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Sample records for advanced hybrid particulate

  1. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  2. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  3. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m(sup 3)/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m(sup 3)/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  4. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  5. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  6. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power plant. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power plant is being conducted to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology

  7. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control

  8. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-02-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

  9. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ADVANCED HYBRID{trademark} Filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  10. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Steven A. Benson; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ''Advanced Hybrid''{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot

  11. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot-Scale. The project team will include the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor, W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner, and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a

  12. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide and gt;99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50(micro)m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  14. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  15. Mercury control from flue gas by hybrid particulate removal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.H. Lee; H.K. Choi; S.K. Jeong; Y.J. Rhim; H.K. Lee [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Republic of Korea). Fossil Energy and Environment Research Department

    2005-07-01

    Much of the efforts are made to regulate the emissions of fine particulate (PM2.5) and gaseous mercury from coal fired utility boilers and industrial waste incinerators. Injecting appropriate sorbent upstream of a hybrid particulate removal system represents one of the most cost-effective approaches of reducing mercury emission from flue gas simultaneously with fine particulate. The objective of this study is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control with carbon-based sorbents in the hybrid particulate removal system. Bench scale data has been collected on the effectiveness of powdered activated carbon and other carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control from simulated flue gas in a hybrid particulate removal system. At a C/Hg ratio of 5,000, 4.7% total mercury removal was achieved at the temperature of 130{sup o}C. When the ratio was increased to 20,000, the removal increased the range to 14.9%. In addition, when high voltage was applied to Hi-Filter at 130{sup o}C and C/Hg ratio of 5,000, the mercury removal efficiency increased up to 42% by the oxidation of mercury by ozone. 12 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  17. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  18. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  19. Sorbent-based gaseous mercury removal from flue gas in hybrid particulate collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.K. Choi; Y.J. Rhim; S.D. Kim; Lee, S.H. Lee; S.S. Kim [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Republic of Korea)

    2007-07-01

    In this study, the hybrid particulate collector on the gaseous mercury removal performance was estimated. Hybrid particulate collector consists of sorbent injection/adsorption reactor, electrostatic precipitator and fabric filters. The hybrid particulate collector acts not only as a particulate collector but also as an adsorption reactor. Activated carbons injected in the flue gas in front of the injection/adsorption reactor, floating inside of the particulate collector and that attached on the inner walls take important role in mercury removal respectively, and also the activated carbons being attached on the filter surface do. Since the collector itself plays as an adsorption reactor, high mercury removal efficiency can be attained at the low C/Hg ratio. Overall removal efficiency was about 60%. When considering the baseline mercury removal efficiency was over the 50% in the coal fired power plants and MSW incinerators, it could be possible to obtain removal efficiency over the 90% with this hybrid particulate collector. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  1. High density recording capability for advanced particulate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki E-mail: suzuki@kyushu-id.ac.jp; Tanaka, Terumitsu; Ikemizu, Kaoru

    2001-10-01

    Metal particulate and Ba ferrite particulate media, composed of very fine particles, were studied in their high-density recording performances. Using a modified loss-term simulation program, the recording capability of each media, the effects of spacing, particle size and size deviation were analyzed. Based on the analysis and thermal stability measurement, desirable particle sizes for use in recording of several hundreds kFRPI were proposed.

  2. Solid Particle Erosion response of fiber and particulate filled polymer based hybrid composites: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid particle erosion behaviour of fiber and particulate filled polymer composites has been reviewed. An overview of the problem of solid particle erosion was given with respect to the processes and modes during erosion with focus on polymer matrix composites. The new aspects in the experimental studies of erosion of fiber and particulate filled polymer composites were emphasized in this paper. Various predictions and models proposed to describe the erosion rate were listed and their suitability was mentioned. Implementation of design of experiments and statistical techniques in analyzing the erosion behaviour of composites was discussed. Recent findings on erosion response of multi-component hybrid composites were also presented. Recommendations were given on how to solve some open questions related to the structureerosion resistance relationships for polymers and polymer based hybrid composites.

  3. Advances in the study of hybrid finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some new concepts and research progress in hybrid finite elements advanced in recent years are in troduced. On the basis of incompatible energy consistency analysis, the optimal condition of hybrid elements is derived and the formulation for fulfilling this condition is given. A post-processing penalty equilibrium optimization technique of hybrid element is presented to create high quality hybrid model. For incompressible problems, a method of deviatoric hybrid element is proposed and unification of computation between compressible and incompressible media is achieved.

  4. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  5. Physico-mechanical and tribological properties of Grewia Optiva fiber/bio-particulates hybrid polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gangil, Brijesh; Patel, Vinay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Lack of resources and increasing environmental issues has received widespread attention for the development of natural fiber/ particulate reinforced hybrid polymer composites. In the present investigation the authors use (GO) Grewia Optiva as the main reinforcement and rice husk/wheat straw as additional particulates for improving the mechanical and wear properties of polymer composites. The samples were prepared by hand layup technique according to ASTM standards. The results indicated that incorporation of wheat straw with GO polymer materials exhibited better hardness (2.5 times harder) and less wear (0.85 times) than mono GO fiber polymer composites (GOFRP). Moreover, Rice husk filled GOFRP shows superior impact energy among the all set of composites. Water absorption behavior was also discussed in this investigation.

  6. Ultrafine Particulate Dispersed High-Temperature Coatings by Hybrid Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, P. S.; Roche, A. D.; Guduru, R. K.; Varadaraajan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys (ODS), although not commonly used in coating applications, have long been used for high-temperature structural applications due to their superior creep properties. In this paper, we present the design, synthesis, and characterization of a new class of functionally engineered high-temperature coatings in which ultrafine oxide particulates are dispersed in the matrix alloy to achieve superior creep resistance along with improved high-temperature corrosion and erosion resistance. These coatings were fabricated using a novel technique called “hybrid spray process”. Hybrid spray technique combines arc spray and high-velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) spray processes; the metallic matrix alloys are fused by the wire arcing component of the process, whereas the ultrafine particles are synthesized in-flight by the HVOF component from liquid precursors. These particulate dispersed high-temperature composite coatings were fabricated using liquid precursors for SiO2, Cr2O3, Al2O3, and wire feed stock of 55/45 NiCr, in one step. The coatings were then characterized using electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). High-temperature erosion, oxidation, and corrosion performance of these coatings were also evaluated and compared with 304 stainless steel, arc sprayed NiCr coatings as well as Alloy 625 overlay cladding. The hybrid spray process produced dense coatings with uniform dispersion of the ultrafine oxide particles. Further, these coatings also demonstrated superior corrosion, erosion, and oxidation resistance; SiO2 particulate dispersion being most effective in terms of high-temperature corrosion resistance.

  7. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  8. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  9. Reduction of the particulate and nitric oxide from the diesel engine using a plasma chemical hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new plasma/catalyst continuously regenerative hybrid system (PCRHS) is introduced to reduce diesel particulate matter (DPM), NOx, CO, etc., contained in diesel exhaust gas. The catalyst temperature, plasma energy density, and exhaust gas characteristics were investigated with a passenger diesel car (2500cc) at the dynamometer test bed and chassis dynamometer with CVS-75 test mode. It was reported that the smoke removal efficiency was around 70% at the dynamometer test bed with 80 W energy consumption, and that PM removal efficiency was 68% at the chassis dynamometer. The NOx was reduced up to 20% according to the electrode types and temperature, respectively. The hybrid system test shows that DPM and CO were almost removed and NOx reduced to 30% simultaneously by the system. Considering these results, PCRHS could be a promising method to regenerate diesel particulate

  10. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  11. Advanced Geometric Modeler with Hybrid Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长贵; 陈玉健; 等

    1996-01-01

    An advanced geometric modeler GEMS4.0 has been developed,in which feature representation is used at the highest level abstraction of a product model.Boundary representation is used at the bottom level,while CSG model is adopted at the median level.A BRep data structure capable of modeling non-manifold is adopted.UNRBS representation is used for all curved surfaces,Quadric surfaces have dual representations consisting of their geometric data such as radius,center point,and center axis.Boundary representation of free form surfaces is easily built by sweeping and skinning method with NURBS geometry.Set operations on curved solids with boundary representation are performed by an evaluation process consisting of four steps.A file exchange facility is provided for the conversion between product data described by STEP and product information generated by GEMS4.0.

  12. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-08-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  13. Advanced components for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricklett, K.L.; Cookson, A.H.; Bartholomew, R.W.; Leedy, T. [National inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Electricity Div.

    1994-12-31

    This is a key period in the development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The landmark 1990 legislation in California requires that 2 percent of new automobiles be zero emission vehicles in 1998, rising to 10 percent in the year 2005. This can only be met by electric vehicles. The purpose of the workshop was to concentrate on the technologies to improve the design, performance, manufacturability, and economics of the critical components for the next generation of electric and hybrid electric vehicles for the year 2000 and beyond. The workshop began with invited speakers to cover the general topics of impact of the California legislation, Federal agency programs, development of standards, infrastructure needs, advanced battery development, and the imperatives for commercial success of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Working sessions were five parallel meetings on Energy Conversion Systems, Energy Storage Systems, Electric Propulsion Systems, Controls and Instrumentation, and Ancillary Systems.

  14. Recent advances on hybrid approaches for designing intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Pedrycz, Witold; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for diverse areas of application, such as intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain a group of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of type-2 fuzzy logic, which basically consists of papers that propose new models and applications for type-2 fuzzy systems. The second part contains papers with the main theme of bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques to achieve optimization of complex optimization problems in diverse areas of application. The third part contains pape...

  15. An advanced pitch change mechanism incorporating a hybrid traction drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, B. M.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Sargisson, D. F.; White, G.

    1984-01-01

    A design of a propeller pitch control mechanism is described that meets the demanding requirements of a high-power, advanced turboprop. In this application, blade twisting moment torque can be comparable to that of the main reduction gearbox output: precise pitch control, reliability and compactness are all at a premium. A key element in the design is a compact, high-ratio hybrid traction drive which offers low torque ripple and high torsional stiffness. The traction drive couples a high speed electric motor/alternator unit to a ball screw that actuates the blade control links. The technical merits of this arrangement and the performance characteristics of the traction drive are discussed.

  16. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  17. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  18. Physical properties of particulate matter (PM) from late model heavy-duty diesel vehicles operating with advanced PM and NO x emission control technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subhasis; Hu, Shaohua; Verma, Vishal; Herner, Jorn D.; Robertson, William H.; Ayala, Alberto; Sioutas, Constantinos

    Emission control technologies designed to meet the 2007 and 2010 emission standards for heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) remove effectively the non-volatile fraction of particles, but are comparatively less efficient at controlling the semi-volatile components. A collaborative study between the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the University of Southern California was initiated to investigate the physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of the semi-volatile and non-volatile particulate matter (PM) fractions from HDDV emissions. This paper reports the physical properties, including size distribution, volatility (in terms of number and mass), surface diameter, and agglomeration of particles emitted from HDDV retrofitted with advanced emission control devices. Four vehicles in combination with six after-treatment devices (V-SCRT ®, Z-SCRT ®, CRT ®, DPX, Hybrid-CCRT ®, EPF) were tested under three driving cycles: steady state (cruise), transient (urban dynamometer driving schedule, UDDS), and idle. An HDDV without any control device is served as the baseline vehicle. Substantial reduction of PM mass emissions (>90%) was accomplished for the HDDV operating with advanced emission control technologies. This reduction was not observed for particle number concentrations under cruise conditions, with the exceptions of the Hybrid-CCRT ® and EPF vehicles, which were efficient in controlling both—mass and number emissions. In general, significant nucleation mode particles (<50 nm) were formed during cruise cycles in comparison with the UDDS cycles, which emit higher PM mass in the accumulation mode. The nucleation mode particles (<50 nm) were mainly internally mixed, and evaporated considerably between 150 and 230 °C. Compared to the baseline vehicle, particles from vehicles with controls (except of the Hybrid-CCRT ®) had a higher mass specific surface area.

  19. ALOHA: an Advanced LOwer Hybrid Antenna coupling code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced LOwer Hybrid Antenna (ALOHA) code, has been developed to improve the modelling of the coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves from the antenna to a cold inhomogeneous plasma while keeping a fast tool. In contrast to the previous code Slow Wave ANtenna (SWAN) (that only described the interaction of the slow wave between the waveguides and the plasma in a 1D model), the equations are now solved in 2D including the contribution of both the slow and fast waves, with a low computational cost. This approach is completed either by a full-wave computation of the antenna that takes into account its detailed geometry or by a mode-matching code dedicated to multijunctions modelling, which is convenient in preliminary design phases. Moreover, ALOHA can treat more realistic scrape-off layers in front of the antenna, by using a two-layer electron density profile. The ALOHA code has been compared with experimental results from Tore Supra LH antennas of different geometries, as well as benchmarked against other LH coupling codes, with very good results. Once validated, ALOHA has been used as a support for the design of COMPASS and ITER LH antennas and has shown to be a fast and reliable tool for LH antenna design.

  20. ALOHA: an Advanced LOwer Hybrid Antenna coupling code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillairet, J.; Voyer, D.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Kazda, M.; Meneghini, O.; Milanesio, D.; Preynas, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced LOwer Hybrid Antenna (ALOHA) code, has been developed to improve the modelling of the coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves from the antenna to a cold inhomogeneous plasma while keeping a fast tool. In contrast to the previous code Slow Wave ANtenna (SWAN) (that only described the interaction of the slow wave between the waveguides and the plasma in a 1D model), the equations are now solved in 2D including the contribution of both the slow and fast waves, with a low computational cost. This approach is completed either by a full-wave computation of the antenna that takes into account its detailed geometry or by a mode-matching code dedicated to multijunctions modelling, which is convenient in preliminary design phases. Moreover, ALOHA can treat more realistic scrape-off layers in front of the antenna, by using a two-layer electron density profile. The ALOHA code has been compared with experimental results from Tore Supra LH antennas of different geometries, as well as benchmarked against other LH coupling codes, with very good results. Once validated, ALOHA has been used as a support for the design of COMPASS and ITER LH antennas and has shown to be a fast and reliable tool for LH antenna design.

  1. Development of the ITER Advanced Steady State and Hybrid Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full discharge simulations are performed to examine the plasma current rampup, flattop and rampdown phases self-consistently with the poloidal field (PF) coils and their limitations, plasma transport evolution, and heating/current drive (H/CD) sources. Steady state scenarios are found that obtain 100% non-inductive current with Ip = 7.3-10.0 MA, ΒN ∼ 2.5 for H98 = 1.6, Q's range from 3 to 6, n/nGr = 0.75-1.0, and NB, IC, EC, and LH source have been examined. The scenarios remain within CS/PF coil limits by advancing the pre-magnetization by 40 Wb. Hybrid scenarios have been identified with 35-40% non-inductive current for Ip = 12.5 MA, H98 ∼ 1.25, with q(0) reaching 1 at or after the end of rampup. The equilibrium operating space for the hybrid shows a large range of scenarios can be accommodated, and access 925-1300 s flattop burn durations.

  2. Dusts, a pollutant from the past and future. Advancements in diesel particulate removal, and remaining issues; Les poussieres un polluant du passe et d`avenir. L`epuration des particules diesel le progres realise et les problemes a resoudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, M. [Renault S.A. (France)

    1996-12-31

    Major advancements have been realized for the reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines, with better-designed engines, enhancement of injection and combustion, etc., but due to new European pollution regulations, developments of catalytic post-treatments such as the DeNOx catalysis (followed by an oxidation catalysis for the destruction of hydrocarbons necessitated by DeNOx catalysis), particulate filters with additive-assisted combustion, or even electrically assisted particulate combustion, are required. Optimized diesel fuels, such as the Swedish city fuel, could be an other solution

  3. SINET3: advanced optical and IP hybrid network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushidani, Shigeo

    2007-11-01

    This paper introduces the new Japanese academic backbone network called SINET3, which has been in full-scale operation since June 2007. SINET3 provides a wide variety of network services, such as multi-layer transfer, enriched VPN, enhanced QoS, and layer-1 bandwidth on demand (BoD) services to create an innovative and prolific science infrastructure for more than 700 universities and research institutions. The network applies an advanced hybrid network architecture composed of 75 layer-1 switches and 12 high-performance IP routers to accommodate such diversified services in a single network platform, and provides sufficient bandwidth using Japan's first STM256 (40 Gbps) lines. The network adopts lots of the latest networking technologies, such as next-generation SDH (VCAT/GFP/LCAS), GMPLS, advanced MPLS, and logical-router technologies, for high network convergence, flexible resource assignment, and high service availability. This paper covers the network services, network design, and networking technologies of SINET3.

  4. Single Molecule Techniques for Advanced in situ Hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollars, C W; Stubbs, L; Carlson, K; Lu, X; Wehri, E

    2003-02-03

    One of the most significant achievements of modern science is completion of the human genome sequence, completed in the year 2000. Despite this monumental accomplishment, researchers have only begun to understand the relationships between this three-billion-nucleotide genetic code and the regulation and control of gene and protein expression within each of the millions of different types of highly specialized cells. Several methodologies have been developed for the analysis of gene and protein expression in situ, yet despite these advancements, the pace of such analyses is extremely limited. Because information regarding the precise timing and location of gene expression is a crucial component in the discovery of new pharmacological agents for the treatment of disease, there is an enormous incentive to develop technologies that accelerate the analytical process. Here we report on the use of plasmon resonant particles as advanced probes for in situ hybridization. These probes are used for the detection of low levels of gene-probe response and demonstrate a detection method that enables precise, simultaneous localization within a cell of the points of expression of multiple genes or proteins in a single sample.

  5. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles advanced simulation methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu; Moldovanu, Dan; Iclodean, Calin

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain

  6. Development and implementation of advanced control methods for hybrid simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid simulation is an effective way of testing structures that combines the benefits of a computational analysis and experimental testing techniques. Innovative structures consists of state-ofthe-art components and assemblages whose function as a system needs to be tested experimentally. Often times, these components and assemblages push the controller and other testing equipment to its limits. Performing hybrid simulation with the controller in displacement control mode does not always suf...

  7. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  8. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications. PMID:23339685

  9. Hybrid power filter for advanced power quality in industrial systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švec, J.; Müller, Z.; Kasembe, A. G.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 103, october 2013 (2013), s. 157-167. ISSN 0378-7796 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : hybrid power filter * power quality * industrial system Subject RIV: JA - Electronic s ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.595, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378779613001417

  10. Hybrid fuel cell bus demonstration: advanced technology moves bus forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of Manitoba has been actively pursuing hydrogen since 2001 as one part of a portfolio of renewable energy alternatives. Six priority hydrogen actions have been underway covering a variety of opportunities, including two recently completed major transit bus and refueling demonstrations. A brief overview of Manitoba's activities on hydrogen will be provided, emphasizing the lessons learned from recent projects such as the hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus demonstration, and in particular implications for the research community. (author)

  11. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    In situ graft acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were formed by polymerizing acrylic and acrylic-mixed monomers in the presence of alkyds by introduction of a free radical initiator to promote graft formation. Two-dimensional NMR, specifically gradient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (gHMQC), was used to clarify specific graft sites of the hybrid materials. Both individual and mixed-monomer systems were produced to determine any individual monomer preferences and to model current acrylic-alkyd systems. Different classes of initiators were used to determine any initiator effects on graft location. The 2D-NMR results confirm grafting at doubly allylic hydrogens located on the fatty acid chains and the polyol segment of the alkyd backbone. The gHMQC spectra show no evidence of grafting across double bonds on either pendant fatty acid groups or THPA unsaturation sites for any of the monomer or mixed monomer systems. It was also determined that choice of initiator has no effect on graft location. In addition, a design of experiments using response surface methodology was utilized to obtain a better understanding of this commercially available class of materials and relate both the chemical and physical properties to one another. A Box-Behnkin design was used, varying the oil length of the alkyd phase, the degree of unsaturation in the polyester backbone, and acrylic to alkyd ratio. Acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were reduced with an amine/water mixture. Hydrolytic stability was tested and viscoelastic properties were obtained to determine crosslink density. Cured films were prepared and basic coatings properties were evaluated. It was found that the oil length of the alkyd is the most dominant factor for final coatings properties of the resins. Acrylic to alkyd ratio mainly influences the resin properties such as acid number, average molecular weight, and hydrolytic stability. The degree of unsaturation in the alkyd backbone has minimal effects on resin and film

  12. Recent advances in hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaodong

    2015-06-01

    Hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures possess novel synergistic properties that arise from the integrated interaction between the disparate components, thereby showing promising potential for various important applications including solar cells, carbon monoxide oxidation, photocatalysts, field emission, sensors, templates and so on. With the rapid progress in nanomaterials science and nanotechnology, hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures with well-controlled compositions, shapes and sizes have been rationally designed and synthesized. This review attempts to summarize the important advances in the development of different types of hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures, such as hybrid Cu2O-metal nanostructures, hybrid Cu2O-metal oxide nanostructures and hybrid Cu2O-carbon nanostructures. The correlations between the improved performances and interfacial structures of the hybrid Cu2O-based heterogeneous nanostructures are discussed based on some important and representative examples. Several key scientific issues and perspective research directions in this field are also given.

  13. Exhibition design: hybrid space of advanced design innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini, L; Borsotti, M

    2014-01-01

    The exhibition design has always been – among other design disciplines – one of the most innovative field of experimentation both for languages and projects improvement. Moreover in the recent years the use of digital technologies, on one hand, and the further more active participation of the public – or, better to say, of the user – on the other hand, are making exhibition design a promising and rising laboratory of advanced innovation. This evolution is shaping itself around the co-particip...

  14. Development of advanced nickel/metal hydride batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Paul; Adams, John; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srinivasan

    Nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have emerged as the battery technology of choice for electric vehicles. GM Ovonic L.L.C., a joint venture between General Motors and Ovonic Battery was established in 1994 to manufacture and commercialize Ovonic's proprietary Ni/MH batteries for electric and hybrid vehicle applications. GM Ovonic is developing a `family of batteries' aimed at product improvement and cost reduction. Current performance of these new battery designs is described, as well as projections for future improvements. In addition, advances in cell and battery power have allowed further product diversification into cells and batteries specifically designed for a range of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).

  15. Fuzzy portfolio optimization advances in hybrid multi-criteria methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Pankaj; Inuiguchi, Masahiro; Chandra, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    This monograph presents a comprehensive study of portfolio optimization, an important area of quantitative finance. Considering that the information available in financial markets is incomplete and that the markets are affected by vagueness and ambiguity, the monograph deals with fuzzy portfolio optimization models. At first, the book makes the reader familiar with basic concepts, including the classical mean–variance portfolio analysis. Then, it introduces advanced optimization techniques and applies them for the development of various multi-criteria portfolio optimization models in an uncertain environment. The models are developed considering both the financial and non-financial criteria of investment decision making, and the inputs from the investment experts. The utility of these models in practice is then demonstrated using numerical illustrations based on real-world data, which were collected from one of the premier stock exchanges in India. The book addresses both academics and professionals pursuin...

  16. Advances in modeling of lower hybrid current drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Nilsson, E.; Artaud, J.-F.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Ding, B.; Li, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Shiraiwa, S.; Madi, M.

    2016-04-01

    First principle modeling of the lower hybrid (LH) current drive in tokamak plasmas is a longstanding activity, which is gradually gaining in accuracy thanks to quantitative comparisons with experimental observations. The ability to reproduce simulatenously the plasma current and the non-thermal bremsstrahlung radial profiles in the hard x-ray (HXR) photon energy range represents in this context a significant achievement. Though subject to limitations, ray tracing calculations are commonly used for describing wave propagation in conjunction with Fokker-Planck codes, as it can capture prominent features of the LH wave dynamics in a tokamak plasma-like toroidal refraction. This tool has been validated on several machines when the full absorption of the LH wave requires the transfer of a small fraction of power from the main lobes of the launched power spectrum to a tail at a higher parallel refractive index. Conversely, standard modeling based on toroidal refraction only becomes more challenging when the spectral gap is large, except if other physical mechanisms may dominate to bridge it, like parametric instabilities, as suggested for JET LH discharges (Cesario et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 175002), or fast fluctuations of the launched power spectrum or ‘tail’ LH model, as shown for Tore Supra (Decker et al 2014 Phys. Plasma 21 092504). The applicability of the heuristic ‘tail’ LH model is investigated for a broader range of plasma parameters as compared to the Tore Supra study and with different LH wave characteristics. Discrepancies and agreements between simulations and experiments depending upon the different models used are discussed. The existence of a ‘tail’ in the launched power spectrum significantly improves the agreement between modeling and experiments in plasma conditions for which the spectral gap is large in EAST and Alcator C-Mod tokamaks. For the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, the experimental evolution of the HXR profiles with density suggests

  17. Advanced components for electric and hybrid electric vehicles: Proceedings of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricklett, K.L. [ed.; Cookson, A.H.; Bartholomew, R.W.; Leedy, T. [National Inst. of Standards and Tech., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This is a key period in the development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The landmark 1990 legislation in California requires that two percent of new automobiles be zero emission vehicles in 1998, rising to 10 percent in the year 2005. This can only be met by electric vehicles. The purpose of the workshop was to concentrate on the technologies to improve the design, performance, manufacturability, and economics of the critical components for the next generation of electric and hybrid electric vehicles for the year 2000 and beyond. The workshop began with invited speakers to cover the general topics of impact of the California legislation, federal agency programs, development of standards, infrastructure needs, advanced battery development, and the imperatives for commercial success of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Working sessions were five parallel meetings on energy conversion systems, energy storage systems, electric propulsion systems, controls and instrumentation, and ancillary systems.

  18. Hybrid inverse lithography techniques for advanced hierarchical memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guangming; Hooker, Kevin; Irby, Dave; Zhang, Yunqiang; Ward, Brian; Cecil, Tom; Hall, Brett; Lee, Mindy; Kim, Dave; Lucas, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    greatly improve the ability of ILT to optimize advanced embedded memory designs while retaining significant hierarchy and cell design symmetry, therefore, have good turnaround time and CD uniformity. This paper will explain the enhancements which have been developed in order to overcome the traditional difficulties listed above. These enhancements are in the categories of local CD control, global chip processing options, process window benefit, turn-around time and hierarchy retention.

  19. Basic Principle of Advanced Oxidation Technology : Hybrid Technology Based on Ozone and Titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of problems in health environment is organic liquid waste from many pollutant resources. Environmental friendly technology for degrading this waste is ozone which produced by plasma discharge technology, but its capability is limited. However, it is needed a new environmental friendly technology which has stronger capability. This new technology is so called advanced oxidation technology. Advanced oxidation technology is a hybrid of ozone, peroxide, UV light and photo catalyst. In this paper, it is introduced basic principle of hybrid of ozone and titania photo catalyst semiconductor. The capability of organic liquid degradation will be stronger because there is new radical which is produced by chemical reaction between electron-hole pair from photo catalyst titania and water or oxygen. This new radical then degrades this organic pollutant. This technology is used to degrade phenol. (author)

  20. A Dual-Stage Hydrothermal Flow Reactor for Green and Sustainable Synthesis of Advanced Hybrid Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian Lund

    2016-01-01

    can be synthesized hydrothermally in a dual-stage flow reactor that is both environmentally benign and capable of producing high quantities which is a prerequisite for use in applications. A dual-stage hydrothermal flow reactor was developed for this purpose and used to produce hybrid nanomaterials of...... polycrystalline MoS2 nanosheets. The feasibility of producing supported nanomaterials is demonstrated using TiO2 nanocatalysts on MoS2 sheets This dissertation describes the dual-stage hydrothermal flow reactor and how advanced nanocomposites in high yields may be readily synthesized for potential use in...... control of the nanohybrid morphology. The choice of reactants and temperature profile is shown also to influence whether a composite or mixture is formed. Multiferroic γ-Fe2O3@SrTiO3 is synthesized to demonstrate the feasibility of producing highly advanced nanomaterials in flow. The hybrid is obtained...

  1. Advancements in large-format SiPIN hybrid focal plane technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, S.; Malone, N.; Kean, B.; Cantrell, J.; Fierro, J.; Meier, L.; DeWalt, S.; Hewitt, C.; Wyles, J.; Drab, J.; Grama, G.; Paloczi, G.; Vampola, J.; Brown, K.

    2014-09-01

    Raytheon has built hybrid focal planes based on Silicon P-I-N photo-sensors for the past three decades. The device has undergone a continuous improvement process during this period. The detector material has been improved and the thickness has been greatly reduced. Most recently, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) and the hybridization process, have undergone significant advancements1,2,3. This paper presents recent advancements in the latest generation 8μm pixelpitch 1k2 format and 5k2 format visible Si PIN focal-planes. The current family of devices has very low read-noise ROICs, low detector dark current, operate with a 25 volt bias and deliver 50% mean response operability greater than 99.995%.

  2. Analysis of fatigue crack propagation behaviour in SiC particulate Al2O3 whisker reinforced hybrid MMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, AKM Asif; Arai, Yoshio

    2016-02-01

    The fatigue crack propagation behaviour of a cast hybrid metal matrix composite (MMC) was investigated and compared with the crack propagation behaviour of MMC with Al2O3 and Al alloy in this article. Three dimensional (3D) surface analysis is carried out to analyze the crack propagation mechanism. All three materials clearly show near threshold and stable crack growth regions, but the rapid crack growth region is not clearly understood. The crack propagation resistance is found higher in hybrid MMC than that of MMC with Al2O3 whisker and the Al alloy in the low ΔK region. The crack propagation in the hybrid MMC in the near-threshold region is directed by the debonding of reinforcement-matrix followed by void nucleation in the Al alloy matrix. Besides, the crack propagation in the stable- or midcrack-growth region is controlled by the debonding of particle-matrix and whisker-matrix interface caused by the cycle-by-cycle crack growth along the interface. The transgranular fracture of the reinforcement and void formation are also observed. Due to presence of large volume of inclusions and the microstructural inhomogeneity, the area of striation formation is reduced in the hybrid MMC, caused the unstable fracture.

  3. Environmental performance of advanced hybrid energy storage systems for electric vehicle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The environmental impact of advanced energy storage systems is assessed. • The methodology used is Life Cycle Assessment following the ISO 14040 and 14044. • Twelve impact categories are assessed to avoid burden shifting. • Increasing the efficiency and extending the lifetime benefits the environmental performance. • The results show that there are hot spots where to act and reduce the overall impact. - Abstract: In this paper the environmental performance of an advanced hybrid energy storage system, comprising high power and high energy lithium iron phosphate cells, is compared with a stand alone battery concept composed of lithium manganese oxide cells. The methodology used to analyse the environmental impacts is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The manufacturing, use phase and end-of-life of the battery packs are assessed for twelve impact categories. The functional unit is 1 km driven under European average conditions. The present study assesses the environmental performance of the two battery packs for two scenarios: scenario 1 with a vehicle total drive range of 150,000 km and scenario 2 with total driving range of the car of 300,000 km. The results of scenario 1 show that the increased efficiency of the hybrid system reduces, in general, the environmental impact during the use stage, although the manufacturing stage has higher impact than the benchmark. Scenario 2 shows how the extended lifetime of the hybrid system benefits the emissions per km driven

  4. Hybrid fixation in the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for lower jaw advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ladeira Pereira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Miniplate and screw fixation has been widely used in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, but some issues remain unclear concerning its lack of rigidity when compared to Spiessl's bicortical technique. This paper demonstrates the hybrid fixation technique in a case report. A 34-year-old female patient underwent a double jaw surgery with counter-clockwise rotation of the mandible fixed using the hybrid fixation technique. The patient evolved well in the postoperative period and is still under follow up after 14 months, reporting satisfaction with the results and no significant deviation from the treatment plan up to now. No damage to tooth roots was done, maxillomandibular range of motion was within normality and regression of the inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia was observed bilaterally. The hybrid mandibular fixation is clearly visible in the panoramic and cephalometric control radiographs. It seems that the hybrid fixation can sum the advantages of both monocortical and bicortical techniques in lower jaw advancement, increasing fixation stability without significant damage to the mandibular articulation and the inferior alveolar nerve. A statistical investigation seems necessary to prove its efficacy.

  5. Optimization of an Advanced Hybrid Wing Body Concept Using HCDstruct Version 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts continue to be promising candidates for achieving the simultaneous fuel consumption and noise reduction goals set forth by NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. In order to evaluate the projected benefits, improvements in structural analysis at the conceptual design level were necessary; thus, NASA researchers developed the Hybrid wing body Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) tool to perform aeroservoelastic structural optimizations of advanced HWB concepts. In this paper, the authors present substantial updates to the HCDstruct tool and related analysis, including: the addition of four inboard and eight outboard control surfaces and two all-movable tail/rudder assemblies, providing a full aeroservoelastic analysis capability; the implementation of asymmetric load cases for structural sizing applications; and a methodology for minimizing control surface actuation power using NASTRAN SOL 200 and HCDstruct's aeroservoelastic finite-element model (FEM).

  6. Advanced control approach for hybrid systems based on solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Advanced new control system for SOFC based hybrid plants. • Proportional–Integral approach with feed-forward technology. • Good control of fuel cell temperature. • All critical properties maintained inside safe conditions. - Abstract: This paper shows a new advanced control approach for operations in hybrid systems equipped with solid oxide fuel cell technology. This new tool, which combines feed-forward and standard proportional–integral techniques, controls the system during load changes avoiding failures and stress conditions detrimental to component life. This approach was selected to combine simplicity and good control performance. Moreover, the new approach presented in this paper eliminates the need for mass flow rate meters and other expensive probes, as usually required for a commercial plant. Compared to previous works, better performance is achieved in controlling fuel cell temperature (maximum gradient significantly lower than 3 K/min), reducing the pressure gap between cathode and anode sides (at least a 30% decrease during transient operations), and generating a higher safe margin (at least a 10% increase) for the Steam-to-Carbon Ratio. This new control system was developed and optimized using a hybrid system transient model implemented, validated and tested within previous works. The plant, comprising the coupling of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack with a microturbine, is equipped with a bypass valve able to connect the compressor outlet with the turbine inlet duct for rotational speed control. Following model development and tuning activities, several operative conditions were considered to show the new control system increased performance compared to previous tools (the same hybrid system model was used with the new control approach). Special attention was devoted to electrical load steps and ramps considering significant changes in ambient conditions

  7. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs. Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator permanent magnet (stator-PM motor, a hybrid-excitation motor, a flux memory motor and a redundant motor structure. Then, it illustrates advanced electric drive systems, such as the magnetic-geared in-wheel drive and the integrated starter generator (ISG. Finally, three machine-based implementations of the power split devices are expounded, built up around the dual-rotor PM machine, the dual-stator PM brushless machine and the magnetic-geared dual-rotor machine. As a conclusion, the development trends in the field of electric machines and machine-based systems for EVs are summarized.

  8. Advanced Tokamak Regimes in Alcator C-Mod with Lower Hybrid Current Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R.; Bonoli, P.; Gwinn, D.; Hutchinson, I.; Porkolab, M.; Ramos, J.; Bernabei, S.; Hosea, J.; Wilson, R.

    1999-11-01

    Alcator C-Mod has been proposed as a test-bed for developing advanced tokamak scenarios owing to its strong shaping, relatively long pulse length capability at moderate field, e.g. t ~ L/R at B = 5T and T_eo ~ 7keV, and the availability of strong ICRF heating. We plan to exploit this capability by installing up to 4 MW RF power at 4.6 GHz for efficient off-axis current drive by lower hybrid waves. By launching LH waves with a grill whose n_xx spectrum can be dynamically controlled over the range 2 2. Such reversed or nearly zero shear regimes have already been proposed as the basis of an advanced tokamak burning-plasma experiment-ATBX (M. Porkolab et al, IAEA-CN-69/FTP/13, IAEA,Yokohama 1998.), and could provide the basis for a demonstration power reactor. Theoretical and experimental basis for this advanced tokamak research program on C-Mod, including design of the lower hybrid coupler, its spectrum and current drive capabilities will be presented.

  9. Hybrid nuclear light bulb-nuclear-pumped laser propulsion for advanced missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid ``nuclear light bulb'' gaseous core reactor that can radiantly transfer energy to a propellant or alternately activate laser action is proposed for advanced space missions. The propellant mode would be employed in the phases of the mission requiring a higher thrust. However, for the bulk of the travel, the propellant would be turned off and the ultrahigh specific impulse laser mode of operation would be employed. The concept is reviewed, research and development issues are identified, and steps necessary for a feasibility demonstration are discussed.

  10. MorphologiCal and Cytogenetic Analysis on the Advanced Generations of Generic Hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang ZHAO; Dezhi DU; Zaiyun LI

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to reveal the genetic changes of advanced generation hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus. [Method] The morphological characteristics such as the plant shape, branching sites, leaf shape, leaf color, primary branches and secondary branches, as well as the cytolog- ical characteristics of the advanced generation hybrids (Fs-F10) between B. napus and O. violaceus were observed. [Result] The morphology analysis revealed that the hybrid progeny was more like B. rapa in leaf shape, leaf color, plant shape and ear- ly flowering phenotype, whereas more like B. napus in number of secondary branch- es, silique length and 1 000-seed weight. Analysis on the cytogenetics characteristics showed that these advanced inbred progenies were hypoploids with less than 38 chromosomes; moreover, all the chromosomes from O. violaceus had been lost. Chromosome pairings at meiotic diakinesis of hybrids between the advanced inbred progenies and B. rapa revealed that chromosomes lost in hypoploids possibly be- longed to the C genome of B. oleracea. With generations developing, chromosomes number of plants from two populations gradually increased and developed into the number of B. napus (2n=38). [Conclusion] This study will provide reference to reveal the source of chromosome lost in hypoploids and the morphological change of hybrids.

  11. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-07-01

    In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. PMID:23664475

  13. High-speed and low-power silicon-organic hybrid modulators for advanced modulation formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, M.; Wolf, S.; Palmer, R.; Koeber, S.; Schindler, P. C.; Wahlbrink, T.; Bolten, J.; Giesecke, A. L.; Koenigsmann, M.; Kohler, M.; Malsam, D.; Elder, D. L.; Dalton, L. R.; Leuthold, J.; Freude, W.; Koos, C.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for generating advanced modulation formats at high data rates and with low energy consumption. SOH integration combines slot waveguides on conventional silicon-on-insulator substrates with highly efficient electro-optic materials. With this approach we generate 16QAM signals at symbol rates of 28 GBd and 40 GBd leading to gross data rates (net data rates) of up to 160 Gbit/s (133 Gbit/s) for a single polarization. This is the highest value achieved by a silicon-based modulator up to now. With a maximum symbol rate of 28 GBd, low drive voltages of only 0.6 Vpp are sufficient and result in a record-low energy consumption of only 19 fJ/bit. This is the lowest energy consumption that has so far been reported for a 16QAM modulator at 28 GBd.

  14. Recent advances on multi-component hybrid nanostructures for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pan; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2015-10-01

    With the continuously growing energy demand and ever-escalating environmental problems, the great energy transition from conventional fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy is under way, and requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices, such as electrochemical capacitors (also called as supercapacitors). In order to achieve high energy and power densities of supercapacitors, numerous efforts are devoted to the development of advanced multi-component hybrid electrode materials for realizing high-performance. This review summarizes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for energy storage, with a particular focus on these nanostructures that integrate carbon materials, metal oxides/hydroxides and conducting polymers for enhancing energy storage performances via taking advantage of each component's unique functionality and their synergetic effects. Finally, we give some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this intriguing field.

  15. Advancing Plug-In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Minivan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, Abdullah [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Barnhart, Steven [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed this DOE funding as a historic opportunity to begin the process of achieving required economies of scale on technologies for electric vehicles. The funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies to future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components, and common modules, as well as first-responder training and battery recycling. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also used this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original project proposal was submitted in December 2009 and selected in January 2010. The project ended in December 2014.

  16. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Exposure to nanoscale particles and fibers during machining of hybrid advanced composites containing carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated airborne exposures to nanoscale particles and fibers generated during dry and wet abrasive machining of two three-phase advanced composite systems containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), micron-diameter continuous fibers (carbon or alumina), and thermoset polymer matrices. Exposures were evaluated with a suite of complementary instruments, including real-time particle number concentration and size distribution (0.005-20 μm), electron microscopy, and integrated sampling for fibers and respirable particulate at the source and breathing zone of the operator. Wet cutting, the usual procedure for such composites, did not produce exposures significantly different than background whereas dry cutting, without any emissions controls, provided a worst-case exposure and this article focuses here. Overall particle release levels, peaks in the size distribution of the particles, and surface area of released particles (including size distribution) were not significantly different for composites with and without CNTs. The majority of released particle surface area originated from the respirable (1-10 μm) fraction, whereas the nano fraction contributed ∼10% of the surface area. CNTs, either individual or in bundles, were not observed in extensive electron microscopy of collected samples. The mean number concentration of peaks for dry cutting was composite dependent and varied over an order of magnitude with highest values for thicker laminates at the source being >1 x 106 particles cm-3. Concentration of respirable fibers for dry cutting at the source ranged from 2 to 4 fibers cm-3 depending on the composite type. Further investigation is required and underway to determine the effects of various exposure determinants, such as specimen and tool geometry, on particle release and effectiveness of controls.

  18. Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.

  19. Hybrid laser/arc welding of advanced high strength steel in different butt joint configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Feasibility of joining thick steel by HLAW process was studied. • Design of butt joint configurations satisfied ballistic test requirement. • Heat input and microstructure were changed by groove geometry. - Abstract: An experimental procedure was developed to join thick advanced high strength steel plates by using the hybrid laser/arc welding (HLAW) process, for different butt joint configurations. The geometry of the weld groove was optimized according to the requirements of ballistic test, where the length of the softened heat affected zone should be less than 15.9 mm from the weld centerline. The cross-section of the welds was examined by microhardness test. The microstructure of welds was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and an optical microscope for further analysis of the microstructure of fusion zone and heat affected zone. It was demonstrated that by changing the geometry of groove, and increasing the stand-off distance between the laser beam and the tip of wire in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) it is possible to reduce the width of the heat affected zone and softened area while the microhardness stays within the acceptable range. It was shown that double Y-groove shape can provide the optimum condition for the stability of arc and laser. The dimensional changes of the groove geometry provided substantial impact on the amount of heat input, causing the fluctuations in the hardness of the weld as a result of phase transformation and grain size. The on-line monitoring of HLAW of the advanced high strength steel indicated the arc and laser were stable during the welding process. It was shown that less plasma plume was formed in the case where the laser was leading the arc in the HLAW, causing higher stability of the molten pool in comparison to the case where the arc was leading

  20. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  1. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  2. HYDROTHERMALLY SELF-ADVANCING HYBRID COATINGS FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA, T.

    2006-11-22

    Hydrothermally self-advancing hybrid coatings were prepared by blending two starting materials, water-borne styrene acrylic latex (SAL) as the matrix and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the hydraulic filler, and then their usefulness was evaluated as the room temperature curable anti-corrosion coatings for carbon steel in CO{sub 2}-laden geothermal environments at 250 C. The following two major factors supported the self-improving mechanisms of the coating during its exposure in an autoclave: First was the formation of a high temperature stable polymer structure of Ca-complexed carboxylate groups containing SAL (Ca-CCG-SAL) due to hydrothermal reactions between SAL and CAC; second was the growth with continuing exposure time of crystalline calcite and boehmite phases coexisting with Ca-CCG-SAL. These two factors promoted the conversion of the porous microstructure in the non-autoclaved coating into a densified one after 7 days exposure. The densified microstructure not only considerably reduced the conductivity of corrosive ionic electrolytes through the coatings' layers, but also contributed to the excellent adherence of the coating to underlying steel' s surface that, in turn, retarded the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction at the corrosion site of steel. Such characteristics including the minimum uptake of corrosive electrolytes by the coating and the retardation of the cathodic corrosion reaction played an important role in inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel in geothermal environments.

  3. An advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF6 volatilization and chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To recover U, Pu, MA (Np, Am, Cm) and some specific fission products FPs (Cs, Sr, Tc, etc.) from various spent nuclear fuels (LWR/FBR: Oxide, Metal Fuels), we are studying an advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF6 volatilization (Pyro) and chromatographic separation (Aqueous). Spent fuels are de-cladded by means of thermal and mechanical methods and then applied to the fluorination/volatilization process, which selectively recovers the most amount of U. Then, the remained fuel components are converted to oxides and dissolved by HNO3 solution. Compared to U, since Pu, MA and FPs are significantly less abundant in spent fuels, the scale of the aqueous separation process could become reasonably small and result in less waste. For the chromatographic separation processes, we have prepared different types of porous silica-based organic/inorganic adsorbents with fast diffusion kinetics, improved chemical stability and low pressure drop in a packed column. So they are advantageously applicable to efficient separation of the actinides and FP elements from the fuel dissolved solution. In this work, adsorption and separation behavior of representative actinides and FP elements was studied. Small scale separation tests using simulated and genuine fuel dissolved solutions were carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed process. (authors)

  4. Advances in the understanding of inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and wide-compatibility in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG YiDan; CHEN JiongJiong; DING JiHua; ZHANG QiFa

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid sterility is a major form of postzygotic reproductive isolation and frequently occurs in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). It has been a major barrier for utilization of the strong heterosis expressed in hybrids between indica and japonica. A large number of loci for rice inter-subspecific hybrid sterility have been identified by genetic analysis. Cytological studies revealed that male and female gamete abortions and reduced affinity between the uniting gametes all occurred in indica-japonica hybrids, suggesting the complexity of the causes for inter-subspecific hybrid sterility. Two genes conditioning embryo-sac and pollen sterility respectively in indica-japonica hybrids have been cloned recently, providing opportunities for molecular characterization of the indica-japonica hybrid sterility and wide-compatibility. Future studies should aim at cloning more genes for indica-japonica hybrid sterility, characterizing the underlying molecular mechanism, and utilization of the findings for the development of inter-subspecific hybrids to increase rice productivity.

  5. Fabrication of Hybrid Nanostructures via Nanoscale Laser-Induced Reshaping for Advanced Light Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, Dmitry A; Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Milichko, Valentin A; Starikov, Sergey V; Morozov, Ivan A; Shishkin, Ivan I; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-04-01

    Ordered hybrid nanostructures for nanophotonics applications are fabricated by a novel approach via femtosecond laser melting of asymmetric metal-dielectric (Au/Si) nanoparticles created by lithographical methods. The approach allows selective reshaping of the metal components of the hybrid nanoparticles without affecting the dielectric ones and is applied for tuning of the scattering properties of the hybrid nanostructures in the visible range. PMID:26901635

  6. The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels Program Evaluation of EC-Diesel and Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California Vehicle Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC-Diesel and particulate filter combination greatly reduced the particulate matter, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions of all vehicles tested in the program to date. Particulate matter reductions greater than 98% were achieved. For several vehicles tested, the PM and HC emissions were less than background levels. Based on preliminary statistical analysis, there is 95%+ confidence that EC-D and particulate filters reduced emissions from three different types of vehicles. A fuel consumption penalty was not detectable using the current test procedures and chassis dynamometer laboratory. Test vehicles equipped with the CRT and DPX particulate filters and fueled with EC-Diesel fuel have operated reliably during the program start-up period

  7. Pore formation and its mitigation during hybrid laser/arc welding of advanced high strength steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Possible mechanisms of pores formation in HLAW of AHSS were studied. • Mitigation approaches for removing pores in AHSS welds were introduced. • Dx in HLAW and laser welding assisted with hot wire were alleviating pores. - Abstract: The possible mechanisms of the pores formation and their mitigation during the hybrid laser/arc welding (HLAW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) were investigated. Influence of three variables (stand-off distance between the laser and the arc of gas metal arc welding (GMAW), heat input and side shielding gas) in the HLAW for reducing the presence of pores in the weld area was studied. The optimum condition of the welds prepared by the HLAW was compared with the welds made by the laser welding assisted with hot wire. The vision monitoring of the welding processes was performed by a charged coupled device (CCD) camera and mechanical properties of the welds were evaluated by a high energy impact test and microhardness measurement. The joints were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The results showed that the optimum stand-off distance between the laser and the tip of wire in the HLAW and laser welding assisted with a hot wire were the most effective approaches for avoiding the pore formation. The fracture surface of the welds was mostly dominated by a brittle fracture with the presence of two types of pores, indicating that there were two mechanisms for the generation of pores in the weld area

  8. Advanced Hybrid On-Board Data Processor - SpaceCube 2.0 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop advanced on-board processing to meet the requirements of the Decadal Survey missions: advanced instruments (hyper-spectral, SAR, etc) require advanced...

  9. Recent advances in multifunctional silica-based hybrid nanocarriers for bioimaging and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei Qi; Phua, Soo Zeng Fiona; Xu, Hesheng Victor; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable research focus on integrating cancer cell imaging and therapeutic functions into single nanoscale platforms for better treatment of cancer. This task could often be achieved by incorporating multiple components into a hybrid nanosystem. In this minireview, we highlight different types of silica-based hybrid nanosystems and their recent applications as integrated multifunctional platforms for cancer imaging and treatment. The discussions are divided into several sections focusing on various types of materials employed to integrate with silica, which include silica-metallic nanoparticle based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-gold nanoparticle based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-quantum dot based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-upconversion nanoparticle based hybrid nanocarriers, silica-carbon based hybrid nanocarriers, and organosilica nanocarriers. Therapeutic agents loaded in such hybrids include chemodrugs, proteins, DNA/RNA and photosensitizers. For targeted delivery into tumor sites, targeting ligands such as antibodies, peptides, aptamers, and other small molecules are grafted on the surface of the nanocarriers. At the end of the review, a brief summary and research outlook are presented. This minireview aims to provide a quick update of recent research achievements in the field.

  10. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  11. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    has recently assisted INL in establishing the technical infrastructure for implementation of HSI prototypes from HAMMLAB into the HSSL to demonstrate relevant control room replacement systems in support of the LWRS program. In March, 2014, IFE delivered the first HSI prototype utilizing this infrastructure - a large screen overview display for INL's simulator. The co-operation now continues by developing Procedure Support Displays targeted for operators in hybrid control room settings. These prototypes are being validated with U.S. reactor operators in the HSSL and optimized to enhance their performance. This research serves as a crucial stepping stone toward incorporation of advanced display technologies into conventional main control rooms.

  12. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokstad, Håkon [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    recently assisted INL in establishing the technical infrastructure for implementation of HSI prototypes from HAMMLAB into the HSSL to demonstrate relevant control room replacement systems in support of the LWRS program. In March, 2014, IFE delivered the first HSI prototype utilizing this infrastructure — a large screen overview display for INL's simulator. The co-operation now continues by developing Procedure Support Displays targeted for operators in hybrid control room settings. These prototypes are being validated with U.S. reactor operators in the HSSL and optimized to enhance their performance. This research serves as a crucial stepping stone toward incorporation of advanced display technologies into conventional main control rooms.

  13. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and "through-the-ground" parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains.

  14. Recent Advances in Development of Herbicide Resistant Transgenic Hybrid Rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Guo-ying

    2009-01-01

    In addition to weed control in direct seeding field of hybrid rice, herbicide resistance genes were used by Chinese scientists to increase and identify the purity of hybrid seeds, and to realize the mechanization of hybrid seed production. The elite restorer lines, such as Minghui 63, R752, T461, R402, D68 and E32 were transformed directly with herbicide resistance genes, in which D68 and E32 are restorer lines of two-line system and the others are of three-line system. Because almost all of important restorer lines are indica varieties and are recalcitrant in transformation, many herbicide resistant near-isogenic restorer lines were developed by sexual hybridization of indica and japonica varieties and backcross with indica restorer lines later, such as Ce 64, Minghui 63, Teqing, Milyang 46, R402 and 9311, in which 9311 is a restorer line of two-line system. The elite photoperiod-sensitive/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines, such as Pei'ai 64S, P88S, 4008S and 7001S, were transformed with herbicide resistance genes. A few herbicide resistant male sterile lines were developed through sexual hybridization and subsequently systemic selection, such as Bar1259S, Bar2172S, 05Z221A and 05Z227A. With the employment of herbicide resistant male sterile lines or herbicide resistant restorer lines, a few herbicide resistant hybrid rice combinations were developed, such as Xiang 125S/Bar 68-1 and Pei'ai 64S/Bar 9311. Based on herbicide resistance, the research was marching on to investigate the parental lines of hybrid rice with insect resistance, drought tolerance, etc.

  15. Bulk-Flow Analysis of Hybrid Thrust Bearings for Advanced Cryogenic Turbopumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanAndres, Luis

    1998-01-01

    on a Windows 95/NT personal computer. The program, help files and examples are licensed by Texas A&M University Technology License Office. The study of the static and dynamic performance of two hydrostatic/hydrodynamic bearings demonstrates the importance of centrifugal and advection fluid inertia effects for operation at high rotational speeds. The first example considers a conceptual hydrostatic thrust bearing for an advanced liquid hydrogen turbopump operating at 170,000 rpm. The large axial stiffness and damping coefficients of the bearing should provide accurate control and axial positioning of the turbopump and also allow for unshrouded impellers, therefore increasing the overall pump efficiency. The second bearing uses a refrigerant R134a, and its application in oil-free air conditioning compressors is of great technological importance and commercial value. The computed predictions reveal that the LH2 bearing load capacity and flow rate increase with the recess pressure (i.e. increasing orifice diameters). The bearing axial stiffness has a maximum for a recess pressure rati of approx. 0.55. while the axial damping coefficient decreases as the recess pressure ratio increases. The computer results from three flow models are compared. These models are a) inertialess, b) fluid inertia at recess edges only, and c) full fluid inertia at both recess edges and film lands. The full inertia model shows the lowest flow rates, axial load capacity and stiffness coefficient but on the other hand renders the largest damping coefficients and inertia coefficients. The most important findings are related to the reduction of the outflow through the inner radius and the appearance of subambient pressures. The performance of the refrigerant hybrid thrust bearing is evaluated at two operating speeds and pressure drops. The computed results are presented in dimensionless form to evidence consistent trends in the bearing performance characteristics. As the applied axial load

  16. Recent advances in hybrid methods applied to neutral particle transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Particle transport methods are essential for accurate simulation of nuclear systems including nuclear reactors, medical devices, nondestructive interrogation devices, and radiation imaging devices. Commonly, the Monte Carlo and deterministic discrete ordinates (Sn) approaches are used to solve radiation transport problems. Both approaches when used for simulation of large 3-D real-world problems may become inefficient. So, various hybrid methodologies have been developed; these methodologies can be categorized into four groups: coupled deterministic and Monte Carlo methods; Monte Carlo variance reduction using the deterministic importance function; acceleration of the deterministic methods based on a lower-order deterministic formulation; and coupled deterministic methods This paper compares the Sn deterministic and Monte Carlo approaches, reviews different hybrid methodologies, and discusses recent methods we (the University of Florida Transport Theory Group (UFTTG)) have developed and applied to real-world problems. (author)

  17. Dynamic Behavior of Hybrid APM (Advanced Pore Morphology Foam) and Aluminum Foam Filled Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Joerg Weise; Valerio Mussi; Michele Monno; Massimo Goletti; Joachim Baumeister

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of different densities of hybrid aluminum polymer foam on the frequency behavior of a foam filled steel structure with different ratios between steel and foam masses. The foam filled structure is composed of three steel tubes with a welded flange at both ends bolted together to form a portal grounded by its free ends. Structure, internal and ground constraints have been designed and manufactured in order to minimize nonlinear effects and to guara...

  18. A MICROFLUIDIC MAGNETIC HYBRID ACTUATOR FOR ADVANCED HANDLING FUNCTIONS AT CELL RESOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Fouet, Marc; Courson, Rémi; Dollat, Xavier; Medale, Daniel; Gué, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    In microfluidics, the use of super-paramagnetic microparticles (SMPs) has experienced a dramatic increase over the last decade, but control of the magnetic field at micro scale is still a topical issue. Permanent magnets don't offer a programmable approach, external coils require a certain power, and neither are usually integrated. Hybrid systems, which include external magnets to generate a high and homogeneous magnetic field, and integrated coils that produce a high gradient, are seemingly ...

  19. Dynamic Behavior of Hybrid APM (Advanced Pore Morphology Foam and Aluminum Foam Filled Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Weise

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of different densities of hybrid aluminum polymer foam on the frequency behavior of a foam filled steel structure with different ratios between steel and foam masses. The foam filled structure is composed of three steel tubes with a welded flange at both ends bolted together to form a portal grounded by its free ends. Structure, internal and ground constraints have been designed and manufactured in order to minimize nonlinear effects and to guarantee optimal constraint conditions. Mode shapes and frequencies were verified with finite elements models (FEM to be in the range of experimental modal analysis, considering the frequency measurement range limits for instrumented hammer and accelerometer. Selected modes have been identified with suitable modal parameters extraction techniques. Each structure has been tested before and after filling, in order to compute the percentage variation of modal parameters. Two different densities of hybrid aluminum polymer foam have been tested and compared with structures filled with aluminum foams produced using the powder compact melting technique. All the foam fillings were able to suppress high frequency membrane modes which results in a reduction of environmental noise and an increase in performance of the components. Low frequency modes show an increase in damping ratio only when small thickness steel frames are filled with either Hybrid APM or Alulight foam.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system consisting of wind turbine and advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation model consisting of wind speed, wind turbine and AA-CAES (advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage) system is developed in this paper, and thermodynamic analysis on energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system is carried out. The impacts of stable wind speed and unstable wind speed on the hybrid system are analyzed and compared from the viewpoint of energy conversion and system efficiency. Besides, energy conversion relationship between wind turbine and AA-CAES system is investigated on the basis of process analysis. The results show that there are several different forms of energy in hybrid system, which have distinct conversion relationship. As to wind turbine, power coefficient determines wind energy utilization efficiency, and in AA-CAES system, it is compressor efficiency that mainly affects energy conversion efficiencies of other components. The strength and fluctuation of wind speed have a direct impact on energy conversion efficiencies of components of hybrid system, and within proper wind speed scope, the maximum of system efficiency could be expected. - Highlights: • A hybrid system consisting of wind, wind turbine and AA-CAES system is established. • Energy conversion in hybrid system with stable and unstable wind speed is analyzed. • Maximum efficiency of hybrid system can be reached within proper wind speed scope. • Thermal energy change in hybrid system is more sensitive to wind speed change. • Compressor efficiency can affect other efficiencies in AA-CAES system

  1. Hybrid Modeling for Scenario-Based Evaluation of Failure Effects in Advanced Hardware-Software Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an incremental scenario-based simulation approach to evaluation of intelligent software for control and management of hardware systems. A hybrid continuous/discrete event simulation of the hardware dynamically interacts with the intelligent software in operations scenarios. Embedded anomalous conditions and failures in simulated hardware can lead to emergent software behavior and identification of missing or faulty software or hardware requirements. An approach is described for extending simulation-based automated incremental failure modes and effects analysis, to support concurrent evaluation of intelligent software and the hardware controlled by the software

  2. Advances in hybrid MR–PET at 3 T and 9.4 T in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid MR–PET data acquisition in simultaneous mode confers a number of advantages at 3 T and 9.4 T. From an MR perspective, the potential for ultra-high resolution structural imaging is discussed and example images of the cerebellum with an isotropic resolution of 320 μm are presented. Further, metabolic imaging is discussed and high-resolution images of the sodium distribution are demonstrated. Examples of tumour imaging on a 3 T MR–PET system are included and discussed

  3. Advances in hybrid MR–PET at 3 T and 9.4 T in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Shah, N., E-mail: n.j.shah@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, JARA, RWTH Aachen University Aachen (Germany); Mauler, Jörg [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Neuner, Irene [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Romanzetti, Sandro; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Felder, Jörg; Celik, Avdo [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Iida, Hidehiro [Department of Investigative Radiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1, Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka, 565-8565 (Japan); Langen, Karl-Josef; Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    Hybrid MR–PET data acquisition in simultaneous mode confers a number of advantages at 3 T and 9.4 T. From an MR perspective, the potential for ultra-high resolution structural imaging is discussed and example images of the cerebellum with an isotropic resolution of 320 μm are presented. Further, metabolic imaging is discussed and high-resolution images of the sodium distribution are demonstrated. Examples of tumour imaging on a 3 T MR–PET system are included and discussed.

  4. Advanced microtechnologies for detection of chromosome abnormalities by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul;

    2012-01-01

    cytogenetic techniques such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). To improve FISH application in cytogenetic analysis the issues with long experimental time, high volumes of expensive reagents and requirement for trained technicians need to be addressed. The protocol has recently evolved towards on...... chip detection of chromosome abnormalities with the development of microsystems for FISH analysis. The challenges addressed by the developed microsystems are mainly the automation of the assay performance, reduction in probe volume, as well as reduction of assay time. The recent focus on the...

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of a hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of obstructive sleep apnea assessed with acoustic reflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most common forms of sleep-disordered breathing. Various treatment modalities include behavior modification therapy, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, oral appliance therapy, and various surgical modalities. Oral appliances are noninvasive and recommended treatment modality for snoring, mild to moderate OSA cases and severe OSA cases when patient is not compliant to CPAP therapy and unwilling for surgery. Acoustic reflection technique (ART is a relatively new modality for three-dimensional assessment of airway caliber in various clinical situations. The accuracy and reproducibility of acoustic rhinometry and acoustic pharyngometry assessment are comparable to computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This case report highlights the therapeutic efficacy of an innovative customized acrylic hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of polysomnography diagnosed OSA cases, and the treatment results were assessed by ART.

  6. Effect of gas puffing from different side on lower hybrid wave-plasma coupling in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gas puffing from electron-side and ion-side on lower hybrid wave (LHW)-plasma is investigated in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak for the first time. Experimental results with different gas flow rates show that electron density at the grill is higher in the case of gas puffing from electron-side; consequently, a lower reflection coefficient is observed, suggesting better effect of puffing from electron-side on LHW-plasma. The difference in edge density between electron- and ion-side cases suggests that local ionization of puffed gas plays a dominant role in affecting the density at the grill due to different movement direction of ionized electrons and that part of gas has been locally ionized near the gas pipe before diffusing into the grill region. Such difference could be enlarged and important in ITER due to the improvement of plasma parameters and LHW power

  7. Study on lower hybrid current drive efficiency at high density towards long-pulse regimes in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress on both L- and H-mode long-pulse discharges has been made recently in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) [J. Li et al., Nature Phys. 9, 817 (2013) And B. N. Wan et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 104006 (2013).]. In this paper, LHCD experiments at high density in L-mode plasmas have been investigated in order to explore possible methods of improving current drive (CD) efficiency, thus to extend the operational space in long-pulse and high performance plasma regime. It is observed that the normalized bremsstrahlung emission falls much more steeply than 1/ne-av (line-averaged density) above ne-av = 2.2 × 1019 m−3 indicating anomalous loss of CD efficiency. A large broadening of the operating line frequency (f = 2.45 GHz), measured by a radio frequency (RF) probe located outside the EAST vacuum vessel, is generally observed during high density cases, which is found to be one of the physical mechanisms resulting in the unfavorable CD efficiency. Collisional absorption of lower hybrid wave in the scrape off layer (SOL) may be another cause, but this assertion needs more experimental evidence and numerical analysis. It is found that plasmas with strong lithiation can improve CD efficiency largely, which should be benefited from the changes of edge parameters. In addition, several possible methods are proposed to recover good efficiency in future experiments for EAST

  8. Advanced numerical modeling and hybridization techniques for third-generation infrared detector pixel arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jonathan

    to their final hybridization onto expensive silicon read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) chips. The approach is to temporarily hybridize each candidate HgCdTe detector array to a standard reusable ROIC for complete screen testing. We tested the technique by temporarily hybridizing LPE grown HgCdTe test chips to fan-out boards and characterizing their performance.

  9. Self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell particulate nanocomposites through DNA-DNA hybridization and magnetic field directed assembly of superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Lochbiler, Thomas A.; Panda, Manashi; Srinivasan, Gopalan; Chavez, Ferman A.

    2016-04-01

    Multiferroic composites of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases are of importance for studies on mechanical strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric subsystems. This work is on DNA-assisted self-assembly of superstructures of such composites with nanometer periodicity. The synthesis involved oligomeric DNA-functionalized ferroelectric and ferromagnetic nanoparticles, 600 nm BaTiO3 (BTO) and 200 nm NiFe2O4 (NFO), respectively. Mixing BTO and NFO particles, possessing complementary DNA sequences, resulted in the formation of ordered core-shell heteronanocomposites held together by DNA hybridization. The composites were imaged by scanning electron microscopy and scanning microwave microscopy. The presence of heteroassemblies along with core-shell architecture is clearly observed. The reversible nature of the DNA hybridization allows for restructuring the composites into mm-long linear chains and 2D-arrays in the presence of a static magnetic field and ring-like structures in a rotating-magnetic field. Strong magneto-electric (ME) coupling in as-assembled composites is evident from static magnetic field H induced polarization and low-frequency magnetoelectric voltage coefficient measurements. Upon annealing the nanocomposites at high temperatures, evidence for the formation of bulk composites with excellent cross-coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems is obtained by H-induced polarization and low-frequency ME voltage coefficient. The ME coupling strength in the self-assembled composites is measured to be much stronger than in bulk composites with randomly distributed NFO and BTO prepared by direct mixing and sintering.

  10. Advanced design of valve-regulated lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Newnham, R. H.; Ozgun, H.; Fleming, F. A.

    A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge (PSoC)/fast-charge, electric-vehicle operation. The improvements in performance are attributed to more uniform utilization of the plate active-materials. The battery, combined with an internal-combustion engine and a new type of supercapacitor, will be used to power an HEV, which is being designed and constructed by an Australian industry-government consortium.

  11. Advanced design of valve-regulated lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, L.T.; Newnham, R.H.; Ozgun, H. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Fleming, F.A. [Hawker Energy Products, Warrensburg, MO (United States)

    2000-05-01

    A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge (PSoC)/fast-charge, electric-vehicle operation. The improvements in performance are attributed to more uniform utilization of the plate active materials. The battery, combined with an internal-combustion engine and a new type of supercapacitor, will be used to power an HEV, which is being designed and constructed by an Australian industry-government consortium. (orig.)

  12. Advanced state prediction of lithium-ion traction batteries in hybrid and battery electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadidi, Yasser

    2011-07-01

    Automotive power trains with high energy efficiencies - particularly to be found in battery and hybrid electric vehicles - find increasing attention in the focus of reduction of exhaust emissions and increase of mileage. The underlying concept, the electrification of the power train, is subject to the traction battery and its battery management system since the capability of the battery permits and restricts electric propulsion. Consequently, the overall vehicle efficiency and in particular the operation strategy performance strongly depends on the quality of information about the battery. Besides battery technology, the key challenges are given by both the accurate prediction of battery behaviour and the electrochemical battery degradation that leads to power and capacity fade of the traction battery. This book provides the methodology for development of a battery state monitoring and prediction algorithm for application in a battery management system that accounts for the effects of electrochemical degradation. (orig.)

  13. Advanced Power Conversion Efficiency in Inventive Plasma for Hybrid Toroidal Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hançerlioğullari, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut; Güdal, Murat

    2013-08-01

    Apex hybrid reactor has a good potential to utilize uranium and thorium fuels in the future. This toroidal reactor is a type of system that facilitates the occurrence of the nuclear fusion and fission events together. The most important feature of hybrid reactor is that the first wall surrounding the plasma is liquid. The advantages of utilizing a liquid wall are high power density capacity good power transformation productivity, the magnitude of the reactor's operational duration, low failure percentage, short maintenance time and the inclusion of the system's simple technology and material. The analysis has been made using the MCNP Monte Carlo code and ENDF/B-V-VI nuclear data. Around the fusion chamber, molten salts Flibe (LI2BeF4), lead-lithium (PbLi), Li-Sn, thin-lityum (Li20Sn80) have used as cooling materials. APEX reactor has modeled in the torus form by adding nuclear materials of low significance in the specified percentages between 0 and 12 % to the molten salts. In this study, the neutronic performance of the APEX fusion reactor using various molten salts has been investigated. The nuclear parameters of Apex reactor has been searched for Flibe (LI2BeF4) and Li-Sn, for blanket layers. In case of usage of the Flibe (LI2BeF4), PbLi, and thin-lityum (Li20Sn80) salt solutions at APEX toroidal reactors, fissile material production per source neutron, tritium production speed, total fission rate, energy reproduction factor has been calculated, the results obtained for both salt solutions are compared.

  14. Development of Computational Approaches for Simulation and Advanced Controls for Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl; Chaudry, Majid; Quinn, Joseph

    2012-07-31

    This document provides the results of the project through September 2009. The Phase I project has recently been extended from September 2009 to March 2011. The project extension will begin work on Chemical Looping (CL) Prototype modeling and advanced control design exploration in preparation for a scale-up phase. The results to date include: successful development of dual loop chemical looping process models and dynamic simulation software tools, development and test of several advanced control concepts and applications for Chemical Looping transport control and investigation of several sensor concepts and establishment of two feasible sensor candidates recommended for further prototype development and controls integration. There are three sections in this summary and conclusions. Section 1 presents the project scope and objectives. Section 2 highlights the detailed accomplishments by project task area. Section 3 provides conclusions to date and recommendations for future work.

  15. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  16. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

  17. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  18. Simulation of the hybrid Tunka Advanced International Gamma-ray and Cosmic ray Astrophysics (TAIGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnas, M.; Astapov, I.; Barbashina, N.; Beregnev, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Bogorodskii, D.; Boreyko, V.; Brückner, M.; Budnev, N.; Chiavassa, A.; Chvalaev, O.; Dyachok, A.; Epimakhov, S.; Eremin, T.; Gafarov, A.; Gorbunov, N.; Grebenyuk, V.; Gress, O.; Gress, T.; Grinyuk, A.; Grishin, O.; Horns, D.; Ivanova, A.; Karpov, N.; Kalmykov, N.; Kazarina, Y.; Kindin, V.; Kirichkov, N.; Kiryuhin, S.; Kokoulin, R.; Kompaniets, K.; Konstantinov, E.; Korobchenko, A.; Korosteleva, E.; Kozhin, V.; Kuzmichev, L.; Lenok, V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Monkhoev, R.; Nachtigall, R.; Pakhorukov, A.; Panasyuk, M.; Pankov, L.; Perevalov, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Platonov, V.; Poleschuk, V.; Popescu, M.; Popova, E.; Porelli, A.; Porokhovoy, S.; Prosin, V.; Ptuskin, V.; Romanov, V.; Rubtsov, G. I.; Müger; Rybov, E.; Samoliga, V.; Satunin, P.; Saunkin, A.; Savinov, V.; Semeney, Yu; Shaibonov (junior, B.; Silaev, A.; Silaev (junior, A.; Skurikhin, A.; Slunecka, M.; Spiering, C.; Sveshnikova, L.; Tabolenko, V.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Tluczykont, M.; Veslopopov, A.; Veslopopova, E.; Voronov, D.; Wischnewski, R.; Yashin, I.; Yurin, K.; Zagorodnikov, A.; Zirakashvili, V.; Zurbanov, V.

    2015-08-01

    Up to several 10s of TeV, Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) have proven to be the instruments of choice for GeV/TeV gamma-ray astronomy due to their good reconstrucion quality and gamma-hadron separation power. However, sensitive observations at and above 100 TeV require very large effective areas (10 km2 and more), which is difficult and expensive to achieve. The alternative to IACTs are shower front sampling arrays (non-imaging technique or timing-arrays) with a large area and a wide field of view. Such experiments provide good core position, energy and angular resolution, but only poor gamma-hadron separation. Combining both experimental approaches, using the strengths of both techniques, could optimize the sensitivity to the highest energies. The TAIGA project plans to combine the non-imaging HiSCORE [8] array with small (∼10m2) imaging telescopes. This paper covers simulation results of this hybrid approach.

  19. Energy efficient non-road hybrid electric vehicles advanced modeling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Unger, Johannes; Jakubek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the main problems in the real-time control of parallel hybrid electric powertrains in non-road applications, which work in continuous high dynamic operation, this book gives practical insight in to how to maximize the energetic efficiency and drivability of such powertrains. The book addresses an energy management control structure, which considers all constraints of the physical powertrain and uses novel methodologies for the prediction of the future load requirements to optimize the controller output in terms of an entire work cycle of a non-road vehicle. The load prediction includes a methodology for short term loads as well as for an entire load cycle by means of a cycle detection. A maximization of the energetic efficiency can so be achieved, which is simultaneously a reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Readers will gain a deep insight into the necessary topics to be considered in designing an energy and battery management system for non-road vehicles and that only a combinatio...

  20. Development and operation of a hybrid acid-alkaline advanced water electrolysis cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, O.; Zwanziger, M.

    A hybrid acid-alkaline water electrolysis cell has been developed for hydrogen production. The cell is based on the use of an acidic solution at the cathode and a basic solution at the anode to reduce the minimum theoretical voltage for water decomposition from the thermoneutral potential of 1.47 V to close to 1.4 V at 25 C and 1 atm. The pH differential is maintained by the removal of OH ions from the cathode section and water removal from the anode section, which can be driven by heat energy. A practical cell has been built using a solid polymer electrolyte in which, however, the cathodic compartment is not acidic but neutral. Tests with a platinum black cathode catalyst and a platinum-iridium anode catalyst have resulted in steady-state water hydrolysis at an applied voltage of 0.9 V, and a V-I diagram with a considerably lower slope than that of a conventional cell has been obtained at 90 C.

  1. Advances in lower hybrid current drive for tokamak long pulse operation. Technology and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a picture of the present status and understanding of technology and physics of Lower Hybrid Current Drive for long pulse operation in tokamaks, including the development of continuous wave (CW) high power klystrons, and its evolutions towards ITER. 3.7 GH / 700 kW CW klystrons produced in series by Thales Electron Devices are now in operation on Tore Supra. First series of eight klystrons delivered more than 4 MW to sustain non-inductive plasmas during 50 s. Moreover, a prototype of 500 kW CW klystron operating at 5 GHz developed for KSTAR by Toshiba Electron Tubes and Devices, and foreseen for ITER, is able to produce RF output powers of 300 kW / 800 s and 450 kW / 20 s on matched load. The situation on wave coupling and antennas is reported, with the latest Tore Supra results of the new CW Passive-Active Multi-junction (PAM) launcher: the antenna concept foreseen for ITER. First experiments with the PAM antenna in Tore Supra have provided extremely encouraging results in terms of power handling and coupling. Relevant ITER power density of ∼25 MW/m2 (2.7 MW of power injected into the plasma) has been maintained over ∼80 s. In addition, LH power of 2.7 MW has been coupled at a plasma-antenna distance of 10 cm. (author)

  2. Design, analysis, operation, and advanced control of hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Zachary S.

    Because using non-renewable energy systems (e.g., coal-powered co-generation power plants) to generate electricity is an unsustainable, environmentally hazardous practice, it is important to develop cost-effective and reliable renewable energy systems, such as photovoltaics (PVs), wind turbines (WTs), and fuel cells (FCs). Non-renewable energy systems, however, are currently less expensive than individual renewable energy systems (IRESs). Furthermore, IRESs based on intermittent natural resources (e.g., solar irradiance and wind) are incapable of meeting continuous energy demands. Such shortcomings can be mitigated by judiciously combining two or more complementary IRESs to form a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES). Although previous research efforts focused on the design, operation, and control of HRESs has proven useful, no prior HRES research endeavor has taken a systematic and comprehensive approach towards establishing guidelines by which HRESs should be designed, operated, and controlled. The overall goal of this dissertation, therefore, is to establish the principles governing the design, operation, and control of HRESs resulting in cost-effective and reliable energy solutions for stationary and mobile applications. To achieve this goal, we developed and demonstrated four separate HRES principles. Rational selection of HRES type: HRES components and their sizes should be rationally selected using knowledge of component costs, availability of renewable energy resources, and expected power demands of the application. HRES design: by default, the components of a HRES should be arranged in parallel for increased efficiency and reliability. However, a series HRES design may be preferred depending on the operational considerations of the HRES components. HRES control strategy selection: the choice of HRES control strategy depends on the dynamics of HRES components, their operational considerations, and the practical limitations of the HRES end-use. HRES data

  3. Parabolic Flight Investigation for Advanced Exercise Concept Hardware Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. S.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Sheehan, C. C.; Humphreys, B. T.; Perusek, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Long-duration space flight poses many hazards to the health of the crew. Among those hazards is the physiological deconditioning of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems due to prolonged exposure to microgravity. To combat this erosion of physical condition space flight may take on the crew, the Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with developing Advanced Exercise Concepts to maintain astronaut health and fitness during long-term missions, while keeping device mass, power, and volume to a minimum. The goal of this effort is to preserve the physical capability of the crew to perform mission critical tasks in transit and during planetary surface operations. The HULK is a pneumatic-based exercise system, which provides both resistive and aerobic modes to protect against human deconditioning in microgravity. Its design targeted the International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) high level performance characteristics and provides up to 600 foot pounds resitive loading with the capability to allow for eccentric to concentric (E:C) ratios of higher than 1:1 through a DC motor assist component. The device's rowing mode allows for high cadence aerobic activity. The HULK parabolic flight campaign, conducted through the NASA Flight Opportunities Program at Ellington Field, resulted in the creation of device specific data sets including low fidelity motion capture, accelerometry and both inline and ground reaction forces. These data provide a critical link in understanding how to vibration isolate the device in both ISS and space transit applications. Secondarily, the study of human exercise and associated body kinematics in microgravity allows for more complete understanding of human to machine interface designs to allow for maximum functionality of the device in microgravity.

  4. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Most ... issues final PM Implementation Rule Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  5. SpaceCube 2.0: An Advanced Hybrid Onboard Data Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michael; Flatley, Thomas; Godfrey, John; Geist, Alessandro; Espinosa, Daniel; Petrick, David

    2011-01-01

    The SpaceCube 2.0 is a compact, high performance, low-power onboard processing system that takes advantage of cutting-edge hybrid (CPU/FPGA/DSP) processing elements. The SpaceCube 2.0 design concept includes two commercial Virtex-5 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) parts protected by gradiation hardened by software" technology, and possesses exceptional size, weight, and power characteristics [5x5x7 in., 3.5 lb (approximately equal to 12.7 x 12.7 x 17.8 cm, 1.6 kg) 5-25 W, depending on the application fs required clock rate]. The two Virtex-5 FPGA parts are implemented in a unique back-toback configuration to maximize data transfer and computing performance. Draft computing power specifications for the SpaceCube 2.0 unit include four PowerPC 440s (1100 DMIPS each), 500+ DSP48Es (2x580 GMACS), 100+ LVDS high-speed serial I/Os (1.25 Gbps each), and 2x190 GFLOPS single-precision (65 GFLOPS double-precision) floating point performance. The SpaceCube 2.0 includes PROM memory for CPU boot, health and safety, and basic command and telemetry functionality; RAM memory for program execution; and FLASH/EEPROM memory to store algorithms and application code for the CPU, FPGA, and DSP processing elements. Program execution can be reconfigured in real time and algorithms can be updated, modified, and/or replaced at any point during the mission. Gigabit Ethernet, Spacewire, SATA and highspeed LVDS serial/parallel I/O channels are available for instrument/sensor data ingest, and mission-unique instrument interfaces can be accommodated using a compact PCI (cPCI) expansion card interface. The SpaceCube 2.0 can be utilized in NASA Earth Science, Helio/Astrophysics and Exploration missions, and Department of Defense satellites for onboard data processing. It can also be used in commercial communication and mapping satellites.

  6. Study and optimization of lower hybrid wave coupling in the experimental advanced superconducting (EAST) tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented in this paper are an extension of our recent (Kong et al 2012 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 105003) studies on lower hybrid wave (LHW) coupling. By optimizing the shape of the LH grill, the misalignment between the poloidal limiter (PL) and the LH grill is nearly eliminated and the coupling of LHW is improved, especially on the top row, although some discrepancies are still present in the case with low edge density. Density modifications both by LHW and ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) power are studied in EAST. Experimental results show that the edge density modification in front of the LH grill during LHW power depends mainly on the competition between ponderomotive force (PMF) and the ionization of neutral gas, provided by gas puffing and edge recycling. However, the local edge density during ICRF power can be reduced rapidly. Furthermore, such a modification is more obvious with higher ICRF power and the relevant mechanism of density modification by ICRF power can be related to RF sheaths. In addition, another analogous effect of RF sheaths on the coupling of LHW is also investigated, i.e. the density convection induced by Er × B drift. The changes in LHW coupling associated with different ICRF antennas are discussed and it is shown that in some cases the coupling on the lower rows of the LH grill is improved possibly due to magnetic connection between ICRF antennas and the LH grill. The local coupling of LHW can be improved by gas puffing from gas introduction modules (GIM) on both sides of the launcher, but it is difficult to judge which one is more beneficial due to errors in measurements. Experimental results with gas (D2) injection during ICRF power clearly show that the coupling of LHW on the upper rows will be first improved by gas injection on the electron side and the coupling on the lower rows will be effectively improved by gas injection on the ion side. The results are consistent with the mapping of field lines

  7. Advance on Al2O3 Particulates Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (Al-MMCs Manufactured by the Power Metallurgy(PM Methods- Improved PM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs with Al2O3 particulates as reinforcement fabricated by the power metallurgy (PM methods have gained much attention due to their unique characteristics of the wide range of Al2O3 particles addition, easy-operating process and effectiveness. The improved PM techniques, such as the high energy ball milling, powder extruder and high pressure torsion were applied to further strengthening the properties or/and diminishing the agglomeration of strength particles. The formation of liquid phase assisted densification of compacts to promote the sintering of composites. Complex design of Al2O3 particles with other particles was another efficient method to tailor the properties of Al-MMCs.

  8. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Examinations of the origins of polyatomic ions and advances in the sampling of particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Travis [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation provides a general introduction to Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation (LA) sampling, with an examination of analytical challenges in the employment of this technique. It discusses the origin of metal oxide ions (MO+) in LA-ICP-MS, as well as the effect of introducing helium and nitrogen to the aerosol gas flow on the formation of these polyatomic interferences. It extends the study of polyatomic ions in LA-ICP-MS to metal argide (MAr+) species, an additional source of possible significant interferences in the spectrum. It describes the application of fs-LA-ICP-MS to the determination of uranium isotope ratios in particulate samples.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper

  10. Identification of potential sources and source regions of fine ambient particles measured at Gosan background site in Korea using advanced hybrid receptor model combined with positive matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. S.; Moon, K. J.; Kim, Y. J.

    2006-11-01

    The size- and time-resolved measurement of particulate trace elements was made using an eight-stage Davis Rotating Unit for Monitoring sampler and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence system from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in east Asia. As a result, continuous 3-hour average concentrations were obtained for 19 elements including S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ti, K, Mn, Pb, Ni, V, Se, As, Rb, Cr, and Br. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to the size-resolved aerosol data sets in order to identify the possible sources and to estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass in each size range. Twelve sources were then resolved in the fine size range (0.07 ˜ 1.15 μm), including continental aerosol, biomass burning, coal combustion, oil heating furnace, residual oil fired boiler, municipal incineration, nonferrous metal source, ferrous metal source, gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter, and volcanic emission. A newly developed hybrid receptor model, concentration, retention time, and source emission weighted trajectory (CRSWT), was then applied to the source intensities derived from the PMF analysis by incorporating meteorological and source inventory information of the study region in order to suggest the regional information of long-range transported fine aerosol sources. The CRSWT model was able to resolve highly potential source areas and pathways for the fine ambient aerosol at the Gosan background site.

  11. A hybrid method for damage detection and quantification in advanced X-COR composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerukatti, Rajesh Kumar; Rajadas, Abhishek; Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Huff, Daniel W.

    2016-04-01

    Advanced composite structures, such as foam core carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites, are increasingly being used in applications which require high strength, high in-plane and flexural stiffness, and low weight. However, the presence of in situ damage due to manufacturing defects and/or service conditions can complicate the failure mechanisms and compromise their strength and reliability. In this paper, the capability of detecting damages such as delaminations and foam-core separations in X-COR composite structures using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques is investigated. Two NDE techniques, flash thermography and low frequency ultrasonics, were used to detect and quantify the damage size and locations. Macro fiber composites (MFCs) were used as actuators and sensors to study the interaction of Lamb waves with delaminations and foam-core separations. The results indicate that both flash thermography and low frequency ultrasonics were capable of detecting damage in X-COR sandwich structures, although low frequency ultrasonic methods were capable of detecting through thickness damages more accurately than flash thermography. It was also observed that the presence of foam-core separations significantly changes the wave behavior when compared to delamination, which complicates the use of wave based SHM techniques. Further, a wave propagation model was developed to model the wave interaction with damages at different locations on the X-COR sandwich plate.

  12. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  13. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations. PMID:25743879

  14. Hybrid laser/arc welding of advanced high strength steel to aluminum alloy by using structural transition insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A concept welding procedure was presented for joining dissimilar alloys. • Controlling of temperature improved mechanical properties. • Microstructure analysis showed presence of tempered martensite. • Optimum stand-off distance caused stability of molten pool. - Abstract: The present investigation is related to the development of the welding procedure of the hybrid laser/arc welding (HLAW) in joining thick dissimilar materials. The HLAW was applied to join aluminum alloy (AA6061) to an advanced high strength steel (AHSS) where an explosively welded transition joint, TRICLAD®, was used as an intermediate structural insert between the thick plates of the aluminum alloy and AHSS. The welds were characterized by an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), tensile test, charged coupled device (CCD) camera, and microhardness measurement. The groove angle was optimized for the welding process based on the allowed amount of heat input along the TRICLAD® interface generated by an explosive welding. The weld was fractured in the heat affected zone of the aluminum side in the tensile test. The microhardness was shown that the temperature variation caused minor softening in the heat affected zone satisfying the requirement that the width of the softened heat affected zone in the steel side falls within 15.9 mm far away from the weld centerline. The microstructure analysis showed the presence of tempered martensite at the vicinity of the weld area, which it was a cause of softening in the heat affected zone

  15. A Hybrid-Cloud Science Data System Enabling Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis for Monitoring Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Yun, S.; Lundgren, P.; Moore, A. W.; Fielding, E. J.; Radulescu, C.; Sacco, G.; Stough, T. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Cervelli, P. F.; Poland, M. P.; Cruz, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions, landslides, and levee failures are some examples of hazards that can be more accurately forecasted with sufficient monitoring of precursory ground deformation, such as the high-resolution measurements from GPS and InSAR. In addition, coherence and reflectivity change maps can be used to detect surface change due to lava flows, mudslides, tornadoes, floods, and other natural and man-made disasters. However, it is difficult for many volcano observatories and other monitoring agencies to process GPS and InSAR products in an automated scenario needed for continual monitoring of events. Additionally, numerous interoperability barriers exist in multi-sensor observation data access, preparation, and fusion to create actionable products. Combining high spatial resolution InSAR products with high temporal resolution GPS products--and automating this data preparation & processing across global-scale areas of interests--present an untapped science and monitoring opportunity. The global coverage offered by satellite-based SAR observations, and the rapidly expanding GPS networks, can provide orders of magnitude more data on these hazardous events if we have a data system that can efficiently and effectively analyze the voluminous raw data, and provide users the tools to access data from their regions of interest. Currently, combined GPS & InSAR time series are primarily generated for specific research applications, and are not implemented to run on large-scale continuous data sets and delivered to decision-making communities. We are developing an advanced service-oriented architecture for hazard monitoring leveraging NASA-funded algorithms and data management to enable both science and decision-making communities to monitor areas of interests via seamless data preparation, processing, and distribution. Our objectives: * Enable high-volume and low-latency automatic generation of NASA Solid Earth science data products (InSAR and GPS) to support hazards

  16. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  17. Integrating Actionable User-defined Faceted Rules into the Hybrid Science Data System for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manipon, G. J. M.; Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Sacco, G. F.; Agram, P. S.; Moore, A. W.; Yun, S. H.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Rosen, P. A.; Webb, F.; Liu, Z.; Smith, A. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Simons, M.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Hybrid Science Data System (HySDS) scalably powers the ingestion, metadata extraction, cataloging, high-volume data processing, and publication of the geodetic data products for the Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis for Monitoring Hazard (ARIA-MH) project at JPL. HySDS uses a heterogeneous set of worker nodes from private & public clouds as well as virtual & bare-metal machines to perform every aspect of the traditional science data system. For our science data users, the forefront of HySDS is the facet search interface, FacetView, which allows them to browse, filter, and access the published products. Users are able to explore the collection of product metadata information and apply multiple filters to constrain the result set down to their particular interests. It allows them to download these faceted products for further analysis and generation of derived products. However, we have also employed a novel approach to faceting where it is also used to apply constraints for custom monitoring of products, system resources, and triggers for automated data processing. The power of the facet search interface is well documented across various domains and its usefulness is rooted in the current state of existence of metadata. However, user needs usually extend beyond what is currently present in the data system. A user interested in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over Kilauea will download them from FacetView but would also want email notification of future incoming scenes. The user may even want that data pushed to a remote workstation for automated processing. Better still, these future products could trigger HySDS to run the user's analysis on its array of worker nodes, on behalf of the user, and ingest the resulting derived products. We will present our findings in integrating an ancillary, user-defined, system-driven processing system for HySDS that allows users to define faceted rules based on facet constraints and triggers actions when new SAR data

  18. Plant sizing and evaluation of hydrogen production costs from advanced processes coupled to a nuclear heat source: Part II: Hybrid-sulphur cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen demand is already strong. It should significantly increase in the next few years due to the refinery industry's growing needs and new applications such as synthetic fuel or biofuel production. To meet the demand advanced processes are being developed throughout the world in a sustainability context. Among the most studied ones are thermochemical cycles: the sulphur-iodine and hybrid-sulphur cycles. For each of these processes, a thorough study was carried out from the flowsheet development to the final hydrogen production cost assessment, through the sizing and costing of the equipment, providing some insights about the process economic competitiveness given the current state of knowledge. This paper presents the analysis conducted for the hybrid-sulphur cycle, which leads to a hydrogen production cost around 6. 6 Euros/kg. The main contributions to that cost are discussed. (authors)

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  20. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  1. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  2. Towards Fluorescence In Vivo Hybridization (FIVH) Detection of H. pylori in Gastric Mucosa Using Advanced LNA Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Leite, Marina; Guimarães, Nuno; Madureira, Pedro; Ferreira, Rui Manuel; Figueiredo, Céu; Wengel, Jesper; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe

    2015-01-01

    FISH-based method (FIVH) that directly detects and allows the visualization of the bacterium within the human body would significantly reduce the time of analysis, allowing the diagnosis to be performed during endoscopy. In a previous study we designed and synthesized a phosphorothioate locked nucleic......In recent years, there have been several attempts to improve the diagnosis of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a commonly used technique to detect H. pylori infection but it requires biopsies from the stomach. Thus, the development of an in vivo...... acid (LNA)/ 2' O-methyl RNA (2'OMe) probe using standard phosphoramidite chemistry and FISH hybridization was then successfully performed both on adhered and suspended bacteria at 37°C. In this work we simplified, shortened and adapted FISH to work at gastric pH values, meaning that the hybridization...

  3. New advances in hybrid procedures for congenital heart diseases%先天性心脏病镶嵌治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐超; 唐炯; 熊峰; 罗俊

    2011-01-01

    Treatment for congenital heart diseases has changed from surgical therapy only to hybrid procedures combined with interventional therapy which is called hybrid procedures.In these years hybrid procedures has got a great improvement.Patients have expanded, while methods and curative effect have been improved.The article introduced new advances in foreign researches and clinical application.%随着小儿心导管技术迅速发展,先天性心脏病已由单纯手术治疗转向手术和介入共同治疗.这种介入治疗和外科治疗相互结合应用的治疗模式称为镶嵌治疗.这些年来,镶嵌治疗得到了快速的发展,治疗对象持续扩大,方法逐步改善,疗效不断提高.本文简述了此方法的国外研究和临床应用中的进展.

  4. Hybrid-assisted DPF regeneration in distribution trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, D.L.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Aneke, N.P.I.; Rojer, C.

    2009-01-01

    TNO Automotive is developing an Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) concept for powertrain controls that focuses on integration of the engine, aftertreatment and parallel hybrid electric system. One of the first steps is the focus on hybrid assisted Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration. For inner-city distribution trucks the legislation on particulate matter is becoming more stringent. This means that diesel particulate filters will be increasingly applied to inner-city distribution t...

  5. Genomics and Bioinformatics in Undergraduate Curricula: Contexts for Hybrid Laboratory/Lecture Courses for Entering and Advanced Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Louise; Cresawn, Steven G.; Monroe, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging interest in genomics in the scientific community prompted biologists at James Madison University to create two courses at different levels to modernize the biology curriculum. The courses are hybrids of classroom and laboratory experiences. An upper level class uses raw sequence of a genome (plasmid or virus) as the subject on which to…

  6. Fusion--fision hybrid breeders: economic and performance issues, role of advanced converters, interdependence between fission and fusion programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers nuclear breeding systems (i.e., production of fissile fuel from fertile materials). The range of breeding technologies considered is deliberately wide. We include systems which breed by using internal neutron sources--a reactor-breeder, exemplified by the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR)--and systems which breed by using external neutron sources--exemplified in this paper primarily by hybrid fusion-fission breeders

  7. Simulations of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles Using Advanced Lithium Batteries and Ultracapacitors on Various Driving Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andy; Zhao, Hengbing

    2010-01-01

    The use of ultracapacitors in plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) with high energy density lithium-ion and zinc-air batteries is studied. Simulations were performed for various driving cycles with the PHEVs operating in the charge depleting and charge sustaining modes. The effects of the load leveling of the power demand from the batteries using the ultracapacitors are evident. The average and the peak currents from the batteries are lower by a factor of 2-3.

  8. Univers de Particules

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Dans l’Univers, tout est fait de particules. Mais d’où viennent-elles? Quelle est l’origine des lois de la nature? Au rez-de-chaussée du Globe de la science et de l’innovation, l’exposition permanente « Univers de particules » vous invite à un voyage vers le Big Bang en explorant le CERN. Avec à la clé des réponses aux questions: pourquoi cette recherche ? Comment accélérer des particules ? Comment les détecter ? Quelles sont les théories sur la matière et sur l’Univers aujourd’hui ? Quelles retombées pour notre vie quotidienne ?

  9. A hybrid wind-PV system performance investigation for the purpose of maximum hydrogen production and storage using advanced alkaline electrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new index for optimal sizing of system is proposed. • Electromechanical model of all components is designed and simulated using MATLAB. • Detailed and accurate model of advanced alkaline electrolyzer is simulated. • Three different conditions of using WT and PV array for this system are discussed. • Actual data for weekly irradiation, wind speed, and temperature of Sahand are used. - Abstract: In this study, design and modelling of hybrid wind–photovoltaic system is done for the purpose of hydrogen production through water electrolysis. Actual data for weekly solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature of Sahand, Iran, are used for performance simulation and analysis of the system examined. The detailed model of components is used. The 10 kW alkaline electrolyzer model, which produces hydrogen, is based on combination of empirical electrochemical relationships, thermodynamics, and heat transfer theory. The operation of this system is optimized using imperial competitive colony algorithm. The objective of optimization is to maximize hydrogen production, considering minimum production of average excess power. This system is analysed in three different conditions of using just wind turbine (WT), photovoltaic (PV) array, and combination of them as power source, producing hydrogen of 8297, 4592, and 10,462 mol, respectively. As for this result and with analysing other results of simulation, it is clarified that the hybrid system is more useful for this study. In hybrid form the ratio of average produced power to nominal power for PV array is 0.247 and for WT is 0.493 which demonstrates that WT is more effective in production

  10. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  11. EPRI Asilomar papers: on the possibility of advanced fuel fusion reactors, fusion-fission hybrid breeders, small fusion power reactors, Asilomar, California, December 15--17, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An EPRI Ad Hoc Panel met in Asilomar, California for a three day general discussion of topics of particular interest to utility representatives. The three main topics considered were: (1) the possibility of advanced fuel fusion reactors, (2) fusion-fission hybrid breeders, and (3) small fusion power reactors. The report describes the ideas that evolved on these three topics. An example of a ''neutron less'' fusion reactor using the p-11B fuel cycle is described along with the critical questions that need to be addressed. The importance to the utility industry of using fusion neutrons to breed fission fuel for LWRs is outlined and directions for future EPRI research on fusion-fission systems are recommended. The desirability of small fusion power reactors to enable the early commercialization of fusion and for satisfying users' needs is discussed. Areas for possible EPRI research to help achieve this goal are presented

  12. Synergistically Enhanced Polysulfide Chemisorption Using a Flexible Hybrid Separator with N and S Dual-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Coating for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balach, Juan; Singh, Harish K; Gomoll, Selina; Jaumann, Tony; Klose, Markus; Oswald, Steffen; Richter, Manuel; Eckert, Jürgen; Giebeler, Lars

    2016-06-15

    Because of the outstanding high theoretical specific energy density of 2600 Wh kg(-1), the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as a promising candidate for post lithium-ion battery systems eligible to meet the forthcoming market requirements. However, its commercialization on large scale is thwarted by fast capacity fading caused by the Achilles' heel of Li-S systems: the polysulfide shuttle. Here, we merge the physical features of carbon-coated separators and the unique chemical properties of N and S codoped mesoporous carbon to create a functional hybrid separator with superior polysulfide affinity and electrochemical benefits. DFT calculations revealed that carbon materials with N and S codoping possess a strong binding energy to high-order polysulfide species, which is essential to keep the active material in the cathode side. As a result of the synergistic effect of N, S dual-doping, an advanced Li-S cell with high specific capacity and ultralow capacity degradation of 0.041% per cycle is achieved. Pushing our simple-designed and scalable cathode to a highly increased sulfur loading of 5.4 mg cm(-2), the Li-S cell with the functional hybrid separator can deliver a remarkable areal capacity of 5.9 mAh cm(-2), which is highly favorable for practical applications. PMID:27225061

  13. Particulate Systems for Targeting of Macrophages: Basic and Therapeutic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Parhamifar, Ladan; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2012-01-01

    Particulate systems in the form of liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric nano- and microparticles, and many others offer a rational approach for selective delivery of therapeutic agents to the macrophage from different physiological portals of entry. Particulate targeting of macrophages and...... intracellular drug release processes can be optimized through modifications of the drug carrier physicochemical properties, which include hydrodynamic size, shape, composition and surface characteristics. Through such modifications together with understanding of macrophage cell biology, targeting may be aimed...... at a particular subset of macrophages. Advances in basic and therapeutic concepts of particulate targeting of macrophages and related nanotechnology approaches for immune cell modifications are discussed.Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  14. Electromagnetic self-consistent field initialization and fluid advance techniques for hybrid-kinetic PWFA code Architect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, F.; Marocchino, A.; Rossi, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    The realization of Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments with high quality of the accelerated bunches requires an increasing number of numerical simulations to perform first-order assessments for the experimental design and online-analysis of the experimental results. Particle in Cell codes are the state-of-the-art tools to study the beam-plasma interaction mechanism, but due to their requirements in terms of number of cores and computational time makes them unsuitable for quick parametric scans. Considerable interest has been shown thus in methods which reduce the computational time needed for the simulation of plasma acceleration. Such methods include the use of hybrid kinetic-fluid models, which treat the relativistic bunches as in a PIC code and the background plasma electrons as a fluid. A technique to properly initialize the bunch electromagnetic fields in the time explicit hybrid kinetic-fluid code Architect is presented, as well the implementation of the Flux Corrected Transport scheme for the fluid equations integrated in the code.

  15. Advanced hybrid battery with a magnesium metal anode and a spinel LiMn2O4 cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baofei; Feng, Zhenxing; Sa, Niya; Han, Sang-Don; Ma, Qing; Fenter, Paul; Vaughey, John T; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-08-01

    Two Mg-Li dual salt hybrid electrolytes are developed, which exhibit excellent oxidative stability up to around 3.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)) on an aluminum current collector, enabling the successful coupling of several state-of-the-art lithium-ion intercalation cathodes (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2 and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2) with magnesium metal anodes. The Mg-LiMn2O4 battery delivers an initial discharge capacity of about 106 mA h g(-1) with a working voltage of around 2.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)), highlighting the highest working voltage of rechargeable batteries with magnesium metal anodes to date. PMID:27439946

  16. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  17. On the isolation of elemental carbon for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry; evaluation of alternative isolation procedures, and accuracy assurance using a hybrid isotopic particulate carbon reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Currie

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of an hybrid reference material (RM to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC isotopic (14C speciation measurements. Such measurements are critically important for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of ''soot'' (EC, the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement quality, carried out with NIST SRM 1649a (Urban Dust, showed a range of results, but since the ''truth'' was not known for this natural matrix RM, one had to rely on isotopic-chemical consistency evidence (14C in PAH, EC of measurement validity (Currie et al., 2002. Components of the new Hybrid RM (DiesApple, however, have known 14C and EC composition, and they are nearly orthogonal (isotopically and chemically. NIST SRM 2975 (Forklift Diesel Soot has little or no 14C, and its major compositional component is EC. SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves has the 14C content of biomass-C, and it has little or no EC. Thus, the hybrid RM can serve as an absolute isotopic test for the absence of EC-mimicking pyrolysis-C from SRM 1515 in the EC isolate of the hybrid RM, together with testing for conservation of its dominant soot fraction through the isolation procedure.

  18. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO2 Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngjune; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Petit, Camille

    2015-01-01

    CO2 capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO2 capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO2 capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO2 capture in the coming years. ...

  19. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  20. Proposal for an advanced hybrid K-edge/XRF densitometry (HKED) using a monochromatic photon beam from laser Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, Toshiyuki, E-mail: shizuma.toshiyuki@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hajima, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Takehito [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Fujiwara, Mamoru [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Sonoda, Takashi [Department of Criticality and Fuel Cycle Research Facilities, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Seya, Michio [Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1198 (Japan)

    2011-10-21

    The general purpose Monte Carlo electron-gamma shower computer code (EGS5) was used to obtain the U, Np, and Pu X-ray response from the hybrid K-edge/XRF densitometry (HKED). In the present simulation, we adopt a monochromatic, linearly polarized photon beam generated by using inverse Compton scattering of laser light with high-energy electrons from an energy recovery linac. The simulation has been carried out under various conditions of the U, Np, and Pu concentrations to investigate the effect of counting rates as well as counting precision. The results of the simulation show that the assessment time for low concentration Pu input solutions is reduced by improving the signal-to-background ratios. It is also shown that the Np concentration is determined with the counting precision of 0.67-1.8% in standard deviation during 1 h live time measurement for a 3N HNO{sub 3} sample solution (1.1-1.3 g/cm{sup 2}) including U (10-200 g/L), Np (0.1 g/L), and Pu (10 g/L).

  1. Particulate matter dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.

  2. Particulate airborne impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative effects of air pollutants are of principal concern in research on environmental protection in Sweden. Post-industrial society has imposed many limits on emitted air pollutants, yet the number of reports on the negative effects from them is increasing, largely due to human activity in the form of industrial emissions and increased traffic flows. Rising concerns over the health effects from airborne particulate matter (PM) stem from in vitro, in vivo, and cohort studies revealing...

  3. Particulate contamination in ampoules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D M; Veltman, A M

    1985-01-01

    The particulate contamination in 19 formulations of solutions in ampoules supplied by eight South African manufacturers, thirty-three batches in all, was analysed using a HIAC PC 320 light blockage particle analyser linked to a CMB 60 sensor. Results showed that the level of contamination was generally low and that, where comparisons could be made, manufacturers both of the ampoules and the solutions maintained similarly high standards. Problems in this field appeared to be related to the formulation or the quality of the raw material. PMID:2858528

  4. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  5. Production of hybrid granitic magma at the advancing front of basaltic underplating: Inferences from the Sesia Magmatic System (south-western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigoi, Silvano; Quick, James E.; Demarchi, Gabriella; Klötzli, Urs S.

    2016-05-01

    The Permian Sesia Magmatic System of the southwestern Alps displays the plumbing system beneath a Permian caldera, including a deep crustal gabbroic complex, upper crustal granite plutons and a bimodal volcanic field dominated by rhyolitic tuff filling the caldera. Isotopic compositions of the deep crustal gabbro overlap those of coeval andesitic basalts, whereas granites define a distinct, more radiogenic cluster (Sri ≈ 0.708 and 0.710, respectively). AFC computations starting from the best mafic candidate for a starting melt show that Nd and Sr isotopic compositions and trace elements of andesitic basalts may be modeled by reactive bulk assimilation of ≈ 30% of partially depleted crust and ≈ 15%-30% gabbro fractionation. Trace elements of the deep crustal gabbro cumulates require a further ≈ 60% fractionation of the andesitic basalt and loss of ≈ 40% of silica-rich residual melt. The composition of the granite plutons is consistent with a mixture of relatively constant proportions of residual melt delivered from the gabbro and anatectic melt. Chemical and field evidence leads to a conceptual model which links the production of the two granitic components to the evolution of the Mafic Complex. During the growth of the Mafic Complex, progressive incorporation of packages of crustal rocks resulted in a roughly steady state rate of assimilation. Anatectic granite originates in the hot zone of melting crust located above the advancing mafic intrusion. Upward segregation of anatectic melts facilitates the assimilation of the partially depleted restite by stoping. At each cycle of mafic intrusion and incorporation, residual and anatectic melts are produced in roughly constant proportions, because the amount of anatectic melt produced at the roof is a function of volume and latent heat of crystallization of the underplated mafic melt which in turn produces proportional amounts of hybrid gabbro cumulates and residual melt. Such a process can explain the

  6. Resistance to the WhiteflyAleurotrachelus socialis(Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) and SSR Marker Identifi cation in Advanced Populations of the HybridManihot esculentasubsp.Manihotfl abellifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arturo Carabal; James Montoya-Lerma; Anthony C. Belloti; Martin Fregene; Gerardo Gallego

    2013-01-01

    Genes resistant toAleurotrachelus socialis were transferred to the F1from the interspecifi c hybrid wild species ofManihot fl abellifoliatoM. esculenta and two advanced generations of backcrosses (BC1 and BC2). We characterized the resistance ofA. socialis transferred to BC2parents (CW67-160, CW67-130, CW67-44), MTAI-8 (BC1), resistant (CMB9B-73) and susceptible (CMB9B-104) genotypes from contrasting pools, and resistant (MEcu-72) and susceptible (CMC-40) genotypes. Whitefl y demography and biology were evaluated. SSR molecular markers associated with a phenotypic response of plant resistance were detected in segregating populations (BC2). Results showed that although female survival time was similar on all hosts, the lowest averages of longevity, fecundity and oviposition rate were observed in the resistant control MEcu-72, only being signifi cantly similar to the parent CW67-130. When the BC1and BC2 populations were compared, it was found thatA. socialis fecundity was eight times lower on CMB9B-73 progeny than on CW67-130, expressing the highest levels of resistance to the whitefl y. Ten genotypes of CMB9A and CMB9B family had the best segregation. A total of 486 microsatellite primers were evaluated using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), 11 showed polymorphism between the contrasting pools and only one showed signifi cant differences between resistant and susceptible individuals. In conclusion, fecundity was the parameter that impacted most on the intrinsic rate ofA. socialis population growth.

  7. Fusion hybrids for generation of advanced (231Pa+232U+233U+234U)-fuel in closed (U-Pu-Th)-fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF) is traditionally regarded as a practically inexhaustible energy source. However, development, mastering, broad deployment of fast breeder reactors and closure of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) can also extend fuel base of nuclear power industry (NPI) up to practically unlimited scales. Under these conditions, it seems reasonable to introduce into a circle of the CTF-related studies the works directed towards solving some principal problems which can appear in a large-scale NPI in closed NFC. The first challenge is a large scale of operations in NFC back-end that should be reduced by achieving substantially higher fuel burn-up in power nuclear reactors. The use of 231Pa-232Th-232U-233U fuel in light-water reactor (LWR) opens a possibility of principle to reach very high (about 30% HM) or even ultra-high fuel burn-up. The second challenge is a potential unauthorized proliferation of fissionable materials. As is known, a certain remarkable quantity of 232U being introduced into uranium fraction of nuclear fuel can produce a serious barrier against switching the fuel over to non-energy purposes. Involvement of hybrid thermonuclear reactors (HTR) into NPI structure can substantially facilitate resolving these problems. If HTR will be involved into NPI structure, then main HTR mission consists not in energy generation but in production of nuclear fuel with a certain isotope composition. The present paper analyzes some neutron-physical features in production of advanced nuclear fuels in thorium HTR blankets. The obtained results demonstrated that such a nuclear fuel may be characterized by very stable neutron-multiplying properties during full LWR operation cycle and by enhanced proliferation resistance too. The paper evaluates potential benefits from involvement of HTR with thorium blanket into the international closed NFC. (author)

  8. Field Errors in Hybrid Insertion Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  9. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  10. Microdosimetry of internal, particulate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of microdosimetry is extended to include particulate and non-uniformly distributed sources typical of internally deposited radioisotopes. An example is presented in which stationary particulates of 239Pu of negligible physical size are distributed at random in a tissue in which the sensitive sites are also assumed to be randomly distributed. Preliminary calculations are reported for this model of the probability density in specific energy of all the sites and of the fraction of sites in which no energy is deposited for particulates that emit between 1 and 100,000 alpha particles

  11. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  12. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  13. Oxide-Free Bonding of III-V-Based Material on Silicon and Nano-Structuration of the Hybrid Waveguide for Advanced Optical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pantzas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide-free bonding of III-V-based materials for integrated optics is demonstrated on both planar Silicon (Si surfaces and nanostructured ones, using Silicon on Isolator (SOI or Si substrates. The hybrid interface is characterized electrically and mechanically. A hybrid InP-on-SOI waveguide, including a bi-periodic nano structuration of the silicon guiding layer is demonstrated to provide wavelength selective transmission. Such an oxide-free interface associated with the nanostructured design of the guiding geometry has great potential for both electrical and optical operation of improved hybrid devices.

  14. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  15. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a...

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  17. Chemical characteristic of respirable particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respirable particulates are particulates which having diameter size at 2-5 µm, due to aerodynamically may be inhaled through respiratory tract and having ability to deposit into lungs, causing damage of the alveolar tissues and inducing health problems. Health Department of Bandung have reported that prevalency of acute respiratory tract infection disease having increasing tendency every year. Measurement of PM10 in period of 2002-2005 have done by BPLH Bandung city which pointed that in some places the concentration of PM10 was higher than daily threshold limit values. This research having intend to understand of respirable particulates exposure in society with characterization of chemical materials contained as hazard identification. Location of research have done in four regions of Bandung City. Personal sampler has used for collection of respirable particulates from human breathing zone. Chemical characteristic were done using neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometer and reflectance methods. The useful of this procedure as the baseline to calculate IEC (Inhalation Exposure Concentration) values for estimate the exposure of respirable particulates which inhaled during period of time. Calculating of IEC is the earlier step from epidemiological study or risk assessment which connecting prevalency of tract respiratory disease with characteristic of respirable particulates. Elements Br, Mn, Al, I, V, Cl, Ti, Na, Hg, Pb, and black carbon (BC), are the elements which identified. The results showed that respirable particulates which inhaled by citizen as receptor at Tegalega, Aria Graha, Dago Pakar, and Cisaranten Wetan are relatively higher than PM2,5 ambient air at the same places. Almost whole of such elements which contained in respirable particulates was found in highest concentration at Cisaranten Wetan. (author)

  18. Obtaining of Interspecific Hybrids between Durum Wheat (2n=28) and Triticale (2n=42) and Molecular Evidence of Alien Introgressions in Advanced Backcross Line

    OpenAIRE

    BOZHANOVA, Violeta; Todorovska, Elena; HADZHIIVANOVA, Borjana; Dechev, Dechko

    2014-01-01

    The hexaploid triticale is an amphidiploid obtained from the cross between durum wheat (2n=28) and rye (2n=14). It is characterizes with high protein content, resistance to biotic- (powdery mildew and rust) and abiotic (cold and drought) stress factors. The hybridization between durum wheat and triticale is complicated and is rarely applied in durum wheat breeding improvement. Here, we report the results of long-standing experiments for obtaining of interspecific hybrids between Bulgarian dur...

  19. Hybrid-assisted DPF regeneration in distribution trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, D.L.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Aneke, N.P.I.; Rojer, C.

    2009-01-01

    TNO Automotive is developing an Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) concept for powertrain controls that focuses on integration of the engine, aftertreatment and parallel hybrid electric system. One of the first steps is the focus on hybrid assisted Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration. For

  20. Advances in Induced Technology of Modern Safe Seed Breeding and Hybrid Seed Production of Two-line Hybrid Rice%两系杂交稻现代安全繁殖制种技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文邦; 王建龙; 陈立云

    2011-01-01

    此文论述了两系杂交稻现代安全繁殖制种的重要意义,提出两系不育系育性转换起点温度偏高及其"遗传漂变"、制种基地选择和季节安排不合理、不育系繁殖产量不稳定等是目前两系安全繁殖制种中存在的主要问题,指明选育实用光温敏核不育系、加强"核心种子"生产、利用"低温繁殖有效积温原理"进行安全高产繁殖、基于种子生产基地气象决策支持系统有效地选择制种基地和时段等是解决问题的主要技术措施.%The significance of modern safe seed breeding and hybrid seed production of two-line hybrid rice were discussed, the high fertility conversion temperature, "genetic drift", the selection of seed production bases, the unreasonable arrangements of seed production seasons and the unstable output of TGMS line reproduction were the major problems existed in the safe seed breeding and production of two-line hybrid rice which were proposed in this paper. The selection of practical TGMS line, the strengthen of "core seed" production and using the principle of "low temperature breeding and effective temperature accumulation" were specified, which were used to security high-yield breeding of two-line hybrid rice. The weather decision support system of hybrid seed production base was based for effective chosen the hybrid seed production base and the production time which was the main technical measurements for solving the problems above.

  1. Ceramic filters for removal of particulates from hot gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal is to demonstrate the performance of a new ceramic filter in removing particulate matter from hot gas streams produced in advanced coal conversion processes. The specific objectives are threefold: (1) Development of full size ceramic filters suitable for hot gas filtration; (2) Demonstration of ceramic filters in long term (ca. 1000 hrs) field trials; and (3) Development of full-scale hot gas filter system designs and costs. To date, field tests of the ceramic filter for particulate removal have been conducted at seven sites on a variety of gas streams and under a variety of test conditions. In general, the following performance characteristics have been observed: 1. Filtration face velocity (equivalent to an air to cloth ratio'') for flue gas tests is comparable to that for pulse jet bags operating at the same pressure drop. In hot gas tests, flow-pressure drop characteristics have been observed to be comparable to those for other ceramic filters. 2. Complete regeneration by a simple backpulse technique is achieved; i.e., no increase in clean filter resistance over repetitive cycles is observed. 3. No plugging of the filter passageways by badly caking particulates is observed. 4. Essentially complete particulate removal, including submicron particulate matter, is achieved.

  2. Ceramic filters for removal of particulates from hot gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, R.L.

    1992-11-01

    The primary goal is to demonstrate the performance of a new ceramic filter in removing particulate matter from hot gas streams produced in advanced coal conversion processes. The specific objectives are threefold: (1) Development of full size ceramic filters suitable for hot gas filtration; (2) Demonstration of ceramic filters in long term (ca. 1000 hrs) field trials; and (3) Development of full-scale hot gas filter system designs and costs. To date, field tests of the ceramic filter for particulate removal have been conducted at seven sites on a variety of gas streams and under a variety of test conditions. In general, the following performance characteristics have been observed: 1. Filtration face velocity (equivalent to an ``air to cloth ratio``) for flue gas tests is comparable to that for pulse jet bags operating at the same pressure drop. In hot gas tests, flow-pressure drop characteristics have been observed to be comparable to those for other ceramic filters. 2. Complete regeneration by a simple backpulse technique is achieved; i.e., no increase in clean filter resistance over repetitive cycles is observed. 3. No plugging of the filter passageways by badly caking particulates is observed. 4. Essentially complete particulate removal, including submicron particulate matter, is achieved.

  3. Dosimetry study of hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy for locoregionally and metastatically advanced lung cancer%局部晚期和晚期肺癌混合调强放疗计划的剂量学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振; 张红; 井建国; 王学伟; 刘归

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨混合调强放疗在局部晚期和晚期肺癌放射治疗中的剂量学特点.方法 对16例不适合做适形放疗的肺癌患者分别设计单纯调强计划和混合调强计划,比较两种计划的剂量学差异.结果 两种计划均满足临床要求,而混合调强计划的靶区适形度(CI)和均匀性(HI)均优于调强计划(P<0.05).混合调强计划中全肺受照5、10、13、15和20 Gy剂量的体积V5、V10、V13、V15、V20和平均剂量(MLD)均明显小于调强计划(P<0.05).结论 混合调强明显减少了与放射性肺炎发生率相关的中低剂量照射体积,降低了脏器运动引起的剂量误差,减小了剂量计算误差,对局部晚期和晚期肺癌的放疗有一定的剂量学优势.%[ Objective ]To explore the dosimetric characteristics of hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for locoregionally and metastatically advanced lung cancer.[Methods]Both full IMRT plan and hybrid IMRT plan were designed in each of 16 lung cancer patients who were unsuitable for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy.The dosimetric differences of the two techniques were compared. [ Results ]Both the conformity index (CI) and the heterogeneity index (HI) of hybrid IMRT plan were superior to full IMRT plan,though both plans met the clinical requirements (P <0.05).The total irradiated lung volume by 5,10,13,15 or 20 Gy and the mean lung dose (MLD) were significantly reduced when hybrid IMRT plan rather than full IMRT was applied (P <0.05).[ Conclusion ]Hybrid IMRT can reduce the irradiated lung volumes under low and intermediate dose which is associated with the radiation pneumonitis.Moreover,the dose deviations due to organ motion and calculation are reduced.Therefore,hybrid IMRT has advantages in radiotherapy dosimetry for locoregionally and metastatically advanced lung cancer.

  4. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  5. Advanced functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This book reviews the results of recent research on new materials arising from progress in polymer, ceramic, sensor, and fuel cell technology, including advanced inorganic-organic-hybrid polymeric materials, high functional sensor, and microbial fuel cells.

  6. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J. [Phillips66 Company, West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  7. Hybrid MPI/StarSs - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia, Jose; Niethammer, Christoph; Hasert, Manuel; Brinkmann, Steffen; Keller, Rainer; Glass, Colin W.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid parallel programming models combining distributed and shared memory paradigms are well established in high-performance computing. The classical prototype of hybrid programming in HPC is MPI/OpenMP, but many other combinations are being investigated. Recently, the data-dependency driven, task parallel model for shared memory parallelisation named StarSs has been suggested for usage in combination with MPI. In this paper we apply hybrid MPI/StarSs to a Lattice-Boltzmann code. In particul...

  8. Les effets environnementaux des particules

    OpenAIRE

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    En dehors de leur effet sur la santé humaine, les particules interviennent dans de nombreuses problématiques environnementales, dont le changement climatique, la formation d'ozone troposphérique, la réduction de la visibilité, et les régimes hydrologiques. L'effet des particules en termes de changement climatique est complexe et emprunte plusieurs voies. Il se traduit par des effets opposés de réchauffement ou de refroidissement de l'atmosphère, notamment selon la composition chimique des par...

  9. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  10. Controlling Ozone and Fine Particulates: Cost Benefit Analysis with Meteorological Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Krupnick, Alan; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Bergin, S.; Russell, Armistead

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an integrated cost-benefit analysis framework for ozone and fine particulate control, accounting for variability and uncertainty. The framework includes air quality simulation, sensitivity analysis, stochastic multi-objective air quality management, and stochastic cost-benefit analysis. This paper has two major contributions. The first is the development of stochastic source-receptor (S-R) coefficient matrices for ozone and fine particulate matter using an advanced a...

  11. Global trends in hybrid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricak, Hedvig; Choi, Byung Ihn; Scott, Andrew M; Sugimura, Kazuro; Muellner, Ada; von Schulthess, Gustav K; Reiser, Maximilian F; Graham, Michael M; Dunnick, N Reed; Larson, Steven M

    2010-11-01

    At the 2009 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, a special session was devoted to global trends in hybrid imaging. This article expands on the key points of the session, focusing primarily on positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Global trends in hybrid imaging equipment acquisition, usage, and image interpretation practices are reviewed, and emerging requirements for training and clinical privileging are discussed. Also considered are the current benefits of hybrid imaging for patient care and workflow and the potential of hybrid imaging for advancing drug development and personalized medicine. PMID:20829539

  12. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  13. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  14. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  15. Recent advances with a hybrid micro-pattern gas detector operated in low pressure H2 and He, for AT-TPC applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, Marco; Bazin, Daniel; Beceiro-Novo, Saul; Yurkon, John; Tanani, Rim Soussi; Wolff, Michael; Stolz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In view of a possible application as a charge-particle track readout for an Active-Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC), the operational properties and performances of a hybrid Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) were investigated in pure low-pressure Hydrogen (H2) and Helium (He). The detector consists of a MICROMesh GAseous Structure (MICROMEGAS) coupled to a single- or multi-cascade THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) as a pre-amplification stage. This study reports of the effective gain dependence of the hybrid-MPGD at relevant pressure (in the range of 200-760 torr) for different detector arrangements. The results of this work are relevant in the field of avalanche mechanism in low-pressure, low-mass noble gases, in particularly for applications of MPGD end-cap readout for active-target Time Projection Chambers (TPC) in the field of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics.

  16. Organic electronic materials: Recent advances in the dft description of the ground and excited states using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Körzdörfer, Thomas

    2014-11-18

    Density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TD-DFT) are powerful tools enabling the theoretical prediction of the ground- and excited-state properties of organic electronic materials with reasonable accuracy at affordable computational costs. Due to their excellent accuracy-to-numerical-costs ratio, semilocal and global hybrid functionals such as B3LYP have become the workhorse for geometry optimizations and the prediction of vibrational spectra in modern theoretical organic chemistry. Despite the overwhelming success of these out-of-the-box functionals for such applications, the computational treatment of electronic and structural properties that are of particular interest in organic electronic materials sometimes reveals severe and qualitative failures of such functionals. Important examples include the overestimation of conjugation, torsional barriers, and electronic coupling as well as the underestimation of bond-length alternations or excited-state energies in low-band-gap polymers.In this Account, we highlight how these failures can be traced back to the delocalization error inherent to semilocal and global hybrid functionals, which leads to the spurious delocalization of electron densities and an overestimation of conjugation. The delocalization error for systems and functionals of interest can be quantified by allowing for fractional occupation of the highest occupied molecular orbital. It can be minimized by using long-range corrected hybrid functionals and a nonempirical tuning procedure for the range-separation parameter.We then review the benefits and drawbacks of using tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals for the description of the ground and excited states of π-conjugated systems. In particular, we show that this approach provides for robust and efficient means of characterizing the electronic couplings in organic mixed-valence systems, for the calculation of accurate torsional barriers at the polymer limit, and for the

  17. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  18. Emissivity of rocket plume particulates.

    OpenAIRE

    Whisman, Curtis D.

    1992-01-01

    The optical properties of motor aluminum oxide are required inputs to current plume signature prediction codes, such as SIRRM. Accurate predictions are possible only if variations in the particle emissivity due to changes in particle size, contamination, and changing temperature, etc. , are known . This investigation demonstrated a simplified method for determination of the emissivity of rocket motor generated alumina. Plume particulate material was collected on ...

  19. Composition of Indoor Particulate Matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Dohányosová, Pavla

    -: -, 2006 - (Fernandes, D.), s. 283-286. (Indoor Climate. II). [Healthy Buildings 2006. Lisboa (PT), 04.06.2006-08.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/04/1190; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/03/1560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : indoor particulate matter * chemical composition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Development of hybrid core calculation system using two-dimensional full-core heterogeneous transport calculation and three-dimensional advanced nodal calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a description of the Hybrid Core Calculation System which is based on a very rigorous but practical method utilizing best estimate core design calculations and taking advantage of the recent remarkable progress of computers. The basic idea of this system is to generate the correction factors for assembly-homogenized cross sections, discontinuity factors, etc. by comparing the CASMO-4 and SIMULATE-3 2-D full-core calculation results under the consistent calculation condition and applying them to the SIMULATE-3 3-D calculation. The CASMO-4 2-D heterogeneous core calculation is performed for each depletion step using the core conditions previously determined by ordinary SIMULATE-3 core calculations. This avoids time-consuming iterative calculations of the critical boron concentration search and the thermal hydraulic feedback. These calculations are instead performed in the final SIMULATE-3 3-D calculation using the previously determined correction factors. The Hybrid Core Calculation System was verified using data from a commercial PWR for several cycles, and it was demonstrated that the accuracy of core calculation is improved. (author)

  1. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  3. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    G. Adinarayana; Ch. Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more...

  4. Advanced radiation detector development mercuric iodide, silicon with internal gain, hybrid scintillator/semiconductor detectors. Comprehensive summary report, 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accomplishments are reported in the development of a compound semi-insulator mercuric iodide (HgI2) for nuclear radiation detection and spectroscopy, early lung cancer detection and localization in the uranium miner/worker population, computer digital image processing and image reconstruction research, and a concept for multiple, filtered x-ray computed tomography scanning to reveal chemical compositional information. Another area of interest is the study of new advances in the area of silicon detectors with internal gain (''avalanche'')

  5. Use of Ethanol/Diesel Blend and Advanced Calibration Methods to Satisfy Euro 5 Emission Standards without DPF Utilisation d’un carburant Diesel éthanolé à l’aide de méthodes de calibration avancées afin de satisfaire les normes Euro 5 sans filtre à particules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magand S.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels has been extensively developed in the last years to diversify energy resources and to participate to the transportation greenhouse gas emissions reduction effort. One of the most promising renewable fuels for large scale production is the ethanol which is nowadays mainly used for spark-ignited engines; nonetheless the European market share of Diesel vehicles is around 60%. These issues lead us to propose an innovative fuel formulation using ethanol for Diesel engine applications. The key issues to deal with the use of ethanol in a Diesel blend are the miscibility, the flashpoint, the lubricity and the cetane number. An intensive work has been done to optimise the formulation coupling the use of ethanol, with first and second generations of Diesel biofuels. The application on a Euro 4-compliant Diesel turbocharged engine with high pressure exhaust gas recirculation shows an outstanding decrease of particulate matter emissions thanks to this oxygenated fuel. Nevertheless unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions could be an issue as well as NOx emissions if the engine control settings are not updated. Combustion analysis helps understanding the fuel effect on the resulting auto-ignition delay and the pilot injection combustion behaviour, which leads to modified engine output compared to Diesel fuel. Therefore, the optimisation of the fuel/engine matching is performed using advanced calibration methodologies combined with design of experiments at the engine test bed. First of all, global and mixed approaches are proposed and compared in warm operating conditions. Finally it permits to simultaneously drop nitrogen oxides emissions and particulate matter emissions. Global CO2 emissions reduction and noise decrease are also expected. To further investigate engine emissions potential reduction, the engine is set up on a dynamic test bed facility, allowing to reproduce cold New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. Several

  6. Particulate Organic Matter (POM) Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on soil organic matter (SOM) pools is of vital importance for studying the impact of soil management and environmental factors on soil organic carbon, an important part of the global carbon cycle. Several conceptual SOM pools with different turnover rates are available to feed models or to study carbon cycles. The fractionation scheme of Zimmermann allows isolating the labile particulate organic matter (POM) pool. Besides its use in conventional soil organic carbon dynamics studies and modelling, this pool can be determining as well in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stability based on the use of stable 15N and 13C isotopes

  7. Carbon in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon compounds account for a large fraction of airborne particulate matter ('carbonaceous aerosols'). Their presence raises a number of scientific questions dealing with climate issues and possible effects on human health. This review describes the current state of knowledge with respect to the ambient concentrations levels (elemental carbon, organic carbon and organic matter) and the various emission sources, and summarizes the role of atmospheric carbon in the various environmental issues. The report finishes by identifying the actual gaps in knowledge and gives (related) suggestions for future research

  8. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  9. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  10. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate ...

  11. Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.E.

    2000-08-20

    Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration

  12. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  13. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings of...... alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates in...... liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect on the...

  14. Dans le tourbillon des particules

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Accélérateurs géants, détecteurs complexes, particules énigmatiques... La physique subatomique peut sembler bien intimidante pour le novice. Et pourtant, qui n a jamais entendu parler du boson de Higgs et du CERN, le laboratoire européen où il a été découvert en 2012 ? Nul besoin d être un spécialiste pour comprendre de quoi il s agit. Aujourd hui, une théorie extraordinairement élégante, le Modèle Standard, décrit tous les résultats des expériences dans le domaine. Trente-sept particules élémentaires et quatre forces fondamentales : c est tout ce dont nous avons besoin pour expliquer la matière et l Univers ! Ce livre, destiné à un large public, raconte sans équations le long parcours qui a abouti au Modèle Standard. Ce parcours, parfois sinueux, a été entamé lorsque les Grecs anciens, et peut-être d autres avant eux, ont imaginé que la matière est composée de petites « billes ». Il faudra attendre plusieurs siècles pour qu on réalise que la matière, à l échelle micros...

  15. Designed synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes@Cu@MoS2 hybrid as advanced electrocatalyst for highly efficient hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Jing; Lin, Xiaoqing; Li, Xinzhe; Fang, Yiyun; Jiao, Lixin; An, Xincai; Fu, Yan; Jin, Jun; Li, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Design and synthesis of non-precious-metal catalyst for efficient electrochemical transformation of water to molecular hydrogen in acid environments is of paramount importance in reducing energy losses during the water splitting process. Here, the hybrid material of MoS2-coated Cu loaded on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs@Cu@MoS2) was synthesized using chemical process and hydrothermal method. It was found that the participation of MWCNTs and Cu nanoparticles not only improved the electrical conductivity of the catalyst, but also further enhanced the catalytic activity by synergistic effect with edge-exposed MoS2-coating. Electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the catalyst exhibited excellent hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity with large cathode currents (small overpotential of 184 mV for 10 mA cm-2 current density) and a Tafel slope as small as 62 mV per decade. Furthermore, it was discovered that the current density of this composite catalyst had a little decrease after the continual 1000 cycling, which showed the catalyst had a high stability in the recycling process. These findings confirmed that this catalyst was a useful and earth-abundant material for water splitting.

  16. Gel electrolytes based on poly(acrylonitrile)/sulpholane with hybrid TiO2/SiO2 filler for advanced lithium polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Paper describes properties of gel electrolyte based on PAN with TMS and TiO2-SiO2. • The TiO2-SiO2 oxide composite was precipitated in the emulsion system and used as the fillers. • The capacity of the graphite anode depends on the current rate and the amount of TiO2-SiO2. • For PE3 electrolyte was obtained practical capacity more than 90% of the theoretical capacity. - Abstract: This paper describes the synthesis and properties of a new type of ceramic fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes. Hybrid TiO2-SiO2 ceramic powders have been obtained by co-precipitation from titanium(IV) sulfate solution using sodium silicate as the precipitating agent. The resulting submicron-size powders have been applied as fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes for Li-ion batteries based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. The powders and gel electrolytes have been examined structurally and electrochemically, showing favorable properties in terms of electrolyte uptake and electrochemical characteristics in Li-ion cells

  17. The DOE Next-Generation Drivetrain for Wind Turbine Applications: Gearbox, Generator, and Advanced Si/SiC Hybrid Inverter System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, William; Keller, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the design and testing results from the U.S. Department of Energy Next-Generation Wind Turbine Drivetrain Project. The drivetrain design reduces the cost of energy by increasing energy capture through drivetrain efficiency improvements; by reducing operation and maintenance costs through reducing gearbox failures; and by lowering capital costs through weight reduction and a series of mechanical and electronic innovations. The paper provides an overview of the drivetrain gearbox and generator and provides a deeper look into the power converter system. The power converter has a number of innovations including the use of hybrid silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) isolated baseplate switching modules. Switching energies are compared between SiC and Si PIN diodes. The efficiency improvement by use of the SiC diode in a three-level converter is also described. Finally, a brief discussion covering utility interconnect requirements for turbines is provided with a particular focus on utility events that lead to high transient torque loads on drivetrain mechanical elements.

  18. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rafael S; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The "color" of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:26844299

  19. Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, AG

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...

  20. Hyperspectral imaging applied to complex particulate solids systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) is based on the utilization of an integrated hardware and software (HW&SW) platform embedding conventional imaging and spectroscopy to attain both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although HSI was originally developed for remote sensing, it has recently emerged as a powerful process analytical tool, for non-destructive analysis, in many research and industrial sectors. The possibility to apply on-line HSI based techniques in order to identify and quantify specific particulate solid systems characteristics is presented and critically evaluated. The originally developed HSI based logics can be profitably applied in order to develop fast, reliable and lowcost strategies for: i) quality control of particulate products that must comply with specific chemical, physical and biological constraints, ii) performance evaluation of manufacturing strategies related to processing chains and/or realtime tuning of operative variables and iii) classification-sorting actions addressed to recognize and separate different particulate solid products. Case studies, related to recent advances in the application of HSI to different industrial sectors, as agriculture, food, pharmaceuticals, solid waste handling and recycling, etc. and addressed to specific goals as contaminant detection, defect identification, constituent analysis and quality evaluation are described, according to authors' originally developed application.

  1. APPLYING DATA ASSIMILATION AND ADJOINT SENSITIVITY TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND POLICY STUDIES OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Source-resolved fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations are needed at high spatial and temporal resolutions for epidemiological studies aimed at identifying more- and less-harmful types of PM. Building on recent advances in air quality modeling, data assimilation, and s...

  2. Externality costs by emission. E. Particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil-fuel-fired electricity generating systems, particularly coal and oil-fired facilities, are significant emitters of particulate matter. The major components of particulate emissions from a power plant include ash, which is made up of heavy metals, radioactive isotopes and hydrocarbons, and sulfates (SO4) and nitrates (NO3), which are formed by reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the atmosphere. The smallest ash particulates (including sulfates and nitrates) cause human respiratory effects and impaired visibility. Other effects may include materials damage due to soiling and possibly corrosion, damage to domestic and wild flora through deposition of particulates on foliage, and possible health effects on domestic animals and wild fauna. Several studies focus on the direct effects of high ambient levels of small particulates. This chapter reviews the available literature on the effects of particulate emissions on humans and their environment, and attempts to assign a cost figure to the environmental effects and human health impairments associated with particulate matter emissions. Specifically, this report focuses on the effects of particulates related to human health, visibility, flora, fauna and materials

  3. A Novel and Facile One-Pot Solvothermal Synthesis of PEDOT-PSS/Ni-Mn-Co-O Hybrid as an Advanced Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chengjie; Yang, Chunming; Jiang, Min; Deng, Cuifen; Yang, Lishan; Li, Junhua; Qian, Dong

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a novel and facile one-pot method has been developed for the synthesis of a hybrid consisting of Ni-Mn-Co ternary oxide and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT-PSS/NMCO) with a hierarchical three-dimensional net structure via a solvothermal-coprecipitation coupled with oxidative polymerization route. Apart from the achievement of polymerization, coprecipitation, and solvothermal in one pot, the hydroxyl (OH(-)) ions generated from the oxidative polymerization of organic monomer by neutral KMnO4 solution were skillfully employed as precipitants for metal ions. As compared with the PEDOT-PSS/Ni-Mn binary oxide, PEDOT-PSS/Co-Mn binary oxide, and PEDOT-PSS/MnO2, PEDOT-PSS1.5/NMCO exhibits overwhelmingly superior supercapacitive performance, more specifically, a high specific capacitance of 1234.5 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), a good capacitance retention of 83.7% at a high current density of 5 A g(-1) after 1000 cycles, an energy density of 51.9 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 275 W kg(-1), and an energy density of 21.4 W h kg(-1) at an extremely elevated power density of 5500 W kg(-1). Noticeably, the energy density and power density of PEDOT-PSS/NMCO are by far higher than those of the existing analogues recently reported. The exceptional performance of PEDOT-PSS/NMCO benefits from its unique mesoporous architecture, which could provide a larger reaction surface area, faster ion and electron transfer ability, and good structural stability. The desirable integrated performance enables the multicomponent composite to be a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. PMID:26794146

  4. Advanced Jet Noise Exhaust Concepts in NASA's N+2 Supersonics Validation Study and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Upcoming Hybrid Wing Body Acoustics Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Doty, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts presented here utilized lobed-mixers and ejectors. A powered third-stream was implemented to improve ejector acoustic performance. One concept was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other produced discrete-frequency tones (due to flow separations within the model) that degraded the acoustic performance of the exhaust concept. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project has been investigating a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft as a possible configuration for meeting N+2 system level goals for noise, emissions, and fuel burn. A recently completed NRA led by Boeing Research and Technology resulted in a full-scale aircraft design and wind tunnel model. This model will be tested acoustically in NASA Langley's 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel and will include dual jet engine simulators and broadband engine noise simulators as part of the test campaign. The objectives of the test are to characterize the system level noise, quantify the effects of shielding, and generate a valuable database for prediction method development. Further details of the test and various component preparations are described.

  5. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  6. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  7. Particulate filtration in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of particulate radioactive material from exhaust air or gases is an essential feature of virtually all nuclear facilities. Recent IAEA publications have covered the broad designs of off-gas and air cleaning systems for the range of nuclear power plants and other facilities. This report is a complementary guidebook that examines in detail the latest developments in the design, operation, maintenance and testing of fibrous air filters. The original draft of the report was prepared by three consultants, M.W. First, of the School of Public Health, Harvard University, United States of America, K.S. Robinson, from the UKAEA Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom, and H.G. Dillmann, of the Kernforschungzentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany. The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM), at which the report was reviewed and much additional information contributed, was attended by 11 experts and was held in Vienna, from 30 May to 3 June 1988. 64 refs, 41 figs, 10 tabs

  8. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  9. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  10. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland's primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  11. Multimodal hybrid imaging agents for sentinel node mapping as a means to (re)connect nuclear medicine to advances made in robot-assisted surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KleinJan, Gijs H. [Leiden University Medical Hospital, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berg, Nynke S. van den [Leiden University Medical Hospital, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jong, Jeroen de [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wit, Esther M.; Poel, Henk G. van der [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Thygessen, Helene [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vegt, Erik [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van [Leiden University Medical Hospital, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-07-15

    Radical prostatectomy and complementary extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) and non-sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) at risk of containing metastases are increasingly being performed using high-tech robot-assisted approaches. Although this technological evolution has clear advantages, the physical nature of robotic systems limits the integrated use of routine radioguided surgery technologies. Hence, engineering effort in robotics are focused on the integration of fluorescence guidance technologies. Using the hybrid SN tracer indocyanine green-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid (radioactive and fluorescent), for the first time in combination with a robot-integrated laparoscope, we investigated whether the robot-assisted approach affects the accuracy of fluorescence detection of SNs identified preoperatively using nuclear medicine. The study included 55 patients (Briganti nomogram-based risk >5 % on LN metastases) scheduled for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, SN biopsy and ePLND. Following indocyanine green-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid injection, preoperative nuclear imaging (lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT) was used to locate the SN(s). The fluorescence laparoscope was used intraoperatively to identify the SN(s) with standard fluorescence settings (in 50 patients) and with customized settings (in 5 patients). The number and location of the SNs, the radioactive, fluorescence (both in vivo and ex vivo) and tumour status of the resected SNs/LNs, and postoperative complications were recorded and analysed. Combined, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging identified 212 SNs (median 4 per patient). Intraoperative fluorescence imaging using standard fluorescence settings visualized 80.4 % (148/184 SNs; 50 patients; ex vivo 97.8 %). This increased to 85.7 % (12/14 SNs; 5 patients; ex vivo 100 %) with customized fluorescence settings. SPECT/CT images provided guidance towards the residual SNs. Ex vivo all removed SNs were radioactive. SNs

  12. Multimodal hybrid imaging agents for sentinel node mapping as a means to (re)connect nuclear medicine to advances made in robot-assisted surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical prostatectomy and complementary extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) and non-sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) at risk of containing metastases are increasingly being performed using high-tech robot-assisted approaches. Although this technological evolution has clear advantages, the physical nature of robotic systems limits the integrated use of routine radioguided surgery technologies. Hence, engineering effort in robotics are focused on the integration of fluorescence guidance technologies. Using the hybrid SN tracer indocyanine green-99mTc-nanocolloid (radioactive and fluorescent), for the first time in combination with a robot-integrated laparoscope, we investigated whether the robot-assisted approach affects the accuracy of fluorescence detection of SNs identified preoperatively using nuclear medicine. The study included 55 patients (Briganti nomogram-based risk >5 % on LN metastases) scheduled for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, SN biopsy and ePLND. Following indocyanine green-99mTc-nanocolloid injection, preoperative nuclear imaging (lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT) was used to locate the SN(s). The fluorescence laparoscope was used intraoperatively to identify the SN(s) with standard fluorescence settings (in 50 patients) and with customized settings (in 5 patients). The number and location of the SNs, the radioactive, fluorescence (both in vivo and ex vivo) and tumour status of the resected SNs/LNs, and postoperative complications were recorded and analysed. Combined, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging identified 212 SNs (median 4 per patient). Intraoperative fluorescence imaging using standard fluorescence settings visualized 80.4 % (148/184 SNs; 50 patients; ex vivo 97.8 %). This increased to 85.7 % (12/14 SNs; 5 patients; ex vivo 100 %) with customized fluorescence settings. SPECT/CT images provided guidance towards the residual SNs. Ex vivo all removed SNs were radioactive. SNs were tumour

  13. The superiority of hybrid-volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) technique over double arcs VMAT and 3D-conformal technique in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer – A planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric performance of three different treatment techniques – conformal radiotherapy (CRT), double arcs volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc, RA) and Hybrid-RapidArc (H-RA) for locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and methods: CRT, RA and H-RA plans were optimized for 24 stage III NSCLC patients. The target prescription dose was 60 Gy. CRT consisted of 5–7 coplanar fields, while RA comprised of two 204o arcs. H-RA referred to two 204o arcs plus 2 static fields, which accounted for approximately half of the total dose. The plans were optimized to fulfill the departmental plan acceptance criteria. Results: RA and H-RA yielded a 20% better conformity compared with CRT. Lung volume receiving >20 Gy (V20) and mean lung dose (MLD) were the lowest in H-RA (V20 1.7% and 2.1% lower, MLD 0.59 Gy and 0.41 Gy lower than CRT and RA respectively) without jeopardizing the low-dose lung volume (V5). H-RA plans gave the lowest mean maximum spinal cord dose (34.4 Gy, 3.9 Gy < CRT and 2.2 Gy < RA plans) and NTCP of lung. Higher average MU per fraction (addition 52.4 MU) was observed with a reduced treatment time compared with CRT plans. Conclusion: The H-RA technique was superior in dosimetric outcomes for treating locally-advanced NSCLC compared to CRT and RA.

  14. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  15. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  16. Reducing of exhaust emissions from diesel hybrid vehicles; Reduzierung der Abgasemissionen von Dieselhybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenkamp, Nils [Volkswagen AG, Braunschweig (Germany); Tilch, Benjamin; Eilts, Peter [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (DE). Inst. fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (ivb)

    2012-07-15

    The combination of Diesel engine and electric motor in hybrid electric vehicles promises the lowest fuel consumption. NO{sub x} and particulate raw emissions in diesel hybrid electric vehicles are high and expensive exhaust aftertreatment is therefore required to reduce them. At the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines at TU Braunschweig various strategies have been developed for an engine-internal reduction of exhaust emissions in diesel hybrid electric vehicles. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of particulate filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the light of the currently running subsidy programme for particulate filters in the Netherlands, the Dutch ministry of spatial planning and environment (VROM) asked TNO to execute a desk study to evaluate the particulates filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles (passenger cars and vans). The typical retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles are also called 'open' or 'half-open' filters, because a part of the exhaust gas can pass through the particulate filter unfiltered. From design point they are very different from the majority of the factory installed particulate filters, which are also called wall-flow or 'closed' particulate filters. Due to these differences there is a large difference in filtration efficiency. Whereas the 'dosed' particulate filters show a filtration efficiency of larger than 90%, the filtration efficiency of 'open' particulate filters is generally lower (type approval minimum 30%), and strongly dependent on the conditions of use. The objective of the current project was to assess the average filtration efficiency of retrofit (open) particulate fillters on light duty vehicles in real world day to day driving, based on available literature data. Also, the reasons of a possible deviation with the type approval test results (minimum filtration efficiency of 30%) was investigated.

  18. Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Priemus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands.

  19. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 3: Specifications for coating material and process controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Resin systems for coating hybrids prior to hermetic sealing are described. The resin systems are a flexible silicone junction resin system and a flexible cycloaliphatic epoxy resin system. The coatings are intended for application to the hybrid after all the chips have been assembled and wire bonded, but prior to hermetic sealing of the package. The purpose of the coating is to control particulate contamination by immobilizing particles and by passivating the hybrid. Recommended process controls for the purpose of minimizing contamination in hybrid microcircuit packages are given. Emphasis is placed on those critical hybrid processing steps in which contamination is most likely to occur.

  20. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  1. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  2. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  3. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  4. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  5. Particulate contamination in plastic ampoules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, R C; Gillies, I R

    1986-05-01

    Plastic ampoules of Water for Injections, JP, and Injection Sodium Chloride, JP, were investigated to determine their particle load. Four batches were studied. The ampoules were twist-opened as they would be in the clinical setting and the total particle load, both inherent and that created in opening, was determined by reading the contents with a HIAC 420 particle counter with a CMB 60 sensor. The total particle content was found to be minimal, easily complying with world L.V.P. standards and the S.V.P. standard of the USP XXI. The number of particles found in these opened plastic ampoules was significantly lower than that found in clinically snap-opened glass ampoules and also slightly lower than that found in laboratory heat-opened glass ampoules. Whilst the plastic ampoule has a restricted application because it is not suitable for all drugs, it is concluded that when they are used as the immediate container for Water for Injections and Injection Sodium Chloride they are highly effective in reducing the particulate contamination generated in opening. PMID:2872309

  6. Particulate products tailoring properties for optimal performance

    CERN Document Server

    Merkus, Henk G

    2013-01-01

    In this book, experts in different product fields provide information on which particulate aspects are most relevant for behavior and performance of specified industrial products and how optimum results can be obtained.

  7. Self-Cleaning Particulate Air Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires an innovative solution to the serious issue of particulate fouling on air revitalization component surfaces in order to address the potential for...

  8. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  9. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  10. Particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled CI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Physical and chemical characterization of biodiesel particulates. • Toxicity of biodiesel particulate due to EC/OC, PAHs and BTEX. • Trace metals and unregulated emissions from biodiesel fuelled diesel engines. • Influence of aftertreatment devices and injection strategy on biodiesel particulates. • Characterization of biodiesel particulate size-number distribution. - Abstract: Compression ignition (CI) engines are the most popular prime-movers for transportation sector as well as for stationary applications. Petroleum reserves are rapidly and continuously depleting at an alarming pace and there is an urgent need to find alternative energy resources to control both, the global warming and the air pollution, which is primarily attributed to combustion of fossil fuels. In last couple of decades, biodiesel has emerged as the most important alternative fuel candidate to mineral diesel. Numerous experimental investigations have confirmed that biodiesel results in improved engine performance, lower emissions, particularly lower particulate mass emissions vis-à-vis mineral diesel and is therefore relatively more environment friendly fuel, being renewable in nature. Environmental and health effects of particulates are not simply dependent on the particulate mass emissions but these change depending upon varying physical and chemical characteristics of particulates. Particulate characteristics are dependent on largely unpredictable interactions between engine technology, after-treatment technology, engine operating conditions as well as fuel and lubricating oil properties. This review paper presents an exhaustive summary of literature on the effect of biodiesel and its blends on exhaust particulate’s physical characteristics (such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, particle surface area-size distribution, surface morphology) and chemical characteristics (such as elemental and organic carbon content, speciation of polyaromatic

  11. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  12. Complexity analysis in particulate matter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Telesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the complex temporal fluctuations of particulate matter data recorded in London area by using the Fisher-Shannon (FS information plane. In the FS plane the PM10 and PM2.5 data are aggregated in two different clusters, characterized by different degrees of order and organization. This results could be related to different sources of the particulate matter.

  13. Fine airborne particulate matter: secondary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical speciation of over 750 samples of PM2,5 collected in urban area of Milan, provides preliminary information about the role of the sources. In particular the research points out the large importance of the secondary source, i. e. the secondary production in atmosphere from gaseous precursors, that accounts for the 60- 70% of the total particulate. These findings affect the intervention policy, that must be oriented also to control the gaseous precursors of the fine particulate

  14. Hybride betongkonstruksjoner

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerve, Tor Øystein

    2010-01-01

    Denne oppgaven tar for seg beregning og testing av hybride betongkonstruksjoner. Den inneholder også beskrivelse av materialtester. Bjelkene som testes er tenkt å være utsnitt av dekkekonstruksjoner. Konstruksjonene skal bestå av et lag fiberarmert lettbetong, som er tenkt å opptre som en prefabrikert betongforskaling, samt en påstøp som kan fungere som ferdig gulv.I teoridelen av oppgaven er det sett på utfordringer og fordeler ved å benytte hybride konstruksjoner. I tillegg er beregningsvei...

  15. Flare Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tomczak; Dubieniecki, P.

    2015-01-01

    Svestka (Solar Phys. 1989, 121, 399) on the basis of the Solar Maximum Mission observations introduced a new class of flares, the so-called flare hybrids. When they start, they look as typical compact flares (phase 1), but later on they look like flares with arcades of magnetic loops (phase 2). We summarize the features of flare hybrids in soft and hard X-rays as well as in extreme-ultraviolet; these allow us to distinguish them from other flares. Additional energy release or long plasma cool...

  16. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  17. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  18. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  19. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, G. E.; Holzman, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Future launch systems of the United States will require improvements in booster safety, reliability, and cost. In order to increase payload capabilities, performance improvements are also desirable. The hybrid rocket motor (HRM) offers the potential for improvements in all of these areas. The designs are presented for two sizes of hybrid boosters, a large 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter booster duplicating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) vacuum thrust-time profile and smaller 2.44 m (96 in.), one-quater thrust level booster. The large booster would be used in tandem, while eight small boosters would be used to achieve the same total thrust. These preliminary designs were generated as part of the NASA Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program. This program is the first phase of an eventual three-phaes program culminating in the demonstration of a large subscale engine. The initial trade and sizing studies resulted in preferred motor diameters, operating pressures, nozzle geometry, and fuel grain systems for both the large and small boosters. The data were then used for specific performance predictions in terms of payload and the definition and selection of the requirements for the major components: the oxidizer feed system, nozzle, and thrust vector system. All of the parametric studies were performed using realistic fuel regression models based upon specific experimental data.

  20. Autologous cranial particulate bone grafting reduces the frequency of osseous defects after cranial expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin Lin; Rogers, Gary F; Clune, James E; Proctor, Mark R; Meara, John G; Mulliken, John B; Greene, Arin K

    2010-03-01

    Primary autologous particulate bone grafting has been demonstrated to heal osseous defects after fronto-orbital advancement. We sought to determine if this technique was equally effective for larger defects resulting from major cranial expansion procedures. We studied children who underwent cranial expansion (other than fronto-orbital advancement) between 1989 and 2008. Defects either were left to heal spontaneously (group 1) or had autologous cranial particulate bone graft placed over dura at the time of cranial expansion (group 2). Particulate bone graft was harvested from the endocortical or ectocortical surface using a hand-driven brace and bit. Outcome variables were ossification and need for revision cranioplasty. The study included 53 children. Mean (SD) age at procedure was 12.2 (8.1) months (range, 1.0-36.0 months) for group 1 (n = 15) and 20.2 (15.1) months (range, 3.3-78.6 months) for group 2 (n = 38) (P = 0.06). There were palpable bony defects in 33.0% (n = 5) of group 1 patients versus 7.9% (n = 3) of group 2 patients (P = 0.03). Corrective cranioplasty was needed in 26.7% of group 1 patients and only 5.3% of those in group 2 (P = 0.04). Primary cranial particulate bone grafting significantly reduced the frequency of osseous defects and secondary cranioplasty following cranial remodeling. PMID:20186093

  1. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration

  2. High performance carbon nanotube - polymer nanofiber hybrid fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Stano, Kelly; Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stone, Corinne; Willis, Colin; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jur, Jesse S.; Bradford, Philip D.

    2015-10-01

    Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m-2 exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities.Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical

  3. Fracture Analysis of Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.; Cornie, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A fracture analysis of highly loaded particulate reinforced composites was performed using laser moire interferometry to measure the displacements within the plastic zone at the tip of an advancing crack. Ten castings were made of five different particulate reinforcement-aluminum alloy combinations. Each casting included net-shape specimens which were used for the evaluation of fracture toughness, tensile properties, and flexure properties resulting in an extensive materials properties data. Measured fracture toughness range from 14.1 MPa for an alumina reinforced 356 aluminum alloy to 23.9 MPa for a silicon carbide reinforced 2214 aluminum alloy. For the combination of these K(sub Ic) values and the measured tensile strengths, the compact tension specimens were too thin to yield true plane strain K(sub Ic) values. All materials exhibited brittle behavior characterized by very small tensile ductility suggesting that successful application of these materials requires that the design stresses be below the elastic limit. Probabilistic design principles similar to those used with ceramics are recommended when using these materials. Such principles would include the use of experimentally determined design allowables. In the absence of thorough testing, a design allowable stress of 60 percent of the measured ultimate tensile stress is recommended.

  4. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container (∼100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide range of stress

  5. Effects of Particulate Debris Morphology on the Rolling Wear Behavior of All-Steel and Si(Sub 3)N(Sub 4)-Steel Bearing Element Couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adair, J.H.; Mecholsky, J.J., Jr.; Mitchell, D.J.

    1999-01-25

    Rolling contact fatigue experiments were performed on all-steel and hybrid Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-M50 steel rolling bearing systems using particulate contaminated lubricants. The particulate contaminants used were glycothermally synthesized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} platelets or Arizona test dust. The effects of contaminant composition and morphology on rolling contact fatigue and wear behavior were explored. The effects of bearing element material properties on fatigue and wear behavior were also examined. Rolling wear behavior is related to bearing component material configuration and the type of particulate contaminant present in the lubricant. Component and particulate material properties such as hardness and elastic modulus are observed to affect rolling wear behavior. Wear mechanisms such as contact stress fatigue, indenting, cutting and plowing are observed.

  6. Advanced Tourist Trip Planning Using Hybrid Recommender

    OpenAIRE

    Saso KOCESKI; Petrevska, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    The paper intends to underline that tourists’ and travelers’ behaviour and preferences have changed dramatically specifically in the way how they search for information. In order to create a tailor-made itinerary and enhance the way of planning a tourist trip, the paper suggests introduction of tourism recommendation systems. For this purpose, a methodology is proposed that assists all interested parties in planning their vacation in more intelligent and sophisticated way by generating a pers...

  7. Advanced Nanophotonics: Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Steglich, Patrick; Villringer, Claus; Pulwer, Silvio; Bauer, Joachim; Heinrich, Friedhelm; Casalboni, Mauro; Schrader, Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices have gained increasing research interests. Especially silicon photonics have become very attractive for various optical applications. Using silicon-on-insulator as a material platform provides the ability to fabricate photonic devices with electronic devices on a single chip. Driven by substantial research investments, the integration of photonic devices on silicon-on-insulator substrates has reached a degree of maturity that already permits industrial adoption. Ho...

  8. Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

    2007-03-01

    The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

  9. Modelling of fracture behaviour of PP particulate composites on micro-level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbedová, E.; Knésl, Zdeněk; Hutař, Pavel; Majer, Zdeněk; Veselý, P.

    Paříž : Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, 2008, s. 153-164. ISBN 978-3-9522677-7-6. [SEIC0 08. Paříž (FR), 31.03.2008-02.04.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1284 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : particulate composites * interphase * embrittling effect Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  10. RESEARCH ON THE CYLINDRICAL PARTICULATE FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jian-zhong

    2005-01-01

    The study of cylindrical particulate flows has wide industrial applicability and hence received much attention. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a review on the motion of cylindrical particles in shear layer, converging channel and jet flows, the dynamic of cylindrical particles sedimentation in a Newtonian fluid, the characterization of turbulent cylindrical particulate flows, the property of interaction between the particles, the structural feature and rheology of suspensions, the analysis of hydrodynamic instability of cylindrical particle suspensions. Finally, the concluding remarks are given.

  11. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  12. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1998-01-01

    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  13. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systems – systems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  14. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  15. METALLURGICAL COKE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the metallurgical coke industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from metallurgical coke plants, the data were...

  16. Casting of particulate Al-base composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, S.F. [CMRDI, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-03-01

    A molten Al-4 wt.% Cu as well as a Al-13 wt.% Si alloy have been mixed mechanically with particulate of SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or graphite. After the completion of mixing, each mixture was poured into a permanent mould to solidify. To overcome the problem of non-wettability that exists between the investigated particulate and the molten aluminum alloys the particulate was chemically treated by impregnation in a solution containing Na{sup +} ions. The loading of SiC or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particulate in the produced composites can be as high as 40 wt.%, and for graphite particles it can be 20 wt.%. The mixing time required to introduce and distribute the investigated particles into the molten matrix was as low as five minutes to recluce chemical reactions at the interfaces between them. Processing details and parameters controlling this technique are described. Metallographic examinations as well as tensile tests were carried out to characterize the microstructure, the distribution of the particles and the strength of these composites. The results display that the composites made by this technique have good microstructure and tensile properties. (orig.)

  17. PARTICULATE EMISSION PROFILE OF A COTTON GIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IS ONE OF SIX CRITERIA POLLUTANTS REGULATED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) WITH NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS). IN GENERAL, PM IS THE ONLY AIR POLLUTANT OF CONCERN EMITTED FROM COTTON GINS. THE EPA HAS NAAQS FOR PM10 (PARTICLES WITH AN AERODYNA...

  18. Compound for consolidating particulate materials. [French patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blaricom, L.E.; Deweyert, H.R.; Smith, N.H.

    1969-03-10

    This compound consists of a sulfonated polyphenolic material extracted from the bark of coniferous trees and/or quebracho wood, a water-soluble bichromate, and borax. The aqueous compound with a pH of 8 to 10.5 is mixed with solid particulate materials, such as earth, sand or gravel.

  19. Particulate contamination of sterile syringes and needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S A

    1982-08-01

    Commercially available sterile needles and syringes have been examined for particulate contamination using the Hiac light blockage technique. The number of particles delivered was small compared with the total number permitted for large volume parenterals. Where syringes are used in particle counting techniques, the contribution of particles should be taken into account. PMID:6126558

  20. Aerotrace. Measurement of particulates from an engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, C.D. [DRA, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of gas turbine operating conditions, inlet temperature, pressure and overall air fuel ratio, on particulate number density has been measured. Particulate number density was found to be proportional to combustor inlet pressure and decrease with increasing combustor inlet temperature. The relationship with air fuel ratio is more complex. The mechanism of particulate loss down sample lines has been elucidated and equations are presented to predict particulate losses for stainless steel and PTFE sample lines. (author) 3 refs.

  1. Development of Particulates and Aerosols Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Rivera, Monica

    2005-01-01

    During the past year several accomplishments were made for both the Particulate Matter Characterization and Measurement System, (PMCMS) and PAGEMS projects. The PAGEMS focus is to measure particulate emissions as a function of combustor parameters such as inlet temperature, inlet pressure and fuel air ratio. These measurements are used to evaluate combustor performance in hopes of correlating particulate emissions with engine conditions. These measurements have taken place at in-house NASA combustor facilities and off-site facilities. Ths work is unique because particulate measurements at high- pressure conditions are not commonly made. Some calibration of the PAGEMS instrumentation was done as well as minor modifications to the PAGEMS plumbing setup. These led to measurement improvements. The instrumentation and measurement process for PAGEMS was assessed and new instruments such as a thermodenuder, thermal mass flow meters and a cyclone separator were purchased to improve the PAGEMS instrumentation and measurement process. A worksheet was created to simulate varying inlet conditions to the DMA. This worksheet allows the user to assess the error in the measurements when certain conditions exist. Two technical papers were written with the PAGEMS team for the EXCAVATE field project. A paper was also reviewed for an in house publication. Also data was processed and analyzed for another field project (PAX) and will be part of a third PAGEMS paper. Accomplishments were also made with the PMCMS project. The calibration of the radial differential mobility analyzer, (RDMA) in the particle sizing system in the PMCMS was completed and provided satisfactory results. The voltages used for the RDMA depending on the particle of interest were corrected. The measurement capability of the PMCMS was increased by replacing the MetOne CPC with a TSI CPC. Lastly, assistance was provided to three college summer students with calibration of their particulate equipment and Monica Rivera

  2. A hybrid model for PM₂.₅ forecasting based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and a general regression neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingping; Jiang, Haiyan; Wang, Jianzhou; Zhou, Jianling

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM₂.₅) can cause serious health problems because PM₂.₅ contains microscopic solid or liquid droplets that are sufficiently small to be ingested deep into human lungs. Thus, daily prediction of PM₂.₅ levels is notably important for regulatory plans that inform the public and restrict social activities in advance when harmful episodes are foreseen. A hybrid EEMD-GRNN (ensemble empirical mode decomposition-general regression neural network) model based on data preprocessing and analysis is firstly proposed in this paper for one-day-ahead prediction of PM₂.₅ concentrations. The EEMD part is utilized to decompose original PM₂.₅ data into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), while the GRNN part is used for the prediction of each IMF. The hybrid EEMD-GRNN model is trained using input variables obtained from principal component regression (PCR) model to remove redundancy. These input variables accurately and succinctly reflect the relationships between PM₂.₅ and both air quality and meteorological data. The model is trained with data from January 1 to November 1, 2013 and is validated with data from November 2 to November 21, 2013 in Xi'an Province, China. The experimental results show that the developed hybrid EEMD-GRNN model outperforms a single GRNN model without EEMD, a multiple linear regression (MLR) model, a PCR model, and a traditional autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. The hybrid model with fast and accurate results can be used to develop rapid air quality warning systems. PMID:25089688

  3. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  4. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  5. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  6. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  7. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  8. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  9. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  10. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  11. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  12. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  13. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  14. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  16. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  17. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  18. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  19. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  20. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  1. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  2. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  4. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  5. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  6. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  7. Hybrid Ty virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S E; Burns, N R; Layton, G T; Kingsman, A J

    1994-01-01

    Vaccines need to activate antigen presenting cells, overcome genetic restriction in T-cell responses and elicit both T and B memory cells. In order to produce recombinant vaccines which can do this, considerable effort has been put into developing particulate antigen presentation systems to generate polyvalent, high molecular weight antigens which should maximally stimulate the immune system. One such antigen-carrier system is based on the ability of a protein encoded by the yeast retrotransposon, Ty, to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs). Ty-fusion proteins retain this ability to form particles and a range of hybrid VLPs carrying a variety of heterologous antigens have been produced and shown to elicit potent immune responses. Hybrid VLPs carrying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens stimulate the three main components of the immune system, namely antibody synthesis, T-cell proliferative responses and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. PMID:8046274

  8. Nanostructured Fiber Optic Cantilever Arrays and Hybrid MEMS Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in nano-/micro-scale sensor fabrication and molecular recognition surfaces offer promising opportunities to develop miniaturized hybrid fiber optic and...

  9. Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery (WHISPER) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Systems & Technologies proposed WHISPER (Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery) solution to NASA's need for...

  10. Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a 4 Passenger VTOL Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advancement of hybrid-electric propulsion systems for rotorcraft enables vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles to take advantage of aerodynamic...

  11. Neutron tomography of particulate filters: a non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research describes the development and implementation of high-fidelity neutron imaging and the associated analysis of the images. This advanced capability allows the non-destructive, non-invasive imaging of particulate filters (PFs) and how the deposition of particulate and catalytic washcoat occurs within the filter. The majority of the efforts described here were performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D neutron imaging beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the current spatial resolution is approximately 50 μm. The sample holder is equipped with a high-precision rotation stage that allows 3D imaging (i.e., computed tomography) of the sample when combined with computerized reconstruction tools. What enables the neutron-based image is the ability of some elements to absorb or scatter neutrons where other elements allow the neutron to pass through them with negligible interaction. Of particular interest in this study is the scattering of neutrons by hydrogen-containing molecules, such as hydrocarbons (HCs) and/or water, which are adsorbed to the surface of soot, ash and catalytic washcoat. Even so, the interactions with this adsorbed water/HC is low and computational techniques were required to enhance the contrast, primarily a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). This effort describes the following systems: particulate randomly distributed in a PF, ash deposition in PFs, a catalyzed washcoat layer in a PF, and three particulate loadings in a SiC PF

  12. Expression vectors for the construction of hybrid Ty-VLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S E; Richardson, S M; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1994-04-01

    Purification of expressed proteins can be facilitated by expressing the recombinant protein as a fusion with a carrier protein that assembles into particulate structures. This article describes the use of expression vectors in producing a hybrid of the yeast retrotransposon Ty, which self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs). Hybrid VLPs can be used in such laboratory applications as the production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, structure/function analyses, the detection of important antigenic determinants, and epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies. PMID:7859156

  13. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  14. Note on the sanitary impact of diesel particulates; Note sur l'impact sanitaire des particules diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    In the actual situation of scientific works, the epidemiology studies on environment do not allow to say the carcinogen contribution of diesel particulates at the concentration levels measured in the urban air. But according to the experimental data for the rat and the data observed for the personnel exposed to diesel particulates these particulates are classified as probably carcinogen. (N.C.)

  15. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  16. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A; Polosa, A D

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  17. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X , Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0 π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X , Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X (5568) are also made.

  18. Chemical Speciation of Thorium in Marine Biogenic Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Katsumi Hirose

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of particulate thorium in seawater were determined together with the strong organic ligand (SOL) and uranium in particulate matter (PM). The concentrations of particulate Th in surface waters of the western North Pacific and the Sea of Japan ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 pM (1 x 10−12 M), and showed relatively large temporal and spatial variations. In order to chemically characterize the particulate Th in seawater, the relationship between particulate Th and SOL concentrations in sur...

  19. Hybrid layered superconductor/ferromagnet structures for spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced technology for production of high-quality superconductor/ferromagnet-hybrids of ultrathin superconducting Nb layers and ferromagnetic CuNi layers for application in spintronics is developed. (authors)

  20. Process for simultaneously removing sulfur oxides and particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas purification process is described comprising the steps of: withdrawing a particulate-laden gaseous stream comprising particulates and sulfur oxides from a combustor of a processing unit selected from the group consisting of a catalytic cracking unit, a synthetic fuels plant, a coal liquefaction plant, a gasification plant, a power plant, a paper mill, a steel mill, and a waste treatment facility; removing large gross particulates from the particulate-laden gaseous stream in at least one cyclone by passing the particulate-laden gaseous stream through at least one cyclone; feeding the particulate-laden gaseous stream to a vessel after the particulate-laden gaseous stream has been passed through at least one cyclone, the vessel having a bed of sulfur oxide capturing and particulate-removing material comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of adsorbers and adsorbers with at least one promoter thereon, the adsorbers substantially comprising an oxide of at least one metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, bismuth, manganese, yttrium, antimony, tin, a rare earth metal, a Group Ia metal, and Group 2a metal, and the promoter selected from the group consisting essentially of a rare earth metal, a Group 8 metal, chromium, vanadium, rhenium, and combinations thereof; substantially decreasing the concentration of both particulates and sulfur oxides in the particulate-laden gaseous stream in the vessel; and the decreasing comprising simultaneously removing a substantial portion of the particulates and a substantial portion of the sulfur oxides from the particulate-laden gaseous stream by passing the particulate-laden gaseous stream through a portion of the bed of sulfur oxide-capturing and particulate-removing material in the vessel

  1. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  2. Adsorption of aluminium by stream particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, E; Ohnstad, M; Woof, C

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the adsorption of aluminium by fine particulates from Whitray Beck, a hill stream in NW England. Adsorption increased with Al(3) activity, pH and concentration of particles, and could be quantitatively described by the empirical equation: [Formula: see text] [particles] where square brackets indicate concentrations, curly brackets, activities, and alpha, beta and gamma are constants with values of 5.14x10(-10) (mol litre(-1))(2.015) (g particles litre(-1))(-1), 0.457, and 1.472, respectively. For the experimental data, the equation gave a correlation ratio of 0.99. The equation accounts reasonably well for the adsorption of Al by particulates from seven other streams. In applying the equation, it must be borne in mind that the desorption kinetics of Al depend on pH, and rapid reversibility (or=10%) of total monomeric Al. PMID:15092454

  3. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  4. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  5. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  6. Characterisation of carbonaceous particulate matter in Edinburgh

    OpenAIRE

    Hammonds, Mark David

    2012-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has important harmful effects on human health, as well as a number of other important atmospheric effects. Although progress has been made in understanding the sources and effects of PM, there remains considerable uncertainty on a number of issues, including the nature of a lot of the carbonaceous material, which comprises 30{50% on average of PM mass. This project aims to compare different methods of PM measurement, and contribute understanding...

  7. Particulate Debris Osteolysis Simulating Malignant Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Richard A.; Marsh, J. Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Osteolysis induced by particulate debris from total joint implants is typically confined to bone and benign in radiographic appearance even when extensive. However, they can extend well beyond bone in which case they can simulate malignancies owing either to mass effects and pressure on adjacent tissues or owing to the radiographic appearance. We report two cases which presented as possible malignancy, and review the literature on extensive osteolysis. Recognition of this possibility may aid ...

  8. Toughness verus stiffness of PP particulate composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbedová, E.; Knésl, Zdeněk; Hutař, Pavel; Majer, Zdeněk; Veselý, P.

    Halle/Saale : Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 2008 - (Michler, G.). A36-A36 ISBN 978-3-940744-17-3. [Polymeric Materials 2008. 24.09.2008-26.09.2008, Halle/Saale] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1284 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : particulate composite * interphase * CaCO3 filler Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  9. Vertical hydraulic transport of particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of particulate solid vertical transport is formulated using the conservation equations of Continuum Mechanics. It is shown that the constitutive equation for solid-fluid interaction term in the equations of motion may be determined by rather simple experiments of homogeneous fluidization. The predicted fluid pressure drop and solid concentration are in satisfacting agreement with past experiments and with data obtained in this work. (Author)

  10. Chemical profile of fugitive particulate emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugitive emissions pose problems both for general air quality management as well as for the operational management of the facilities. In harbours, activities such loading, unloading and transport of dusty materials are important sources of particulate fugitive emissions. Therefore, there is a growing concern about air quality in these areas as a result of the high impact of the operations on human health and environment. The objectives of this study were to estimate the impact of harbour activities on air particulate matter (APM) levels and to compile an inventory of chemical profiles of harbour particulate fugitive emissions. This preliminary work was based on experimental campaigns carried out in a Portuguese harbour when different types of bulk materials were handled. High time resolution monitors were installed close to the unloaded area and recorded APM concentrations and meteorological variables. PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were collected during unloading operations and a complete chemical characterization of collected samples was made by the techniques k 0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle induced X-ray emission. Results showed that manipulation of materials during harbour operations resulted in high emissions of particles, especially from the coarse fraction. These emissions were very affected by the granulometry and chemical composition of the handled materials and by the meteorological conditions. (author)

  11. Advances in time series forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Cagdas, Hakan Aladag

    2012-01-01

    Readers will learn how these methods work and how these approaches can be used to forecast real life time series. The hybrid forecasting model is also explained. Data presented in this e-book is problem based and is taken from real life situations. It is a valuable resource for students, statisticians and working professionals interested in advanced time series analysis.

  12. Differential Hybrid Games

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer, André

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces differential hybrid games, which combine differential games with hybrid games. In both kinds of games, two players interact with continuous dynamics. The difference is that hybrid games also provide all the features of hybrid systems and discrete games, but only deterministic differential equations. Differential games, instead, provide differential equations with continuous-time game input by both players, but not the luxury of hybrid games, such as mode switches and d...

  13. Propagation behavior of permeability reduction in heterogeneous porous media due to particulate transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    In this letter we explore the propagation behavior of permeability reduction due to particulate transport in heterogeneous porous media. By simulating an advection-dispersion–based model we find that an attenuating sequence exists in terms of the propagation of particle concentration, permeability reduction and heterogeneity perturbation. The advancing speed of the fronts of the mentioned physical quantities attenuates successively from const to \\text{const}(1/n)1/t1-1/n to \\text{const}1/t (where n > 1 and t denotes time) regardless of the heterogeneity patterns. Then we move on to discuss the micro-dynamics of the propagation sequence, involving how it originates and how it connects with the macroscopic results. Moreover, exploiting the propagation mechanism enables us to know the condition under which we can apply the hypothesis of media homogeneity to describe the behavior of the particulate transport system in porous media.

  14. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendices B1-B4. [HYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-25

    These four appendices to the report on the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) report contain information on: HYBRID computer program documentation; material substitution study for advanced hybrid vehicles; NTHV market potential; battery compartment weight distribution; and vehicle handling dynamics. (LCL)

  15. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Electrospin Hybrid Process for Protective Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitchuli Gangadharan, Narendiran

    2011-12-01

    Chemical and biological (C-B) warfare agents like sarin, sulfur mustard, anthrax are usually dispersed into atmosphere in the form of micro aerosols. They are considered to be dangerous weapon of mass destruction next to nuclear weapons. The airtight protective clothing materials currently available are able to stop the diffusion of threat agents but not good enough to detoxify them, which endangers the wearers. Extensive research efforts are being made to prepare advanced protective clothing materials that not only prevent the diffusion of C-B agents, but also detoxify them into harmless products thus ensuring the safety and comfort of the wearer. Electrospun nanofiber mats are considered to have effective filtration characteristics to stop the diffusion of submicron level particulates without sacrificing air permeability characteristics and could be used in protective application as barrier material. In addition, functional nanofibers could be potentially developed to detoxify the C-B warfare threats into harmless products. In this research, electrospun nanofibers were deposited on fabric surface to improve barrier efficiency without sacrificing comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Multi-functional nanofibers were fabricated through an electrospinning-electrospraying hybrid process and their ability to detoxify simulants of C-B agents was evaluated. Nanofibers were also deposited onto plasma-pretreated woven fabric substrate through a newly developed plasma-electrospinning hybrid process, to improve the adhesive properties of nanofibers on the fabric surface. The nanofiber adhesion and durability properties were evaluated by peel test, flex and abrasion resistance tests. In this research work, following tasks have been carried out: i) Controlled deposition of nanofiber mat onto woven fabric substrate Electrospun Nylon 6 fiber mats were deposited onto woven 50/50 Nylon/Cotton fabric with the motive of making them into protective material against submicron

  16. Buildings for advanced technology

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, E; Murday, James

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the design and construction of buildings for nanoscale science and engineering research. The information provided in this book is useful for designing and constructing buildings for such advanced technologies as nanotechnology, nanoelectronics and biotechnology. The book outlines the technology challenges unique to each of the building environmental challenges outlined below and provides best practices and examples of engineering approaches to address them: • Establishing and maintaining critical environments: temperature, humidity, and pressure • Structural vibration isolation • Airborne vibration isolation (acoustic noise) • Isolation of mechanical equipment-generated vibration/acoustic noise • Cost-effective power conditioning • Grounding facilities for low electrical interference • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)/Radio frequency interference (RFI) isolation • Airborne particulate contamination • Airborne organic and chemical contamination • Environment, safety a...

  17. Hybrid Pulsators -- Pulsating Stars with Multiple Identities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, A -Y

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a statistic survey on the pulsating variable stars with multiple identities. These stars were identified to exhibit two types of pulsation or multiple light variability types in the literature, and are usually called hybrid pulsators. We extracted the hybrid information based on the Simbad database. Actually, all the variables with multiple identities are retrieved. The survey covers various pulsating stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We aim at giving a clue in selecting interesting targets for further observation. Hybrid pulsators are excellent targets for asteroseismology. An important implication of such stars is their potential in advancing the theories of both stellar evolution and pulsation. By presenting the statistics, we address the open questions and prospects regarding current status of hybrid pulsation studies.

  18. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  19. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-02-16

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  20. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  1. Railgun hybrid armatures, experimental results and performance characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Roger; Keefer, Dennis; Sedghinasab, Ahad

    1991-01-01

    Six hybrid armature designs were evaluated in the UTSI one-centimeter square-bore railgun. Advanced diagnostic instrumentation was used to determine the characteristics of hybrid armatures which include a compound armature (current in plasma brushes to the metal armature followed by a plasma armature). The hybrid armatures were compact, with shorter current distributions than plasma armatures as measured with both optical and electromagnetic probes. Although the results are preliminary, due to the limited geometries investigated, the results are very encouraging. The short (less than one-bore-diameter) hybrids demonstrated efficiencies equal to or greater than plasma armatures and good armature stability.

  2. Managing particulates in cell therapy: Guidance for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dominic; Stanton, Jean; Powers, Donald; Karnieli, Ohad; Nahum, Sagi; Abraham, Eytan; Parisse, Jean-Sebastien; Oh, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The intent of this article is to provide guidance and recommendations to cell therapy product sponsors (including developers and manufacturers) and their suppliers in the cell therapy industry regarding particulate source, testing, monitoring and methods for control. This information is intended to help all parties characterize the processes that generate particulates, understand product impact and provide recommendations to control particulates generated during manufacturing of cell therapy products. PMID:27426934

  3. Chemical Coupling Between Atmospheric Ozone and Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Z.; DABDUB, D; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A major fraction of ambient particulate matter arises from atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion. Attempts to reduce particulate matter levels require control of the same organic and nitrogen oxide (NO_x) emissions that are precursors to urban and regional ozone formation. Modeling of the gas-aerosol chemical interactions that govern levels of particulate components showed that control of gas-phase organic and NO_x precursors does not lead to proportionate reductions of the gas-phase–derived...

  4. Diesel Particulate Filter Diagnostics Using Correlation and Spectral Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Surve, Pranati R

    2008-01-01

    Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are used to trap the harmful particulate matter (PM) present in the exhaust of diesel engines. The particulate matter is trapped in and on a porous ceramic substrate to keep PM emissions low. The onboard diagnostics requirements enforced by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require that the DPF perform well to keep emissions below certain specified levels. Further, should the DPF fail in any way, resulting in higher emission levels, this event must be dete...

  5. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62... Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 0.15 kg per metric ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln (0.30 lb per ton)....

  6. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  8. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique

  9. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.

    2013-03-05

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

  11. Particulate methane monooxygenase genes in methanotrophs.

    OpenAIRE

    Semrau, J. D.; Chistoserdov, A; Lebron, J.; Costello, A; Davagnino, J.; Kenna, E; Holmes, A. J.; Finch, R; Murrell, J.C.; Lidstrom, M E

    1995-01-01

    A 45-kDa membrane polypeptide that is associated with activity of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) has been purified from three methanotrophic bacteria, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was found to be identical in 17 of 20 positions for all three polypeptides and identical in 14 of 20 positions for the N terminus of AmoB, the 43- kDa subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. DNA from a variety of methanotrophs was screened with two probes, an oligonucleotide designed from the N-ter...

  12. Discours rapporté et particules

    OpenAIRE

    Peuvergne, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Cet article concerne l’observation d’occurrences de discours rapporté (DR) extraites d’un corpus recueilli au Cameroun. Cette étude s’inscrit dans un questionnement plus large sur le morphème que. Son extrême fréquence dans le DR en fait un lieu d’observation privilégié. Le fonctionnement de que ne peut se comprendre indépendamment du faisceau d’indices au sein duquel il intervient : verbes de parole, pauses, prosodie, particules. Ces dernières en particulier jouent des rôles multiples, struc...

  13. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  14. Particulate filtration for sorbent-based H2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; Karra, Jagadeswara R.

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for sizing the particulate filter that can be used inside a sorption-based onboard hydrogen storage system for light-duty vehicles. The method is based on a trade-off between the pressure drop across the particulate filter (during the fill of the H2 storage tank or during its discharge while driving) and the effect of this pressure drop on the usable amount of H2 gas from the H2 storage system. The permeability and filtration efficiency of the particulate filters (in the absence and presence of MOF-5 particulates) was quantified in this study, with an emphasis on meeting DOE's H2 purity requirements.

  15. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program, phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The study program was contracted to evaluate concepts of hybrid propulsion, select the most optimum, and prepare a conceptual design package. Further, this study required preparation of a technology definition package to identify hybrid propulsion enabling technologies and planning to acquire that technology in Phase 2 and demonstrate that technology in Phase 3. Researchers evaluated two design philosophies for Hybrid Rocket Booster (HRB) selection. The first is an ASRM modified hybrid wherein as many components/designs as possible were used from the present Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) design. The second was an entirely new hybrid optimized booster using ASRM criteria as a point of departure, i.e., diameter, thrust time curve, launch facilities, and external tank attach points. Researchers selected the new design based on the logic of optimizing a hybrid booster to provide NASA with a next generation vehicle in lieu of an interim advancement over the ASRM. The enabling technologies for hybrid propulsion are applicable to either and vehicle design may be selected at a downstream point (Phase 3) at NASA's discretion. The completion of these studies resulted in ranking the various concepts of boosters from the RSRM to a turbopump fed (TF) hybrid. The scoring resulting from the Figure of Merit (FOM) scoring system clearly shows a natural growth path where the turbopump fed solid liquid staged combustion hybrid provides maximized payload and the highest safety, reliability, and low life cycle costing.

  16. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  17. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  18. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  19. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  20. Polymeric-based particulate systems for delivery of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Chen, Shuqing

    2016-05-01

    Polymeric-based particulate systems have been intensively developed to increase the short biological half-life and prevent enzymatic degradation of therapeutic proteins. These techniques demonstrate the useful characteristics for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides to the targeted site of application and prevent the interaction of encapsulated drug with the normal cells. In this article, we have described the in depth of different pharmaceutical-based techniques that are currently being practiced for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides. A comprehensive English literature was searched using different electronic search databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, google scholar and library search. Different search terms and advanced search were made by combining all the search fields in abstract, keywords and/or titles. Findings of various studies that have been discussed in this article clearly indicate that polymeric-based techniques can significantly increase the therapeutic potentials of incorporated proteins with no known toxic effects. These techniques have shown to maintain the stability and retain biological activity of protein therapeutics. Hence it can be suggested that pharmaceutical-based techniques are promising drug carriers for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:25567454

  1. Reducing diesel exhaust particulates by retrofitting tractors with particulate filters; Reduktion der Dieselrussemissionen von Traktoren durch die Nachruestung mit Partikelfiltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, M.; Schiess, I.; Wolfensberger, U. [Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon (Switzerland). Forschungsgruppe Agrartechnische Systeme

    2008-08-15

    Current knowledge indicates that the soot particles produced by diesel engines are among the constituents of PM-10 particulate, which are most detrimental to health. Although individual particles are so small - 0.1 mm on the average - they can penetrate the pulmonary alveoli. In Switzerland around 400 tonnes of diesel exhaust particulate are emitted by agricultural machinery every year [1]. Exhaust Gas Stage 3B will initiate more stringent mass-related particulate limits, but since it is not scheduled for introduction until 2011 and agricultural vehicles have a long service life, it seemed advisable to investigate retrofitting agricultural machinery with particulate filters. (orig.)

  2. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  3. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  4. Determination of leachable uranium in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium content of airborne particulates collected on cellulose filters was investigated. As a case study, filter samples from the large area of Thessaloniki, Greece, were used. For the uranium determination instrumental neutron activation analysis was used. To obtain equal counting conditions for all samples after irradiation, independent from the initial matrix, uranium was leached from the filter by using a 0.1M NH4HCO3 solution, forming a stable uranyl complex [UO2(CO3)3]. This complex was absorbed in a batch process on a small amount of chelating ion exchanger Srafion NMRR, which was directly irradiated in the reactor of the NCSR Demokritos. Over the investigated time period in 1997 the mean concentration was found to be 0.047 ng U/m3. In relation to the collected amount of airborne particulates having a mean concentration of 0.52 μg/gU. It can be assumed as a natural uranium level in the environment. (author)

  5. Rheological properties of asphalts with particulate additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashidhar, N. [EBA Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States); Chollar, B.H. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave asphalt binder specifications are performance-based specifications for purchasing asphalt binders for the construction of roads. This means that the asphalt is characterized by fundamental material (rheological) properties that relate to the distress modes of the pavements. The distress modes addressed are primarily rutting, fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking. For example, G*/sin({delta}) is designed to predict the rutting potential of pavements, where G* is the magnitude of the complex shear modulus and 6 is the phase angle. The binder for a road that is situated in a certain climatic zone requires the binder to have a minimum G*/sin({delta}) of 2200 Pa at the highest consecutive 7-day average pavement temperature the road had experienced. Implicit in such a performance based specification is that the fundamental property, G*/sin({delta}), of the binder correlates with rutting potential of the pavement regardless of the nature of the binder. In other words, the specification is transparent to the fact that the binder can simply be an asphalt, or an asphalt modified by polymers, particulates and other materials that can form a two-phase mixture. This paper discusses the asphalt-particulate system.

  6. Atmospheric particulate pollution in Kenitra (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities of Morocco are exposed to a high atmospheric particulate pollution due to automobile traffic, industrialization, but also to soil dusts (in relation with aridity and desert proximity). Monitoring networks and data about air pollution still rare. The present study is a preliminary work about particulate and heavy metals pollution in Kenitra city. Aerosols had been collected with a PM10 sampler (Partisol), a dichotomous sampler (P M2.5 and P M2.5-10 fractions) and stacked filter unit (Gent type) with a fine fraction (below 2.5 um) and a coarse fraction. In summer, the average PM10 concentration is near 80 u g/N m3, above the EEC rule and OMS recommendations, but similar to some other african towns. The ratio P M2.5/PM 10 is low (below 0.5), with seasonal variation in relation with meteorology. The lead and nickel concentrations are also very low, in relation with the use of leaded gasoline and the oldness of many vehicles. This preliminary work reveals high levels of pollution (especially PM10, Pb and Ni) in the town of Kenitra. The major sources are traffic, soil dusts and resuspension of deposited particles. It is necessary to develop monitoring network and sanitary and and environmental impact studies in these cities

  7. Macroscopic Behavior and Damage of a Particulate Composite with a Crosslinked Polymer Matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Máša, Bohuslav; Hutař, Pavel

    Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2012 - (Öchsner, A.), s. 117-128. (Advanced Structured Materials. 31). ISBN 978-3-642-31496-4 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GD106/09/H035; GA ČR GA106/08/1409 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polymer matrix composite * particulate composite * hyperelastic behaviour * damage model * finite element modelling Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  8. Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, D.; Bardelli, F.; Dongarrà, G.; Tamburo, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained combining several well established and advanced characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS). The advantage of SR-XAS is that samples do not undergo any chemical treatment prior to measurements, thus excluding possible alterations. These analyses revealed that the samples of wheel rims dust, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter are composed by an admixture of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different relative abundances. Brake linings turned out to be composed by Sb(III) oxide (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Stibnite was also detected in some of the particulate matter samples. The obtained data suggest that Sb2S3 during the brake abrasion process is easily decomposed forming more stable compounds such as antimony mixed oxidic forms. Sb redox speciation, in particular and well studied circumstances, may enhance the potential and selectivity of this element as a tracer of motor vehicle emissions in apportioning studies.

  9. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  10. A teacher as researcher study of high school chemistry student ideas about the particulate nature of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Robert Fredrick

    The objective of this study was to advance the pedagogical content knowledge base for teaching high school chemistry by conducting qualitative research on students' scientific understanding of water prior to, during, and after formal instruction on the particulate nature of matter. The study was conducted within a constructivist theoretical framework, with an emphasis on John Dewey's pragmatic social constructivism. The teacher-as-researcher conducted three sets of clinical interviews based on three related contexts: representation of water in the liquid state, interaction of water with a solute, and water vaporizing and condensing. Interviews and class work were analyzed to determine the extent to which students used the particulate nature of matter to reorganize their understanding of water. Findings present student responses in terms of four different aspects of the particulate model, where students frequently emphasized certain aspects of the model to the exclusion of others. These aspects were identified as "Simple Particles," "Mechanical Kinetic," "Differential Chemical", and "Electrostatic Interactive." Students exhibited significant difficulty in extending micro-mechanical aspects of the model into an electrostatic-interactive understanding of water. Applications of the particulate model were often highly context dependent. Students showed a variety of unique, alternative interpretations of the particulate nature of water that were supported by rich qualitative interview responses. Student difficulties understanding the particulate nature of water were attributed to alternative conceptions prior to instruction as well as the content and sequencing of the traditional biology-chemistry-physics science curriculum. The study recommends changes in curriculum sequencing, improved instruction in the nature of science and scientific models, and the need for introducing students to ideas in physics, especially electrostatics, prior to the study of introductory

  11. Simulated fuel economy and emissions performance during city and interstate driving for a heavy-duty hybrid truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  12. TNO-ADVANCE: a modular powertrain simulation and design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venne, J.W.C. van de; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    To support its activities in the field of conventional and hybrid vehicles, TNO has developed ADVANCE, a modular simulation tool for the design and evaluation of advanced powertrains. In this paper the various features and the potential of ADVANCE are described and illustrated by means of three case

  13. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  19. Chemical Speciation of Thorium in Marine Biogenic Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Hirose

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of particulate thorium in seawater were determined together with the strong organic ligand (SOL and uranium in particulate matter (PM. The concentrations of particulate Th in surface waters of the western North Pacific and the Sea of Japan ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 pM (1 x 10−12 M, and showed relatively large temporal and spatial variations. In order to chemically characterize the particulate Th in seawater, the relationship between particulate Th and SOL concentrations in surface PM was examined. The result reveals that particulate Th in surface PM was well correlated with the SOL concentration in PM. The concentrations of particulate Th in surface water were linearly related to those of particulate U. Mass balance analysis suggests that the dominant chemical form of Th(IV, as well as of U, in surface PM is a surface complex with the SOL in PM. Our findings suggest that the SOL in PM is a nonmetal-specific chelator originating from the cell surface of microorganisms.

  20. The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.; Kranenburg, R.; Kuenen, J.; Gijlswijk, R. van; Wichink Kruit, R.; Segers, A.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the orig

  1. Preliminary metals characterization of Metro Manila air particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High volume air particulate filter samples from some DENR (Department of Environment and Natural Resources) stations in Metro Manila were analyzed for selected metals TSP (total suspended particulates) correlation, enrichment factor calculations and comparison of average weight composition with a reference material were used to analyze the results. (Author)

  2. Revolutionary systems for catalytic combustion and diesel catalytic particulate traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Witze, Peter O.; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-12-01

    This report is a summary of an LDRD project completed for the development of materials and structures conducive to advancing the state of the art for catalyst supports and diesel particulate traps. An ancillary development for bio-medical bone scaffolding was also realized. Traditionally, a low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic honeycomb monolith, is used for catalytic reactions that require high flow rates of gases at high-temperatures. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. ''Robocasting'' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low-pressure drops. These alternative 3-dimensional geometries may also provide a foundation for the development of self-regenerating supports capable of trapping and combusting soot particles from a diesel engine exhaust stream. This report describes the structures developed and characterizes the improved catalytic performance that can result. The results show that, relative to honeycomb monolith supports, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application. Practical applications include the combustion of natural gas for power generation, production of syngas, and hydrogen reforming reactions. The robocast lattice structures also show practicality for diesel particulate trapping. Preliminary results for trapping efficiency are reported as well as the development of electrically resistive lattices that can regenerate the structure

  3. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.)

  4. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  5. Analysis of the origin and composition of airborne particulate pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods were developed for determination of airborne particulate pollution sources and origins from airborne particulate measurements, analyses of particulate constituents and routine meteorological measurements. The results obtained provide the basis for quantification of the long- and short-time impacts of these pollution sources on immission. The methods were tested in a densely populated urban area (West Berlin) and in a rural district (Waldhof, District of Uelzen) by collecting airborne particulates (fine and coarse particulates) at six measuring points by use of dichotomous collectors and high-volume collectors. The measurements were taken twice a day from November 1989 to November 1990. Analyses were made of the compounds and of the constituents Al, Fe, Si, Ca, Mg, K, Na, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sb, Se, V, Zn, Cl-, NO-3, SO2-4, NH+4, organic carbons (OC) and inorganic elementary (EC) carbons. (orig.). 104 refs., 66 tabs., 79 figs

  6. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities. PMID:27468307

  7. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  8. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  9. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  10. Simultaneously catalytic removal of NOx and particulate matter on diesel particulate filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The simultaneous removal of NOx and particulate matter (PM) exhausted from diesel engine was studied with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) on which a mixed metal oxide catalyst, Cu0.95K0.05Fe2O4 was loaded. The NOx reduction was observed in the same temperature range of the CO2 formation, implying the occurrence of the simultaneous removal of NOx and PM in an oxidizing atmosphere. It was shown that SOF and soot in PM are attributed to the reduction of NOx at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. The oxidation of PM was enhanced by the coexistence of NO and O2. The ignition and exhaustion temperatures of PM decrease as the order NO>O2>NO+O2. This is a combined process of PM trapping as well as the catalytic reactions of soot oxidation and NOx reduction, promising the most desirable after-treatment of diesel exhausts.

  11. Dispersion of elastic waves in particulate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic wave propagation in discrete random medium is studied to predict the dynamic effective properties of particulate composites. A self-consistent method is proposed which is analogous to the coherent potential approximation in solid-state physics. Three conditions that must be satisfied by two effective elastic moduli and effective density are derived without limit of frequency. The derived self-consistency conditions have the physical meaning that the scattering of coherent waves by the constituents in effective medium vanish on the average. The frequency-dependent complex effective wave speed and coherent attenuation can be obtained by solving the derived self-consistency conditions. The wave speed and attenuation obtained from present theory are shown to be in better agreements with some experimental observations than the previous theory. The effect of particle resonance on wave dispersion can be seen in some composites.

  12. Analysis of particulate contamination from a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last few years several nuclear power plants have reported what the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has referred to as excessive skin exposures as a result of contamination from small, discrete particles of radioactive material. The sources of contamination have been traced to fuel cladding failures, primary system leaks, and activated foreign matter. Once these particles, often called fleas or hot particles, have been disseminated throughout a power plant, they are difficult to detect and control. In this study, several samples of particulate contamination found at two pressurized water reactors on personnel or in controlled access areas were closely examined. If the sample contained a single particle, it was isolated, micro-photographed, and analyzed for gamma and x-ray emission. Some of the particles were further examined using a scanning electron microscope and assayed with x-ray fluorescence. The computer code Quince was used to estimate possible skin doses from such particles

  13. Linkage: from particulate to interactive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    Genetics was established on a strict particulate conception of heredity. Genetic linkage, the deviation from independent segregation of Mendelian factors, was conceived as a function of the material allocation of the factors to the chromosomes, rather than to the multiple effects (pleiotropy) of discrete factors. Although linkage maps were abstractions they provided strong support for the chromosomal theory of inheritance. Direct Cytogenetic evidence was scarce until X-ray induced major chromosomal rearrangements allowed direct correlation of genetic and cytological rearrangements. Only with the discovery of the polytenic giant chromosomes in Drosophila larvae in the 1930s were the virtual maps backed up by physical maps of the genetic loci. Genetic linkage became a pivotal experimental tool for the examination of the integration of genetic functions in development and in evolution. Genetic mapping has remained a hallmark of genetic analysis. The location of genes in DNA is a modern extension of the notion of genetic linkage. PMID:12778899

  14. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  15. Production, handling and characterization of particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Meesters, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This edited volume presents most techniques and methods that have been developed by material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers and physicists for the commercial production of particulate materials, ranging from the millimeter to the nanometer scale.  The scope includes the physical and chemical background, experimental optimization of equipment and procedures, as well as an outlook on future methods. The books addresses  issues of industrial importance such as specifications, control parameter(s), control strategy, process models, energy consumption and discusses the various techniques in relation to potential applications. In addition to the production processes, all major unit operations and characterization methods are described in this book. It differs from other books which are devoted to a single technique or a single material. Contributors to this book are acknowledged experts in their field. The aim of the book is to facilitate comparison of the different unit operations leading to optimum...

  16. Optical measurements of chemically heterogeneous particulate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Nataliya; Gritsevich, Maria; Zubko, Evgenij; Hakala, Teemu; Peltoniemi, Jouni I.

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally study light scattering by particulate surfaces consisting of two high-contrast materials. Using the Finnish Geodetic Institute field goniospectropolarimeter, reflectance and degree of linear polarization are measured in dark volcanic sand, bright salt (NaCl) and bright ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3); and in mixtures of bright and dark components. We found that the light-scattering response monotonically changes with volume ratio of dark and bright components. In contrast to previous finding, we do not detect an enhancement of the negative polarization amplitude in two-component high-contrast mixtures. Two-component mixtures reveal an inverse correlation between maximum of their linear polarization and reflectance near backscattering, the so-called Umov effect. In log-log scales this inverse correlation takes a linear form for the dark and moderate-dark samples, while for the brightest samples there is a noticeable deviation from the linear trend.

  17. Interaction of electromagnetic signals with particulate clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauda, Jose Mario

    1990-05-01

    A particulate cloud affects the ability of an electronic detector to receive an electromagnetic signal in two ways: by scattering light from the sun into the detector, thereby masking the signal, and by attenuating the signal itself. These effects are well studied in the Mie theory, which is summarized. The effect of the particle distribution in the cloud and the shape of the cloud on scattering and absorption problems is then analyzed. The results of this analysis and of the Mie theory are incorporated into a computer program which is included in the appendix. The graphs generated with the program can be used (in conjunction with information about the sunlight intensity and the detector's discriminating ability) to determine the effect of scattered light on the detection of the signal. We conclude the attenuation of the signal plays a relatively minor role in the ability of a detector to receive a signal affected by a cloud of particles.

  18. Particulate contaminants of intravenous medications and infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, C M; Ball, P R; Booth, S; Kelshaw, M A; Potter, S R; McCollum, C N

    1987-04-01

    Particulate contamination in small volume parenteral medications has been studied and compared with that found in a selection of large volume infusions. Particle counts in 39 commonly used small volume medications and 7 large volume infusions were performed by an automated light blockage method (HIAC) or by optical microscopy. Based on these results and a random survey of drug therapy of intensive care patients, it is concluded that the contribution of intravenous medications to the total particle load received by such patients is likely to be many times greater than from infusion fluids. Until firm evidence regarding the harmful systemic effects of drug particles is available and the manufacturing regulations adjusted appropriately, final in-line filtration of infusions immediately proximal to the intravenous cannula should be considered when drugs are being given intravenously. PMID:2884285

  19. Autonomous Sensing of Particulate Inorganic Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, G. A.; Bishop, J. K.; Strubhar, W. D.; Wood, T.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) is produced by coccolithophore phytoplankton and shelled foraminifera and pterpod microzooplankton. These calcite and aragonite particles contribute to excess density of aggregate particles enabling carbon export from surface waters; they are sensitive to the effects of ocean acidification. Concentrations in surface waters range from below 100 nM in oligotrophic waters to 40 uM in the North Atlantic. Very limited ship observations in the Oyashio and subarctic NE Pacific show short term PIC variability of more than one order of magitude over 10 days and 3 months, respectively. At depth concentrations can drop to near zero in waters deeper than the carbonate saturation horizon. Seasonal variations of a factor of two or more at 1000 m depth have been observed. Near surface variability is impossible to follow from ships. We are working on the development of a robust PIC sensor capable of deployment on platforms ranging from CTD's to floats and thus address the gap in observations. The sensor, which uses cross polarized optics, detects the photons that have interacted with birefringent minerals (of which calcite dominates) in the water column. The detection of this very weak signal - which can be 10-6 of the primary beam energy is a daunting task. Here we report results from incomparison deployments of a 'next gen' and prototype sensor during recent expeditions to California coastal and offshore waters (NE Pacific Gyre, Santa Barbara Basin (June 2009); Santa Catalina Basin (October 2010), Santa Cruz Basin (May 2011), California Current and Coastal Waters (July 2011; September 2011). In addition we report calibrations the sensors based on particulate samples filtered from 1L samples and analyzed by HR-ICP-MS.

  20. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Babora Borri; Renata Medici Frayne Cuba; Francisco Javier Cuba Teran

    2012-01-01

    Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch) mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%), fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s...

  1. Advances in Inorganic-nanocellulose Hybrid Nanomaterials%无机纳米相-纳米纤维素杂化纳米材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴巧妹; 陈燕丹; 黄彪; 陈学榕

    2014-01-01

    分别介绍了近年来利用贵金属纳米粒子、无机陶瓷纳米相(包括金属氧化物、金属硫化物、黏土类、纳米羟基磷灰石和纳米碳酸钙)、磁性纳米纤维素、碳纳米相与纳米纤维素进行复合的研究进展,并建议加强对纳米纤维素基杂化材料的基础理论研究,改进现有制备方法并开发出更加节能减耗的新方法,以及更多极具应用前景的无机纳米材料实现优势互补的分子级复合,定向设计合成出适用不同场合、满足不同需求的高性能、多功能新型先进复合材料。%This paper summarized the recent R & D progresses on nanocellulose hybrid composites incorporated with noble metal nanoparticles, nano ceramic compounds ( including metal oxides, metal sulfides, nano-clay, nano-hydroxyapatite,nano-calcium carbonate) , magnetic nanoparticles and nano-carbon materials, respectively. An overview on the challenge and development prospects of the nanocellulose-based hybrid composites was discussed, too.

  2. Conduction and Narrow Escape in Dense, Disordered, Particulate-based Heterogeneous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechman, Jeremy

    For optimal and reliable performance, many technological devices rely on complex, disordered heterogeneous or composite materials and their associated manufacturing processes. Examples include many powder and particulate-based materials found in phyrotechnic devices for car airbags, electrodes in energy storage devices, and various advanced composite materials. Due to their technological importance and complex structure, these materials have been the subject of much research in a number of fields. Moreover, the advent of new manufacturing techniques based on powder bed and particulate process routes, the potential of functional nano-structured materials, and the additional recognition of persistent shortcomings in predicting reliable performance of high consequence applications; leading to ballooning costs of fielding and maintaining advanced technologies, should motivate renewed efforts in understanding, predicting and controlling these materials' fabrication and behavior. Our particular effort seeks to understand the link between the top-down control presented in specific non-equilibrium processes routes (i.e., manufacturing processes) and the variability and uncertainty of the end product performance. Our ultimate aim is to quantify the variability inherent in these constrained dynamical or random processes and to use it to optimize and predict resulting material properties/performance and to inform component design with precise margins. In fact, this raises a set of deep and broad-ranging issues that have been recognized and as touching the core of a major research challenge at Sandia National Laboratories. In this talk, we will give an overview of recent efforts to address aspects of this vision. In particular the case of conductive properties of packed particulate materials will be highlighted. Combining a number of existing approaches we will discuss new insights and potential directions for further development toward the stated goal. Sandia National

  3. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    development of dose response relationships that take into account how the high degree of source and demographic variability affect PM health response. We look forward to the continued growth of research in ERL contributing to air pollution emissions, distribution, and impacts. As the integrated study of air quality connects to economics, energy, agriculture, meteorology, climate change, and public health—among other subjects—its advancement is well-suited to an interdisciplinary, open-access journal like ERL. Thanks to our authors for contributing to ERL's growth in global air pollution research with such excellent work. Focus on Global Impacts of Particulate Matter Air Pollution Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Major components of China's anthropogenic primary particulate emissions Qiang Zhang, David G Streets, Kebin He and Zbigniew Klimont Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya E D S van Vliet and P L Kinney Potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on air quality Junfeng Liu and Denise L Mauzerall Can warming particles enter global climate discussions? Tami C Bond

  4. On the rotation of dust particulates in the ion flow*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Osamu

    2000-10-01

    Finite size effect of dust particulates floating in the ion flow was studied in connection to the wake formation [1]. Now we study rotational motion of finite size dust particulates placed in the sheath region of low temperature discharge plasma. The potential drop in the sheath region produces a flow of ions toward a boundary or an electrode. The presence of neighboring dust particulates will produce necessarily an inhomogeneous flow structure around a test dust particulate [2]. In our simplified model, a flow with velocity shear is assumed to be present. A test dust particulate placed in a shear flow is shown to start its rotation. Because of its negative charge, the rotating dust particulate will carry a magnetic moment. Spinning motion of dust particulates in the presence of external magnetic field is also discussed. *Supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. [1] O. Ishihara, S.V. Vladimirov, and N. Cramer, Phys. Rev. E 61, 7246 (2000). [2] O. Ishihara, Phys. Plasmas 5 357 (1998).

  5. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  6. Characterization of functional groups of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter of organic combustibles burning consists of various hydrocarbons and radicals, which may cause harmful impact to human health. In this study solid particulate matter were collected on the filters from burning of various combustibles in a burning chamber and from atmosphere of city of Riga by dichotomous impactor. FTIR spectra were obtained before and after samples' treatment. Absorptions associated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohol functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra. Free radicals of particulate matter were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)

  7. Analysis of the high-temperature particulate collection problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razgaitis, R.

    1977-10-01

    Particulate agglomeration and separation at high temperatures and pressures are examined, with particular emphasis on the unique features of the direct-cycle application of fluidized-bed combustion. The basic long-range mechanisms of aerosol separation are examined, and the effects of high temperature and high pressure on usable collection techniques are assessed. Primary emphasis is placed on those avenues that are not currently attracting widespread research. The high-temperature, particulate-collection problem is surveyed, together with the peculiar requirements associated with operation of turbines with particulate-bearing gas streams. 238 references.

  8. Hybrid Electric & Hydraulic Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Fahimi Rezaii, Ali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impact of fossil fuel consumption has been a significant issue over the last decade. Mainly because of public awareness, increased fuel cost and stricter legislation. Today’s technological improvements have reduced fuel consumption and also emission of vehicles considerably. One of the most important solutions to this problem is hybridization. Hybridization in vehicle is using two or more distinct power sources. Additionally, the main objective of hybridization in vehicle is...

  9. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran Venugopal; K.K. Rajesh; V. Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nonto...

  10. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  11. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  12. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  13. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Hybridization of evolutionary algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Fister, Iztok; Mernik, Marjan; Brest, Janez

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are good general problem solver but suffer from a lack of domain specific knowledge. However, the problem specific knowledge can be added to evolutionary algorithms by hybridizing. Interestingly, all the elements of the evolutionary algorithms can be hybridized. In this chapter, the hybridization of the three elements of the evolutionary algorithms is discussed: the objective function, the survivor selection operator and the parameter settings. As an objective function...

  15. Adaptation and hybridization in computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Iztok

    2015-01-01

      This carefully edited book takes a walk through recent advances in adaptation and hybridization in the Computational Intelligence (CI) domain. It consists of ten chapters that are divided into three parts. The first part illustrates background information and provides some theoretical foundation tackling the CI domain, the second part deals with the adaptation in CI algorithms, while the third part focuses on the hybridization in CI. This book can serve as an ideal reference for researchers and students of computer science, electrical and civil engineering, economy, and natural sciences that are confronted with solving the optimization, modeling and simulation problems. It covers the recent advances in CI that encompass Nature-inspired algorithms, like Artificial Neural networks, Evolutionary Algorithms and Swarm Intelligence –based algorithms.  

  16. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  17. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO2) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments. PMID:10107959

  19. Investigations on mechanical properties of aluminum hybrid composites

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Siva Prasad; Chintada Shoba; Nallu Ramanaiah

    2014-01-01

    A double stir casting process was used to fabricate aluminum composites reinforced with various volume fractions of 2, 4, 6, and 8 wt% RHA and SiC particulates in equal proportions. Properties such as hardness, density, porosity and mechanical behavior of the unreinforced and Al/x%RHA/x%SiC (x = 2, 4, 6, and 8 wt%) reinforced hybrid composites were examined. Scanning electron microscope (model JSM-6610LV) was used to study the microstructural characterization of the composites. It was observe...

  20. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench

  2. Co-simulation Methodologies for Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Veintimilla Porlán, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, full electric and hybrid electric vehicles have emerged as an alternative to conventional cars due to a range of factors, including environmental and economic aspects. These vehicles are the result of considerable efforts to seek ways of reducing the use of fossil fuel for vehicle propulsion. Sophisticated technologies such as hybrid and electric powertrains require careful study and optimization. Mathematical models play a key role at this point. Currently, many advanced m...

  3. Hybrid battery with bi-directional DC/DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    DUDRIK Jaroslav; OLEJAR Martin; BERES Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Bi-directional buck-boost DC/DC converterfor hybrid battery is described in this paper. The firstpart of the paper is aimed at concept of hybrid battery;main advance compared to conventional accumulatoris explained there. Control circuit with UC3637 andpower circuit of the converter are described in thesecond part of the paper. Experimental results frommeasuring of converter are mentioned in the last part.

  4. Development of concentrated solar power and conventional power plant hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Suojanen, Suvi

    2016-01-01

    CSP hybrids are one of the possible technical solutions in order to increase the share of renewable energy and decrease greenhouse gas emission levels as well as fuel consump-tion. The main objectives of the thesis are to research state-of-the-art technologies in concentrated solar power (CSP) and conventional power plants, to comprehensively study the possible integration options and to develop one CSP hybrid configuration by using Advanced Process Simulator (Apros), which is a dynamic model...

  5. Intraneural Hybrid Neurofibroma/Schwannoma In Scalp: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, Kishori Moni; Reena, Naik

    2015-01-01

    Benign Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours (BPNSTs) are traditionally classified into schwannoma, neurofibroma and perinurioma. Due to advances in molecular techniques, hybrid BPNSTs containing more than one histologic types have been documented. Recent studies have demonstrated their frequent association with inherited syndromes like schwannomatosis and neurofibromatosis. Intraneural variant of hybrid neurofibroma/schwannoma is yet to be described. Here we report such a case in a 30-year-old mal...

  6. Nonlinear Filtering for Hybrid GPS/GSM Mobile Terminal Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Fritsche

    2010-01-01

    timing advance and received signal strengths from GSM. The three filters are compared with each other in terms of performance and computational complexity. Posterior Cramér-Rao lower bounds are evaluated in order to assess the theoretical performance. Furthermore, it is investigated how additional GPS reference time information available from GSM influences the performance of the hybrid localization method. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed hybrid method outperforms the GSM method.

  7. Hybrid battery with bi-directional DC/DC converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUDRIK Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional buck-boost DC/DC converterfor hybrid battery is described in this paper. The firstpart of the paper is aimed at concept of hybrid battery;main advance compared to conventional accumulatoris explained there. Control circuit with UC3637 andpower circuit of the converter are described in thesecond part of the paper. Experimental results frommeasuring of converter are mentioned in the last part.

  8. Hierarchical DAG Scheduling for Hybrid Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; Bouteiller, Aurelien; Bosilca, George; Faverge, Mathieu; Dongarra, Jack

    2015-01-01

    International audience Accelerator-enhanced computing platforms have drawn a lot of attention due to their massive peak com-putational capacity. Despite significant advances in the pro-gramming interfaces to such hybrid architectures, traditional programming paradigms struggle mapping the resulting multi-dimensional heterogeneity and the expression of algorithm parallelism, resulting in sub-optimal effective performance. Task-based programming paradigms have the capability to alleviate som...

  9. Development and characterization of hybrid thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkhanis, Priyanka Chandrashekhar

    This work is aimed at studying the possibility of using interply hybrid woven thermoplastic semi-pregs in secondary structures in aircrafts at TenCate Advanced Composites, Netherlands and Purdue University. Three different interply hybrids were designed from combination of Cetex(c) carbon-PPS semi-preg, Owen corning's woven glass with PPS sheets and discontinuous chopped Cetex(c) carbon-PPS semi-preg to get desired flexural, out of plane and bearing properties. The design calculations are done based on classical laminate theory and the selection of materials to be used with carbon-PPS was done based on cost and availability. The Hybrid laminate performances are analyzed and compared to the conventional Cetex (c) Carbon-PPS semi-preg laminates. Observations are reported on three point bend test (European standard 2562), four point bend test(ASTM D6415-99) and bearing test (Airbus standards AITM 1-0009) for the laminates and it was found that hybrid laminates show a reduction of 5-10% in bending stiffness, 20-40% reduction in out-of-plane strength and 2-5%reduction in bearing with a cost reduction of 20-30%. The research identifies and documents the different factors responsible for failures and reduction in strength in the Hybrids.

  10. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants

  11. Immersed boundary methods for viscoelastic particulate flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    Viscoelastic particulate suspensions play key roles in many energy applications. Our goal is to develop a simulation-based tool for engineering such suspensions. This study is concerned with fully resolved simulations, wherein all flow scales associated with the particle motion are resolved. The present effort is based on Immersed Boundary methods, in which the domain grids do not conform to particle geometry. In this approach, the conservation of momentum equations, which include both Newtonian and non-Newtonian stresses, are solved over the entire domain including the region occupied by the particles. The particles are defined on a separate Lagrangian mesh that is free to move over an underlying Eulerian grid. The development of an immersed boundary forcing technique for moving bodies within an unstructured-mesh, massively parallel, non-Newtonian flow solver is thus developed and described. The presentation will focus on the numerical algorithm and measures taken to enable efficient parallelization and transfer of information between the underlying fluid grid and the particle mesh. Several validation test cases will be presented including sedimentation under orthogonal shear - a key flow in drilling muds and fracking fluids.

  12. Nano indentation of particulate and polymer films

    CERN Document Server

    Akram, A

    2001-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the formation and rupture mechanisms of agglomerates is essential when seeking to model equipment designed to produce and process such agglomerated particulate solids. In the work to be described the nano-indentation of two-dimensional agglomerate films was carried out in order to establish a means of identifying the generic breakage mechanisms of agglomerated systems. Data analysis techniques are developed that enable the individual inter-particle junction strengths to be calculated for a model system consisting of rather mono-dispersed colloidal silica particles (20-24 nm diameter) bound with a poly(methyl methacrylate). Applied load and penetration depth data in the range (10 mN and 500 nm respectively) are provided as a function of loading time during a continuous loading. It is argued that these data enable the sequence of the discrete binder bridge failures to be observed thus giving a quantitative indication of the breakage mechanism of this agglomerate system as well as reflect...

  13. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, C., E-mail: balducci@iia.cnr.it [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Nervegna, G.; Cecinato, A. [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)

    2009-05-08

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ({Delta}{sup 9}-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm{sup -3} of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  14. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm-3 of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  15. Particulate trace metals in Cochin backwaters: Distribution of seasonal indices

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Joseph, T.

    A seasonal analysis of particulate trace metals, viz. iron, manganese, zinc, copper, cobalt and nickel collected from 4 stations in Cochin backwaters are presented. The spatial trend for cobalt, iron and nickel was stationary at surface whereas...

  16. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  17. Dynamics of Charged Particulate Systems Modeling, Theory and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Zohdi, Tarek I

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this monograph is to provide a concise introduction to the dynamics of systems comprised of charged small-scale particles. Flowing, small-scale, particles ("particulates'') are ubiquitous in industrial processes and in the natural sciences. Applications include electrostatic copiers, inkjet printers, powder coating machines, etc., and a variety of manufacturing processes. Due to their small-scale size, external electromagnetic fields can be utilized to manipulate and control charged particulates in industrial processes in order to achieve results that are not possible by purely mechanical means alone. A unique feature of small-scale particulate flows is that they exhibit a strong sensitivity to interparticle near-field forces, leading to nonstandard particulate dynamics, agglomeration and cluster formation, which can strongly affect manufactured product quality. This monograph also provides an introduction to the mathematically-related topic of the dynamics of swarms of interacting objects, ...

  18. Distribution of particulate organic matter in Rajapur and Vagothan estuarines (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tulaskar, A.S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    The distribution of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate carbohydrates (PCHO) and particulate proteins (PP) in the suspended particulate matter was studied. The POC, PCHO and PP concentrations ranged from 176 to 883 mu g.l/1, 115 to 647 mu...

  19. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components: a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul A; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program to provide key stakeholders (government and private sector) with significantly improved information needed to develop effective and efficient strategies for reducing PM on urban and regional scales. All Supersites projects developed and evaluated methods and instruments, and significant advances have been made and applied within these programs to yield new insights to our understanding of PM accumulation in air as well as improved source-receptor relationships. The tested methods include a variety of continuous and semicontinuous instruments typically with a time resolution of an hour or less. These methods often overcome many of the limitations associated with measuring atmospheric PM mass concentrations by daily filter-based methods (e.g., potential positive or negative sampling artifacts). Semicontinuous coarse and ultrafine mass measurement methods also were developed and evaluated. Other semicontinuous monitors tested measured the major components of PM such as nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon, trace elements, and water content of the aerosol as well as methods for other physical properties of PM, such as number concentration, size distribution, and particle density. Particle mass spectrometers, although unlikely to be used in national routine monitoring networks in the foreseeable future because of their complex technical requirements and cost, are mentioned here because of the wealth of new information they provide on the size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles on a near continuous basis. Particle mass spectrometers likely represent the greatest advancement in PM measurement technology during the last decade. The improvements in time resolution achieved by the reported semicontinuous methods have proven to be especially useful in characterizing ambient PM, and are becoming essential in allowing scientists to

  20. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  1. Inventory of primary particulates emissions; Inventaire des emissions de particules primaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    CITEPA carried out a national inventory on particulate emissions. This report presents the results of this study for a great number of sectors and it covers a larger number of sources than the previous CITEPA inventories on particles and some other inventories carried out by International organisms (TNO, IIASA). In particular, at the present time, fugitive dust emissions for some sources are rarely taken into account in inventories because of poor knowledge and they are still the subject of researches in order to validate the emission results. (author)

  2. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Babora Borri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%, fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s influent. This was assigned to NaCl added in order to enhance conductivity in wastewater.

  3. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    % of bacteria and 75 wt% of vascular plants (Moers and Larter 1993), 20–40 wt% of plankton (Parsons et al 1984b), 13% of sinking particulate organic carbon (Tanoue and Handa 1987), ∼ 3–35% of suspended particulate organic carbon (Khodse et al 2007), 10... al 2003; Khodse et al 2007, 2008). Although present in small amounts, they are involved in many marine processes such as the production of humic substances and mucilaginous aggregates, biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion and detoxification...

  4. MEMANFAATKAN TANAMAN UNTUK MENGURANGI POLUSI PARTICULATE MATTER KE DALAM BANGUNAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhabitants of a building are difficult to escape particulate matter emission. Within this condition, buildings should have vertical element that could block the dispersion of particulate matter to living spaces. Vegetation, a part of vertical elemen for fencing, is considered to do this task. The use of vegetation is chosen with reference to nature and behaviour of particulate matter. Earlier research found that dispersion of particulate matter is mostly at lower atmospheric layer and that particulate matter could be deposited. Therefore, low growing vegetation or climbing plants with particular leaf condition to encourage deposition is predicted suitable. Four vegetation was examined: Duranta repens, Polyscias fruticosa, Stephanotis floribunda and Scindapsus sp. As a preliminary study, there is no valid conclusion could be made from this experiment. However, there are indications that Duranta repens and Stephanotis floribunda block and deposit slightly more particulate matter than the two others. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Polusi particulate matter atau partikel halus tidak hanya terjadi di jalan raya, tetapi juga masuk ke dalam bangunan yang terletak di sepanjang jalan. Oleh karenanya, bangunan seyogyanya memiliki elemen vertikal yang mampu bertugas menghalangi masuknya polusi partikel halus. Salah satu kemungkinan penggunaan elemen vertikal, yaitu tanaman yang ditempatkan pada posisi pagar diteliti dalam studi ini. Mempelajari bahwa partikel halus dengan ukuran tertentu dapat diendapkan dan penyebarannya umumnya terjadi pada lapisan udara rendah, maka studi terhadap tanaman semak atau perdu atau tanaman rambat dengan jenis permukaan daun tertentu lebih diutamakan. Empat jenis tanaman diuji kemampuannya, yaitu: Duranta repens, Polyscias fruticosa, Stephanotis floribunda and Scindapsus sp. Sebagai studi yang sangat awal, masih belum ada hasil valid yang ditawarkan, namun setidaknya ditemukan indikasi bahwa Duranta repens and Stephanotis

  5. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage

  6. Apparatus for mixing particulate substances using a fluid under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mixing apparatus described for mixing particulates includes a mixing chamber, an enclosure around this mixing chamber near its lower end, an annular slot to allow communication between the enclosure and the mixing chamber, and a system for bringing the pressurized fluid towards the enclosure so that it flows through the slot to stir the particulate substances contained in the mixing chamber. It can be used in the fabrication of certain kinds of nuclear fuel rods

  7. Particulate Emissions: Health Effects and Labour Market Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Kruse; Bjørn Sætterstrøm; Jakob Bønløkke; Henrik Brønnum-Hansen; Esben Meulengracht Flachs; Jan Sørensen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the productivity cost savings associated with mitigation of particulate emissions, as an input to a cost-benefit analysis. Reduced emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5) may reduce the incidence of diseases related to air pollution and potentially increase productivity as a result of better health. Based on data from epidemiological studies, we modelled the impact of air pollution on four different diseases: coronary heart disease, stroke, lung canc...

  8. Particulate and gaseous emissions from residential biomass combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Christoffer

    2005-01-01

    Biomass is considered to be a sustainable energy source with significant potentials for replacing electricity and fossil fuels, not at least in the residential sector. However, present wood combustion is a major source of ambient concentrations of hydrocarbons (e.g. VOC and PAH) and particulate matter (PM) and exposure to these pollutants have been associated with adverse health effects. Increased focus on combustion related particulate emissions has been seen concerning the formation, charac...

  9. INFLUENCE OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDE ON THE ADHERENCE OF PARTICULATE SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Toure, Yetioman; Rouxhet, Paul G.; Dupont-Gillain, C. Christine; Sindic, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The removal of particulate soils from solid surfaces is the key process of cleaning many industrial devices, such as heat exchangers and spray dryers (food and pharmaceutical sector), and may be influenced by the presence of solutes, in particular of macromolecules. The present study deals with the influence of soluble polysaccharide on the adherence of particulate fouling of open surfaces and on subsequent cleaning. Model substrates differing by hydrophobicity (glass and polystyrene) were so...

  10. INFLUENCE OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDE ON THE ADHERENCE OF PARTICULATE SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Toure, Yetioman; Rouxhet, G. Paul; Dupont-Gillain, C. Christine; Sindic, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The removal of particulate soils from solid surfaces is the key process of cleaning many industrial devices, such as heat exchangers and spray dryers (food and pharmaceutical sector), and may be influenced by the presence of solutes, in particular of macromolecules. The present study deals with the influence of soluble polysaccharide on the adherence of particulate fouling of open surfaces and on subsequent cleaning. Model surfaces differing by hydrophobicity (glass and polystyrene) were soil...

  11. Performance of advanced generation from a hybrid Japanese cucumber Comportamento de gerações avançadas de um híbrido de pepino japonês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rossmary Santacruz Oviedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding reduces the vigor in plants as a result of a decrease in the proportion of heterozygous loci. However, the influence of inbreeding is different among the species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inbreeding depression in a cucumber Japanese population. An F2 population was obtained from a commercial hybrid (Natsu suzumi, which was considered as S0 population. S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 progenies were obtained by the 'Single Seed Descent' methodology. A complete blocks design with seven treatments (different generations of self pollination - S0 to S5 and the hybrid Natsu suzumi, and six replications of five plants per plot was used in protected cultivation from Aug. 21 to Nov. 29, 2002. Number of leaves, length of the main stem, number and weight of fruits (total and commercial number of nodes and vines percentage were evaluated. For most of the traits appraised differences were not observed among populations showing that there was no loss of vigor due to inbreeding in this population.A endogamia reduz o vigor em plantas pela diminuição da proporção de loci heterozigotos. Entretanto, a influência da endogamia é diferente entre as espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a depressão causada por endogamia em uma população de pepino do tipo japonês. A partir do intercruzamento entre plantas do híbrido Natsu suzumi foi obtida a geração F2, considerada como população S0. Obtiveram-se progênies S1, S2, S3, S4 e S5, através de autofecundações sucessivas pelo método do SSD ('Single Seed Descent'. Foram sete tratamentos (híbrido Natsu suzumi, populações S0 a S5 e o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições e cinco plantas por parcela cultivadas em ambiente protegido de 21/08/2002 à 29/11/2002. Foram avaliados o número de folhas, semanalmente, o número e a massa de frutos, total e comercial, número de nós e porcentagem de nós com brotações laterais. Na compara

  12. Recent Advances of Solar Cells' Cooling and Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Technology%太阳电池冷却及光伏/光热一体技术的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖泽成; 秦红; 靳晓钒

    2011-01-01

    As the solar cells'photoelectric conversion efficiency decreases when their temperature rises, the cool ing of solar cells has become an important content [or photovoltaic researehes; meanwhile, this extends the concept of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T) so as to utilize the heat transfered by solar cells, which is an important development trend for new energy industry. This paper collected and sorted the solar cells'cooling methods and PV/T research achievements in recent 5 years at home and abroad, especially for flat plate solar cells combined with solar collectors, made the analysis and comparisons.%由于太阳电池光电转换效率随自身温度的升高而下降,因而对太阳电池进行冷却成为当前太阳能光伏研究的一项重要内容;同时,在太阳电池冷却的研究课题当中引申出了光伏与光热相结合(PV/T)的概念,使太阳电池转换而成的热量得以应用,这是新能源产业的一项重要发展趋势。收集并整理了近5年国内外的太阳电池冷却方法和光伏光热一体化研究成果,特别是针对平板式太阳电池组件与太阳能集热器相结合的研究文献,对其进行了分析和比较。

  13. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  14. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  15. A hybrid bat algorithm:

    OpenAIRE

    Fister, Iztok; Yang, Xin-She; Fister, Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Swarm intelligence is a very powerful technique to be used for optimization purposes. In this paper we present a new swarm intelligence algorithm, based on the bat algorithm. The Bat algorithm is hybridized with differential evolution strategies. Besides showing very promising results of the standard benchmark functions, this hybridization also significantly improves the original bat algorithm.

  16. Size- and structure-dependent toxicity of silica particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Sanshiro; Miyaoi, Kenichi; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Inasawa, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Nano- and micro-particulates firmly attach with the surface of various biological systems. In some chronic pulmonary disease such as asbestosis and silicosis, causative particulates will induce chronic inflammatory disorder, followed by poor prognosis diseases. However, nano- and micro-scale specific toxicity of silica particulates is not well examined enough to recognize the risk of nano- and micro-particulates from the clinical aspect. To clarify the effect of the size and structure of silica particulates on the cellular damage and the biological response, we assessed the cytotoxicity of the various kinds of silica particles including amorphous and crystalline silica, in mouse alveolar macrophage culture, focusing on the fibrotic and inflammatory response. Our study showed that the cytotoxicity, which depends on the particle size and surface area, is correlated with their inflammatory response. By contrast, production of TGF-β, which is one of the fibrotic agents in lung, by addition of crystal silica was much higher than that of amorphous silica. We conclude that fibrosis and inflammation are induced at different phases and that the size- and structure-differences of silica particulates affect the both biological responses, caused by surface activity, radical species, and so on.

  17. CFD Modeling of Particulate Matter Dispersion from Kerman Cement Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Panahandeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: The dispersion of particulate matter has been known as the most serious environmental pollution of cement plants. In the present work, dispersion of the particulate matter from stack of Kerman Cement Plant was investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modeling."nMaterials and Methods: In order to study the dispersion of particulate matter from the stack, a calculation domain with dimensions of 8000m × 800m × 400m was considered. The domain was divided to 936781 tetrahedral control volumes. The mixture two-phase model was employed to model the interaction of the particulate matter (dispersed phase and air (continuous phase. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES method was used for turbulence modeling."nResults: The concentration of particulate matter in the whole calculation domain was computed. The predicted concentrations were compared to the measured values from the literature and a good agreement was observed. The predicted concentration profiles at different cross sections were analyzed."nConclusion:The results of the present work showed that CFD is a useful tool for understanding the dispersion of particulate matter in air. Although the obtained results were promising, more investigations on the properties of the dispersed phase, turbulent parameters and the boundary layer effect is needed to obtain more accurate results.

  18. Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Makiko; Nakano, Tomio; Okuhara, Takaaki; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2011-11-01

    The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of Higashi-Osaka in Japan. The SPM sampler provides particle information about the concentrations of various SPMs (e.g., PM10 and PM2.5) separately. The AEROENT program is world wide ground based sunphotometric observation networks by NASA and provides the spectral information about aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent (α). Simultaneous measurements show that a linear correlation definitely exists between AOT and PM2.5. These results indicate that particulate matter can be estimated from AOT. However AOT represents integrated values of column aerosol amount retrieved from optical property, while particulate matter concentration presents in-situ aerosol loading on the surface. Then simple way using linear correlation brings the discrepancy between observed and estimated particulate matter. In this work, we use cluster information about aerosol type to reduce the discrepancy. Our improved method will be useful for retrieving particulate matter from satellite measurements.

  19. Supersymmetric Hybrid Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, G

    2001-01-01

    The non-supersymmetric and supersymmetric versions of hybrid inflation are summarized. It is emphasized that supersymmetric hybrid inflation (with its extensions) is an extremely "natural" inflationary scenario since it does not require "tiny" parameters, its superpotential has the most general form allowed by the symmetries, and it can be protected against radiative or supergravity corrections. A concrete supersymmetric grand unified theory which leads to hybrid inflation, solves the mu problem and generates seesaw masses for the light neutrinos is constructed. The "reheating" which follows hybrid inflation is studied in this theory. It is shown that the gravitino constraint on the "reheat" temperature can be "naturally" satisfied. Also, the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe can be generated via a primordial leptogenesis consistently with the requirements from solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Extensions of the standard supersymmetric hybrid inflationary scenario which are still consistent...

  20. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze-thawing and freeze-drying

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Nayar; A K Pramanick; A Guha; B K Mahato; M Gunjan; A Sinha

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study is to biomimetically synthesize hydroxyapatite–hydrophilic polymer scaffolds for biomedical applications. This organic–inorganic hybrid has been structurally characterized and reveals a good microstructural control as seen by the SEM analysis and the nanosize of the particulates is confirmed by AFM microscopy. The characterization of such nano-structured composites would allow researchers to design new systems, tailoring properties for different applications.

  1. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  2. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  3. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  4. Advanced Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  5. Collagen/Wollastonite nanowire hybrid scaffolds promoting osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor expression of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Chen, Shangwu; Kawazoe, Naoki; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang; Chen, Guoping

    2014-04-01

    Porous materials and scaffolds have wide applications in biomedical and biological fields. They can provide biological and physical cues to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix secretion to guide new tissue formation. Hybrid scaffolds of collagen and wollastonite nanowires with well controlled pore structures were prepared by using ice particulates as a porogen material. The hybrid scaffolds had interconnected large spherical pores with wollastonite nanowires embedded in the walls of the pores. The wollastonite nanowires reinforced the hybrid scaffolds and showed some stimulatory effects on cell functions. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells showed higher proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and expressed higher level of genes encoding angiogenesis-related genes in the hybrid scaffolds than did in the collagen scaf-. fold. The results suggest the hybrid scaffolds could facilitate osteogenic differentiation and induce angiogenesis and will be useful for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24734758

  6. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  7. Latest Technology Advances in Cosmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageen Arora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available World consumers are looking for personal care products that supply multiple benefits with minimal efforts. They also expect the latest technology advances to be incorporated into innovative formulations. The trend toward therapeutic cosmetics will lead to a better understanding of modern ingredients and their assessment techniques. To obtain skin care formulations with real consumer-perceivable benefits and to optimize sensory attributes, formulators are resorting to technology that until recently was exclusively used in cosmetic products. Various formulations comes under special delivery systems like Vesicular, Particulate systems, emulsions type Particulate type and other delivery systems along with their applications are shown in this article, as it results in an economic uplift of cosmetic industry in various parts of the world. Little evidence is seen that nanoparticles in cosmetics and sunscreen might be a problem at this time and its need is further explored for a better understanding of these novel technologies. Thus, novel cosmaceutical delivery systems reviewed here possess enormous potential as next-generation smarter carrier systems.

  8. Rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems for smart bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of smart bioactive scaffolds is of importance in tissue engineering, where cell proliferation, differentiation and migration within scaffolds can be regulated by the interactions between cells and scaffold through the use of growth factors (GFs) and extra cellular matrix peptides. One challenge in this area is to spatiotemporally control the dose, sequence and profile of release of GFs so as to regulate cellular fates during tissue regeneration. This challenge would be addressed by rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems, where the release of GFs via polymeric nanoparticles is controlled by means of the methods of, such as externally-controlled and physicochemically/architecturally-modulated so as to mimic the profile of physiological GFs. Identifying and understanding such factors as the desired release profiles, mechanisms of release, physicochemical characteristics of polymeric nanoparticles, and externally-triggering stimuli are essential for designing and optimizing such delivery systems. This review surveys the recent studies on the desired release profiles of GFs in various tissue engineering applications, elucidates the major release mechanisms and critical factors affecting release profiles, and overviews the role played by the mathematical models for optimizing nano-particulate delivery systems. Potentials of stimuli responsive nanoparticles for spatiotemporal control of GF release are also presented, along with the recent advances in strategies for spatiotemporal control of GF delivery within tissue engineered scaffolds. The recommendation for the future studies to overcome challenges for developing sophisticated particulate delivery systems in tissue engineering is discussed prior to the presentation of conclusions drawn from this paper. (topical review)

  9. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  10. Spatial correlativity of atmospheric particulate components simultaneously collected in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Oku, Yuichiro; Kishikawa, Naoya; Deguchi, Yuya; Sera, Nobuyuki; Seiyama, Tetsurou; Horasaki, Kazunori; Arashidani, Keiichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takako; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Inaba, Yohei; Tonokura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kokunai, Osamu; Coulibaly, Souleymane; Hasei, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-02-01

    The simultaneous sampling of total suspended particles was performed at 14 sites in Japan during July 2008-June 2009. The spatial correlativity of each particulate composition toward Osaka was obtained for nine selected sites to overview the chemical composition and geographical distribution of particulate components across a wide range of areas nationwide. The spatial correlatives of atmospheric particulate components were extended to an even wider range of areas up to 950 km distance (meso-alpha scale region, >200 km) for a far-reaching distance analysis unique in the literature. Overall, the spatial correlations of ionic species and both organic and elemental carbons were significant, suggesting their shared advections, including their long-range transport from East Asia. Although sulfate ions are widely dispersed across Japan, such is not necessarily correlated with organic and elemental carbon, possibly indicating that the sulfate emission source, including long-range transport, differs from that of carbonaceous particulates. By contrast, the characteristics of spatial correlatives of metallic constituents vary; for example, particulate Pb and Cd show a significantly wide range of spatial correlatives to Osaka, while Mn-though limited to cities neighboring Osaka-shows significant spatial correlations. Other metallic constituents showed no significant spatial correlatives, indicating the effects of local pollutants. Moreover, the extent of the spatial dispersion of the particulate components and the relationships among chemical components were analyzed via factor analysis to highlight the effects of long-range inflow and local original emissions. In this treatment, 13 particulate components among the 19 measured were implicated in long-range transport. PMID:26753629

  11. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Materials Based on Polyoxometalates and Ionic Liquids and Their Application in Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the recent advances in the field of polyoxometalate, ionic liquid hybrids, is proposed with a special attention paid to their application in catalysis, more precisely biphasic and heterogeneous catalysis. Both components of the hybrids are separately outlined pointing to their useful properties and potential for catalysis, followed by the description of the hybrids preparation and synergy between components in a large range of organic transformations. And finally a vision on th...

  12. Hybrid Rice Research and Development in China and Its New Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid rice's history and its development up to date are described in the paper. Compared with the conventional rice, hybrid rice can increase grain yield by about 20%. Hybrid rice breeding in China has been advancing along the three-line method, to two-line method, to super high-yielding rice application strategically and its success in higher degree will be seen by the utilization of distant heterosis cooperated with biotechnology.

  13. Functional Hybrid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Sanchez, Clément

    2004-04-01

    Functional Hybrid Materials consist of both organic and inorganic components, assembled for the purpose of generating desirable properties and functionalities. The aim is twofold: to bring out or enhance advantageous chemical, electrochemical, magnetic or electronic characteristics and at the same time to reduce or wholly suppress undesirable properties or effects. Another target is the creation of entirely new material behavior. The vast number of hybrid material components available has opened up a wide and diversified field of fascinating research. In this book, a team of highly renowned experts gives an in-depth overview, illustrating the superiority of well-designed hybrid materials and their potential applications.

  14. Photoproduction of Hybrid Mesons

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, T.

    1999-01-01

    In this contribution I discuss prospects for photoproducing hybrid mesons at CEBAF, based on recent model results and experimental indications of possible hybrids. One excellent opportunity appears to be a search for the I=1, JPC=2+-, neutral "(b2)o" hybrid in (a2 pi)o through diffractive photoproduction. Other notable possibilities accessible through pi+ or pio exchange photoproduction are I=1, JPC=1-+, charged "pi1+" in f1 pi+, (b1 pi)+ and (rho pi)+; piJ(1770)+ in f2 pi+ and (b1 pi)+; pi(1...

  15. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  16. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  17. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...

  18. Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for Robust High Heat Flux Cooling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a hybrid cooling loop technology for space thermal control. The proposed technology combines the high heat...

  19. Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for Robust High Heat Flux Cooling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes to develop a hybrid cooling loop and cold plate technology for space systems thermal management. The proposed...

  20. Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter and NO(x) emissions using 4-way catalyzed filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jacob J; Watts, Winthrop F; Newman, Robert A; Ziebarth, Robin R; Kittelson, David B

    2013-05-01

    The next generation of diesel emission control devices includes 4-way catalyzed filtration systems (4WCFS) consisting of both NOx and diesel particulate matter (DPM) control. A methodology was developed to simultaneously evaluate the NOx and DPM control performance of miniature 4WCFS made from acicular mullite, an advanced ceramic material (ACM), that were challenged with diesel exhaust. The impact of catalyst loading and substrate porosity on catalytic performance of the NOx trap was evaluated. Simultaneously with NOx measurements, the real-time solid particle filtration performance of catalyst-coated standard and high porosity filters was determined for steady-state and regenerative conditions. The use of high porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 99% and solid and total particulate matter by 95% when averaged over 10 regeneration cycles. A "regeneration cycle" refers to an oxidizing ("lean") exhaust condition followed by a reducing ("rich") exhaust condition resulting in NOx storage and NOx reduction (i.e., trap "regeneration"), respectively. Standard porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 60-75% and exhibited 99.9% filtration efficiency. The rich/lean cycling used to regenerate the filter had almost no impact on solid particle filtration efficiency but impacted NOx control. Cycling resulted in the formation of very low concentrations of semivolatile nucleation mode particles for some 4WCFS formulations. Overall, 4WCFS show promise for significantly reducing diesel emissions into the atmosphere in a single control device. PMID:23550802

  1. The Development of an INL Capability for High Temperature Flow, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Energy Storage with Applications in Advanced Small Modular Reactors, High Temperature Heat Exchangers, Hybrid Energy Systems, and Dynamic Grid Energy Storage C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhang, Xiaoqin [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Kim, Inhun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); O' Brien, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to support Idaho National Laboratory in developing a new advanced high temperature multi fluid multi loop test facility that is aimed at investigating fluid flow and heat transfer, material corrosion, heat exchanger characteristics and instrumentation performance, among others, for nuclear applications. Specifically, preliminary research has been performed at The Ohio State University in the following areas: 1. A review of fluoride molten salts’ characteristics in thermal, corrosive, and compatibility performances. A recommendation for a salt selection is provided. Material candidates for both molten salt and helium flow loop have been identified. 2. A conceptual facility design that satisfies the multi loop (two coolant loops [i.e., fluoride molten salts and helium]) multi purpose (two operation modes [i.e., forced and natural circulation]) requirements. Schematic models are presented. The thermal hydraulic performances in a preliminary printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design have been estimated. 3. An introduction of computational methods and models for pipe heat loss analysis and cases studies. Recommendations on insulation material selection have been provided. 4. An analysis of pipe pressure rating and sizing. Preliminary recommendations on pipe size selection have been provided. 5. A review of molten fluoride salt preparation and chemistry control. An introduction to the experience from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been provided. 6. A review of some instruments and components to be used in the facility. Flowmeters and Grayloc connectors have been included. This report primarily presents the conclusions drawn from the extensive review of literatures in material selections and the facility design progress at the current stage. It provides some useful guidelines in insulation material and pipe size selection, as well as an introductory review of facility process and components.

  2. The Development of an INL Capability for High Temperature Flow, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Energy Storage with Applications in Advanced Small Modular Reactors, High Temperature Heat Exchangers, Hybrid Energy Systems, and Dynamic Grid Energy Storage C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of this project is to support Idaho National Laboratory in developing a new advanced high temperature multi fluid multi loop test facility that is aimed at investigating fluid flow and heat transfer, material corrosion, heat exchanger characteristics and instrumentation performance, among others, for nuclear applications. Specifically, preliminary research has been performed at The Ohio State University in the following areas: 1. A review of fluoride molten salts' characteristics in thermal, corrosive, and compatibility performances. A recommendation for a salt selection is provided. Material candidates for both molten salt and helium flow loop have been identified. 2. A conceptual facility design that satisfies the multi loop (two coolant loops [i.e., fluoride molten salts and helium]) multi purpose (two operation modes [i.e., forced and natural circulation]) requirements. Schematic models are presented. The thermal hydraulic performances in a preliminary printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design have been estimated. 3. An introduction of computational methods and models for pipe heat loss analysis and cases studies. Recommendations on insulation material selection have been provided. 4. An analysis of pipe pressure rating and sizing. Preliminary recommendations on pipe size selection have been provided. 5. A review of molten fluoride salt preparation and chemistry control. An introduction to the experience from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been provided. 6. A review of some instruments and components to be used in the facility. Flowmeters and Grayloc connectors have been included. This report primarily presents the conclusions drawn from the extensive review of literatures in material selections and the facility design progress at the current stage. It provides some useful guidelines in insulation material and pipe size selection, as well as an introductory review of facility process and

  3. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  4. Data quality in airborne particulate matter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Nicole Marie

    Environmental measurements are complicated by uncontrollable natural variations in the environment, which cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. These variations affect the measurement uncertainty and detection capabilities -- two measures of data quality. Variations in a measurement series that arise from uncertainty in the measurements should not be interpreted as variations in the environment. Accurate estimates of measurement uncertainty are thus important inputs to data analyses. Collocated (duplicate) measurements are the most direct approach to characterizing uncertainty and detection capabilities because the observed differences reflect the actual measurement performance under the natural environmental variability. This dissertation uses collocated measurements of airborne particulate matter chemical speciation collected by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) to explore data quality issues. In addition to the complications introduced by uncontrollable environmental factors, the concepts of measurement precision and detection capabilities are often complicated by incomplete and inconsistent definitions. In this dissertation, collocated IMPROVE data are used to illustrate different formulations for precision and their ability to fit the observed differences. Collocated IMPROVE data are also used to show that measurement precision is typically better at concentrations well above the detection limit, when the analysis is performed on the whole filter instead of just a fraction of the filter, and for species predominantly in the smaller size fractions. For most species, the collocated differences are worse than the differences predicted by the current uncertainty model, suggesting that some sources of uncertainty are not accounted for or have been underestimated in the model. In addition, collocated measurement differences are shown to be correlated among several species. In both IMPROVE and

  5. ADVANCE, a modular vehicle simulation environment in MATLAB/SIMULINK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, J.; Vink, W.; Tillaart, E. van den

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a hybrid electric powertrain test platform. In the development process use has been made of ADVANCE, a modular vehicle simulation environment in MATLAB/Simulink. The background, philosophy, and the concept of the ADVANCE tool are discussed and a brief introduct

  6. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishwas B Khodse; Narayan B Bhosle; V V Gopalkrishna

    2009-04-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM)of surface seawaters was collected during December 2003 to October 2004 at 10 stations in the Bay of Bengal,and analyzed for particulate organic carbon (POC),total particulate nitrogen (TPN),total particulate carbohydrate (TPCHO)and total particulate uronic acids (TPURA).The concentrations of POC,TPCHO and TPURA varied from 4.80 to 29.12,0.85 to 4.24,0.09 to 0.91 C,respectively.The TPCHO-C and TPURA-C accounted for 6.6 –32.5%and 0.87 –3.65%of POC.The trends observed for the distribution of these compounds were generally similar to those recorded for the distribution of chlorophyll (Chl ) .The C/N ratios varied from 3.2 to 22.3 with most of the values being > 10.This suggests that the organic matter was mostly derived from phytoplankton and bacteria.Relatively low C/N ratios and high TPCHO yield imply that freshly derived organic matter was present during SWM and FIM.Our data suggest that the quality and quantity of organic matter varied spatially and seasonally.

  7. Ultra fined-grained atmospheric particulate studied by magnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragnese, F.; Lanci, L.; Lanza, R.

    2009-04-01

    We present the result of an investigation on the presence of ultrafine atmospheric particulate in the urban area of Turin by magnetic methods. Magnetic minerals are a common component of atmospheric particulate, mostly arising from a number of anthropogenic activities. Atmospheric particulate is well known to represent a serious health problem in urban area and recently the attention focused especially on fine (traffic area also support the previous finding that anthropogenic particulate has a large concentration of magnetic minerals compared to natural sources. Moreover the low temperature measurements have shown the presence of a relevant amount of ultrafine particles which are superparamagnetic at room temperature, their concentration increase in areas of high traffic and also appear to be related to anthropogenic sources. The magnetization carried by of ultrafine particles is site dependent but always larger than room temperature magnetization suggesting that about 60-70% of the particulate matter in urban area is made of ultrafine particles of nanometric size (< 30 nm). At given environmental conditions (site) the ratio between superparamagnetic and stable single domain magnetizations was found to remain fairly constant over time, thus allowing effortless predictions.

  8. Distribution of suspended particulate drilling wastes at the Hibernia oilfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1995 to 2000, annual surveys were conducted around the Hibernia oil platform off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. A baseline survey, conducted in 1995 prior to the placement of the offshore platform showed a clean environment devoid of fine particulate matter. Subsequent surveys were conducted to determine the distribution of total suspected particulate drilling fluids in the waters surrounding the gravity base structure. Transects ranging from 0.5 to 20 km from the structure were systematically sampled for water column and benthic boundary later total suspended particulate matter, organic content, disaggregated inorganic grain size (DIGS), optical backscatter, in situ floc size, and high-resolution seafloor imaging. In addition, time series sampling was conducted. Electromagnetic, acoustic and acoustic doppler meters were used to measure the currents in the benthic boundary layer. Samples were analyzed for their particle size spectral characteristics. An algorithm was developed to identify the signature of the bentonite fraction of the disposed drilling fluids. The first survey conducted 4 months after the emplacement of the platform, found particulate drilling wastes in the water column but not in the benthic boundary layer. Subsequent surveys revealed a gradual increase in fine particulate drilling waste in both the water column and the benthic boundary layer, but the overall concentration was low. Most of the material was found within 2 km of the platform. It was concluded that further surveys are warranted given the gradual accumulation of drilling wastes

  9. Ecological effect of airborne particulate matter on plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Prajapati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter is a mixture of diverse elements. Deposition of particulate matter to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of these particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. Effects of particulate matter on vegetation may be associated with the reduction in light required for photosynthesis and an increase in leaf temperature due to changed surface optical properties. Changes in energy exchange are more important than the diffusion of gases into and out of leaves which is influenced by dust load, color and particle size. Alkaline dust materials may cause leaf surface injury while other materials may be taken up across the cuticle. A more probable route for metabolic uptake and impact on vegetation and ecosystems is through the rhizosphere. Interception of dusts by vegetation makes an important contribution to the improvement of air quality in the vicinity of vegetation. Although the effect of particulate matter on ecosystem is linked to climate change, there is little threat due to un-speciated particulate matter on a regional scale.

  10. [Determination of particulate matter in small volume antibiotic injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, M; Tanno, K

    1989-03-01

    Amounts of particulate matter present in 17 small volume antibiotic injections marketed in Japan were determined using light obscuration particle analyzer (HIAC). The vial volume range of each batch of product was 7-20 ml, and each vial contained 1 g as antibiotic potency. In 4 products, contents of particles between 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter were counted 2,000-7,000 per vial, and particles in other products were counted less than 2,000 per vial. Numbers of particles greater than or equal to 10 microns in diameter were much less than the USP XXI criteria for particulate matter in small volume injections. The product of the highest counts for particles between 10 and 25 microns in diameter showed counts amounted to 0.13% of the USP XXI criteria. In the 25-50 microns particulate diameter range, particulate matters were detected only in 2 products, and they were less than 0.2% of the USP XXI criteria. Particles over 50 microns in diameter were not detected in any products. These results showed that 17 small volume antibiotic injections marketed in Japan had good qualities regarding contents of particulate matter. PMID:2746842

  11. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  12. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Concept of hybrid embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukue Masaharu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technique which is similar to a natural process, i.e., biogeochemical (carbonate diagenesis, is proposed to construct a hybrid embankment. In this study, the hybrid embankment is defined as a soil embankment which has a microbially induced framework structure of sand sheets and columns in the soft soil matrix. The sand materials are cemented with magnesium-calcite or dolomite, induced by ureolytic microbes. To design and construct hybrid embankments, fundamental problems, such as feasibility in terms of stability, geoenvironmental engineering practices, etc., are examined and discussed. It was shown that the hybrid embankment can be environmentally friendly and also can contribute solving technical and financial problems encountered in actual practice.

  15. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  16. Porcine retrovirus: hybridization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium-labeled porcine retrovirus (PoRV) was isolated and purified, and kinetics of hybridization of this RNA with DNA from various sources was determined. Results indicate that PoRV is an endogenous porcine virus

  17. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  18. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  19. Hybridity in Disgrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2015-01-01

    John Maxwell Coetzee's masterpiece-Disgrace is the representative work about post colonialism.The novel describes a series of disgraceful events happened between the white and the black in the post apartheid South Africa.The famous literature theory-hybridity of Homi K.Bhabha is the very key theory to analyze the work.In post apartheid South Africa,hybridity is the only way for the white and the black to coexist.

  20. Akser og hybrider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejrup, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Om udviklingen af hybride litterære former for jødisk apokalyptik ud fra teorier om aksetid og overgang fra mythos til logos (Jasper; Bellah). Med eksempel fra Hermas' Hyrden......Om udviklingen af hybride litterære former for jødisk apokalyptik ud fra teorier om aksetid og overgang fra mythos til logos (Jasper; Bellah). Med eksempel fra Hermas' Hyrden...