pathology of fibrinous pericarditis in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, J.; Friis, N.F.; Aalbaek, B.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Iburg, T.; Mousing, Jan

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of fibrinous pericarditis detected at slaughter in Danish slaughter pigs is approximately 0.02 %. The microbiology and pathology of this disorder was studied through 46 field cases collected at slaughter from May 1994 to August 1995. Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M......., hyopneumoniae in two cases) and Actinomyces pyogenes was isolated from the pericardium twice (as mono-infection in one case and together with M. hyopneumoniae in another). A. pyogenes was also present in the lung, liver and kidney in one of these cases. Streptococcus suis was isolated together with mycoplasmas...... in all cases from which either A. pleuropneumoniae, A. pyogenes or S. suis was isolated. It is concluded that in this study mycoplasmas, particularly nir. Hyopneumoniae, are the more likely cause of fibrinous pericarditis in slaughter pigs....

  11. Sensory, physicochemical and microbiological quality of irradiated minimally processed cauliflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally processed cauliflower samples were irradiated, stored at 5 deg C for 2 weeks and analyzed for sensory, physicochemical and microbiological qualities at 0th, 7th and 14th days. The data showed highest mean values of 7.93 and 7.57 for appearance and flavor, respectively, for 1.0 kGy treated samples. The D 10 values of contaminating microorganisms on cauliflower were 0.20 (Escherischia coli) and 0.24 kGy (Salmonella paratyphae A.) and the resulting 5D 10 value was 1.2 kGy. The study revealed that a dose of 1.5 kGy is enough for retention of quality and reduction of microbial load to 5D 10 values in cauliflower during 2 weeks storage at refrigerated temperature

  12. Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. The device is capable of determining hydrocarbon gases in water to the concentration of less than 5 x 10{sup -4} ml/l of water. According to the results of microbiological studies, the plate count technique can be a useful supplementary method for hydrocarbon exploration. This is based on the facts that the average survival rate to hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane) for heterotrophs is higher in the area known as containing considerable hydrocarbon gases than other areas in the Pohang region. However, it is still necessary to develop techniques to treat the bacteria with gaseous hydrocarbons. (author). 2 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. Prospects for microbiological solutions to environmental pollution with plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin C; Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly named plastics, are among the most widespread anthropogenic pollutants of marine, limnic and terrestrial ecosystems. Disruptive effects of plastics are known to threaten wildlife and exert effects on natural food webs, but signs for and knowledge on plastic biodegradation are limited. Microorganisms are the most promising candidates for an eventual bioremediation of environmental plastics. Laboratory studies have reported various effects of microorganisms on many types of polymers, usually by enzymatic hydrolysis or oxidation. However, most common plastics have proved to be highly recalcitrant even under conditions known to favour microbial degradation. Knowledge on environmental degradation is yet scarcer. With this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on microbiological degradation of several of the most common plastic types. Furthermore, we illustrate the analytical challenges concerning the evaluation of plastic biodegradation as well as constraints likely standing against the evolution of effective biodegradation pathways. PMID:26318446

  14. Evolution of microbiological analytical methods for dairy industry needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eSohier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culture-based methods have been used to enumerate microbial populations in dairy products. Recent developments in molecular methods now enable faster and more sensitive analyses than classical microbiology procedures. These molecular tools allow a detailed characterization of cell physiological states and bacterial fitness and thus, offer new perspectives to integration of microbial physiology monitoring to improve industrial processes. This review summarizes the methods described to enumerate and characterize physiological states of technological microbiota in dairy products, and discusses the current deficiencies in relation to the industry’s needs. Recent studies show that PCR-based methods can successfully be applied to quantify fermenting microbes and probiotics in dairy products. Flow cytometry and omics technologies also show interesting analytical potentialities. However, they still suffer from a lack of validation and standardization for quality control analyses, as reflected by the absence of performance studies and official international standards.

  15. The role of biomineralization in microbiologically influenced corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, B.; Wagner, P.; Hart, K.; Ray, R.; Lavoie, D.; Nealson, K.; Aguilar, C.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic iron oxides (goethite, alpha-FeO.OH; hematite, Fe2O3; and ferrihydrite, Fe(OH)3) were used as model compounds to simulate the mineralogy of surface films on carbon steel. Dissolution of these oxides exposed to pure cultures of the metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens, was followed by direct atomic absorption spectroscopy measurement of ferrous iron coupled with microscopic analyses using confocal laser scanning and environmental scanning electron microscopies. During an 8-day exposure the organism colonized mineral surfaces and reduced solid ferric oxides to soluble ferrous ions. Elemental composition, as monitored by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, indicated mineral replacement reactions with both ferrihydrite and goethite as iron reduction occurred. When carbon steel electrodes were exposed to S. putrefaciens, microbiologically influenced corrosion was demonstrated electrochemically and microscopically.

  16. Microbiological and mycotoxicological correctness of protein feed ingredients in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2009 and 2010, the microbiological tests of a total of 40 samples of protein feed ingredients (sunflower meal, soybean, soybean cake, soybean grits and soybean meal originating from Vojvodina were carried out. The most of the samples (57.5% matched the Serbian regulations on feed. Microbiologically, there was not adequate quality of protein ingredients, which was a consequence of the presence of pathogenic bacteria: Proteus spp. in 12 samples of sunflower meal, 1 sample of soybean meal and 2 samples of soybean cake, and E. coli in 2 samples of soybean meal. The highest total number of bacteria (1 x 107 g-1 and the highest number of yeasts and molds (148.000 g-1 was identified in one sample of sunflower meal. Mycological analysis of protein feed established the dominance of species from the genera Aspergillus (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. ochraceus, Fusarium (F. solani, F. subglutinans and F. verticillioides and Mucor (Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis and M. racemosus f. racemosus. The study of biochemical characteristics of 10 fungal isolates from sunflower meal, soybean grits and cake has established that: a 2 cultures of Aspergillus spp. possessed antagonistic activity against other fungal species, b 1 isolate F. solani biosynthesized T-2 toxin, c 1 culture of F. subglutinans produced zearalenone, d 4 isolates of Mucor spp. showed the ability to degrade one or both trichothecenes of type A (diacetoxyscirpenol - DAS and T-2 toxin. Mycotoxicological studies that included 24 samples of protein ingredients showed the absence of mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, DAS and T-2 toxin in all 15 samples of sunflower meal. In the samples of soybean and its products (meal and cake only T-2 toxin was detected in 3 analyzed samples. The amount of this fusariotoxin did not exceed 375 μg kg-1 .

  17. Microbiological quality of packaged ice from various sources in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mako, Stephanie L; Harrison, Mark A; Sharma, Vijendra; Kong, Fanbin

    2014-09-01

    This study determined the microbiological and chemical quality of ice produced and bagged on premises in retail establishments and in free-standing self-service ice vending machines in the state of Georgia and compared the results with that from ice produced by manufacturing companies monitored by the International Packaged Ice Association. Two hundred fifty bags of packaged ice samples were obtained from retail locations and self-service ice vending machines, along with 25 bags of packaged manufactured ice. Ice samples were melted within 24 h of collection and heterotrophic plate count SimPlates were used to detect heterotrophic bacteria present. Colisure and Enterolert assays were used to enumerate coliforms, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, and enterococci. Membrane filtration coupled with enrichment was used to detect Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Confirmation tests were done for presumptive-positive pathogens. None of the manufactured ice had unacceptable microbial levels. Six percent of the ice samples bagged at retail sites and from ice vending machines contained unsatisfactory levels of heterotrophs compared with the limits set by the International Packaged Ice Association (≥ 500 most probable number [MPN]/100 ml). Thirty-seven percent of these samples contained an unsatisfactory level of coliforms (≥ 1.0 MPN/100 ml), 1% contained nonpathogenic E. coli, and 13% contained enterococci (≥ 1.0 MPN/100 ml). One sample tested positive for the presence of Salmonella and another tested positive for Enterobacter agglomerans. Ninety-five samples of packaged ice from retail establishments and vending machines (38%) had pH levels outside the acceptable range that can affect product flavor. Turbidity of three samples exceeded the acceptable level. No samples had unacceptable nitrate levels. Manufactured ice had better microbiological and chemical quality than ice packaged on the premises of retail locations and from self-serve ice vending machines. PMID

  18. Microbiological quality of kebabs sold in Palermo and Messina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Ziino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of kebabs retailed in Palermo and Messina. Twenty raw and 22 cooked kebab samples were analysed to determine the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, Enterobac - teriaceae, Escherichia coli, sulphite reducing anaerobes, coagulase positive staphylococci, micrococci, Bacillus cereus and the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In raw kebabs, AMB ranged from 4.00 to 7.34 log cfu/g and Enterobacteriaceae from 1.00 to 7.59 log cfu/g. Escherichia coli and sulphite reducing anaerobe counts were from <1.00 to 6.18 and 4 log cfu/g, respectively. Coagulase positive staphylococci ranged from <1.00 to 3.48 log cfu/g and micrococci from <1.00 to 6.00 log cfu/g. Listeria spp. was found in three raw kebab samples. In cooked kebabs, the AMB values ranged from 1.78 to 6.30 log cfu/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.00 to 4.00 log cfu/g and micrococci from <1.00 to 5.30 log cfu/g. Three samples were positive for Escherichia coli (from 1 to 1.30 log cfu/g and one for sulphite reducing anaerobes (2.00 log cfu/g. Coagulase positive staphylococci were found in two samples with loads of 2.30 and 2.78 cfu/g, respectively. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were not isolated in raw and cooked samples. The results of this study show that the microbiological quality of kebabs sold in Palermo and Messina is quite variable. The authors stress the importance of selection of raw material of high quality as well as the control of cooking and storage temperatures in order to minimise bacterial potential hazards.

  19. Microbiological understandings and mysteries of noma (cancrum oris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkler, W A; Enwonwu, C O; Idigbe, E O

    1999-04-01

    The microbiologic history of noma was reviewed. Studies have associated the disease process with large numbers of fusiform bacilli and spirochetal organisms. In order to study the microbiology of the staging and infection periods of noma 62 Nigerian children, aged 3-14 years, 22 children had acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) and were also malnourished, 20 exhibited no acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis but were malnourished and 20 were free of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and in good nutritional state) were evaluated for the presence of viruses and oral microorganisms. The ANUG cases in the malnourished children had a higher incidence of Herpesviridae, the main virus being detected was cytomegalovirus. There were more anaerobic microorganisms recovered, with Prevotella intermedia as the predominant isolate, in the malnourished children as compared to the healthy children. A study of the predominant microflora in active sites of noma lesions was carried out in eight noma patients, 3-15 years of age, in Sokoto State, northwestern Nigeria. Fusobacterium necrophorum was recovered from 87.5% of the noma lesions. Oral microorganisms isolated included Prevotella intermedia, alpha-hemolytic streptococci and Actinomyces spp. which were isolated from 75.0, 50.0 and 37.5% of the patients, respectively. Peptostreptococcus micros, Veillonella parvula, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp. were each recovered from one lesion. All strains were observed to be sensitive to all of the antibiotics tested with the exception of one strain of P. intermedia which showed resistance to penicillin. The pathogenic mechanisms of F. necrophorum as a trigger organism were discussed. The isolation from human noma lesions of F. necrophorum, a pathogen primarily associated with animal diseases, may have important etiologic and animal transmission implications. PMID:10522213

  20. Microbiological Quality of Some Major Fishery Products Exported from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The export quality marine and aquaculture fish and fishery products were collected from European Union Approved (EUA) and EU-non-approved (EUN) plants located at east and west coast of India and were analysed for the presence of human bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 126 samples comprising of 26 marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus), 18 freshwater prawn, scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 40 squid (Loligo sp.), six cuttle fish (Sepia sp.), 30 rohu (Lobia rohita) and six long fin herring (Citrocentrus sp.) were analysed. The samples were screened for aerobic plate count (APC) and pathogens including Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica. It was observed that the marine products from EUN plants were of poorer microbiological quality as compared with products from EUA plants. Samples of squid (40%) and shrimp (28.5%) from EUN plants were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. However, V. cholerae, L. monocytogenes, and, Y. enterocolitica were not detected in any of the samples tested. Shrimp samples (28%) from EUN plants were positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Shrimp (14.3%) and squid (40%) were also contaminated with coagulase positive S. aureus. Salmonella contamination was observed in 16.7% of the cuttle fish samples from EUN plants. Whole herring samples were of acceptable microbiological quality. Of the freshwater items analyzed, whole rohu samples had higher microbial load as compared to processed rohu samples. All the rohu samples were free from the pathogens, however, 25% of the rohu steak samples had E. coli exceeding the limit of 20 cfu/g. Both whole as well as headless scampi harboured higher microbial load; whole (50%) and headless (41%) scampi samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. The results suggested a need for implementation of better hygienic practices for the improvement of microbial

  1. Microbiological quality of milk sold directly from producers to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyz-Łukasik, R; Paszkiewicz, W; Tatara, M R; Brodzki, P; Bełkot, Z

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of raw cow milk from direct sale points. Raw cow milk samples were collected from 5 randomly selected direct sale points for microbiological evaluation. The samples were analyzed to determine total aerobic bacterial count, somatic cell count (SCC), counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus, and presence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and inhibitory substances. The mean counts of total aerobic bacterial in samples from all direct sale points were between 9.2×10(4) and 3.6×10(7) cfu/mL. Milk samples collected from 5 direct sale points revealed counts Enterobacteriaceae ranging from 6.4×10(1) to 1.7×10(6) cfu/mL. Escherichia coli were detected in 12 milk samples with counts ranging from 5.0×10(0) to 1.1×10(2) cfu/mL. Staphylococcus spp. bacteria were found in all milk samples, at counts ranging from 1.6×10(3) to 5.1×10(4) cfu/mL. Listeria monocytogenes bacteria were detected in 1 sample, and SCC in all samples ranged from 78,000 to 1,730,000/mL. The examined samples did not contain Salmonella rods or inhibitory substances. In the samples examined in this study, international hygiene standards were exceeded for total aerobic bacterial count (n=48) as well as for SCC (n=19). Two milk samples contained pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) that pose a potential hazard for consumer health. PMID:25958278

  2. Determination of some chemical and microbiological characteristics of Kaymak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ökten, Sevtap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream, which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow’s milk in Turkey. It is generally consumed with honey at breakfast and some traditional Turkish desserts. The aim of this study was to determine some chemical and microbiological properties of kaymak. The samples were obtained from different dairy plants producing kaymak from cow’s milk and local markets located in Zmir. They were examined for total solids and fat contents, acidity, pH and peroxide values, as well as counts of coliform bacteria, E. coli, yeast and moulds, and Staphylococci. Chemical characteristics of the samples were generally favorable for Turkish Food Codex. However, microbiological properties of some samples were very poor. Careful considerations should be given by the kaymak industry during manufacturing and storage of the product.Kaymak es una clase de crema concentrada, que se fabrica tradicionalmente de la leche del búfalo o de la vaca en Turquía. Se consume generalmente con la miel en el desayuno y en algunos postres turcos tradicionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar algunas características químicas y microbiológicas del kaymak. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de diversas instalaciones lecheras productoras de kaymak de leche de vaca y de mercados locales situados en Zmir. Se analizó el contenido en sólidos totales y grasas, acidez, pH y valores de peróxido, además del conteo de tan bien como cuentas de las bacterias coliformes, E. coli, levadura y mohos, y estafilococos. Las características químicas de las muestras fueron generalmente aceptables para el Turkish Food Codex. Sin embargo, las características microbiológicas de algunas muestras fueron muy malas. La industria del kaymak debe ser extremadamente cuidadosa durante la fabricación y el almacenaje del producto.

  3. [External quality assessment for clinical microbiology and good laboratory management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, K

    1998-02-01

    The Tokyo Metropolitan external quality assessment (EQA) program has revealed some serious problems in private independent microbiology laboratories in Tokyo since 1982. The poor performance in the EQA surveys closely related to poor laboratory managements, the type of training, experience of the medical technologists or technicians, and supervisory ability of the consultant physicians in independent laboratories. Social factors impede the reform of the quality assurance of clinical microbiology. Such factors include poor infrastructure of continuing education for small private laboratories, closure of the central clinical laboratories in the hospitals and outsourcing of laboratory tests due to restructuring in response to economic problems, and limited numbers of certified clinical pathologists of the Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JSCP). Therefore, the Tokyo Metropolitan EQA Scheme is still confidential and its main role is educational. Good two way communication between participants and the organizers' clinical pathologists is essential, if the quality of laboratory tests is to be improved. The new JSCP edition of the postgraduate training requirement in clinical pathology includes "Laboratory Administration and Management". Good laboratory management(GLM) is an increasingly important component of good laboratory practice. The practice activities of clinical pathologists must include general management in addition to exercising there specialized knowledge in medicine and technology. Whereas leadership of a good clinical pathologist provides the direction of where a good laboratory is going, good management provides the steps of how to get there. And I believe quality system models from business and industry may provide us with strong guidance to build a quality system for the good laboratory that will endure into the next century. PMID:9528335

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND EUROPEAN HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová,Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate microbiological and chemical quality of honey from Slovakia, Czech Republic and Germany. Selected microbiological and chemical parameters were determined in 12 samples of honey. Total Viable Count (TVC, coliform bacteria (CB, microscopic filamentous fungi (MFF moisture content and free acids were determined. Plate dilution method with individual culture conditions was used for microorganisms cultivation. Moisture content was measured by refractometry and free acids content was determined by titration. The minimal value of TVC was 1.87 log CFU.g-1 (sample no. 11, maximal value of TVC in honey was 3.13 logCFU.g-1 (sample no. 7, average value of TVC was 2.52 log CFU.g-1 . Two samples were in accordance with Codex Alimentaius of SR (2009. Samples of honey were negative for coliform bacteria count. Four samples were negative for microscopic fungi count (sampes no. 2, 8, 9 and 11. Maximal value of microscopic fungi was 2.18 log CFU.g-1 in sample no. 5. Average value of microscopic fungi was 1.07 log CFU.g-1. The moisture content values ranged from 16.6 % (sample no. 1 to 20.6 % (no. 3. Sample no. 3 was not in accordance with requirements of Council Directive 2001/110. Average value of moisture content was 18.3 %. The minimal value of free acids was 12 meq.kg-1, maximal value was 42 meq.kg-1. The average value of free acids was 28.9 meq.kg-1.

  5. Microbiological and physico-chemical studies on irradiated dewatered sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological and physico-chemical studies on irradiated dewatered sludge. Microbiological and physico-chemical dewatered have been carried out and non-irradiated dewatered sludge of Jakarta city, collected during the rainy and dry season. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered sludge with water content of around 20%, were found to be about 7x108 per g during the rainy season and 7x106 up to 1.3x108 per g during the dry season, while coliform fecal Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were found to be 1.6x104 to 1.0x107, 3x105, and 5x103 per g, respectively. No Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio were detected in all of the samples observed. About 10% of the total number of coliforms were found to be Escherichia coli. A dose of 6 kGy could eliminate the coliform, E. Coli, fecal Streptococcus and Pseudomonas from all of the dewatered sludge observed. The nutrient value of the sludge was sufficient, i.e. total nitrogen content ranged between 1 and 4,42%, phosphorus between 1.55 and 2.36%, and potassium between 0,1 and 0,2% of dry matter. Heavy metal contents were found a little bit high to be applied as animal feed, but it is still acceptable for soil conditioner. Combining 3 months storage at ambient environment and irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy were found to work synergistically to eliminate coliforms and E. Coli from sludge. (author). 8 figs, 17 refs

  6. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migdał, W.; K ȩdzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  7. Graphene coatings for protection against microbiologically induced corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Ajay

    Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) is a special form of electrochemical corrosion where micro-organisms affect the local environmental conditions at the metal-electrolyte interface by forming a stable biofilm. The biofilm introduces localized concentration cells, which accelerate the electrochemical corrosion rates. MIC has been found to affect many industrial systems such as sewage waste water pipes, heat exchangers, ships, underwater pipes etc. It has been traditionally eradicated by physical, biochemical and surface protection methods. The cleaning methods and the biocidal deliveries are required periodically and don't provide a permanent solution to the problem. Further, the use of biocides has been harshly criticized by environmentalists due to safety concerns associated with their usage. Surface based coatings have their own drawback of rapid degradation under harsh microbial environments. This has led to the exploration of thin, robust, inert, conformal passivation coatings for the protection of metallic surfaces from microbiologically induced corrosion. Graphene is a 2D arrangement of carbon atoms in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. The carbon atoms are bonded to one another by sp2 hybridization and each layer of the carbon ring arrangement spans to a thickness of less than a nm. Due to its unique 2D arrangement of carbon atoms, graphene exhibits interesting in-plane and out of plane properties that have led to it being considered as the material for the future. Its excellent thermal, mechanical, electrical and optical properties are being explored in great depth to understand and realize potential applications in various technological realms. Early studies have shown the ability of bulk and monolayer graphene to protect metallic surfaces from air oxidation and solution based galvanic corrosion processes for short periods. However, the role of graphene in resisting MIC is yet to be determined, particularly over the long time spans characteristic of

  8. Microbiological influences on fracture surfaces of intact mud-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. It is well recognised that microbes live in a wide range of subsurface environments including potential geological repository host rocks; and their presence can have an impact on transport processes. Microbial activity in any environment is located on chemical or physical interfaces, usually within bio-films. Their impact on transport can be physical (e.g. altering porosity) and/or chemical (e.g. changing redox conditions or altering pH) often resulting in intracellular or extracellular mineral formation or degradation. Consequently, the significance of microbial activity on the transport properties of potential host rocks for geological repositories is now being investigated. This pilot study investigates changes in transport properties that are because of microbial activity in sedimentary mud-stone rock environments at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Horonobe underground research laboratory (URL) in northern Japan. The geological setting of the URL is summarised elsewhere. Geo-microbiological assessments of ground waters, from boreholes, previously drilled at Horonobe, have revealed the presence of a diverse indigenous microbiological ecosystem. The impacts of the presence of these microbes on the performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, using geo-microbiological data from Horonobe, has shown that denitrifying bacteria is likely to be the group of organisms with the greatest activity. Consequently, the impact of this group of organisms, specifically Pseudomonas denitrificans, on Horonobe rock transport properties, is the focus of this study. In brief, two experiments, one biotic and a 'control', were carried out using a flow-through column operated at a constant rate of fluid flow and under pressurised conditions. Changes in biological and chemical parameters were monitored throughout the experiment together with changes in confining pressure and temperature. The experiments were

  9. INFLUENCE MATURATION OF VEAL ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate microbial and pH changes in veal meat during maturation. Total viable counts, coliform bacteria and pH changes in chilling meat were evaluated after 24 hours, 7 days and 14 days of meat maturation. There were analysed 8 samples of veal meeat. Results of microbiological analysis were compared with Commission regulation (EC No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Total viable counts (TVC in samples after 24 hours of chilling ranged from 2.02 log CFU.cm-to 4.21 log CFU.cm-2 (1.64 . 104 CFU.cm-2. The average number of TVC after 24 hours of meat maturation was 3.27 log CFU.cm-2, coliform bacteria (CB after 24 hours were lower than than 1 log cfu.cm-2 in five samples, and the highest number of coliform bacteria was 1.65 log cfu.cm-2, average number of CB was 1.13 log cfu.cm-2. pH values in samples after 24 hours of maturation were in range from 6.6 to 7.0, average pH value was 6.8. TVC in samples after 7 days of chilling ranged from 3.09 log CFU.cm-2 to 4.01 log CFU.cm-2, the average number of TVC after 7 days of storage was 3.39 log CFU.cm-2. CB after 7 days of meat maturation were lower than 1 log CFU cm-2 in three samples, the highest value of CB was 2.07 log CFU cm-2, the average value of CB in samples after 7 days of meat chilling was 1.03 log CFU cm-2. pH values of meat after 7 days of maturation ranged from 5.5 to 6.1. The average pH value of samples after 7 days of storage was 5.73 pH values of meat after 14 days of maturation ranged from 6.0 to 6.4. The average pH value of samples after 14 days of storage was 6.16.

  10. Microbiological tests performed according to the PN-EN ISO 11737 Polish Norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation is devoted to the microbiological tests performed for the irradiated materials applicable in food and different types medical activities. Special ISO norm from the series 9000 is presented and discussed in relation to the radiation sterilization

  11. Identification of Burkholderia spp. in the clinical microbiology laboratory: comparison of conventional and molecular methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Pelt (Cindy); C.M. Verduin (Cees); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); M.C. Vos (Margreet); B. Tummler; C. Segonds; F. Reubsaet; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis (CF) predisposes patients to bacterial colonization and infection of the lower airways. Several species belonging to the genus Burkholderia are potential CF-related pathogens, but microbiological identification may be complicated. This situat

  12. Report concerning results of proficiency testing laboratory on assay of tobramycine and nystatin by microbiological method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sturzu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the results obtained by the Microbiological Control Laboratory from Institute for Control of Biological Products and Veterinary Medicines after participating in the proficiency testing scheme study on microbiological assay of nystatin and tobramycin. The proficiency testing scheme was organized by European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Health Care. The microbiological method consisted of a cylinderplate agar diffusion assay using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 for tobramycin and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for nystatin as the test microorganism. The means of results were 108.70 % of label claim for nystatin and 104.70%of label claim for tobramicin. The Z scores were 0.14 for tobramycin and 1.40 for nystatin, the assigned value used for booth samples was 105.4% for tobramycin and 101.7% for nystatin. The performance of Microbiological Control Laboratory was very good for both samples.

  13. NODC Standard Format Microbiological Degradation (F059) Data (1973-1980) (NCEI Accession 0014190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This format is designed to support microbiological studies of bacteria, microbiota, and fungi. There are twelve data record types used to report cruise and station...

  14. 76 FR 56143 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups, health professionals, and other individuals... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 75 FR 37754 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups, health professionals, and other individuals... Food Safety Inspection Service Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  16. 78 FR 4830 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... communicated via Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Reestablishment AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of reestablishment of...

  17. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products. PMID:26424202

  18. Health effects of selected microbiological control agents. A 3-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Jesper; Larsen, Preben; Doekes, Gert;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Microbiological control agents (MBCA) are widely used in greenhouses, replacing chemical pesticides. The presented study aims to describe health effects of exposure to three types commonly used: Bacillus thuringiensis, Verticillium lecanii, and Trichoderma harzenianum...

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL FIELD SAMPLING AND INSTRUMENTATION IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND-WATER POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter emphasizes the importance of microbiological sampling of soil and ground water with respect to human heath risks, laws and regulations dealing with safe drinking water, and more prevalent subsurface monitoring activities associated with chlorinated organic compounds,...

  20. Alternative Assessment Strategy and Its Impact on Student Comprehension in an Undergraduate Microbiology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Margulies, Barry J.; Cynthia A. Ghent

    2005-01-01

    Medical Microbiology is a content-intensive course that requires a large time commitment from the students. Students are typically biology or prenursing majors, including students headed for professional schools, such as medical school and pharmacy school. This group is somewhat diverse in terms of background science coursework, so it can be difficult to teach in a way that benefits all the students. Numerous changes have been implemented in our microbiology curriculum to address the differen...

  1. Science without meritocracy. Discrimination among European specialists in infectious diseases and clinical microbiology: a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Poljak, Mario; Cacace, Marina; Caiati, Giovanni; Benzonana, Nur; Nagy, Elisabeth; Kortbeek, Titia

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 2009, in a European survey, around a quarter of Europeans reported witnessing discrimination or harassment at their workplace. The parity committee from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) designed a questionnaire survey to investigate forms of discrimination with respect to country, gender and ethnicity among medical professionals in hospitals and universities carrying out activities in the clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious dise...

  2. THE MAIN PESTS MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN VEGETABLE, BACCATE CROPS AND POTATO IN LENINGRAD PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. DOBROKHOTOV; A.I. ANISIMOV; S.D. GRISHECHKINA; L.G. DANILOV; G.R. LEDNEV; K.N. FURSOV

    2015-01-01

    The using of microbiological preparations for plant protection steadily extends in the world. A short list of microbiological preparations that are authorized for applying on the territory of the Russian Federation for insect pest control on crops is presented in the State Catalog of pesticides and agrochemicals. However, the biological preparations allowed for berry crops is very limited in number, and for pine strawberry no one is indicated in the Russian Federation State Catalog. In the re...

  3. AN APPROACH TO A MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE POULTRY SECTOR IN TRINIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Dookeran, Mark M.; Baccus-Taylor, Gail S.H.; Akingbala, John A.

    2007-01-01

    International studies and epidemiological data have revealed a strong association between salmonellosis and chicken meat. This association provides serious challenges for food safety and international trade. Microbiological Risk Assessment is a food safety tool that is used to determine the incidence of food borne illnesses. The procedure identifies a microbiological hazard in the entire food continuum (from farm to fork), and estimates the adverse effects to human health, of ingesting the mi...

  4. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFICACY ESTIMATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS’ ANTI-INFLAMMATORY THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Ryba

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with microbiological status of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis of medium severity. On the basis of clinical and microbiological data the analysis of different methods efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapy was carried out. We studied antimicrobial effect of laser therapy, ozonotherapyandcombinations oflaser- ozonotherapyin comparison with influence ofchlorhexidine 0,2%. Combined laser and ozone influence on periodontium provided high antibacterial effect with increased local nonspecific resistance, and it extended remission term of patients with chronic periodontitis.

  5. A Study on the Microbiological Quality of Industrial Ice-Cream

    OpenAIRE

    Bostan, Kamil

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a total of 300 packaged ice-creams (100 extrude, 100 stick and 100 cornet type) were taken from an industrial ice-cream plant and analysed microbiologically. The hygienic conditions of the same plant were also investigated. In terms of microbiological quality, no significant differences were determined among the ice-cream types. Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of ice-cream samples. The average counts of aerobic mesophil bacte...

  6. Clinical microbiology in the intensive care unit: Strategic and operational characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya S; Mondal A.

    2010-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs). The application of the principles and the practice of Clinical Microbiology for ICU patients can significantly improve clinical outcome. The present article is aimed at summarising the strategic and operational characteristics of this unique field where medical microbiology attempts to venture into the domain of direct clinical care of critically ill patients. The close and strategic ...

  7. From Clinical Microbiology to Infection Pathogenesis: How Daring To Be Different Works for Staphylococcus lugdunensis

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Kristi L.; del Pozo, José Luis; Patel, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis has gained recognition as an atypically virulent pathogen with a unique microbiological and clinical profile. S. lugdunensis is coagulase negative due to the lack of production of secreted coagulase, but a membrane-bound form of the enzyme present in some isolates can result in misidentification of the organism as Staphylococcus aureus in the clinical microbiology laboratory. S. lugdunensis is a skin commensal and an infrequent pathogen compared to S. aureus and S. ...

  8. Role of the clinical microbiology laboratory in nosocomial infections and infection control

    OpenAIRE

    Sönmez, Dr. Emine; Özerol, Dr. İbrahim Halil; Şahin, Dr. Kazım

    1996-01-01

    The prevention and control of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections is a team effort requiring the cooperation of the hospital epidemiologist, infection control practitioner, and members of the clinical microbiology laboratory. The clinical microbiology laboratory clearly plays a key role in the diagnosis of nosocomial infections and is consulted frequently to assist in the epidemiologic investigation of nosocomial infection problems. In addition to performing routine isolation and identi...

  9. A platform for leveraging next generation sequencing for routine microbiology and public health use

    OpenAIRE

    Rusu, Laura I.; Wyres, Kelly L.; Reumann, Matthias; Queiroz, Carlos; Bojovschi, Alexe; Conway, Tom; Garg, Saurabh; David J Edwards; Hogg, Geoff; Holt, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Even with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies which have revolutionised the field of bacterial genomics in recent years, a major barrier still exists to the implementation of NGS for routine microbiological use (in public health and clinical microbiology laboratories). Such routine use would make a big difference to investigations of pathogen transmission and prevention/control of (sometimes lethal) infections. The inherent complexity and high frequency of data analyse...

  10. Simple table for estimating confidence interval of discrepancy frequencies in microbiological safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Brigitte; Delignette-Muller, Marie Laure; Baty, Florent; Carret, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    We provide a simple tool to determine discrepancies confidence interval (CI) in microbiology validation studies such as technical accuracy of a qualitative test result. This tool enables to determine exact confidence interval (binomial CI) from an observed frequency when normal approximation is inadequate, that is, in case of rare events. This tool has daily applications in microbiology and we are presenting an example of its application to antimicrobial susceptibility systems evaluation. PMID:14706759

  11. Microbiological contamination of dried and lyophilized garlic as a potential source of food spoilage

    OpenAIRE

    Kłębukowska, Lucyna; Zadernowska, Anna; Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta

    2013-01-01

    Garlic is valued more for its flavoring and used in a wide variety of foods. In food technology, fresh garlic is not used, but instead its processed forms, most often dried and lyophilized, are utilized. The quality and safety of the final product largely depends on their microbiological quality. This research has provided information about effect of garlic fixation methods and provided information about effect of microbiological contamination of garlic used as a spice for quality of garlic m...

  12. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Oliveira Medrado Pinto; Eliznara Fernades Correia; Keyla Carvalho Pereira; Paulo de Souza Costa Sobrinho; Daniele Ferreira da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good h...

  13. Reduction in Acidity by Chemical and Microbiological Methods and Their Effect on Moslavac Wine Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Stanka HERJAVEC; Majdak, Ana; Tupajić, Pavica; Redžepović, Sulejman; Orlić, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition and sensory properties caused by chemical and microbiological methods of deacidification in Moslavac (syn. Furmint) wines were investigated. Alcoholic fermentation of Moslavac musts was carried out with two different strains of the yeasts Saccharomyces paradoxus. There were no marked differences in chemical composition among the wines. Compared to the control microbiological deacidification of wines by Oenococcus oeni resulted in a complete decomposition of mal...

  14. Microbiological criteria in public catering: sampling and auditing experiences in canteens and cafeterias in Piedmont

    OpenAIRE

    Amaranta Traversa; Lucia Decastelli; Daniela Adriano; Daniela Manila Bianchi; Alberto Bellio; Silvia Gallina; Sara Monfardini

    2013-01-01

    In the period 2006-2011 six public catering establishments (3 canteens and 3 cafeterias) were monitored, trough audit and sampling, in order to verify the application of good manufacturing and hygiene practices during food production, handling and serving. The compliance to microbiological food safety criteria (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.) and process hygiene criteria were investigated using ISO standards for microbiological analyses. A total of 612 samples were collected: 192 ...

  15. Microbiological characterisation of soils : Evaluation of some critical steps in data collection and experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Wallenius,Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    The study of soil microbiota and their activities is central to the understanding of many ecosystem processes such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. The collection of microbiological data from soils generally involves several sequential steps of sampling, pretreatment and laboratory measurements. The reliability of results is dependent on reliable methods in every step. The aim of this thesis was to critically evaluate some central methods and procedures used in soil microbiological...

  16. Microbiological and physicochemical treatments applied to metallurgic industry aiming water reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello; Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis; Roberto Naves Domingos

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on the reuse of the water in a system composed of a sewage treatment plant (STP) using prolonged aeration with activated sludge and a compact water treatment plant (CWTP) in a metallurgic industry. The processes for obtaining the water for reuse were microbiological and physicochemical. The domestic sewage was then pumped to the STP, where biological flocks were formed and clarified water was obtained. The efficiency of the microbiological process in the STP was evaluate...

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF DRIED YAM CHIPS (Dioscorea rotundata) DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia F. Omojasola; Folashade T. Sanu

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological and physico-chemical analyses of dried yam chips (gbodo) retailed in four markets in Ilorin and its environs alongside a laboratory – prepared control were carried out over a six month period. Microbiological assay consisted of total viable and coliform counts as well as microbial isolation. A total of 11 fungi and 5 bacteria were isolated from the different samples which included Acremonium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus., A. niger, A. ochraceus, Fusarium solani, Mucor hiemalis, ...

  18. A new tool to control meat products safety: a web based application of predictive microbiology models

    OpenAIRE

    Delhalle, Laurent; Adolphe, Ysabelle; Crevecoeur, Sébastien; Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Predictive microbiology is considered by the European legislation as a tool to control food safety. Meat and meat products are particularly sensitive to contamination with pathogens. However, development of predictive microbiology models and interpretation of results require specific knowledge. A free web based model has been developed for an easy use by people who are not experts in this field as industries and public authorities. The model can simulate the growth of Salmonella spp, Listeria...

  19. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  20. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  1. Microbiological components in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Lennart

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that tobacco smoke contains substances of microbiological origin such as ergosterol (a fungal membrane lipid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS (in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of the present study was to compare the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in the tobacco and mainstream (MS and sidestream (SS smoke of some popular US cigarettes. Methods We measured LPS 3-hydroxy fatty acids and fungal biomass biomarker ergosterol in the tobacco and smoke from cigarettes of 11 popular brands purchased in the US. University of Kentucky reference cigarettes were also included for comparison. Results The cigarette tobacco of the different brands contained 6.88-16.17 (mean 10.64 pmol LPS and 8.27-21.00 (mean 14.05 ng ergosterol/mg. There was a direct correlation between the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in cigarette tobacco and in MS smoke collected using continuous suction; the MS smoke contained 3.65-8.23% (ergosterol and 10.02-20.13% (LPS of the amounts in the tobacco. Corresponding percentages were 0.30-0.82% (ergosterol and 0.42-1.10% (LPS for SS smoke collected without any ongoing suction, and 2.18% and 2.56% for MS smoke collected from eight two-second puffs. Conclusions Tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol likely to contain a wide range of potentially harmful bacterial and fungal components.

  2. Development of a microbiological irradiation detection method for spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to judge whether certain spices had been irradiated or not, we examined the possibility of developing a method based on the microbiological examination of spices. We used the total bacteria count in conjunction with the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total bacteria count. The examination results of 6 kinds of spices with or without irradiation (black pepper, white pepper, coriander, paprika, ginger and turmeric), were as follows. Total bacteria counts over 10E5 CFU/g indicated that the samples were 'unirradiated'. When the total bacteria count was less than 10E5 CFU/g, and the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total count was more than 30%, a history of irradiation of the samples was indicated. When ratios of B. megaterium and B. cereus were less than 30% and the total bacteria count was also less than 10E5 CFU/g, 'uncertainty' of irradiation was indicated. In this case, it would be possible to confirm whether spices were 'unirradiated' or 'irradiated' by using another detection method. This detection method was applicable to other spices except for paprika. The samples judged as 'irradiated' by using this detection method, surely proved to have a history of irradiation treatment

  3. Quality Assessment of Raw and Pasteurized Milk Using Microbiological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta Filimon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The milk intended for human consumption must meet the terms of safety and human security. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the raw milk quality from the food markets of Timisoara, in relation with pasteurized milk. The microbiological studies included the following assays: total number of germs (TNG and coliform bacteria. From milk samples were made dilutions which later were distributed on the surface of the solid medium poured in Petri dishes. The incubation was carried out at 37º C for 48 h, after which it was determined the number of colony forming units. The obtained values for each sample were compared with the values in existing legislation noticing that the total number of germs is within normal values but towards the upper limit of normality, except the milk samples from Sacos village where UFC/ml exceed the maximum value admitted (300.000 UFC/ml milk. In coliform bacteria case is observed that in all analyzed milk samples the values obtained exceed the maximum values admitted (0.1 UFC/ml indicating the existence of inappropriate sanitary and hygienic conditions of milking, transporting and marketing.

  4. Control of Microbiological Spoilage of Food by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers published from 1973 to 1977 in the field of radiation control of microbiological spoilage are reviewed, grouping the subjects according to the type of process and food treated. Various laboratories from 33 countries have recently published data on the subject, radurization of dates, prepackaged vegetables, wet grains, bread, various meats and meat products being reported. The most widespread research activities could be observed in the field of radurization of fish and marine products (shellfish, shrimps). Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients (enzyme preparates, protein preparates, starch, spices) and cork stoppers was studied in various laboratories. Radappertization research of several animal-protein foods has made remarkable progress and the minimal dose requirements are well established. Combination of radiation treatment with other antimicrobial agents (salt, preservatives, heat, etc.) has been investigated by many laboratories. Foods involved in these investigations were bread, several tropical and subtropical fruits, apple juice, groundnuts, fish fillets and shrimps, but a considerable part of the data relate to model systems. A better understanding of the synergistic effect will require additional knowledge and the continuation of long-range research and development in the field of combined treatments is recommended. (author)

  5. Microbiological quality of retail spices in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohy-Kamaly-Dehkordy, Paliz; Nikoopour, Houshang; Siavoshi, Farideh; Koushki, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The microbiological quality of 351 samples of nine types of spices including black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, cow parsnip, curry powder, garlic powder, red pepper, sumac, and turmeric, collected from retail shops in Tehran during 2007, was determined. The numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and molds exceeded Iran's National Standard limits, at 63.2% (>5 × 10(5) CFU/g), 23.4% (>0.3 MPN/g), and 21.9% (>5 × 10(3) CFU/g) of the studied samples, respectively. Coliform contamination was more than 10(3) MPN/g in 24.8% of samples. High contamination of retail spices is considered an indication of environmental or fecal contamination due to unhygienic practices in their production. Use of spices with high microbial content could increase the chance of food spoilage and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Accordingly, application of food safety measurements to reduce microbial counts in spices is strongly recommended. PMID:23643126

  6. Microbiological activity of soils populated by Lasius niger ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golichenkov, M. V.; Neimatov, A. L.; Kiryushin, A. V.

    2009-07-01

    Ants are the most widespread colonial insects assigned to the Hymenoptera order. They actively use soil as a habitat; being numerous, they create a specific microrelief. It is shown that ants affect microbiological processes of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. The carbon content in anthills remains stable throughout the growing season, and the respiration intensity is about three times higher as compared with that in the control soil. The highest methane production (0.08 nmol of CH4/g per day) in the anthill is observed at the beginning of the growing season and exceeds that in the control soil by four times. The most active nitrogen fixation (about 4 nmol of C2H4/g per h) in the anthill takes place in the early growing season, whereas, in the control soil, it is observed in the middle of the growing season. At the same time, the diazotrophic activity is higher in the control soil. The lowest denitrification in the anthill is observed at the beginning and end of the growing season. The dynamics of the denitrification in the anthill are opposite to the dynamics of the diazotrophic activity. We suppose that these regularities of the biological activity in the anthill are related to the ecology of the ants and the changes in their food preferences during the growing season.

  7. Microbiological evaluation of South Australian rock lobster meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A S

    1977-12-01

    Samples of frozen precooked rock lobster meat from five South Australian fish-processing plants situated in the West Coast and south-east regions were tested over a period of six months during the 1974/5 lobster fishing season. The most probable number (MPN) of E. coli and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella, as well as total plate count (TPC) were determined in 480 samples. Monthly geometric mean TPC ranged from 1600/g to 25,000/g. The highest geometric mean of the MPN of coliforms and E. coli were 4.9/g and 1.8/g respectively. The highest geometric mean number of staphylococci was 18.6/g. Salmonella was not detected in the 480 units tested. Only 0.4% of the samples had TPC exceeding 100,000/g. Coliforms and E. coli were not present in 76.1% and 92.7% respectively of the samples tested. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in 67.7% of the samples. The numbers of organisms in 82% of the samples fall within the microbiological standards proposed by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia for frozen precooked foods. The results of this study demonstrate the microbial quality of precooked lobster meat attainable when good manufacturing practices are used. PMID:336790

  8. Using Facebook to Engage Microbiology Students Outside of Class Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaine A. Legaree

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous usage studies show that a high percentage of college age students are subscribers of the social media service Facebook.  Modern teaching methods have a high emphasis on student engagement in the classroom, however, not all students participate equally and therefore it is important to find alternate methods for student engagement.  The popularity of social media services and the wealth of online biology resources therefore seem like an obvious way to additionally engage students, particularly non-traditional students who may be less likely to participate in class discussions.  In order to investigate how to engage students using this tool, I set up a Facebook group for my medical microbiology class over two semesters.  Afterwards I surveyed students on its usefulness.  The feedback was mostly positive, and of the resources shared with students, they were most likely to view online videos.  Students also found it helpful to have an alternate means of interacting with the instructor and their peers.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Microbiological Growth in the Capillary Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, P.; Jost, D.; Engwer, C.; Ippisch, O.; Bastian, P.

    2012-04-01

    The capillary fringe (CF) is a highly dynamic zone in a porous media at the interface between water-saturated aquifer and vadose zone, where steep biogeochemical gradients and thus high bioactivities are expected. In recent years, considerable effort has been undertaken to deepen the understanding of the physical (flow, diffusion, dispersion), geochemical (dissolution, precipitation) and biological (metabolism, excretion, biofilm formation) processes in the CF. We developed a numerical simulator for multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media which is able to consider simultaneously multiphase flow, component transport, phase exchange, geochemical reactions and microbiological processes. A splitting approach for phase transport, component transport and reaction/phase exchanges allows the usage of higher-order discretizations for the component transport. This reduces numerical dispersion significantly, which is especially important in the simulation of reactive flow. In a flow-through laboratory experiment performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, within the project "Dynamic Capillary Fringes - A Multidisciplinary Approach", the oxygen phase transfer, the growth and the transport of a bacteria (green fluorescent Escherichia coli) were investigated. The results of numerical simulations of the E. coli growth in the CF with a high nutrient supply under steady-state and transient flow conditions are compared to the experimental data.

  10. Infrared and NIR Raman spectroscopy in medical microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Dieter

    1998-04-01

    FTIR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial cells are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to (i) discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, (ii) detect in situ intracellular components or structures such as inclusion bodies, storage materials or endospores, (iii) detect and quantify metabolically released CO2 in response to various different substrate, and (iv) characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions. The characteristic information is extracted from the spectral contours by applying resolution enhancement techniques, difference spectroscopy, and pattern recognition methods such as factor-, cluster-, linear discriminant analysis, and artificial neural networks. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the spectrometer. FTIR spectra of micro-colonies containing less than 103 cells can be obtained from colony replica by a stamping technique that transfers micro-colonies growing on culture plates to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x, y- stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro- organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. FTIR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can also be used in tandem to characterize medically important microorganisms. Currently novel methodologies are tested to take advantage of the complementary information of IR and Raman spectra. Representative examples on medically important microorganisms will be given that highlight the new possibilities of vibrational spectroscopies.

  11. Microbiology of bile in symptomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the microbiology of the bile culture and antimicrobial susceptibility in patients with symptomatic gallstone disease in our setup. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Department Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian from Oct, 2010 to Jun, 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 106 patients underwent cholecystectomy due to symptomatic gallstones and their bile was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and culture sensitivity was performed. Data was analysed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 13. Results: Bile culture was negative in 81 patients (76.4%) and was positive in only 25 patients (23.6%). Escheria Coli was the most common cultured organism in 10 (40%) patients, Klebsiella in 5 (20%) patients, Pseudomonas in 5 (20%) patients, Proteus in 2 (8%) patients, Staphlococcus aureus in 2 (8%) patients and mixed organisms were cultured in 1 patient (4%). Cefoperazone with sulbactum and Amikacin were the most effective prophylactic antibiotics. Conclusion: Bile in majority of patients with symtomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease is sterile. E. coli is the most commonly cultured organism and cefoperazone with sulbactum and amikacin are the most appropriate antibiotics in our setup. (author)

  12. Microbiological Analysis of Necrosols Collected from Urban Cemeteries in Poland

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    Ireneusz Całkosiński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of organic matter is the primary function in the soil ecosystem, which involves bacteria and fungi. Soil microbial content depends on many factors, and secondary biological and chemical contaminations change and affect environmental feedback. Little work has been done to estimate the microbiological risk for cemetery employees and visitors. The potential risk of infection for people in the cemetery is primarily associated with injury and wound contamination during performing the work. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiota of cemetery soil obtained from cemeteries and bacterial composition in selected soil layers encountered by gravediggers and cemetery caretakers. The most common bacterial pathogens were Enterococcus spp. (80.6%, Bacillus spp. (77.4%, and E. coli (45.1%. The fungi Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 51% and 6.4% of samples, respectively. Other bacterial species were in the ground cemetery relatively sparse. Sampling depth was not correlated with bacterial growth (p>0.05, but it was correlated with several differences in microbiota composition (superficial versus deep layer.

  13. Microbiological Analysis of Hemodialysis Water in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarieh, Parvin; Hashemi Shahraki, Abodolrazagh; Yaghoubfar, Rezvan; Hajehasani, Azadeh; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological control of hemodialysis fluid is important for the prevention of hemodialysis-associated illness. Bacterial populations inhabiting a distribution system for hemodialysis water were studied over a 4 month period in five hospitals (one in Tehran, and the others at Alborz). All the samples from the four hospitals at Alborz had colony counts of ≥100 CFU/ml, which at different points of sampling were higher than the maximum recommended values. A total of 80 samples taken at different points in each hospital's hemodialysis distribution system were collected, and 229 planktonic bacteria isolated on R2A medium. No growth was detected by culturing the samples on Blood agar or Mueller-Hinton agar, according to routine procedures currently used in the five hospitals. A representative of isolates from each of 45 different morphotypes were identified using 16S RNA sequencing. A diverse bacterial community, containing predominantly gram-positive members of Kocuria, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus and Mycobacterium, was detected. Bacteria from the genera Acinetobacter, Burkholderia, Halomonas, Herbaspirillum, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas were identified, which has been described in the build-up of biofilms. Some of the species reported here may represent a health risk to patients receiving hemodialysis treatment. In conclusion, it is recommended that standard protocols for evaluation of microbial contamination be used for regular monitoring and identification of culturable bacteria. PMID:26919181

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter has been to evaluate a number of real world pipeline sources for microbial communities or consortia that form biofilms under laboratory simulations of pipelines. The microorganisms will be identified using classical and molecular microbiological tools and there activities under pipeline simulating conditions will be studied. The quarter saw the collection of the first samples from the industry for isolation of the microorganisms, as well as the design and construction of the laboratory-scale pipeline simulators. Methods development for MIC and biofilm microbial isolations and identification, and laboratory design and construction of pipeline simulators were the only activities. At this stage of the study (first quarter), only preliminary results are available

  15. Physicochemical and microbiological changes in irradiated fresh pork loins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh pork was studied. Radiation treatments were carried out under air on fresh pork loins at doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy and the loins were evaluated for deamidation, solubility, sulphydryl content and surface hydrophobicity. Deamidation was significantly (p⩽0.05) affected by the treatment with 98% deamidation at a dose of 8 kGy. No significant changes (p>0.05) were noted in sulphydryl content under the same conditions. The increase in deamidation resulted in a decrease in hydrophobicity and an increase in protein solubility. γ-irradiation also reduced the number of microorganisms in the meat. Mesophiles were more resistant to the irradiation treatment than psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas. All irradiated pork samples (1 or 3 kGy) had a bacterial count lower that 10(7) CFU/g after 15 days of storage. A minimal dose of 1 kGy was sufficient to increase the shelf life of fresh pork loins although variations in initial pork contamination was found to be the determining factor accounting for the effectiveness of the treatment

  16. Production, acceptability and microbiological evaluation of weaning food formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badau, M H; Jideani, I A; Nkama, I

    2006-06-01

    Weaning food formulations were produced from pearl millet cultivar (SOSAT C-88), cowpea and groundnut in the ratio of 70:20:10 and 5 per cent malt from six pearl millet cultivars (SOSAT C-88, ZANGO, EX-BORNO, ICMV IS 94206, GWAGWA, GB 8735) and one sorghum cultivar (ICSV III) were added to produce seven formulations plus the one without malt. Microbiological quality of eight weaning food formulations was evaluated. Twenty weaning mothers were used to determine the acceptability of gruels from the eight weaning food formulations using a nine-point hedonic scale. Addition of 5 per cent malt did not affect the microbial count of weaning food formulations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Klebsiella aerogenes and Aspergillus niger were found in all the weaning food formulations. Shigella and Salmonella were not encountered in this study. Addition of 5 per cent SOSAT C-88, ZANGO, EX-BORNO, ICMV-IS 94206 and GWAGWA malt improved the taste and texture of weaning food formulations. The population of micro-organisms isolated from weaning formulations was not high enough to produce effective dose. However, the need for processors of weaning foods to adopt strict hygiene practices cannot be overemphasized. PMID:16169859

  17. Microbiological aspects of storage of irradiated potatoes and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation provides an effective means for extending the post-harvest storage life of perishable foods. Based on extensive studies over the past two decades in India and abroad, WHO have recently recognised potatoes and wheat as 'unconditionally' safe for human consumption alongwith several other items of food. In potatoes exposed to 10 Krad of gamma-irradiation, sprouting and tuber moth infestation were completely eliminated, irrespective of the storage temperature. The ambient temperatures could not however control the microbial rotting of the tubers. Microbiological studies have indicated that spoilage at temperatures above 150C are due to Erwinia spp. while dry rotting below 100C could be attributed to Micrococcus spp. The tubers were not amenable to fungal attack by organisms of Aspergillus spp. during storage due to phenolic compounds which were otherwise labile to heating. The studies with artificial loading of wheat with conidia of Aspergillus flavus showed a correlation between growth and relative humidity (RH) which determined the moisture content in the grain. Aflatoxin production could occur only above a critical level (13%) of grain moisture at RH value over 90% at 280 +- 20C. The toxin produced in irradiated grains seemed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls, indicating that radiation treatment did not cause any alterations in wheat which could otherwise promote aflatoxin producing potential. (author)

  18. Microbiological assessment of raw goat milk collected from Sardinian herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Carusillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With Regulation EC 853/04, the European Parliament and the Council laid down general rules for food business operators regarding the hygiene of foodstuffs. In particular, the regulation established ≤1.500.000 cfu/mL as the maximum-tolerated value for total bacterial count in raw goat milk. Moreover, in order to enhance the hygiene of dairy farms, the Sardinia Region has funded the F measure programme which provides rewards for farmers showing improvements in herd management and animal welfare practices. This work aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw goat milk samples collected during the F measure enforcement. A total of 536 raw goat samples, collected from dairy farms in the Sardinian province of Nuoro and Ogliastra, were analised for total bacterial count at 30°C. Results showed that total bacterial count was ≤1.500.000 ufc/mL in 456 (85.1% raw milk goat samples, most of them (80.2% with a total bacterial contamination <500.000 cfu/mL. This study confirms the hygienic good quality of raw goat milk collected from Sardinian dairy farms.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek

    2002-03-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter has been to evaluate a number of real world pipeline sources for microbial communities or consortia that form biofilms under laboratory simulations of pipelines. The microorganisms will be identified using classical and molecular microbiological tools and there activities under pipeline simulating conditions will be studied. The quarter saw the collection of the first samples from the industry for isolation of the microorganisms, as well as the design and construction of the laboratory-scale pipeline simulators. Methods development for MIC and biofilm microbial isolations and identification, and laboratory design and construction of pipeline simulators were the only activities. At this stage of the study (first quarter), only preliminary results are available.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WARANKASHI ENRICHED BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Dudu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the microbiological and nutritional quality, organoleptic, rheological and textural effect as well as the effect on the shelf life of wheat bread enriched with West African cottage cheese (warankashi at different substitution levels (1 %, 3 % and 5 %. The protein and fat content of wheat bread significantly increased but carbohydrate levels decreased significantly as enrichment with Warankashi increased. The amino acid profile of the wheat bread increased with increasing enrichment. The incorporation of Warankashi into wheat flour affected the rheological and textural properties of wheat flour; the rate of water absorption of the wheat flour decreased as Warankashi incorporation levels increased. Also, the dough stability time of the enriched flours was lesser than that of the wheat flour. The 3 % enrichment level had the highest dough consistency (520 BU. The extensibility of 1 % and 3 % wara bread dough were the same while that of wheat flour bread and 5 % Warankashi were the same. The 3 % wara bread dough had the highest resistance to extension. Shelf life of the bread remained unaffected by Warankashi incorporation but the rate of bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould growth decreased significantly (P < 0.05 as enrichment levels increased. There was no significant difference between the organoleptic properties of wheat bread to that of the enriched breads but the 3 % Warankshi enriched bread had the highest consumer acceptability.

  1. Development of antimicrobial films for microbiological control of packaged salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel-Galet, Virginia; Cerisuelo, Josep P; López-Carballo, Gracia; Lara, Marta; Gavara, Rafael; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to characterize the antimicrobial efficiency of films consisting of PP/EVOH structures with oregano essential oil and citral. Both substances are known for their antimicrobial activity based on their interaction with the cell membrane. The films developed were used to pack minimally processed salads, combining modified atmosphere technology to extend shelf-life and active packaging technology to reduce possible microbiological risks. The antimicrobial activity of the films against the pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes and natural microflora was investigated "in vitro" and also on the food itself. The effect of release of the antimicrobial agent on the sensory characteristics of the salad was also studied. The results showed that antimicrobial activity reduced spoilage flora on the salad as well as inhibited the growth of pathogens in contaminated salads. This effect was greater against Gram-negative bacteria. Sensory studies showed that the package that was most effective and most accepted by customers was the one containing 5% oregano essential oil. PMID:22633535

  2. Forensic microbiology and the bioterrorism risk (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  3. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  4. Characterisation of gaharu hydrosol: Physical, chemical and microbiological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaharu hydrosol is produced during the hydro distillation of resinous wood part of Aquilaria sp. This aromatic water is being considered as a by-product in the industry. There is interest to turn this aromatic by-product into aroma therapy products. The present study is carried out in order to understand the properties of gaharu hydrosol, physically, chemically and microbiologically. Gaharu hydrosol from two different extraction facilities for example at Kedaik Agar wood Sdn. Bhd. and Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterised in this study. All the gaharu hydrosol samples displayed acidic nature, with pH in the range of 3.62 - 4.53. Four antioxidant assays were carried out to ascertain the antioxidant capabilities of two gaharu hydrosol samples through the total phenolic content assay, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity, DPPH· radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity (FRAP). The results revealed that the samples exhibited lower antioxidant capabilities as compared to the positive control. For microbial population study, fungi was not present in the samples as there was no growth observed on the Plate Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) using membrane filtration technique. The antibacterial activity of the gaharu hydrosol against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined using agar dilution method and disk diffusion method. The results showed that the gaharu hydrosol did not inhibit the growth of both the bacteria. The results obtained from this study will be further evaluated for the development of new products using this aromatic gaharu by-product. (author)

  5. [Raman spectroscopy in microbiological diagnostics: achievements, advantages, perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumik, A V

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the diversity of existing methods of detection of microorganisms the question of accelerated diagnostics of causative agents of severe diseases, nosocomial infections and other microbial agents that have epidemiologic significance remains unsolved. In the cases when the result of the study must be available as soon as possible, methods that do not require special prolonged preparation of the studied material and isolation of pure culture of microorganisms are necessary. These include optical-spectral methods, among those combinative light scattering spectroscopy or Raman spectroscopy deserves the most attention, the review being dedicated to its application. The ability to obtain information on components comprising the studied sample within several minute allows to use Raman spectroscopy in many fields of biology and medicine. High specificity of the method is based on absolute uniqueness of specters of various substances and in practice is 96 - 97%, sensitivity - 95%. Full automation of the process, use of the newest mathematical apparatus for readout and provision of the results of the study allow to avoid the effect of human factor and increase the objectivity of the data obtained. Analytical reliability, timely reception of the result and economical effectiveness entitle to consider Raman spectrometry as a perspective universal express method in microbiological diagnostics. PMID:24341224

  6. Microbiologically Induced Calcite Precipitation Mediated by Sporosarcina pasteurii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Swayamdipta; Debnath, Nandini; Mitra, Sushanta; Liu, Yang; Kumar, Aloke

    2016-01-01

    The particular bacterium under investigation here (S. pasteurii) is unique in its ability, under the right conditions, to induce the hydrolysis of urea (ureolysis) in naturally occurring environments through secretion of an enzyme urease. This process of ureolysis, through a chain of chemical reactions, leads to the formation of calcium carbonate precipitates. This is known as Microbiologically Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP). The proper culture protocols for MICP are detailed here. Finally, visualization experiments under different modes of microscopy were performed to understand various aspects of the precipitation process. Techniques like optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Photo-electron Spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to chemically characterize the end-product. Further, the ability of these precipitates to clog pores inside a natural porous medium was demonstrated through a qualitative experiment where sponge bars were used to mimic a pore-network with a range of length scales. A sponge bar dipped in the culture medium containing the bacterial cells hardens due to the clogging of its pores resulting from the continuous process of chemical precipitation. This hardened sponge bar exhibits superior strength when compared to a control sponge bar which becomes compressed and squeezed under the action of an applied external load, while the hardened bar is able to support the same weight with little deformation. PMID:27167458

  7. Physicochemical, microbiological and antimicrobial properties of commercial honeys from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Susana; Dias, Luis G; Moreira, Leandro L; Rodrigues, Paula; Estevinho, Leticia

    2010-02-01

    The present study aimed to characterize five commercial honeys available in the Portuguese market in respect to their floral origins, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety and commercial quality assessment. Pollen profile, colour, moisture content, ash, acidity, electrical conductivity, pH, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose and HMF were the parameters analysed in each honey sample. Aerobic mesophiles, moulds and yeasts, fecal coliforms and sulphite-reducing clostridia were the microbial contaminants of interest studied. The antimicrobial effect against four fermentative yeasts was determined. Concerning the physicochemical parameters, all honey samples were found to meet European Legislation (EC Directive 2001/110) for all parameters, except for HMF and apparent sucrose. Microbiologically, the commercial quality was considered good and all samples showed to be negative in respect to safety parameters. We also verified that the presence of honey differentially affected the growth of fermentative yeasts under study, depending on the type of yeast, but this growth was not significantly influenced by the type of honey used. PMID:19909782

  8. Evaluation of Microbiological Criteria of Raw Milk in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENTIANA BARDHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the results of the Albanian monitoring plan for the raw milk in 121 domestic subjects: producing farms, collecting points and processing plants. The main objective for this monitoring was the evaluation of milk microbiological criteria. This monitoring was carried out during the year 2013 separated in two phases: 1-31 May and 1-31 October. Milk sampling was made by Regional Directorates Inspectors of National Food Authority in conformity to S SH ISO 707:1999 “Sampling method of milk and milk by-products. The microbial evaluation was carried out based on the norms laid down in Decision of Council of Ministers Nr.1132 date 05.08.2008: “Approving norms for collecting raw milk”. 415 samples were analyzed in total for the total content of micro flora as well as somatic cells. The TMC test was determined according to ISO 4833:2003 and SCC was determined according to White-Side-Test (WST, California Mastitis Test (CMT and ISO 13366-1:1997. The results taken for the two phases of the monitoring plan has shown unsatisfactory results. This indicates that is necessary to improve the existing situation in milk producing farms, collecting points and processing plants as well.

  9. Microbiological profile of anterior chamber aspirates following uncomplicated cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajna N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chamber aspirate cultures were done for 66 patients who underwent either an uncomplicated intracapsular cataract extraction, extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior-chamber intraocular lens implantation, or phacoemulsification with posterior-chamber intraocular lens implantation. The aspirate was obtained at the time of wound closure. The aspirates were immediately transferred to the microbiology laboratory where one drop of the aspirate was placed on a glass slide for gram stain, and the remainder was unequally divided and inoculated into blood agar, chocolate agar and thioglycolate broth. The cultures were incubated at 37° C with 5% CO2 and held for 5 days. Of 66 patients 4 (6%, had smear-positive anterior chamber aspirates. None of the aspirates showed any growth on any of the 3 culture media used. None of the eyes in the study developed endophthalmitis. This study concludes that there is no contamination of the anterior chamber by viable bacteria after cataract surgery, irrespective of the mode of intervention.

  10. A novel and rapid microbiological assay for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith Cristina Laignier Cazedey; Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports a simple, fast and sensitive microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO HCl) in ophthalmic solutions. The validation method yielded good results and included excellent linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity. The bioassay is based on the inhibitory effect of CIPRO HCl upon the strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 used as the test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were found to be linear (r¼0.9994, in the range of 14.0-56.0 mg/mL), precise (intraday RSD%¼2.06;interday RSD%¼2.30) and accurate (recovery ¼ 99.7%). The turbidimetric assay was compared to the UV spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for the same drug. The turbidimetric bioassay described on this paper for determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in ophthalmic solution is an alternative to the physicochemical methods disclosed in the literature and can be used in quality control routine.

  11. [Microbiological isolates in patients with febrile neutropenia and hematological neoplasias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuera Esparza, M; Carballo, M; Silva, M; Figueredo, A; Avilán, J

    2006-09-01

    We studied the frequency of culture isolation, type of microorganism isolated and local pattern of resistance in 309 adult febrile neutropenic inpatients with hematological neoplasm, who were hospitalized between January 1998 and December 2003, in Caracas University Hospital (Hospital Universitario de Caracas), in Venezuela. There were 576 febrile neutropenic episodes. Organisms were isolated in 41% of 940 cultures. The most common organisms involved were gram-negative bacilli (48%), followed by gram-positive cocci (35.1%), fungal (11.5%) and other agents (5.4%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (22.4%) and Escherichia coli (13.4%) were the most isolated; 58.5% of 479 agents isolated had an antibiogram; 62.2% of coagulase-negative staphylococci and 23.1% coagulase-positive staphylococci were oxacillin-resistant. We did not find any vancomycin-resistant organisms. The gram-negative antimicrobial sensitivity for imipenem was 96.2%, cefepime 81%, and ceftazidime 57.5%. Tazobactam-piperacillin and sulbactam-cefoperazone were tested in 26% of antibiograms and had activity of 57.1% and 77.5%, respectively. Fungi were not characterized. Betalactamases producing gram-negative bacilli were found. In general, micro-biological identification and local vigilance of antibacterial resistance pattern must be done routinely in these patients, in order to improve empiric therapy guidelines. PMID:17099792

  12. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galfrè

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  13. Evaluation of activities aimed at preventing microbiological risks in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL creates a risk of cross-infections, and is a source of biological risk factors in the work environment of a dentist. The aim of the study was to evaluate dentists' knowledge on DUWL microbiological contamination and the scope of activities/procedures they undertake to monitor it. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among 107 Polish dentists using dental units in everyday clinical practice. Results: It has been found that in their daily practice, dentists do not follow procedures leading to reduction or elimination of microbiological contamination of dental unit reservoir water. They are not aware of microbiological contamination of DUWL that supply working handpieces with water. They are unaware of the principles of dealing with dental water and water supply systems or the health risk posed by microbiological contamination of unit water for a dental team and patients. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide dentists with information on microbiological contamination of water in dental units, on the correct procedures of handling water and waterlines that supply working handpieces with water. Med Pr 2013;64(1:11–17

  14. Biosensors for the analysis of microbiological and chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, T F; Elliott, C T; Fodey, T L

    2012-04-01

    Increases in food production and the ever-present threat of food contamination from microbiological and chemical sources have led the food industry and regulators to pursue rapid, inexpensive methods of analysis to safeguard the health and safety of the consumer. Although sophisticated techniques such as chromatography and spectrometry provide more accurate and conclusive results, screening tests allow a much higher throughput of samples at a lower cost and with less operator training, so larger numbers of samples can be analysed. Biosensors combine a biological recognition element (enzyme, antibody, receptor) with a transducer to produce a measurable signal proportional to the extent of interaction between the recognition element and the analyte. The different uses of the biosensing instrumentation available today are extremely varied, with food analysis as an emerging and growing application. The advantages offered by biosensors over other screening methods such as radioimmunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescence immunoassay and luminescence immunoassay, with respect to food analysis, include automation, improved reproducibility, speed of analysis and real-time analysis. This article will provide a brief footing in history before reviewing the latest developments in biosensor applications for analysis of food contaminants (January 2007 to December 2010), focusing on the detection of pathogens, toxins, pesticides and veterinary drug residues by biosensors, with emphasis on articles showing data in food matrices. The main areas of development common to these groups of contaminants include multiplexing, the ability to simultaneously analyse a sample for more than one contaminant and portability. Biosensors currently have an important role in food safety; further advances in the technology, reagents and sample handling will surely reinforce this position. PMID:22278073

  15. Advanced Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  16. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  17. Recent "omics" advances in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthenet, Elvire; Sheppard, Sam; Vale, Filipa F

    2016-09-01

    The development of high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies is changing the face of microbiology, facilitating the comparison of large numbers of genomes from different lineages of a same organism. Our aim was to review the main advances on Helicobacter pylori "omics" and to understand how this is improving our knowledge of the biology, diversity and pathogenesis of H. pylori. Since the first H. pylori isolate was sequenced in 1997, 510 genomes have been deposited in the NCBI archive, providing a basis for improved understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of this important pathogen. This review focuses on works published between April 2015 and March 2016. Helicobacter "omics" is already making an impact and is a growing research field. Ultimately these advances will be translated into a routine clinical laboratory setting in order to improve public health. PMID:27531533

  18. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  19. Chemical, Nutritional and Microbiological Evaluation of Some Egyptian Soft Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Ghada, Z. A. A., 2*Alia, M. H., 3**Soha, Al-S., 4*Magdy, N. A., and 5*Mohammed, F. S

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products is considered the most complete foodstuff that provide human either infants or adults with most of their vital needs. Milk and cheese have high nutritive value due to its high content of protein, fat, minerals especially calcium (Ca2+ & phosphorous, and vitamins. Two hundred samples produced and sold in Egypt during 2001-2003 were collected from allover the country. The cheese samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical analysis. Samples were microbiologically tested for total aerobic bacterial count (TABC, Colifrm, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, mould and yeast, salmonella and shigella, and listeria species. Protein, fat, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, lactose, Calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P and Ca/P were evaluated. The analysis showed that total aerobic bacterial count did not exceed 1.4X105±1.7X105 cells/gm, which is close to what allowed by the Standard Egyptian Guidelines (2001 and 47.5 % of the tested cheese are free from coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli. Ninety-eight and half percent, 97 %, 97 % and 91.5 % of the tested cheese (kareish, feta, thalaga, double cream respectively, either made in plant or home or farmers' cheese sample have zero Staphylococcus aureus count or mould and yeast; or salmonella and shigella, or listeria species respectively, i. e. free from them. Double cream cheese has the lowest protein content (7.79±0.78 gm% while kareish cheese has the highest protein content (19.99±1.32 gm%, but for fat content the opposite is true, double cream cheese have the highest fat content (24.56±1.78 gm% while kareish cheese have the lowest fat content (3.87±0.97 gm %. Feta cheese has high ash content while kareish cheese has the highest moisture content with the lowest ash content (68.97±1.86 & 1.81±0.47 gm% respectively. Lactose content varies widely from 1.50±0.26 (double cream cheese to 3.25±0.50 (feta cheese. Kareish cheese has higher content of calcium and

  20. Pulp microbiology of complete teeth with idiopathic apical lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodríguez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periapical changes named as lesions, in teeth with full crown integrity and without history of trauma, do not show a clear aetiology. Objective: To determine the presence of microorganisms in pulp dental tissue will clarify the cause of its death and therefore the damage to periodontal tissues. Materials and methods: From people between 10 and 39 years old, 23 teeth were selected. The samples were taken with paper points and 0.8 sterile files, and were transported in VMGA III medium, to be processed in the following 24 hours after they were taken and sowed in Brucella-agar. Results: The most affected teeth were upper central incisors, 43.8%. From the 23 studied teeth, microbiological grow was seen on 20 teeth. The following microorganisms species were identified: Fusobacterium spp., 25%, Eubacterium spp., 15%; Peptostreptococcus spp., 10%; Campylobacter spp., 10%; gram negative enteric bacteria, 10%; Porphyromonas gingivalis, 10%; Prevotella intermedia, 5%; Eikenellia corrodens, 5%; Dialister pneumosintes, 5%; and yeasts, 5%. There was no growing evidence of Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, Tanerella forsythensis and Streptococcus β  hemolytic. Discussion and conclusions: Sound pulp dental tissue is sterile; an injury over it will cause its inflammation, degeneration, death and bacterial contamination. Results in the present study clearly show the presence of microorganisms in closed apical dental lesions of endodontic origin. In same manner, it was seen that a great part of microorganisms species found can be regarded as periodontal pathogens. This could suggest a management with an endodontic, a periodontic and a pharmacological combined treatment.

  1. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of gamma irradiated roasted Veal Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims 10 study the possibility of using gamma irradiation at doses of 1,3 and 5 KGy for microbial decontamination of roasted veal meat (kebab). The samples were purchased from local market and examined for the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, presence of Salmonella spp and the counts of total bacterial, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. The results illustrated that all samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, while Salmonella spp was detected in only 3 samples. Therefore, these product samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 0,1,3 and 5 kGy, then stored at cold storage (4±1 degree C). The effects of these treatments on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics were studied post treatment and during cold storage. Irradiation at 1 kGy reduced the counts of total bacterial, molds and yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus as well as eliminating Salmonella spp. On the other hand, irradiation at 3 and 5 kGy doses completely eliminated the present Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, B, cereus and Salmonella spp. Irradiation of samples increased their amounts of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) but it did not affect the sensory characteristics of samples and it had no effects on their total volatile nitrogen (TVN) contents, while storage increased the TBARS and TVN for irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Gamma irradiation treatments had no effects on the sensory characteristics for appearance, odor and taste of all kebab samples and extended their time of sensory preference. However, doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy reduced the counts of total bacteria and extended of the refrigerated shelf-life of samples to 11, 23 and 29 days, respectively, compared to 5 days for non-irradiated controls

  2. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Cox, N A; Guard, J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Gast, R K; Abdo, Z; Rigsby, L L; Plumblee, J R; Karcher, D M; Robison, C I; Blatchford, R A; Makagon, M M

    2015-03-01

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety, but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, multidisciplinary comparison of the diverse aspects of commercial conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary housing systems and focuses on environmental and egg microbiology. Environmental swabs and eggshell pools were collected from all housing systems during 4 production periods. Total aerobes and coliforms were enumerated, and the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. was determined. Environmental aerobic and coliform counts were highest for aviary drag swabs (7.5 and 4.0 log cfu/mL, respectively) and enriched colony cage scratch pad swabs (6.8 and 3.8 log cfu/mL, respectively). Aviary floor and system wire shell pools had the greatest levels of aerobic contamination for all eggshell pools (4.9 and 4.1 log cfu/mL, respectively). Hens from all housing systems were shedding Salmonella spp. (89-100% of manure belt scraper blade swabs). The dry belt litter removal processes for all housing systems appear to affect Campylobacter spp. detection (0-41% of manure belt scraper blade swabs) considering detection of Campylobacter spp. was much higher for other environmental samples. Aviary forage area drag swabs were 100% contaminated with Campylobacter spp., whereas enriched colony cage scratch pads had a 93% positive rate. There were no differences in pathogen detection in the shell pools from the 3 housing systems. Results indicate egg safety is enhanced when hens in alternative housing systems use nest boxes. Additionally, current outcomes indicate the use of scratch pads in hen housing systems needs to be more thoroughly investigated for effects on hen health and egg safety. PMID:25480737

  3. Microbiological air quality in an urban solid waste selection plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Cimmuto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Exposure to bioaerosols may pose health risks to workers operating in the processing of Urban Solid Waste (USW. The aim of this study is to evaluate microbiological air quality within an USW selection facility.

    Methods: Nine sampling points in an USW selection plant situated in central-southern Italy were selected. One outdoor sampling point provided the background data. Sampling was performed on a yearly basis (2005 – 2009 upon request by the management of the selection plant. Total Mesophilic Counts (TMC, as well as fungal and Gram-negative concentrations were determined.

    Results: The highest viable fungal particles concentrations (medians were found in waste delivery areas (about 20000 CFU/m3, while the lowest were found in the control rooms (485 – 967 CFU/m3. TMC (median was highest (6116 CFU/m3 at the delivery pit, followed by the machine shop (3147 CFU/m3, where no waste processing takes place. Medians of Gram-negative bacteria are below the suggested Occupational Exposure Limit of 1000 CFU/m3, although this limit was exceeded at several single time-points in the waste delivery areas, and also in a personnel resting room. The lowest Gram-negative contamination was found in the control rooms (medians <1 CFU/m3.

    Conclusions: Some areas within a USW selection plant act as internal sources of contamination towards those areas where partially processed waste, or no waste at all, is present. Well-designed air flows, or carefullythought positioning of areas that are not directly involved in waste processing are necessary and effective in obtaining

  4. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasi Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. Methods For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and information about the date of installation, time since last ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of water coolers was collected. Results In all samples the chemical parameters (nitrite, ammonium, free active chlorine residual did not exceed the reference values of the drinking water regulation; the pH value in 86.8% samples of the carbonated waters was lower than the reference limit. The microbiological results indicated that the bacteria count at 22°C and 37°C was higher than the required values in 71% and 81% for the non-carbonated water and in 86% and 88% for the carbonated one, respectively. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the water samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in only one sample of the tap water and in 28.9% and 23.7% of the non-carbonated and carbonated water samples, respectively. No statistically significant differences in bacterial counts at 22°C and 37°C have been found between the non-carbonated and carbonated water from the sampled coolers in relation with the time since the last filter was substituted. The bacteriological quality of tap water was superior to that of non-carbonated and carbonated water from coolers. Conclusion The results emphasize the importance of adopting appropriate routinely monitoring system in order to prevent or to diminish the chances of contamination of this water source.

  5. Microbiological investigation and nutritional evaluation of selected fast food meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeda, H M

    1995-01-01

    The study was designed into two parts: the first part was to determine individual attitudes and beliefs toward fast food in general. One hundred individuals (15-45 yrs old) were involved in this study (50 males and 50 females). The second part of the study was carried out to evaluate microbiological contamination and nutritive value of the selected fast food meat (Hardee's fried burger, Saudi-American burger, kentucky fried chicken, Al-Baik broast chicken and shawerma beef). The results indicated that individuals 25-45 yrs. old were the most fast food consumers. The main reason behind increasing individual's preferences toward fast food was found to be for fun and inspiration. Among individuals under study 46% of males and 20% of females purchased fast food more than 4 times per week. Prevalence of overweight and obesity respectively were 38% and 22% among males and 34% and 14% among females. Bacillus cereus and E. coli were detected in a number of less than 10/g in all the selected fast food meat. The number of coliforms detected in Hardee's burger and Saudi-American burger were 10/g, while less than 10/g were detected in the remaining fast food meat. However, the number of Staph. aureus detected in Hardee's burger and Saudi-American burger was 20/g and 10/g respectively. On a per 100 g basis, energy (Kcal), protein (g), fat (g) and sodium (mg) content were found in the range of 179.62-295.29, 13.05-26.06, 8.9-21.13 and 640-920 respectively. Sodium content of all the selected fast food meat exceeded the recommended daily adequate intake for adults (males and females). The observations of the present study indicated the need for a nutrition education program to correct consumers' attitudes and beliefs towards fast food and to provide information on how a given menu item contributes to their dietary goal. PMID:17214203

  6. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m³ with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 10⁸ cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 10⁶ cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers' health. PMID:26861361

  7. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm. Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health.

  8. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  9. Microbiology of peritonsillar abscess in the South Estonian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Vaikjärv

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The first aim of this study was to compare the microbiota of different locations (pus, tonsillar fossa, blood in peritonsillar abscess (PTA patients in order to optimize the sampling scheme. The second aim was to estimate the occurrence of tonsillitis episodes and macroscopic oropharyngeal signs characteristic of recurrent tonsillitis in PTA patients. Methods: The study group consisted of 22 consecutive patients with PTA undergoing bilateral tonsillectomy. The PTA was punctured; pus and tonsillar fossa biopsy samples and the peripheral blood cultures were collected. The index of tonsillitis was calculated by multiplying the number of tonsillitis episodes per year by the morbidity period in years. Macroscopic oropharyngeal signs were evaluated and they were as follows: tonsillar sclerosis, obstruction of the tonsillar crypts, scar tissue on tonsils, cryptic debris, and lymphatic tissue aggregates. Results: The cultures of the pus were positive in 16 out of 22 patients and the cultures of the tonsillar fossa samples were positive in all cases. In total, 62 different organisms were found from tonsillar fossa, pus, and blood samples, which belonged to 5 different phyla and 18 different families.In the tonsillar fossa, the most frequent bacteria found were Streptococcus spp. In pus samples, the most frequently found bacteria were Streptococcus spp. and bacteria from the Streptococcus milleri group. Conclusion: PTA patients had mixed anaerobic and aerobic microbiota both in the tissue of the tonsillar fossa and the pus of the peritonsillar space. We demonstrated that the tonsillar fossa specimen is a better material for microbiological analyses, because it reveals more bacteria per culture. PTA patients usually have a low number of tonsillitis episodes in their previous history, but a relatively high number of macroscopic oropharyngeal signs, indicating the sclerotic process in palatal tonsils.

  10. Microbiology of peritonsillar abscess in the South Estonian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikjärv, Risto; Kasenõmm, Priit; Jaanimäe, Liis; Kivisild, Ave; Rööp, Tiiu; Sepp, Epp; Mändar, Reet

    2016-01-01

    Objective The first aim of this study was to compare the microbiota of different locations (pus, tonsillar fossa, blood) in peritonsillar abscess (PTA) patients in order to optimize the sampling scheme. The second aim was to estimate the occurrence of tonsillitis episodes and macroscopic oropharyngeal signs characteristic of recurrent tonsillitis in PTA patients. Methods The study group consisted of 22 consecutive patients with PTA undergoing bilateral tonsillectomy. The PTA was punctured; pus and tonsillar fossa biopsy samples and the peripheral blood cultures were collected. The index of tonsillitis was calculated by multiplying the number of tonsillitis episodes per year by the morbidity period in years. Macroscopic oropharyngeal signs were evaluated and they were as follows: tonsillar sclerosis, obstruction of the tonsillar crypts, scar tissue on tonsils, cryptic debris, and lymphatic tissue aggregates. Results The cultures of the pus were positive in 16 out of 22 patients and the cultures of the tonsillar fossa samples were positive in all cases. In total, 62 different organisms were found from tonsillar fossa, pus, and blood samples, which belonged to 5 different phyla and 18 different families. In the tonsillar fossa, the most frequent bacteria found were Streptococcus spp. In pus samples, the most frequently found bacteria were Streptococcus spp. and bacteria from the Streptococcus milleri group. Conclusion PTA patients had mixed anaerobic and aerobic microbiota both in the tissue of the tonsillar fossa and the pus of the peritonsillar space. We demonstrated that the tonsillar fossa specimen is a better material for microbiological analyses, because it reveals more bacteria per culture. PTA patients usually have a low number of tonsillitis episodes in their previous history, but a relatively high number of macroscopic oropharyngeal signs, indicating the sclerotic process in palatal tonsils. PMID:27113570

  11. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health. PMID:26861361

  12. Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality at different hospital sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo Verde, Sandra; Almeida, Susana Marta; Matos, João; Guerreiro, Duarte; Meneses, Marcia; Faria, Tiago; Botelho, Daniel; Santos, Mateus; Viegas, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Poor hospital indoor air quality (IAQ) may lead to hospital-acquired infections, sick hospital syndrome and various occupational hazards. Air-control measures are crucial for reducing dissemination of airborne biological particles in hospitals. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of bioaerosol quality in different sites in a Portuguese Hospital, namely the operating theater (OT), the emergency service (ES) and the surgical ward (SW). Aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts (BCs) and fungal load (FL) were assessed by impaction directly onto tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar supplemented with antibiotic chloramphenicol (0.05%) plates, respectively using a MAS-100 air sampler. The ES revealed the highest airborne microbial concentrations (BC range 240-736 CFU/m(3) CFU/m(3); FL range 27-933 CFU/m(3)), exceeding, at several sampling sites, conformity criteria defined in national legislation [6]. Bacterial concentrations in the SW (BC range 99-495 CFU/m(3)) and the OT (BC range 12-170 CFU/m(3)) were under recommended criteria. While fungal levels were below 1 CFU/m(3) in the OT, in the SW (range 1-32 CFU/m(3)), there existed a site with fungal indoor concentrations higher than those detected outdoors. Airborne Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent phenotype (88%) detected from the measured bacterial population in all indoor environments. Staphylococcus (51%) and Micrococcus (37%) were dominant among the bacterial genera identified in the present study. Concerning indoor fungal characterization, the prevalent genera were Penicillium (41%) and Aspergillus (24%). Regular monitoring is essential for assessing air control efficiency and for detecting irregular introduction of airborne particles via clothing of visitors and medical staff or carriage by personal and medical materials. Furthermore, microbiological survey data should be used to clearly define specific air quality guidelines for controlled environments in hospital settings. PMID

  13. Microbiology and Crew Medical Events on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Kadwa, Biniafer; Taiym, Wafa; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane; Baalen, Mary Van

    2014-01-01

    The closed environment of the International Space Station (ISS) creates an ideal environment for microbial growth. Previous studies have identified the ubiquitous nature of microorganisms throughout the space station environment. To ensure safety of the crew, microbial monitoring of air and surface within ISS began in December 2000 and continues to be monitored on a quarterly basis. Water monitoring began in 2009 when the potable water dispenser was installed on ISS. However, it is unknown if high microbial counts are associated with inflight medical events. The microbial counts are determined for the air, surface, and water samples collected during flight operations and samples are returned to the Microbiology laboratory at the Johnson Space Center for identification. Instances of microbial counts above the established microbial limit requirements were noted and compared inflight medical events (any non-injury event such as illness, rashes, etc.) that were reported during the same calendar-quarter. Data were analyzed using repeated measures logistic regression for the forty-one US astronauts flew on ISS between 2000 and 2012. In that time frame, instances of microbial counts being above established limits were found for 10 times for air samples, 22 times for surface samples and twice for water. Seventy-eight inflight medical events were reported among the astronauts. A three times greater risk of a medical event was found when microbial samples were found to be high (OR = 3.01; p =.007). Engineering controls, crew training, and strict microbial limits have been established to mitigate the crew medical events and environmental risks. Due to the timing issues of sampling and the samples return to earth, identification of particular microorganisms causing a particular inflight medical event is difficult. Further analyses are underway.

  14. Microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater. Results and interpretations 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in 2007 continued the general program of analysing microorganisms and gas in deep groundwater. New tasks examined the presence of anaerobic methane oxidation, the growth of slime on the tunnel walls of ONKALO, and the possible presence of microorganisms that produce complexing agents in groundwater and the slime. Microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas data were assembled in 2007 from three deep drillholes in Olkiluoto, Finland, ranging in depth from 39.5 to 294.0 m and in 2005-2007 from six drillholes in ONKALO ranging in depth from 7.1 to 78.5 m. In addition, 24 analyses of gas from nine deep drillholes ranging in depth from 16 to 490 m and one analysis of gas from an ONKALO drillhole of a depth of 14.6 m were executed. The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater from Olkiluoto had previously been analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggested that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth of approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms was deemed necessary before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto groundwater could be accepted. Part of the research on behalf of Posiva Oy in 2007 therefore was focused on the development and testing of methods for detecting ANME microorganisms. The groundwater from the ONKALO tunnel was also analysed, and slimy biofilms were found growing on the rock walls at some positions in ONKALO late 2006. It was assumed that the ONKALO slime microbes were growing on various substances added to the shotcrete, the injected concrete, or both. Part of the 2007 research focused on detailed analysis of the slime microorganisms and their potential for acid production. The presence of microorganisms that produce complexing agents, for example, siderophores such as pyoverdin and ferrioxamine, was indicated in 2006 in the ONKALO slime as judged from DNA diversity data. It

  15. Microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater. Results and interpretations 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Eriksson, S.; Hallbeck, M.; Johansson, J.; Jaegevall, S.; Karlsson, L. (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Research in 2007 continued the general program of analysing microorganisms and gas in deep groundwater. New tasks examined the presence of anaerobic methane oxidation, the growth of slime on the tunnel walls of ONKALO, and the possible presence of microorganisms that produce complexing agents in groundwater and the slime. Microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas data were assembled in 2007 from three deep drillholes in Olkiluoto, Finland, ranging in depth from 39.5 to 294.0 m and in 2005-2007 from six drillholes in ONKALO ranging in depth from 7.1 to 78.5 m. In addition, 24 analyses of gas from nine deep drillholes ranging in depth from 16 to 490 m and one analysis of gas from an ONKALO drillhole of a depth of 14.6 m were executed. The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater from Olkiluoto had previously been analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggested that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth of approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms was deemed necessary before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto groundwater could be accepted. Part of the research on behalf of Posiva Oy in 2007 therefore was focused on the development and testing of methods for detecting ANME microorganisms. The groundwater from the ONKALO tunnel was also analysed, and slimy biofilms were found growing on the rock walls at some positions in ONKALO late 2006. It was assumed that the ONKALO slime microbes were growing on various substances added to the shotcrete, the injected concrete, or both. Part of the 2007 research focused on detailed analysis of the slime microorganisms and their potential for acid production. The presence of microorganisms that produce complexing agents, for example, siderophores such as pyoverdin and ferrioxamine, was indicated in 2006 in the ONKALO slime as judged from DNA diversity data. It

  16. Carbon monoxide in biology and microbiology: surprising roles for the "Detroit perfume".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, Kelly S; Motterlini, Roberto; Mann, Brian E; Wilson, Jayne Louise; Poole, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas with a reputation for being an anthropogenic poison; there is extensive documentation of the modes of human exposure, toxicokinetics, and health effects. However, CO is also generated endogenously by heme oxygenases (HOs) in mammals and microbes, and its extraordinary biological activities are now recognized and increasingly utilized in medicine and physiology. This review introduces recent advances in CO biology and chemistry and illustrates the exciting possibilities that exist for a deeper understanding of its biological consequences. However, the microbiological literature is scant and is currently restricted to: 1) CO-metabolizing bacteria, CO oxidation by CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and the CO-sensing mechanisms that enable CO oxidation; 2) the use of CO as a heme ligand in microbial biochemistry; and 3) very limited information on how microbes respond to CO toxicity. We demonstrate how our horizons in CO biology have been extended by intense research activity in recent years in mammalian and human physiology and biochemistry. CO is one of several "new" small gas molecules that are increasingly recognized for their profound and often beneficial biological activities, the others being nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The chemistry of CO and other heme ligands (oxygen, NO, H2S and cyanide) and the implications for biological interactions are briefly presented. An important advance in recent years has been the development of CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) for aiding experimental administration of CO as an alternative to the use of CO gas. The chemical principles of CO-RM design and mechanisms of CO release from CO-RMs (dissociation, association, reduction and oxidation, photolysis, and acidification) are reviewed and we present a survey of the most commonly used CO-RMs. Amongst the most important new applications of CO in mammalian physiology and medicine are its vasoactive properties and the

  17. Impact of the introduction of an automated microbiologic system on the clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Azevedo Callefi; Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo Medeiros; Guilherme Henrique Campos Furtado

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Enterobacteriaceae strains are a leading cause of bloodstream infections (BSI). The aim of this study is to assess differences in clinical outcomes of patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains before and after introduction of an automated microbiologic system by the microbiology laboratory. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the impact of the introduction of an automated microbiologic system (Phoenix(tm)...

  18. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  19. Serum Aminoglycoside Assay by Enzyme-Mediated Immunoassay (EMIT): Correlation with Radioimmunoassay, Fluoroimmunoassay, and Acetyltransferase and Microbiological Assays

    OpenAIRE

    White, L O; Scammell, L. M.; Reeves, D S

    1981-01-01

    Enzyme-mediated immunoassay (EMIT) serum aminoglycoside assay results were accurate and precise and correlated well with radioimmunoassay, fluoroimmunoassay, and acetyltransferase and microbiological assay determinations.

  20. Microbiological challenge testing for Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food: a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Spanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food business operators (FBOs are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product’s shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food.

  1. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  2. Exposure of ventilation system cleaning workers to harmful microbiological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gołofit-Szymczak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular inspection of the cleanliness of the ventilation systems, as well as their periodic cleaning and disinfection, if necessary, are the main factors of the proper maintenance of each system. Performing maintenance operations on the ventilation system, workers are exposed to risk associated with the exposure to harmful biological agents. The aim of this study was to assess the employees' exposure to bioaerosols during maintenance work on ventilation systems. Material and Methods: Bioaerosol measurements were carried out using a button sampler. The microbial particles were collected on gelatin filters. Settled-dust samples from the inner surface of the air ducts and filter-mat samples were selected for the microbiological analysis. In the collected air, dust and filter samples the concentration of bacteria and fungi were determined. Results: Bacteria and fungi concentrations ranged between 3.6×102-2.2×104 CFU/m3 and 4.7×102-4.5×103 CFU/m3 at workplaces where the operations connected with mechanical ventilation cleaning were performed and 2.2×104-1.2×105 CFU/m3 and 9.8×101-2.5×102 CFU/m3 at workplaces where filter exchange was performed, respectively. The qualitative analysis of microorganisms isolated from the air in all studied workplaces revealed that the most prevalent bacteria belonged to Bacillus genus. The average concentrations of bacteria and fungi in filter-mat samples were 3.3×103 CFU/cm2 and 1.4×104 CFU/cm2, respectively. In settled-dust samples, average concentrations were 591 CFU/100 cm2 and 52 CFU/100 cm2, for bacteria and fungi respectively. Conclusions: Workers cleaning ventilation systems are exposed to harmful biological agents classified into risk groups, 1 and 2, according to their level of the risk of infection. The research conducted in the workplace can be the basis of risk assessment related to exposure to harmful biological agents during maintenance work in ventilation. Med Pr 2013;64(5:613–623

  3. Benefits of irradiation in improving the microbiological safety of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of non-spore-forming pathogens are relatively sensitive to irradiation. However, the possibility that some may survive after low dose treatments, even in an injured state, must be considered. Several studies have isolated Listeria monocytogenes from irradiated (2.5 kGy) poultry meat, although no attempt was made to study the recovery of the pathogen during storage. The effect of irradiation dose and storage temperature on the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes on raw poultry meat was therefore investigated. High initial inoculum levels (up to 107 Listeria/g) were necessary to ensure sufficient cells survived after irradiation to be detected by direct plating. Growth curves of the pathogen indicated that as dose increased, lag duration increased, although this trend became less pronounced as temperature increased. Thus the longest lag time (15 days) was found at 6 deg. C after an irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy. It was concluded that if low numbers of L. monocytogenes were to survive irradiation (2.5 kGy), the time required to recover from the irradiation damage would be significant. Therefore the growth of this pathogen should not be a problem during the shelf-life of the irradiated poultry meat. In a subsequent study the combined effect of irradiation followed by heating on the survival of L. monocytogenes in cook-chill roast beef and gravy was investigated. The results suggested that a dose of 1 kGy sensitized the cells to subsequent heating. A combination treatment of irradiation (1 kGy) followed by the minimum recommended reheating time for cook-chill foods (70 deg. C for 2 min) eliminated L. monocytogenes from beef and gravy containing 102-106 Listeria/g, whereas heating alone was not adequate to eliminate the pathogen. It was concluded that low dose irradiation would have a beneficial effect on the microbiological safety of cook-chill beef and gravy which is to be reheated prior to consumption. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  4. DUSEL and the future of deep terrestrial microbiology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Peters, C. A.; Murdoch, L. C.; Elsworth, D.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Kieft, T.; Boutt, D. F.; Germanovich, L.; Glaser, S. D.; Wang, H. F.; Roggenthen, B.; Lesko, K.; Cushman, P.; Stetler, L. D.; Bang, S.; Anderson, C.

    2009-12-01

    DUSEL will take advantage of the existing subsurface architecture of the deepest mine in the U.S. to provide a platform for launching new exploration into the deep terrestrial biosphere. Multi-year experiments are currently being designed to delineate the relationships between microbial diversity and activity and hydraulic connectivity, temperature, pressure, strain rate and multiphase fluids. Unlike the physics experiments, which will be located close to the center of the mine, most of these experiments will be located at the periphery in existing tunnels at 100 to 2400 m depth in order to access fluid fill fractures with boreholes. Hydrological models suggest that DUSEL could sample ~100 km3 volume for microbial biogeographic and transport studies. The high-capacity underground water filtration plant used to generate ultrapure water for neutrino detectors will readily supply water for microbiology coring projects reducing microbial contamination. This will be essential for the drilling platform located at 2400 m depth that will drill down to 7+ km and 120oC in search of the upper temperature limit for life. Another advantage of underground coring is that the drilling fluid pressure will be much less than that of the fracture water, which means that when the coring bit intersects a water-filled fracture, the fracture water will flow into the core barrel reducing the contamination of fracture surfaces in the cores. The ultra-low radiation background counting facility to be located at 1475 m depth will potentially enable 106 times improvement in the detection limit for subsurface microbial respiration rates using radioactive tracers. The Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological, block-heating experiment will examine how the microbial communities within fractures respond to the increased thermal and fluid flux. The Fracture Processes Facility is not only designed to determine what controls rock strength, but could also determine to what extent

  5. Planned Environmental Microbiology Aspects of Future Lunar and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, Victoria A.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2006-01-01

    With the establishment of the Constellation Program, NASA has initiated efforts designed similar to the Apollo Program to return to the moon and subsequently travel to Mars. Early lunar sorties will take 4 crewmembers to the moon for 4 to 7 days. Later missions will increase in duration up to 6 months as a lunar habitat is constructed. These missions and vehicle designs are the forerunners of further missions destined for human exploration of Mars. Throughout the planning and design process, lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and past programs will be implemented toward future exploration goals. The standards and requirements for these missions will vary depending on life support systems, mission duration, crew activities, and payloads. From a microbiological perspective, preventative measures will remain the primary techniques to mitigate microbial risk. Thus, most of the effort will focus on stringent preflight monitoring requirements and engineering controls designed into the vehicle, such as HEPA air filters. Due to volume constraints in the CEV, in-flight monitoring will be limited for short-duration missions to the measurement of biocide concentration for water potability. Once long-duration habitation begins on the lunar surface, a more extensive environmental monitoring plan will be initiated. However, limited in-flight volume constraints and the inability to return samples to Earth will increase the need for crew capabilities in determining the nature of contamination problems and method of remediation. In addition, limited shelf life of current monitoring hardware consumables and limited capabilities to dispose of biohazardous trash will drive flight hardware toward non-culture based methodologies, such as hardware that rapidly distinguishes biotic versus abiotic surface contamination. As missions progress to Mars, environmental systems will depend heavily on regeneration of air and water and biological waste remediation and

  6. Microbiological assessment of technogenicaly disturbed forest ecosystems in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogorodskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of soil microbial complexes of forest ecosystems of Central Siberia, disturbed by cutting, fires, emissions of pollutants and mining was investigated. The most appropriate indicators for early diagnosis of the condition and sustainability assessment of soils were the contents of microbial biomass, the intensity of the basal respiration and microbial metabolic quotient. Recorded time quantitative and structural-taxonomic restructuring of ecological trophic groups of microorganisms exhibited orientation of the elementary soil-biological processes and allowed detail to assess the state of soils of disturbed forest ecosystems. Successions of soil microorganisms reflected stages of plant succession after cutting. Structural and functional changes in the microbial soil complexes marked by only one-two years after cutting of coniferous forests. For the grassy stage in deciduous young stands, there was an increase in soil microbial activity that accompanied the development of the sod process. Microbiological processes were balanced and comparable to the control at the stage of closed 30-year-old stands. Post-fire recovery of the microbial soil complexes was determined by fire severity and by the properties of soils and vegetation succession. Functional activity of microbial soil complexes were recovered in one or two years after a low-intensity fires, whereas after high-intensity fires – was not recovered in eight years. Indicative responses of soil microorganisms in the sustainable impact of aggressive pollutants tundra zone of the Norilsk industrial region were registered at the functional and at the structural level. In areas of moderate and weak disturbances of vegetation, there were quantitative changes, whereas strong disturbances and constant exposure to pollutants marked structural and taxonomic adjustment of microbial soil complexes, disturbed dynamic processes of synthesis-mineralization and reduced adaptive capacity saprophytic

  7. Results of microbiological Investigations of Orbital Station MIR Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N.

    15-year experience of orbital station MIR service demonstrated that specifically modified space vehicle environment allows to consider spaceship habitats as a certain ecological niche of microbial community development and functioning, which was formed from the organisms of different physiological and taxonomical groups. As a result of on-board experiments and revision of interior and equipment more than 234 microorganisms were identified. They were represented by technophylic specia, which cause material damage, as well as potential pathogens (bacteria, actinomyces spp, fungi), which capable to grow on artificial substrates. Resident colonization of interior and equipment of space habitat by bacterial and fungal associations, taking place during long-term microbiota exposure on cosmophysic, physic-chemical and biological factors, which is accompanied by appearance of technological and medical risks, capable to provide significant influence on safety of humans and reliability of space equipment. These risks are due to such processes: biodestruction of synthetic and organic polymeres, biocorrosion of metals, biofoulding of surfaces (biofilms), formation of obturation in vital activity support system, occurrence of biodisturbances resulting in devise and equipment failure, occurrence and development of supertolerants and other variants with unpredictable attributes, which are expressed as a result of phenotypical and genotypical modifications. Based on the information from results of in-flight and laboratory microbiological investigations, the following suppositions can be made to characterize evolution of the microbial community aboard long-operating space vehicle: - environment of a long-operating piloted space vehicle may be a peculiar kind of ecological niche for development and reproduction of bacilli and fungi belonging to particular species, - bacteriofungal associations primarily reside on decorative-finish and structural materials of space interior and

  8. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella

  9. Atmospheric microbiology in coastal northern California during Asian dust events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Rhodes, K. A.; Griffin, D. W.

    2004-12-01

    Each year, billions of tons of dust are swept from deserts in China and Africa across the globe to the US and Caribbean. Microorganisms are likely hitchhikers aboard this aerosolized dust, with potential human health and ecological impacts. In order to investigate the presence of bacteria and fungi in dust storms from Asia, atmospheric samples for cultivatable microbiological analysis were collected during the NASA Extended- Modis Validation Experiment (EVE), occurring April 21-30, 2004 and coinciding with seasonal Asian dust storm activity. Samples were taken by Twin Otter aircraft along the coast of northern California ( ˜100 km offshore of Monterey to San Francisco). An ˜100 km horizontal leg was flown at ˜100 km altitude, typically in the marine boundary layer, followed by a vertical spiral to the dust layer (as indicated by aerosol extinction monitoring) and a second horizontal leg in the dust layer at higher altitudes (2,100-4,200 m). Air samples were taken via Venturi tube inlets with sterile Millipore filter holders outfitted with 47 mm diameter test filters connected to a vacuum pump system. Total sample time varied and was based on flight conditions and EVE objectives. Typical flow rates were 40 lpm and average sample times were ˜1hr in the marine layer and ˜30 minutes in the dust layer. Control samples for handling and contamination were also obtained. Microbial culture of the filters was conducted using sterile techniques and R2A agar, with filters incubated in the dark at room temperature and monitored for growth over a 2-week period. Fungi and bacterial colonies were further isolated on fresh plates of R2A and Tryptic Soy Broth for the purpose of cataloging/storage. No isolates were obtained from samples of dust layers at altitude. This result may be explained by: i) inadequate sample volumes to detect extremely low bacterial numbers, though sample volumes ranged from 750-2100 liters, ii) light dust layer concentrations during the sampling period

  10. Radiometric--microbiologic assay of vitamin B-6: application to food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for vitamin B-6 was applied to food analysis. The method was shown to be specific, reproducible and simpler than the standard turbidimetric microbiologic technique. The analysis of seven commercially available breakfast cereals was compared to a high performance liquid chromatography method. Three out of the seven cereals agreed when assayed with both methods (P greater than 0.1). Four cereals, however, differed in value considerably (P less than 0.05). Further studies are required to determine whether these differences were due to different extraction procedures used. The study showed that the new radiometric-microbiologic method can be used to measure total vitamin B-6 or, combined with a column separation procedure, to analyze for specific forms of the vitamin

  11. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-09-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VDmax25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VDmax25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given.

  12. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, Maria; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Ovesen, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics......, microbiological results, antibiotic and surgical management and length of hospitalisation. Infections of the oropharynx accounted for the vast majority of admissions, followed by ear infections, and cutaneous neck abscesses. Peritonsillar abscess was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for over one third...... of admissions (39.8%, 808 out of 2,028). Complete microbiological data were available for 1,430 cultures, and were analysed for trends with respect to diagnosis, age, gender and use of pre-admission antibiotics. Forty-six percent (657 out of 1,430) of cultures yielded no growth or normal flora. This value...

  13. Summary of research on microbiological processes. International Energy Agency Subtask D, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  14. Microbiological activities in a shallow-ground repository with cementitious wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious wasteform with immobilised nuclear power plant operational radioactive waste disposed in a near surface testing repository for about 20 years have been analysed for microbiological activities. Clean cultures were selected from the main metabolic groups expected within repository environment e.g. anaerobic de-nitrifying, fermenting, sulphur-reducing, iron-reducing, and oxidizing, thio-bacterium and mushrooms. Microbiological species were identified within cementitious wasteform, in the clayey soil near the wasteform and in the contacting water. The most populated medium was the soil with microbial populations Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Micrococcus, and densities of populations up to 3.6*105 colony/g. Microbial populations of generic type Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Alcaligenes, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, and Arthrobacter were identified within cementitious wasteform. Populations of Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Flavobacterium were identified in the water samples contacting the cementitious wasteform. Microbiological species identified are potential destructors of cementitious wasteform and containers. (authors)

  15. Effectiveness of an Applied Microbiology Course Specifically Designed for Chemical Engineering Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B. Hecht

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the disciplines of microbiology and chemical engineering have developed an increasing convergence. To meet the needs of their future employers, today’s chemical engineering students must receive some background in microbiology. This report describes the development and content of “Biological Systems and Applications,” a novel course specifically designed to provide basic biology and applied microbiology knowledge, skills, and experience to sophomore chemical engineering majors. Data collected from entrance and exit surveys of the students demonstrated that the course is successful. The importance of the “project-base” learning technique and of interdisciplinary faculty-student and faculty-faculty collaborations are proposed as elements essential to the success of this particular course.

  16. Microbiological specifications and testing methods for irradiated food. Report of a panel of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of food items processed by means of ionizing radiation, wherever that form of preservation might show advantage over other methods. If this method becomes successful, the various items will be commercially exploited; it would then be convenient to have similar legislation in many countries of the world to control this type of processing and to facilitate international trade. To gather information and suggestions in order to devise legislation on irradiated food, a Joint FAO/IAEA/ WHO Expert Committee on the Technical Basis for Legislation on Irradiated Food was held in Rome on 21-28 April 1964. The Committee's report, 'The technical basis for legislation on irradiated food', was published as FAO Atomic Energy Series No.6 and WHO Technical Series No. 316. The Committee's terms of reference were to consider the available evidence on the effect on food of treatment with ionizing radiation in the context of wholesomeness and safety for consumption. Nutritional aspects were taken into account, but microbiological safety and microbiological methods for irradiated food were excluded since these subjects were believed to be too broad for adequate coverage in the working time available at the meeting. However, realizing the importance of radiation microbiology and the need for guidance in formulating regulations in this field, the committee drafted the following recommendation: 'The methods and standards used to ensure the microbiological safety of the irradiated product should, as a matter of urgency, be subject to review by competent international bodies in order that internationally acceptable methods and standards may be agreed upon'. In response to this recommendation an FAO/IAEA Panel on Microbiological Standards and Testing Methods for Irradiated Food was held in Vienna on 22-26 June 1965, in collaboration with the International Association of Microbiological Societies (IAMS). This was a working

  17. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  18. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen international ready meals prepared under the approved hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan and two Ghanaian ready meals, waakye (co-boiled rice and cowpeas served with gravy, minimally processed vegetable salad, hydrated gari, fried fish and macaroni) and jollof rice (rice cooked in tomato sauce and served with gravy and beef tripe), were investigated with the view to enhancing microbiological safety and extending shelf life under chilled conditions. The microbiological count of the complete waakye meal exceeded the microbiological standard. The microbiological counts on meals prepared under the HACCP plan and the jollof rice meals were within the microbiological standards. The D10 values for potential pathogens on waakye were 0.271 kGy for Escherichia coli, 0.325 kGy for Salmonella aureus and 0.440 kGy for Salmonella spp. while the D10 values on jollof rice meal were 0.173 kGy, 0.260 kGy and 0.285 kGy, respectively. Challenge tests with the pathogens on one of the HACCP meals (poached chicken) or jollof rice suggested that the 3 kGy dose was sufficient for the elimination of the pathogens to ensure the microbiological safety of the meals and extended their shelf life under chilled storage for 28 days without significant effects on their sensory quality. Doses of 1 and 2 kGy did not affect the sensory quality of the rice and chicken/gravy but boiled carrots were unable to withstand a dose of more than 1 kGy. (author)

  19. Using ASM Podcasts to Excite Undergraduate Students about Current Microbiological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey E. Lettini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovative technology is often used as a mechanism to engage students in and out of the classroom and can be used to increase critical thinking skills. Podcasts are an excellent way to introduce students to current topics and research in microbiology. The American Society for Microbiology (ASM produces three podcasts that are microbiologically focused: This Week in Microbiology (TWiM, This Week in Parasitology (TWiP, and This Week in Virology (TWiV. These podcasts are usually presented in a manner similar to a journal club, as the presenters regularly invite guests to discuss current research papers. Since students often find reading scientific literature difficult and get bogged down in the details rather than seeing the over-arching purpose of a paper, these podcasts have been used in a General Microbiology course to introduce recent research articles. The students were first assigned an original research article to read and review, and they were asked to generate questions pertaining to things they did not understand. Next, students listened to the corresponding podcast that discussed the article and used it to answer their questions. This was followed by a classroom discussion of the article and the podcast. The ASM podcast helped to demystify original research by providing details of the experimental design and presentation of the results in a language that is more casual and relatable. Students demonstrated greater critical thinking and comprehension of microbiology literature after listening to the podcast. This activity can be used in a variety of courses in the biology curriculum.

  20. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.