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Sample records for advanced hot-gas desulfurization

  1. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop hot-gas desulfurization sorbent formulations for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum. The specific objective was to develop suitable sorbents, that would have high and stable surface area and are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. Stability of surface area during regeneration was achieved by adding stabilizers. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives that promote the light-off of the regeneration reaction at lower temperature was considered. Another objective of this study was to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 C and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

  2. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  3. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  4. Development of advanced sorbents for hot gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Wangerow, J.R. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cicero, D.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) processes are among the leading contenders for the production of electricity from coal. Coal gas desulfurization to sufficiently low levels at elevated temperatures (T > 350 C) is now recognized as crucial to efficient and economic coal utilization in advanced IGCC processes. The implementation of hot coal gas desulfurization relies heavily on the development of regenerable sorbent materials which can efficiently reduce H{sub 2}S from several thousand ppmv levels down to a few ppmv over many cycles of sulfidation/regeneration. Zinc-based sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are currently the leading candidate sorbents, however, they have been shown to suffer from zinc volatilization at elevated temperatures leading to sorbent deterioration, increasing sorbent replacement costs, and the overall cost of hot gas cleanup. This paper discusses the results obtained in an ongoing investigation geared towards developing advanced mixed-metal oxide sorbents for desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range of 350 to 550 C. The paper focuses on the study related to the development of durable sorbents and addresses thermodynamic considerations, sulfidation kinetics, regenerability, and long term durability of a number of novel sorbents.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  6. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  7. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  8. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  9. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  10. Developments of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop hot-gas cleanup sorbents for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343-538{degrees}C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt and molybdenum. The specific objective in the successful preparation of H{sub 2}S absorbents will be to generate as high and as stable a surface area as possible, in order to develop suitable sorbent, that are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. A number of formulations will be prepared and screened for testing in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F) to 538{degrees}C (1000{degrees}F). Each formulation will be tested for up to 5 cycles of absorption and regeneration. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives will be investigated, which would promote a lower ignition of the regeneration. Selected superior formulation will be tested for long term (up to least 30 cycles) durability and chemical reactivity in the reactor.

  11. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  12. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF SMOVEN PROCESS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭万旺; 步学朋; 王乃计; 戢绪国; 谢可玉

    1997-01-01

    The Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry (BRICC) is developing the SMOVEN process for hot gas desulfurization. The SMOVEN process features sulfidation in an entrained bed, regeneration in a low velocity fluid bed or a moving bed with oxygen and sorbent circulation controlled by gas stream. A series of tests on the bench scale unit and the continuous process development unit were carried out. The regenerable metal oxide sorbents were adopted for the sulfurrelated components removing from coal gas at the temperature of 550~650℃. A fluidized bed gasifier of 100mm (id) generated coal gas for tests. The principle of SMOVEN process has been positively verified.

  14. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew R. June; John L. Hurley; Mark W. Johnson

    1999-04-01

    Iron aluminide hot gas filters have been developed using powder metallurgy techniques to form seamless cylinders. Three alloys were short-term corrosion tested in simulated IGCC atmospheres with temperatures between 925 F and 1200 F with hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 783 ppm{sub v} to 78,300 ppm{sub v}. Long-term testing was conducted for 1500 hours at 925 F with 78,300 ppm{sub v}. The FAS and FAL alloys were found to be corrosion resistant in the simulated environments. The FAS alloy has been commercialized.

  15. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  16. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of EX-SO3 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 110 {micro}m particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-550 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  17. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  18. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology: Phase 2. Exploratory studies on the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Huang, W.; White, J. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The topical report describes the results of Phase 2 research to determine the feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Many of the contaminants present in coal emerge from the gasification process in the product gas. Much effort has gone into the development of high temperature metal oxide sorbents for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas. The oxides of zinc, iron, manganese, and others have been studied. In order for high temperature desulfurization to be economical it is necessary that the sorbents be regenerated to permit multicycle operation. Current methods of sorbent regeneration involve oxidation of the metal sulfide to reform the metal oxide and free the sulfur as SO{sub 2}. An alternate regeneration process in which the sulfur is liberated in elemental form is desired. Elemental sulfur, which is the typical feed to sulfuric acid plants, may be easily separated, stored, and transported. Although research to convert SO{sub 2} produced during sorbent regeneration to elemental sulfur is on-going, additional processing steps are required and the overall process will be more complex. Clearly, the direct production of elemental sulfur is preferred. Desulfurization utilizing a cerium oxide based sorbent is discussed.

  19. Advances in hot gas filtration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.

    The past decade has seen the introduction of new filter media specifically designed for 'hot-gas' filtration. These media are available as woven or knitted fabrics and as non-wovens, i.e. needled felts. Needlefelted fabrics have proven so highly successful in the dedusting of hot gases that they are widely used nowadays in this new and necessary technology. Hot-gas filtration offers advantages in, for example, the saving or recycling of energy, the elimination of the cooling process, and the short-circuiting of process steps. This paper gives a survey of the types of textile fibres available for hot-gas filtration from the more recently developed organic fibres to refractory fibres. It describes, compares and contrasts their salient properties and lists the uses to which they may be put. It concentrates on such fibres which are generally referred to as 'high performance materials', since they are expected to provide satisfactory performance under extreme conditions of temperature, chemical environment and mechanical stress. It touches on filtration theory governing the collection mechanism. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Development of regenerable copper-based sorbents for hot gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Hill, A.H. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Honea, F.I. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The implementation of hot gas cleanup systems heavily depends on the development of regenerable sorbents for removal of sulfur-containing species (mainly H{sub 2}S) from the fuel gas stream at elevated temperatures (i.e., >350 C) from levels of several thousand ppm down to a few ppm, over many sulfidation/regeneration cycles. In addition, these sorbents must have high sulfur capacity, good sulfidation kinetics, good mechanical strength, and good chemical and structural stability over multicycle testing. Zinc-based sorbents, such as zinc titanates, are the leading contenders for hot gas desulfurization. However, these sorbents have been shown to suffer from zinc volatilization at elevated temperatures, resulting in sorbent deterioration and losses through attrition, loss of reactivity, leading to increasing sorbent replacement costs and overall cost of electricity. Copper-based sorbents do not suffer from volatilization problems due to the high melting point of the metal. However, bulk copper oxide is easily reduced to elemental copper in a reducing fuel gas environment, which in turn results in insufficient level of desulfurization. Fortunately, the sorbent desulfurization performance can be greatly enhanced by combining copper oxide with other oxides to minimize or prevent sorbent reduction during the sulfidation stage. This paper reports on research conducted to-date on the development of copper-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. The results of packed-bed experiments carried out for the determination of optimum operating conditions and for the evaluation of the long-term durability and regenerability of selected copper chromite sorbents are presented and discussed.

  1. Fracture behavior of advanced ceramic hot gas filters: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Majumdar, S.; Sutaria, M.; Bielke, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of mechanical/microstructural evaluation, thermal shock/fatigue testing, and stress analyses of advanced hot-gas filters obtained from different manufacturers. These filters were fabricated from both monolithic ceramics and composites. The composite filters, made of both oxide and nonoxide materials, were in both as-fabricated and exposed conditions, whereas the monolithic filters were made only of nonoxide materials. Mechanical property measurement of composite filters included diametral compression testing with O-ring specimens and burst-testing of short filter segments with rubber plugs. In-situ strength of fibers in the composite filters was evaluated by microscopic technique. Thermal shock/fatigue resistance was estimated by measuring the strengths of filter specimens before and after thermal cycling from an air environment at elevated temperatures to a room temperature oil bath. Filter performance during mechanical and thermal shock/fatigue loadings was correlated with microstructural observations. Micromechanical models were developed to derive properties of composite filter constituents on the basis of measured mechanical properties of the filters. Subsequently, these properties were used to analytically predict the performance of composite filters during thermal shock loading.

  2. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  3. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the research is to provide databases and design criteria to assist in the selection of optimum alloys for construction of components needed to contain process streams in advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems. Typical components include: steam line piping and superheater tubing for low emission boilers (600 to 700{degrees}C), heat exchanger tubing for advanced steam cycles and topping cycle systems (650 to 800{degrees}C), foil materials for recuperators, on advanced turbine systems (700 to 750{degrees}C), and tubesheets for barrier filters, liners for piping, cyclones, and blowback system tubing for hot-gas cleanup systems (850 to 1000{degrees}C). The materials being examined fall into several classes, depending on which of the advanced heat recovery concepts is of concern. These classes include martensitic steels for service to 650{degrees}C, lean stainless steels and modified 25Cr-30Ni steels for service to 700{degrees}C, modified 25Cr-20Ni steels for service to 900{degrees}C, and high Ni-Cr-Fe or Ni-Cr-Co-Fe alloys for service to 1000{degrees}C.

  4. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    At the start of the current project, the DSRP (Direct Sulfur Recovery Process) technology was at the bench-scale development stage with a skid-mounted system ready for field testing. The process had been extended to fluidized-bed operation in the Stage 1 reactor. A preliminary economic study for a 100 MW plant in which the two-stage DSRP was compared to conventional processes indicated the economic attractiveness of the DSRP. Through bench-scale development, both fluidized-bed zinc titanate and DSRP technologies have been shown to be technically and economically attractive. The demonstrations prior to the start of this project, however, had only been conducted using simulated (rather than real) coal gas and simulated regeneration off-gas. Thus, the effect of trace contaminants in real coal gases on the sorbent and DSRP catalyst was not known. Also, the zinc titanate desulfurization unit and DSRP had not been demonstrated in an integrated manner. The overall goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and DSRP technologies by scale-up and field testing (with actual coal gas) of the zinc titanate fluidized-bed reactor system, and the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process.

  5. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Alloys for design and construction of structural components needed to contain process streams and provide internal structures in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems were examined. Emphasis was placed on high-strength, corrosion-resistant alloys for service at temperatures above 1000 {degrees}F (540{degrees}C). Data were collected that related to fabrication, joining, corrosion protection, and failure criteria. Alloys systems include modified type 310 and 20Cr-25Ni-Nb steels and sulfidation-resistance alloys HR120 and HR160. Types of testing include creep, stress-rupture, creep crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for high temperature service, a modified type 310 stainless steel was developed with a target strength of twice that for standard type 310 stainless steel.

  6. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, modified alloy 800, and two sulfidation resistant alloys: HR160 and HR120. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700{degrees}C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925{degrees}C with good weldability and ductility.

  7. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, and modified alloy 800. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700 C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925 C with good weldability and ductility.

  8. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  9. An advanced coal gasification desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Leppin, D. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA)); Banerjee, D.D. (Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Carterville, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in the process of developing an advanced coal gasification desulfurization process in which a calcium-based sorbent such as limestone or dolomite is injected into the fluidized-bed gasifier with coal to achieve in-bed desulfurization of coal as it is converted into clean fuel gas. The reactions involving calcium-based sorbents takes place in two steps. In the first step, the desulfurization reaction takes place between hydrogen sulfide and calcium oxide in the reducing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfide. The latter subsequently reacts with oxygen in the oxidizing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfate which can be safely disposed of along with the coal ash. This process will reduce the capital requirement for coal gasification plants and provide cost effective alternatives to scrubbers for industrial and utility use of high-sulfur coal. This paper addresses the basic research being conducted at IGT to confirm the viability of this process. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. AN ADVANCED COAL DESULFURIZATION PROCESS——SELECTIVE FLOCCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡璋; 刘红缨; 吴军; 陈彩茶

    1997-01-01

    Selective flocculation is an idea separation method to separate ultrafine pyrite from coal. A number of selective flocculation separation tests under different conditions have been done and the results are very encouraging. The results also show that desulfurization and deashing can be finished simultaneously in selective flocculation process. It is an advanced coal desulfurization process.

  11. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot-gas filters and heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, M.F.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of the 3M material to a combustion environment for as little as 25 hours at 800{degrees}C. The study of heat exchanger materials has focused on enhancing the corrosion resistance of DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} composite tubes by adding chromium to its surfaces by (1) heat treatments in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed, or (2) infiltrating surface porosity with molten chromium nitrate. Each process is followed by a surface homogenization at 1500{degrees}C. The powder bed method has been most successful, producing continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. As-received and Cr-modified DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} samples will be reacted with commonly encountered coal-ash slags to determine the Cr effects on corrosion resistance.

  12. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Spear, K.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    A vertical flow-through furnace has been built to study the effect of corrosion on the morphology and mechanical properties of ceramic hot gas filters. Sections of 3M Type 203 and DuPont Lanxide SiC-SiC filter tubes were sealed at one end and suspended in the furnace while being subjected to a simulated coal combustion environment at 870{degrees}C. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy is used to identify phase and morphology changes due to corrosion while burst testing determines the loss of mechanical strength after exposure to the combustion gases. Additionally, a thermodynamic database of gaseous silicon compounds is currently being established so that calculations can be made to predict important products of the reaction of the environment with the ceramics. These thermodynamic calculations provide useful information concerning the regimes where the ceramic may be degraded by material vaporization. To verify the durability and predict lifetime performance of ceramic heat exchangers in coal combustion environments, long-term exposure testing of stressed (internally pressurized) tubes must be performed in actual coal combustion environments. The authors have designed a system that will internally pressurize 2 inch OD by 48 inch long ceramic heat exchanger tubes to a maximum pressure of 200 psi while exposing the outer surface of the tubes to coal combustion gas at the Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF) at the Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center. Water-cooled, internal o-ring pressure seals were designed to accommodate the existing 6 inch by 6 inch access panels of the CERF. Tubes will be exposed for up to a maximum of 500 hours at temperatures of 2500 and 2600{degrees}F with an internal pressure of 200 psi. If the tubes survive, their retained strength will be measured using the high temperature tube burst test facility at Penn State University. Fractographic analysis will be performed to identify the failure source(s) for the tubes.

  13. Advanced hot-gas filter development. Topical report, September 30, 1994--May 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J.E.; LeCostaouec, J.F.; Painter, C.J.; Sue, W.A.; Radford, K.C.

    1996-12-31

    The application of high-performance, high-temperature particulate control devices is considered to be beneficial to advanced fossil fuel processing technology, to selected high-temperature industrial processes, and to waste incineration concepts. Ceramic rigid filters represent the most attractive technology for these applications due to their capability to withstand high-temperature corrosive environments. However, current generation monolithic filters have demonstrated poor resistance to crack propagation and can experience catastrophic failure during use. To address this problem, ceramic fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) filter materials are needed for reliable damage tolerant candle filters. This program is focused on the development of an oxide-fiber reinforced oxide material composite filter material that is cost competitive with prototype next generation filters. This goal would be achieved through the development of a low cost sol-gel fabrication process and a three-dimensional fiber architecture optimized for high volume filter manufacturing. The 3D continuous fiber reinforcement provides a damage tolerant structure which is not subject to delamination-type failures. This report documents the Phase 1, Filter Material Development and Evaluation, results. Section 2 provides a program summary. Technical results, including experimental procedures, are presented and discussed in Section 3. Section 4 and 5 provide the Phase 1 conclusions and recommendations, respectively. The remaining sections cover acknowledgements and references.

  14. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  15. Hot gas ingestion testing of an advanced STOVL concept in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel with flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Albert L.; Flood, Joseph D.; Strock, Thomas W.; Amuedo, Kurt C.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft capable of operating from remote sites, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, it is important that the technologies critical to this unique class of aircraft be developed. Recognizing this need, NASA Lewis Research Center, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, and DARPA defined a cooperative program for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. Results from a test program are presented along with a discussion of the facility modifications allowing this type of testing at modal scale. These modifications to the tunnel include a novel ground plane, an elaborate model support which included 4 degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, a suction system exhaust for inlet flow, and tunnel sidewall modifications. Several flow visualization techniques were employed including water mist in the nozzle flows and tufts on the ground plane. Headwind (free-stream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 knots.

  16. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

  17. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  18. Pure Air`s advanced flue gas desulfurization clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station. This project received a $60 million grant from the DOE Clean Coal II program. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The facility was designed, built and is owned and operated by Pure Air of Allentown, Pennsylvania, through its project company, Pure Air on the Lake, Limited Partnership. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum.

  19. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  20. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K.P. Constant

    2003-09-01

    The overall purpose of this project was to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas with the sorbent being in the form of small pellets made with a layered structure such that each pellet consists of a highly reactive lime core enclosed within a porous protective shell of strong but relatively inert material. The sorbent can be very useful for hot gas cleanup in advanced power generation systems where problems have been encountered with presently available materials. An economical method of preparing the desired material was demonstrated with a laboratory-scale revolving drum pelletizer. Core-in-shell pellets were produced by first pelletizing powdered limestone or other calcium-bearing material to make the pellet cores, and then the cores were coated with a mixture of powdered alumina and limestone to make the shells. The core-in-shell pellets were subsequently calcined at 1373 K (1100 C) to sinter the shell material and convert CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. The resulting product was shown to be highly reactive and a very good sorbent for H{sub 2}S at temperatures in the range of 1113 to 1193 K (840 to 920 C) which corresponds well with the outlet temperatures of some coal gasifiers. The product was also shown to be both strong and attrition resistant, and that it can be regenerated by a cyclic oxidation and reduction process. A preliminary evaluation of the material showed that while it was capable of withstanding repeated sulfidation and regeneration, the reactivity of the sorbent tended to decline with usage due to CaO sintering. Also it was found that the compressive strength of the shell material depends on the relative proportions of alumina and limestone as well as their particle size distributions. Therefore, an extensive study of formulation and preparation conditions was conducted to improve the performance of both the core and shell materials. It was subsequently determined that MgO tends to stabilize the high

  1. Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Clean Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generation Station. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The project was built by a joint venture company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc., utilizing Mitsubishi`s wet limestone flue gas desulfurization technology. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced 936,000 metric tons of high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum. The AFGD system was designed, built, owned and operated by Pure Air and will continue to serve NIPSCO`s Bailly Station for at least another 15{1/2} years under an Own and Operate contract. The project enabled NIPSCO to cost effectively achieve full system wide compliance with the Phase 2 emission requirements for SO{sub 2} of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 almost eight years before the target date. The project was the recipient of the Outstanding Engineering Achievement Award from the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1993 and the 1993 Powerplant Award from Power magazine. The data presented in this paper are based on performance during the first three years of operation.

  2. Bench-Scale Testing of Zinc Ferrite Sorbent for Hot Gas Clean-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meisheng Liang; Hongyan Xu; Kechang Xie

    2007-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation systems require the development of high-temperature, regenerable desulfurization sorbents, which are capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier gas to very low levels. In this paper, zinc ferrites prepared by co-precipitation were identified as a novel coal gas desulfurization sorbent at high temperature. Preparation of zinc ferrite and effects of binders on pore volume, strength and desulfurization efficiency of zinc ferrite desulfurizer were studied. Moreover, the behavior of zinc ferrite sorbent during desulfurization and regeneration under the temperature range of 350-400 ℃ are investigated. Effects of binders on the pore volume, mechanical strength and desulfurization efficiency of zinc ferrite sorbents indicated that the addition of kaolinite to zinc ferrite desulfurizer seems to be superior to other binders under the experimental conditions.

  3. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  4. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  5. CRADA opportunities with METC`s gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, E.N.; Rockey, J.M.; Tucker, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    Opportunities exist for Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to support commercialization of IGCC power systems. METC operates an integrated gasifier and hot gas cleanup facility for the development of gasification and hot gas cleanup technologies. The objective of our program is to gather performance data on gasifier operation, particulate removal, desulfurization and regeneration technologies. Additionally, slip streams are provided for developing various technologies such as; alkali monitoring, particulate measuring, chloride removal, and contaminate recovery processes. METC`s 10-inch diameter air blown Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG) provides 300 lb/hr of coal gas at 1100{degrees}F and 425 psig. The particulate laden gas is transported to METC`s Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR). The gas pressure is reduced to 285 psig before being fed into a candle filter vessel. The candle filter vessel houses four candle filters and multiple test coupons. The particulate free gas is then desulfurized in a sorbent reactor. Starting in 1996 the MGCR system will be able to regenerate the sorbent in the same vessel.

  6. Ultra-deep Desulfurization of Diesel Highlighted as 2004 Major Advance in Green Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The sulfur levels in diesel have been increasingly restricted in the world out of environmental considerations. Environmental regulations to be applied by 2006 in Europe, the US and other countries, for instance, limit the level to less than 15 ppm. To meet these stringent conditions, novel desulfurization processes are needed to ensure sustainable and economically acceptable technology.

  7. Power control for hot gas engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macglashan, W. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A hot gas engine in which the expander piston of the engine is connected to an expander crankshaft. A displacer piston of the engine is connected to a separate displacer crankshaft which may or may not be coaxial with the expander crankshaft. A phase angle control mechanism used as a power control for changing the phase angle between the expander and displacer crankshaft is located between the two crankshafts. The phase angle control mechanism comprises a differential type mechanism comprised of a pair of gears, as for example, bevel gears, one of which is connected to one end of the expander crankshaft and the other of which is connected to the opposite end of the displacer crankshaft. A mating bevel gear is disposed in meshing engagement with the first two level gears to provide a phase angle control between the two crankshafts. Other forms of differential mechanisms may be used including conventional spur gears connected in a differential type arrangement.

  8. Hot gas path component cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  9. METC CFD simulations of hot gas filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the fluid/particle flow in several hot gas filtration vessels will be presented. These simulations have been useful in designing filtration vessels and in diagnosing problems with filter operation. The simulations were performed using the commercial code FLUENT and the METC-developed code MFIX. Simulations of the initial configuration of the Karhula facility indicated that the dirty gas flow over the filter assemblage was very non-uniform. The force of the dirty gas inlet flow was inducing a large circulation pattern that caused flow around the candles to be in opposite directions on opposite sides of the vessel. By introducing a system of baffles, a more uniform flow pattern was developed. This modification may have contributed to the success of the project. Several simulations of configurations proposed by Industrial Filter and Pump were performed, varying the position of the inlet. A detailed resolution of the geometry of the candles allowed determination of the flow between the individual candles. Recent simulations in support of the METC/CeraMem Cooperative Research and Development Agreement have analyzed the flow in the vessel during the cleaning back-pulse. Visualization of experiments at the CeraMem cold-flow facility provided confidence in the use of CFD. Extensive simulations were then performed to assist in the design of the hot test facility being built by Ahlstrom/Pyropower. These tests are intended to demonstrate the CeraMem technology.

  10. Copper-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    High-temperature coal gas desulfurization has been recognized as essential in the development of emerging power generation technologies such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), aiming to improve both the efficiency and environmental performance of power generation from coal. Hot gas desulfurization may be accomplished by using regenerable mixed metal oxides sorbents which can reduce the H{sub 2}S content of the coal gas to a few ppmv over many sulfidation/regeneration cycles. The focus of much of the current research on hot gas desulfurization has been on the use of zinc-based sorbents. Although these sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work, zinc-based sorbents have been shown to suffer from sulfate formation and zinc volatilization, leading to sorbent degradation over multicycle use, increasing sorbent replacement costs and the overall cost of hot gas desulfurization processes. A novel copper-chromite sorbent has been developed at IGT for hot coal gas desulfurization under the sponsorship of the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI). Results obtained so far indicate that this sorbent, in granular form (i.e., CuCr-29), has a much higher attrition resistance compared to the commercial granular zinc titanate sorbent, as well as excellent desulfurization efficiency. Furthermore, unlike most zinc titanate sorbents, the reactivity of IGT`s CuCr-29 sorbent gradually and consistently improved during the 20 cycles tested. The sorbent preparation techniques developed at IGT have been applied to produce highly reactive and attrition resistant sorbent pellets for moving-bed applications.

  11. Hot Gas Halos in Early-Type Field Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mulchaey, John S

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L_X-L_K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L_K < L_star suggests that internal processes such as supernovae driven winds or AGN feedback expel hot gas from low mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L_K < L_star galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster ...

  12. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  13. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion project. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during this quarter.

  14. HOT GAS LINES IN T TAURI STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardila, David R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gregory, Scott G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ingleby, Laura; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); France, Kevin; Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Edwards, Suzan [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Johns-Krull, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Yang, Hao [Institute for Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Valenti, Jeff A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Abgrall, Herve [LUTH and UMR 8102 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Place J. Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Alexander, Richard D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Brown, Joanna M.; Espaillat, Catherine [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hussain, Gaitee, E-mail: ardila@ipac.caltech.edu [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); and others

    2013-07-01

    For Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), the resonance doublets of N V, Si IV, and C IV, as well as the He II 1640 A line, trace hot gas flows and act as diagnostics of the accretion process. In this paper we assemble a large high-resolution, high-sensitivity data set of these lines in CTTSs and Weak T Tauri Stars (WTTSs). The sample comprises 35 stars: 1 Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. We find that the C IV, Si IV, and N V lines in CTTSs all have similar shapes. We decompose the C IV and He II lines into broad and narrow Gaussian components (BC and NC). The most common (50%) C IV line morphology in CTTSs is that of a low-velocity NC together with a redshifted BC. For CTTSs, a strong BC is the result of the accretion process. The contribution fraction of the NC to the C IV line flux in CTTSs increases with accretion rate, from {approx}20% to up to {approx}80%. The velocity centroids of the BCs and NCs are such that V{sub BC} {approx}> 4 V{sub NC}, consistent with the predictions of the accretion shock model, in at most 12 out of 22 CTTSs. We do not find evidence of the post-shock becoming buried in the stellar photosphere due to the pressure of the accretion flow. The He II CTTSs lines are generally symmetric and narrow, with FWHM and redshifts comparable to those of WTTSs. They are less redshifted than the CTTSs C IV lines, by {approx}10 km s{sup -1}. The amount of flux in the BC of the He II line is small compared to that of the C IV line, and we show that this is consistent with models of the pre-shock column emission. Overall, the observations are consistent with the presence of multiple accretion columns with different densities or with accretion models that predict a slow-moving, low-density region in the periphery of the accretion column. For HN Tau A and RW Aur A, most of the C IV line is blueshifted suggesting that the C IV emission is produced by shocks within outflow jets. In our sample, the Herbig Ae star DX Cha is the only object for which we find a

  15. Structure and Evolution of Hot Gas in 30 Dor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q D

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the structure and evolution of hot gas in the 30 Dor nebula, based on recent X-ray observations. Our deep ROSAT HRI image shows that diffuse X-ray emission arises in blister-shaped regions outlined by loops of HII gas. X-ray spectroscopic data from ASCA confirm the thermal nature of the emission and indicate that hot gas temperature decreases from the core to the halo of the nebula. The structure of the nebula can be understood as outflows of hot and HII gases from the parent giant molecular cloud of the central OB association. The dynamic mixing between the two gas phases is likely responsible for the mass loading to the hot gas, as required to explain the observed thermal structure and X-ray luminosity of the nebula. Such processes should also be important in the formation of similar giant HII regions and in their subsequent evolution into supergiant bubbles or galactic chimneys.

  16. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  17. Cu-Cr-O Functionalized ETS-2 Nanoparticles for Hot Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Farzad; Alizadehgiashi, Molen; Bläsing, Marc; Müller, Michael; Sawada, James A; Kuznicki, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Engelhard Titanium Silicate-2 (ETS-2), a sodium nanotitanate, was surface functionalized by ion exchanging the solid with copper and chromium ions. The ability of this bi-metallic adsorbent to remove H2S at elevated temperatures was assessed using a dynamic breakthrough system and contrasted against an analogous mixed metal oxide, Cu-Cr-O. Unlike Cu-Cr-O, the H2S capacity for Cu-Cr-ETS-2 remains unchanged from 350 °C up to 950 °C. Using ETS-2 as a support for the metals increased the adsorbents surface area and improved its sulfur capacity from 35 mg H₂S/g for Cu-Cr-O to 61 mg H₂S/g adsorbent for CuCr-ETS-2. The consistent presence of Cu₉S₅ on the sulfided adsorbents suggests that chromium effectively stabilizes the copper against reduction to metallic copper up to temperatures as high as 950 °C.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Reactive Multiphase Flow for FCC and Hot Gas Desulfurization Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Aubrey L. [WSU Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (USA)

    2005-07-01

    This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.

  19. The Hot Gas Halos of Galaxies in Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, Tesla E; Mulchaey, John S

    2008-01-01

    We use Chandra observations of 13 nearby groups of galaxies to investigate the hot gas content of their member galaxies. We find that a large fraction of near-IR bright, early-type galaxies in groups have extended X-ray emission, indicating that they retain significant hot gas halos even in these dense environments. In particular, we detect hot gas halos in ~80% of L_K > L_star galaxies. We do not find a significant difference in the L_K-L_X relation for detected group and cluster early-type galaxies. However, we detect X-ray emission from a significantly higher fraction of galaxies brighter than L_star in groups compared to clusters, indicating that a larger fraction of galaxies in clusters experience significant stripping of their hot gas. In addition, group and cluster galaxies appear to be X-ray faint compared to field galaxies, though a Chandra based field sample is needed to confirm this result. The near-IR bright late-types galaxies in clusters and groups appear to follow the L_K-L_X relation for early...

  20. A Discussion on Advanced Wastewater Treatment Process for Sintering Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater%烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水深度处理流程探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘莉; 陈亮; 董进

    2016-01-01

    钢铁企业烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水成分复杂,废水处理典型的工艺流程废水经处理后不能完全达标外排,也不能作为烟气脱硫系统的回用水,探讨烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水深度处理流程,势在必行.%As the composition of sintering wet flue gas desulfurization wastewater in steel enterprises is complicated, the treated wastewater by typical treatment processes cannot fully meet discharge standard, nor can it be used as reuse water in the flue gas desulfuriza-tion system. The necessity of advanced treatment process for sintering flue gas desulfurization wastewater is discussed.

  1. Development of iron-aluminide hot-gas filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, I.G.; Judkins, R.R.

    1996-06-01

    Removal of particles from hot synthesis gas produced by coal gasification is vital to the success of these systems. In Integrated [Coal] Gasification Combined Cycle systems, the synthesis gas is the fuel for gas turbines. To avoid damage to turbine components, it is necessary that particles be removed from the fuel gas prior to combustion and introduction into the turbine. Reliability and durability of the hot-gas filtering devices used to remove the particles is, of course, of special importance. Hot-gas filter materials include both ceramics and metals. Numerous considerations must be made in selecting materials for these filters. Constituents in the hot gases may potentially degrade the properties and performance of the filters to the point that they are ineffective in removing the particles. Very significant efforts have been made by DOE and others to develop effective hot-particle filters and, although improvements have been made, alternative materials and structures are still needed.

  2. The hot gas content of fossil galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, G. W.; Pointecouteau, E.; Arnaud, M.; van der Burg, R. F. J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the properties of the hot gas in four fossil galaxy systems detected at high significance in the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) survey. XMM-Newton observations reveal overall temperatures of kT ~ 5-6 keV and yield hydrostatic masses M500,HE ≳ 3.5 × 1014M⊙, confirming their nature as bona fide massive clusters. We measure the thermodynamic properties of the hot gas in X-rays (out to beyond R500 in three cases) and derive their individual pressure profiles out to R ~ 2.5 R500 with the SZ data. We combine the X-ray and SZ data to measure hydrostatic mass profiles and to examine the hot gas content and its radial distribution. The average Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) concentration parameter, ⟨ c500 ⟩ = 3.2 ± 0.4, is the same as that of relaxed "normal" clusters. The gas mass fraction profiles exhibit striking variation in the inner regions, but converge to approximately the cosmic baryon fraction (corrected for depletion) at R500. Beyond R500 the gas mass fraction profiles again diverge, which we interpret as being due to a difference in gas clumping and/or a breakdown of hydrostatic equilibrium in the external regions. Our observations point to considerable radial variation in the hot gas content and in the gas clumping and/or hydrostatic equilibrium properties in these fossil clusters, at odds with the interpretation of their being old, evolved, and undisturbed. At least some fossil objects appear to be dynamically young.

  3. The hot gas content of fossil galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, G W; Arnaud, M; van der Burg, R F J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the hot gas in four fossil galaxy systems detected at high significance in the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) survey. XMM-Newton observations reveal overall temperatures of kT ~ 5-6 keV and yield hydrostatic masses M500,HE > 3.5 x 10e14 Msun, confirming their nature as bona fide massive clusters. We measure the thermodynamic properties of the hot gas in X-rays (out to beyond R500 in three cases) and derive their individual pressure profiles out to R ~ 2.5 R500 with the SZ data. We combine the X-ray and SZ data to measure hydrostatic mass profiles and to examine the hot gas content and its radial distribution. The average Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) concentration parameter, c500 = 3.2 +/- 0.4, is the same as that of relaxed `normal' clusters. The gas mass fraction profiles exhibit striking variation in the inner regions, but converge to approximately the cosmic baryon fraction (corrected for depletion) at R500. Beyond R500 the gas mass fraction profiles again diverge, which we int...

  4. Desulfurization at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panula-Nikkilae, E.; Kurkela, E.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Two high-temperature desulfurization methods, furnace injection and gasification-desulfurization are presented. In furnace injection, the efficiency of desulfurization is 50-60%, but this method is applied in energy production plants, where flue gas desulfurization cannot be used. Ca-based sorbents are used as desulfurization material. Factors affecting desulfurization and the effect of injection on the boiler and ash handling are discussed. In energy production based on gasification, very low sulfur emissions can be achieved by conventional low-temperature cleanup. However, high-temperature gas cleaning leads to higher efficiency and can be applied to smaller size classes. Ca-, Fe-, or Zn-based sorbents or mixed metals can be used for desulfurization. Most of the methods under development are based on the use of regenerative sorbents in a cleanup reactor located outside the gasifier. So far, only calcium compounds have been used for desulfurization inside the gasifier.

  5. In bed and downstream hot gas desulphurization during solid fuel gasification: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiangmei; de Jong, Wiebren; Pal, Ranadeep; Verkooijen, Adrian H.M. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Process and Energy Department, Energy Technology Section, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Syngas produced by gasification process of biomass fuels is an environmental friendly alternative to conventional petrochemical fuels for the production of electricity, hydrogen, synthetic transportation biofuels and other chemicals. However, the advanced utilization of syngas is significantly limited due to the contaminants which can seriously deactivate the catalysts used for downstream reaction such as steam reforming methane, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and corrosion of downstream equipments such as a gas turbine. Among the contaminants, sulphur compounds produced in the gasification process, which are mainly H{sub 2}S with small amounts of COS, CS{sub 2} and thiophenes depending on process conditions, must be removed. For biomass feedstock advances are required in the cleanup technologies and processes to upgrade the raw product gas with minimal impact on the overall process efficiency. Hot gas desulphurization (HGD) can improve the overall thermal efficiency due to the elimination of fuel gas cooling and associated heat exchangers. With this aim, the present review paper highlights currently developed methods used for desulphurization of hot gas produced from gasification process of solid fuels. The methods presented here are for both in situ and downstream sulphur capture. Also, the attention is paid to the regeneration of the used materials. In situ sulphur capture is mainly done by using calcium-based sorbents such as limestone and dolomite, whereas downstream sulphur capture is mainly focused on the use of regenerable single, mixed, and supported metal oxides. A comparison is indicated at the end to show the sulphur loading of various materials. (author)

  6. Fuel gas desulfurization at elevated temperatures with copper-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Lau, F.S. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Honea, F.I. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Zinc-based sorbents, the leading candidates for hot gas cleanup, have been shown to suffer from zinc volatilization at elevated temperatures, leading to sorbent deterioration, increasing sorbent replacement costs. Copper-based sorbents, because of the high melting point of the metal, do not suffer from this problem. However, bulk copper oxide is generally reduced to metallic copper in reducing fuel gas environments leading to thermodynamic limitations, resulting in insufficient level of desulfurization. The reduction stability and therefore the desulfurization performance of copper oxide sorbents can be significantly improved by combining copper oxide with other oxides in a supported form or as bulk mixed metal oxides. This paper addresses the results of a systematic study of several novel copper-based sorbents for hot gas cleanup application. The evaluation criteria included reduction stability, sulfidation reactivity and regenerability at elevated temperatures. The performance of the most promising sorbent in long duration cycle sulfidation-regeneration tests is also presented.

  7. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Sixth Quarter of the First Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. The major emphasis during this reporting period was expanding the test facility to address system integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced power generation systems. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include additional modules for the expansion of the test facility, which is referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSOF). A letter agreement was negotiated between Southern Company Services (SCS) and Foster Wheeler (FW) for the conceptual design of the Advanced Pressurized Fluid-Bed Combustion (APFBC)/Topping Combustor/Gas Turbine System to be added to the facility. The expanded conceptual design also included modifications to the existing conceptual design for the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility (HGCTF), facility layout and balance of plant design for the PSOF. Southern Research Institute (SRI) began investigating the sampling requirements for the expanded facility and assisted SCS in contacting Particulate Control Device (PCD) vendors for additional information. SCS also contacted the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and two molten carbonate fuel cell vendors for input on the fuel cell module for the PSDF.

  8. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

  9. Desulfurization of fuel oils using an advanced oxidation method; Desulfuracion de combustibles usando un metodo de oxidacion avanzada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, Roberto; Rodas Grapain, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, the oxidative desulfurization of fuel oils assisted by ultrasound was analyzed. It was studied the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration, the fuel oil to aqueous solution volumetric ratio, and type of catalyst. The Fenton-like catalysts studied were ferric chloride and copper sulfate. [Spanish] En esta investigacion se analiza la desulfuracion oxidativa de combustoleo asistida con ultrasonido. Tambien se estudia el efecto de la concentracion de peroxido de hidrogeno (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), la relacion volumetrica combustoleo/solucion acuosa y el tipo de catalizador. Los catalizadores tipo Fenton que se estudiaron fueron el cloruro ferrico (FeCl{sub 3}) y el sulfato de cobre (CuSO{sub 4}).

  10. Chandra Detects Halo Of Hot Gas Around Milky Way-Like Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    the galaxy's disk. These data clearly show the hot gas is heated by clusters of massive stars and is now expanding into the halo of the galaxy. NGC 4631 X-ray: NASA/CXC/UMass/D.Wang et al. UV: NASA/GSFC/UIT "What we see in NGC 4631 can be thought of as the bursting flames of a gigantic cosmic camp fire," said Wang. "Using Chandra and Hubble together, we really get a complete story of what is happening in this galaxy." NGC 4631 is a galaxy that has high amounts of star formation, possibly triggered by interaction with neighboring galaxies. Such star formation might have created the conditions necessary to heat the gas seen by Chandra, as vast amounts of energy are released from supernovas and massive stars in star-forming regions - enough to lift the gas out of the plane of the galaxy. These new results provide important clues about the cycling of energy and mass in a galaxy like our own Milky Way and about the evolutionary history of galaxies, which are thought to be more active in star formation in the past than at the present. Other members of the research team include: Stefan Immler, University of Massachusetts; Rene Walterbos, New Mexico State University; James Lauroesch, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, and Dieter Breitschwerdt, Max Plank Institute, Germany. Chandra observed NGC 4631 with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) instrument, which was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA.

  11. Hot-gas filtration for pressurized fluidized-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, R.; Kuby, W.

    1984-03-01

    This topical report discusses the status of the work, conducted under EPRI contract 1336-4, on the evaluation and development of ceramic filter hot gas cleanup technology for pressurized fluidized bed combustion. This topical report represents the status of the work through September 1983. The goal of the effort is to achieve 6000 h of operation on a 13-filter durability test rig. The work includes two parallel tasks. The first is construction of a durability test facility, operation of the facility with an initial candidate filter media installed, and assessment of results. The second task includes a literature survey to identify state-of-the-art ceramic fibers suitable for high-temperature gas filtration applications and filter testing in a single-filter test facility to assess the performance of promising new filter media. The best candidate will be chosen for further evaluation in the durability facility.

  12. Advances in Research of Decarbonization and Desulfurization for Natural Gas%天然气脱硫脱碳方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 杨鹤; 梁宏宝; 张静伟

    2011-01-01

    综述了甲基二乙醇胺(MDEA)法、砜胺法、LO-CAT法及CT8-5法等天然气脱硫脱碳方法的应用状况,对脱硫脱碳方法的适用范围、溶剂的变质过程、脱除效果进行了比较和分析,并展望了天然气脱硫脱碳方法未来的发展方向.通过对比分析得出,当原料气压力较高且硫含量高时,适宜采用LO-CAT法处理;若原料气中硫含量低时,应采用砜胺Ⅲ法;当原料气压力较低时,采用MDEA法和CT8-5法均适宜,但使用CT8-5法时溶剂更稳定,不易变质.若需要从原料气中选择性脱除H2S和有机硫、可适当保留CO2的工况,应选用砜胺Ⅲ法.%Advances in research of desulfurization and decarbonisation of natural gas through methyldiethanolamine(MDEA) method, sulfone amine method, LO-CAT method and CT8-5 method are summarized. Effects of the feed gas and the solvent deterioration on the desulfurization and decarbonisation are analysed. The prospects of the natural gas purification techniques are discussed. When the feed gas pressure is relatively high, LO-CAT method is suitable for treating high sulfur gas, whereas sulfone amine ffl method is more suitable for treating low sulfur gas. When the feed gas is at lower pressure, both MDEA method and CT8-5 method are usable, but the solvent of CT8-5 method is non-perishable. When you need remove H2S and organic sulfur from natural gas selectively, sulfone amine HI method is the best choice.

  13. AGN-stimulated Cooling of Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Valentini, Milena

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of relatively weak AGN feedback on the interstellar medium of intermediate and massive elliptical galaxies. We find that the AGN activity, while globally heating the ISM, naturally stimulates some degree of hot gas cooling on scales of several kpc. This process generates the persistent presence of a cold ISM phase, with mass ranging between 10$^4$ and $\\gtrsim$ 5 $\\times$ 10$^7$ M$_\\odot$, where the latter value is appropriate for group centered, massive galaxies. Widespread cooling occurs where the ratio of cooling to free-fall time before the activation of the AGN feedback satisfies $t_{cool}/t_{ff} \\lesssim 70$, that is we find a less restrictive threshold than commonly quoted in the literature. This process helps explaining the body of observations of cold gas (both ionized and neutral/molecular) in Ellipticals and, perhaps, the residual star formation detected in many early-type galaxies. The amount and distribution of the off-center cold gas vary irregularly with time. The cold ISM v...

  14. Hot gas stream application in micro-bonding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrijasevic, Daniela; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Smetana, Walter; Boehm, Stefan; Brenner, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept for bonding micro-parts with dimensions in the range of 50 μm to 300 μm. Two different kinds of adhesives - polyurethane adhesive foil and hot melt glue - were applied to a basic substrate by different techniques. The focused and concentrated hot gas stream softened glue which had been applied in a solid state. Micro-parts were then embossed in the softened glue, or covered and shielded by it. In this way, a rigid and compact bond was obtained after cooling. For the positioning of micro-parts (optical fibers), it has been necessary to manufacture adequate V-grooves. Finite element analyses using the ANSYS TM program package were performed in order to evaluate parameters which govern the heat transfer to the adhesive and substrate respectively. Experimental results are in good agreement with results obtained by the numerical simulations. The advantages of this new approach are small system size, low capital costs, simple usage, applicability to many material combinations, easy integration into existing production lines, etc.

  15. New Reductive Desulfurization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The project for the research of the pulse plasma reductive desulfurization technology undertaken by Huazhong University of Science and Technology recently passed the research achievement appraisal in Wuhan, Hubei province.

  16. Numerical Investigation of the Transient Behavior of a Hot Gas Duct under Rapid Depressurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JingBao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hot gas duct is an indispensable component for the nuclear-process heat applications of the Very-High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR, which has to fulfill three requirements: to withstand high temperature, high pressure, and large pressure transient. In this paper, numerical investigation of pressure transient is performed for a hot gas duct under rapid depressurization. System depressurization imposes an imploding pressure differential on the internal structural elements of a hot gas duct, the structural integrity of which is susceptible to being damaged. Pressure differential and its imposed duration, which are two key factors to evaluate the damage severity of a hot gas duct under depressurization, are examined in regard to depressurization rate and insulation packing tightness. It is revealed that depressurization rate is a decisive parameter for controlling the pressure differential and its duration, whereas insulating-packing tightness has little effect on them.

  17. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  18. Composition modification of zinc titanate sorbents for hot gas desulfurization. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    For new coal gasification systems, zinc titanate sorbents are being developed to remove sulfur from the hot product gas prior to its use in combined cycle turbines and high temperature fuel cells. Although most of the properties of these sorbents are very attractive, there are still concerns about durability over many sulfidation-regeneration cycles and zinc losses due to vaporization. Doping the zinc titanate with other metal ions could alleviate both concerns, which are the objectives of this project. After a screening study was completed, it was decided that Cr offered more promise as a dopant than Ni, Cu, Mg, and Al. Therefore six new sorbent formulations containing Cr were prepared, and they are now being evaluated with a series of bulk density, X-ray diffraction, crush strength and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. Results to date suggest that, while Zn vaporization losses can be reduced with Cr additions, a penalty in chemical reactivity occurs. A fixed bed test was also completed this quarter on a Cr-containing formulation. The H{sub 2}S breakthrough time was about 11 hours, and utilization of Zn in the sorbent was 60.5%.

  19. Hot gas ingestion test results of a two-poster vectored thrust concept with flow visualization in the NASA Lewis 9- x 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.

    1990-01-01

    A 9.2 percent scale Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) hot gas ingestion model was designed and built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MCAIR) and tested in the Lewis Research Center 9 x 15 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). Hot gas ingestion, the entrainment of heated engine exhaust into the inlet flow field, is a key development issure for advanced short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft. Flow visualization from the Phase 1 test program, which evaluated the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, is covered. The Phase 2 test program evaluated the hot gas ingestion phenomena at higher temperatures and used a laser sheet to investigate the flow field. Hot gas ingestion levels were measured for the several forward nozzle splay configurations and with flow control/life improvement devices (LIDs) which reduced the hot gas ingestion. The model support system had four degrees of freedom - pitch, roll, yaw, and vertical height variation. The model support system also provided heated high-pressure air for nozzle flow and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The test was conducted at full scale nozzle pressure ratios and inlet Mach numbers. Test and data analysis results from Phase 2 and flow visualization from both Phase 1 and 2 are documented. A description of the model and facility modifications is also provided. Headwind velocity was varied from 10 to 23 kn. Results are presented over a range of nozzle pressure ratios at a 10 kn headwind velocity. The Phase 2 program was conducted at exhaust nozzle temperatures up to 1460 R and utilized a sheet laser system for flow visualization of the model flow field in and out of ground effects. The results reported are for nozzle exhaust temperatures up to 1160 R. These results will contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, the total pressure recovery, the inlet temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane contours

  20. Hot Gas in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium: The Soft X-ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Wilton

    1996-05-01

    The immediate solar neighborhood, the nearest 100 pc or so, is filled with hot low-density gas that has a substantial thermal pressure and is a dominant factor in the energy budget of the local interstellar medium. This gas produces substantial soft thermal soft x-ray emission below 1/4 keV, but is difficult to observe outside the soft x-ray band. Sounding rocket and satellite all-sky surveys in several broad x-ray energy bands provided the general picture of this million-degree gas surrounding the solar system, extending perhaps as far as 100 pc in the galactic plane and roughly twice that far out of the plane, and showing no signs of being absorbed by intervening neutral gas. ROSAT observations of "shadows" in the diffuse x-ray background have subsequently determined the spatial locations of this hot gas along a few lines of sight: closer than 65 pc in some low galactic latitude directions, farther than several hundred pc in some high galactic latitude directions. Other large regions of hot gas are seen nearby, within a few hundred parsecs, but the galactic filling factor of the hot gas is unknown. DXS obsrvations of the spectra of the diffuse soft x-ray background confirm that the emission in the plane is thermal, but the spectrum of the hot gas is not fit by standard thermal equilibrium models. The temperature distribution, emission measure, ionization distributions, and metallicity of the hot gas are unknown. This talk emphasizes a few of the things that are clear about the hot ISM, and discusses a few of the most puzzling problems in our understanding of the nature of the diffuse hot gas. New instruments with hig spectral resolution will make it possible to address some of these problems.

  1. Study of fluidized-bed desulfurization with zinc ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindley, T

    1991-01-01

    Previous work established the technical feasibility of desulfurizing the hot product gases of coal gasification with fixed beds of a regenerable zinc ferrite sorbent. This process, intended for integration with coal gasifiers and gas turbines, has been tested and studied in considerable detail in a process development unit. Though possessing the advantages of high-sulfur absorption at low-sulfur breakthrough and the lack of sorbent attrition characteristic of a stationary bed, fixed beds also have inherent disadvantages: susceptibility to plugging by particles and a large diluent requirement during regeneration to control the reaction zone temperature. Therefore, METC conducted a scoping laboratory test program to determine the desulfurizing capability of fluid beds of zinc ferrite. Results from this program are presented. The results generally demonstrated that fluid beds of zinc ferrite have the potential to lower the H{sub 2}S level in hot gas from 10,000 to 10 ppmv. To achieve this at a high-sorbent sulfur loading would require two fluid-bed stages. Sorbent attrition appears to be acceptably low. Planned future activities include tests at high pressure with both simulated gas and in a gasifier sidestream.

  2. Advanced development of fine coal desulfurization and recovery technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1976--December 31, 1976. [53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.W.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1977-02-01

    The improvement and technical development of promising methods for desulfurizing and recovering fine coal underway includes froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration, pelletization, and a chemical desulfurization process which involves leaching fine coal with a hot dilute solution of sodium carbonate containing dissolved oxygen under pressure. A preliminary assessment of the state of the art and review of the technical literature has been made. Equipment and apparatus have been assembled for small-scale laboratory experiments in froth flotation, oil agglomeration and chemical desulfurization. Preliminary froth flotation tests have been carried out on an Iowa coal to establish baseline data. Quite unexpectedly these tests indicated that aluminum nitrate may be an activator for coal because it served to increase the recovery of coal. Several potential flotation depressants for pyrite have been screened by measurement at the zeta potential and floatability of pyrite or coal in aqueous suspensions containing the potential depressants. The following reagents show some promise as pyrite depressants: ferric chloride, sodium cyanide, ammonium thiocyanate, and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Preliminary plans have been prepared for a continuous flow bench-scale system to demonstrate the process. This system will include equipment for grinding and pretreating the coal as well as equipment for demonstrating froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration and pelletization. An investigation of coal microstructure as it relates to coal beneficiation methods has also been initiated. The distribution of various forms of pyrite by size and crystal structure has been determined for two cannel samples of coal through application of scanning electron microscope techniques.

  3. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  4. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, J.K. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. (Holometrix, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  5. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzet, C.; Buonfiglio, V.; Polidoro, M.; Valenti, P. (Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Ist. di Microbiologia)

    This paper reviews the biochemical and economics aspects of coal desulfurization processes involving the use of thermophile microorganisms such as sulfolobus, currently believed to be the the only type of microorganism capable of degrading both inorganic (pyrite-containing) and organic sulfur compounds. Comments are also made on the feasibility of the development of an in-lab, microbial based method for the transformation of the lignin component, obtained in the processing, by anaerobic fermentation, of lignocellulosic biomass, into humic acid.

  6. 30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance. 77.305 Section 77.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance. Drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and all ductwork in which coal dust may accumulate shall be equipped with...

  7. Probing Milky Way's hot gas halo density distribution using the dispersion measure of pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Nugaev, Emin Ya; Zhezher, Yana V

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies indicates a significant amount of ionized gas in a form of the hot gas halo around the Milky Way. The halo extends over the region of 100 kpc and may be acountable for the missing baryon mass. In this paper we calculate the contribution of the proposed halo to the dispersion measure (DM) of the pulsars. The Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW), Maller & Bullock (MB) and Feldmann, Hooper & Gnedin (FHG) density distibutions are considered for the gas halo. The data set includes pulsars with the distance known independently from the DM, e.g. pulsars in globular clusters, LMC, SMC and pulsars with known parallax. The results exclude the NFW distribution for the hot gas, while the more realistic MB and FHG models are compatible with the observed dispersion measure.

  8. Probing Milky Way's hot gas halo density distribution using the dispersion measure of pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhezher, Ya. V.; Nugaev, E. Ya.; Rubtsov, G. I.

    2016-03-01

    A number of recent studies indicates a significant amount of ionized gas in a form of the hot gas halo around the Milky Way. The halo extends over the region of 100 kpc and may be acountable for the missing baryon mass. In this paper we calculate the contribution of the proposed halo to the dispersion measure (DM) of the pulsars. The Navarro, Frenk, and White (NFW), Maller and Bullock (MB), and Feldmann, Hooper, and Gnedin (FHG) density distibutions are considered for the gas halo. The data set includes pulsars with the distance known independently from the DM, e.g., pulsars in globular clusters, LMC, SMC and pulsars with known parallax. The results exclude the NFW distribution for the hot gas, while the more realisticMB and FHG models are compatible with the observed dispersion measure.

  9. Mapping the Physical Properties of Cosmic Hot Gas with Hyper-spectral Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dwyer, M; Raychaudhuri, S; Dwyer, Mark O'; Ponman, Trevor; Raychaudhury, Ela Claridge & Somak

    2005-01-01

    A novel inversion technique is proposed to compute parametric maps showing the temperature, density and chemical composition of cosmic hot gas from X-ray hyper-spectral images. The parameters are recovered by constructing a unique non-linear mapping derived by combining a physics-based modelling of the X-ray spectrum with the selection of optimal bandpass filters. Preliminary results and analysis are presented.

  10. Dust In Hell: Discovery Of Dust In Hot Gas Around Group-Centered Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.

    2007-05-01

    Observations with the Spitzer infrared telescope reveal extended internally produced dust in the hot gas (KT 1 KeV) atmospheres surrounding two optically normal galaxies, NGC 5044 and NGC 4636. We interpret this as a dusty buoyant outflow resulting from energy released by gas accretion onto supermassive black holes in the galaxy cores. Both galaxies have highly disturbed, transient activities in the hot gas and contain strong dust emission at 70 and 160 microns in excess of what expected from normal stellar mass loss. The 70 micron image is clearly extended. The lifetime of dust in hot (KT=1KeV) interstellar gas to destruction by sputtering (ion impacts), 10 million years, establishes the time when the dust first entered the hot gas. Remarkably, in NGC 5044 we observe interstellar PAH dust-molecular emission at 8 microns out to about 5 Kpc that is spatially coincident with extended Halpha+[NII] emission from warm gas. We propose that this dust comes from the destruction and heating of dusty disks in the nuclei of these galaxies, followed by buoyant transport. A simple calculation shows that dust-assisted cooling in outflowing buoyant gas in NGC 5044 can cool the gas within a few Kpc in about 10 million years, explaining the optical line emission observed.

  11. Hot gas and magnetic arms of NGC 6946: indications for reconnection heating?

    CERN Document Server

    Wezgowiec, M; Beck, R

    2016-01-01

    The grand-design face-on spiral galaxy NGC6946 is remarkable because of its high star formation activity, the massive northern spiral arm, and the magnetic arms, which are observed in polarized radio synchrotron emission and are located between the optical arms and possibly are magnetic reconnection regions. X-ray observations of NGC6946 performed with XMM-Newton were used to study the emission from X-ray point sources and diffuse hot gas, including the magnetic arms and the halo. Spectral fitting of the diffuse X-ray emission allowed us to derive temperatures of the hot gas. With assumptions about the emission volume, this allowed us to estimate gas densities, masses, and cooling times. To explain the X-ray emission from the spiral arms of NGC6946 two-temperature plasma models are needed to account for the disk and halo emission. The interarm regions show only one thermal component. We observe that the temperature of the hot gas in and above the magnetic arm regions increases slightly when compared to the av...

  12. O VII and O VIII absorption by hot gas in the vicinity of the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    McKernan, B; Reynolds, C S

    2004-01-01

    (abridged) We searched for evidence of soft X-ray absorption by hot gas in the vicinity of the Galaxy in a small sample of fifteen type I AGN observed with the high resolution X-ray gratings on board Chandra. We find that around half of the sight lines in our sample exhibit absorption due to local H- or He-like Oxygen (or both) at confidence levels ranging from >90% to >3sigma. Depending on the sight line, the absorption can be identified with hot gas in particular local structures, the Local Group (LG) or the putative local hot intergalactic medium (IGM). Several sight lines in our sample coincide with sight lines in a study of O VI absorption by local gas, so an assumption of collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) allows us to constrain the temperature of the local hot gas. We show that hot absorbing outflows apparently detected in the spectra of NGC 4051, PDS 456 and PG 1211+143 respectively could actually correspond to absorption by hot local gas since the outflow velocity from each of these AGN coincid...

  13. Development and characterization of Textron continuous fiber ceramic composite hot gas filter materials. Final report, September 30, 1994--October 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPietro, S.G.; Alvin, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    Uncertainties about the long-term ability of monolithic ceramics to survive in the IGCC or PFBC hot gas filter environment led DOE/METC to consider the merits of using continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs) as potential next-generation high temperature filter elements. This seems to be a logical strategy to pursue in light of the fact that properly-engineered CFCC materials have shown much-improved damage tolerance and thermal shock behavior as compared to existing monolithic ceramic materials. Textron`s Advanced Hot Gas Filter Development Program was intended to be a two year, two phase program which transitioned developmental materials R and D into prototype filter element fabrication. The first phase was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of fabricating CFCC hot gas filter elements which could meet the pressure drop specifications of less than ten inches of water (iwg) at a face velocity of ten feet per minute (fpm), while showing sufficient integrity to survive normal mechanical loads and adequate environmental resistance to steam/alkali corrosion conditions at a temperature of approximately 870 C (1600 F). The primary objective of the second phase of the program was to scale up fabrication methods developed in Phase 1 to produce full-scale CFCC candle filters for validation testing. Textron encountered significant process-related and technical difficulties in merely meeting the program permeability specifications, and much effort was expended in showing that this could indeed be achieved. Thus, by the time the Phase 1 program was completed, expenditure of program funds precluded continuing on with Phase 2, and Textron elected to terminate their program after Phase 1. This allowed Textron to be able to focus technical and commercialization efforts on their largely successful DOE CFCC Program.

  14. Preparation of microbial desulfurization catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A Rhodococcus sp. 1awq, a bacterium isolated from the soil cleaving the C-S bond of dibenzothiophene (DBT) via specific pathway, was investigated for cell growth and for its role in desulfurization. Clearly, the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, inhibited the growth of the strain, the synthesis of the desulfurization enzymes, and the activity of the enzymes. The effects of sulfate on the DBT degradation enzymes were examined in the Rhodococcus sp. 1awq growth system with DBT; the sulfate served, concurrently, as the sulfur source. The condition of the resting cells that were used in desulfurization, was also studied. The optimal concentration of the resting cells and the reaction conditions were determined. It was documented that there is no difference between desulfurization activity for resting cells cultured with sulfate as the sole sulfur source and that with the mixture of DBT and sulfate as the sulfur source.

  15. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  16. PARTICLE TRANSPORTATION AND DEPOSITION IN HOT GAS FILTER VESSELS - A COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2002-07-01

    In this project, a computational modeling approach for analyzing flow and ash transport and deposition in filter vessels was developed. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for studying hot-gas filtration process was established. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas flows in the filter vessel, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the particle transport and deposition. Particular attention was given to the Siemens-Westinghouse filter vessel at Power System Development Facility in Wilsonville in Alabama. Details of hot-gas flow in this tangential flow filter vessel are evaluated. The simulation results show that the rapidly rotation flow in the spacing between the shroud and the vessel refractory acts as cyclone that leads to the removal of a large fraction of the larger particles from the gas stream. Several alternate designs for the filter vessel are considered. These include a vessel with a short shroud, a filter vessel with no shroud and a vessel with a deflector plate. The hot-gas flow and particle transport and deposition in various vessels are evaluated. The deposition patterns in various vessels are compared. It is shown that certain filter vessel designs allow for the large particles to remain suspended in the gas stream and to deposit on the filters. The presence of the larger particles in the filter cake leads to lower mechanical strength thus allowing for the back-pulse process to more easily remove the filter cake. A laboratory-scale filter vessel for testing the cold flow condition was designed and fabricated. A laser-based flow visualization technique is used and the gas flow condition in the laboratory-scale vessel was experimental studied. A computer model for the experimental vessel was also developed and the gas flow and particle transport patterns are evaluated.

  17. Pushing Forward Industrialization of Thermal Power Desulfuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces present state of industrialization development in flue gas desulfuration, including technological selection, state of design and contracting capability, localization of equipment, etc. in China. It points out main problems currently existed and presents proposals on promotion of desulfuration technology with selfowned intellectual property right, perfection of demonstrative projects and pushing forward localization of desulfuration equipment.

  18. Carbon Formation and Metal Dusting in Hot-Gas Cleanup Systems of Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, Peter F.; Judkins, Roddie R.; DeVan, Jackson H.; Wright, Ian G.

    1995-12-31

    There are several possible materials/systems degradation modes that result from gasification environments with appreciable carbon activities. These processes, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive, include carbon deposition, carburization, metal dusting, and CO disintegration of refractories. Carbon formation on solid surfaces occurs by deposition from gases in which the carbon activity (a sub C) exceeds unity. The presence of a carbon layer CO can directly affect gasifier performance by restricting gas flow, particularly in the hot gas filter, creating debris (that may be deposited elsewhere in the system or that may cause erosive damage of downstream components), and/or changing the catalytic activity of surfaces.

  19. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate several novel copper-based binary oxides for their suitability as regenerable sorbents for hot gas cleanup application in the temperature range of 650{degree} to 850{degree}C (1200{degree}--1550{degree}F). To achieve this objective, several novel copper-based binary oxide sorbents will be prepared. Experimental tests will be conducted at ambient pressure to determine the stability, sulfidation capacity, regenerability, and sulfidation kinetics of the novel sorbents. Tests will also be conducted at high pressure for the determination of the sulfidation reactivity, regenerability, and durability of the sorbents. The attrition characteristics of the sorbents will also be determined.

  20. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

    2003-01-01

    During the first quarter of the Biological Desulfurization project several activities were pursued. A project kickoff meeting was held at the Diversa facility in San Diego, CA. Activities that were in process before the meeting and begun afterwards by Diversa Corporation and Petro Star Inc. include: Technology transfer in the form of information generated by Enchira to Diversa, the purchase and installation of equipment by Diversa, development of synthetic methods and preparation of organo-sulfur substrates for use in determining enzyme activities, production of extract via Petro Star's CED process, detailed analysis of Petro Star Inc. diesel and CED extract, and several activities in molecular biology. Diversa Corporation, in the area of molecular biology, engaged in several activities in support of the task list of the contract. These included: construction of a genomic library; development and utilization of a sequence-based gene discovery effort; a parallel discovery approach based on functional expression of enzymes with the ability to oxidize organosulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization genes have already been identified and are being sequenced and subcloned for expression in heterologous biological hosts. Diversa has evaluated and adapted assays developed by Enchira used to assess the activities of DBT and DBTO{sub 2} monooxygenases. Finally, Diversa personnel have developed two novel selection/screen strategies for the improvement of biocatalyst strains by directed evolution.

  1. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. GARROTXA cosmological simulations of Milky Way like galaxies - I. Hot gas and the missing baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Colín, Pedro; Figueras, Francesca; Krongold, Yair; Velázquez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new set of simulations of a Milky Way like galaxy using the AMR code ART + hydrodynamics in a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony. The simulation series is named GARROTXA and follow the formation of a late type galaxy from z=60 with a final virial mass of \\sim$7.4$\\times$10$^{11}$M$_{\\odot}$. This system has no major mergers since z=3 and at z=0 becomes a disk late-type spiral galaxy. Several of its large scale properties fall inside recent observational limits of our Galaxy, like the rotation curve shape, the presence of a stellar bar and flare, and a gaseous disk warp, as well as the stellar and baryonic mass. Here, as a first scientific exploitation of the model we study the total amount and spatial distribution of hot X-ray luminous gas. We do not observe in our models a significant presence of a hot gas thick disk as has been recently discussed in observational studies. The analysis of hot gas mock observations (column density and emission measure) revealed that commonly used hypothesis assumed to deri...

  3. Redistributing hot gas around galaxies: do cool clouds signal a solution to the overcooling problem?

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Tobias; Maller, Ariyeh H; Fang, Taotao; Wadsley, James

    2008-01-01

    We present a pair of high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations that explore the evolution and cooling behavior of hot gas around Milky-Way size galaxies. The simulations contain the same total baryonic mass and are identical other than their initial gas density distributions. The first is initialised with a low entropy hot gas halo that traces the cuspy profile of the dark matter, and the second is initialised with a high-entropy hot halo with a cored density profile as might be expected in models with pre-heating feedback. Galaxy formation proceeds in dramatically different fashion depending on the initial setup. While the low-entropy halo cools rapidly, primarily from the central region, the high-entropy halo is quasi-stable for ~4 Gyr and eventually cools via the fragmentation and infall of clouds from ~100 kpc distances. The low-entropy halo's X-ray surface brightness is ~100 times brighter than current limits and the resultant disc galaxy contains more than half of the system's ba...

  4. Supernova Feedback and the Hot Gas Filling Fraction of the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Miao; Cen, Renyue; Bryan, Greg L; Naab, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Supernovae are the most energetic among stellar feedback processes, and are crucial for regulating the interstellar medium (ISM) and launching galactic winds. We explore how supernova remnants (SNRs) create a multiphase medium by performing high resolution, 3D hydrodynamical simulations at various SN rates, $S$, and ISM average densities, $n$. We find that the evolution of a SNR in a self-consistently generated three-phase ISM is qualitatively different from that in a uniform or a two-phase warm/cold medium. By traveling faster and further in the cooling-inefficient hot phase, the spatial-temporal domain of a SNR is enlarged by $>10^{2.5}$ in a hot-dominated multiphase medium (HDMM) compared to the uniform case. We then examine the resultant ISM as we vary $n$ and $S$, finding that a steady state can only be achieved when the hot gas volume fraction \\fvh $\\lesssim 0.6\\pm 0.1$. Above that, overlapping SNRs render connecting topology of the hot gas, and such a HDMM is subjected to thermal runaway with growing p...

  5. Measuring the extent of x-ray emitting hot gas haloes around elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Mehmet; Marcum, Pamela M.

    2017-01-01

    The hot, x-ray emitting gas halos around galaxies can serve as tracers of previous merger history, and provide insight into the formation processes of elliptical galaxies. In order to better understand the relationship between a galaxy's local environment and its x-ray emitting hot gas corona, we examine the x-ray emission from 117 early type galaxies selected from SDSS DR12 that have been observed with Chandra's ACIS detector. We have developed a new methodology for determining the effective and Petrosian radii of the x-ray emission from the hot coronae of these galaxies, and with it find a positive correlation between fifth nearest neighbour density and corona size. Notably, we do not see a corresponding correlation between size and other galaxy properties such as mass, r-band Petrosian radius, and metallicity. These results suggest that the physical processes that drive the extension of the hot gas halo do not significantly influence the stellar content of the elliptical galaxy.

  6. Advanced hot gas filter development. Topical report, May 1995--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.L.; June, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    Porous iron aluminide was evaluated for use as a particulate filter in pressurized fluid-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with a short term test. Three alloy compositions were tested: Fe{sub 3}Al 5% chromium (FAL), Fe{sub 3}Al 2% chromium (FAS) and FeAl 0% chromium. The test conditions simulated air blown (Tampa Electric) and oxygen blown (Sierra Pacific) gasifiers with one test gas composition. Four test conditions were used with hydrogen sulfide levels varying from 783 ppm to 78,3000 ppm at 1 atmosphere along with temperatures ranging between 925 F and 1200 F. The iron aluminide was found capable of withstanding the proposed operating conditions and capable of giving years of service. The production method and preferred composition were established as seamless cylinders of Fe{sub 3}Al 2% chromium with a preoxidation of seven hours at 1472 F.

  7. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems: Greenfield assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Both the KRW fluidized-bed gasifier and the transport gasifier case studies were used for this assessment. The transport technology is a high-velocity circulating fluidized-bed reactor currently under development by The M.W. Kellogg Company. In the earlier assessment, seven design concepts or cases were identified; a process design was developed; major equipment items were identified; estimates of capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, and cost of electricity were developed; reliability was predicted; and development issues were identified for six studies. Three of the most probable cases were further evaluated for a Greenfield assessment in this report to adequately determine all costs independent of facilities at Plant Wansley.

  8. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue gas desulfurization processes such as lime/limestone have beendiscussed.

  9. Development of high temperature coal gas desulfurization systems -- An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Lau, F.S.; Wangergow, J.R.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) processes are among the leading contenders for generation of electricity from coal in the 21st century. Coal gas desulfurization to sufficiently low levels at temperatures above 350 C is now recognized as crucial to efficient and economical utilization of coal in advanced IGCC processes. The implementation of hot coal gas desulfurization heavily relies on the development of regenerable sorbent materials that can efficiently remove H{sub 2}S (from several thousand ppmv levels down to a few ppmv) over a very large number of sulfidation/regeneration cycles. Over the last two decades, development of high temperature desulfurization sorbents has been focused on using various combinations of transition metal oxides as regenerable sorbents. The selection of suitable metal oxides is generally based on a number of requirements imposed by the IGCC process, which include favorable thermodynamic equilibria during sulfidation and regeneration, relatively high sulfidation and regeneration reactivities, good mechanical strength and structural stability, and environmental friendliness, all at a reasonably low cost. The desulfurization reactor can have a fixed-bed, a moving-bed, a transport reactor, or a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor design. Depending on process conditions and the application intended, each of these reactor configurations offers advantages, but also has limitations. The parameters guiding the choice of a reactor system include reactivity of the sorbent, crush strength and/or attrition resistance of the sorbent, absorption capacity of the sorbent, temperature distribution inside the reactors, and SO{sub 2} concentration in the regeneration product gas. This paper provides an overview of high temperature fuel gas desulfurization within the context of IGCC processes. The paper focuses on the studies related to the development of regenerable sorbents and addresses thermodynamic considerations, sulfidation kinetics

  10. Simulating the escaping atmospheres of hot gas planets in the solar neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Salz, M; Schneider, P C; Schmitt, J H M M

    2016-01-01

    Absorption of high-energy radiation in planetary thermospheres is believed to lead to the formation of planetary winds. The resulting mass-loss rates can affect the evolution, particularly of small gas planets. We present 1D, spherically symmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the escaping atmospheres of 18 hot gas planets in the solar neighborhood. Our sample only includes strongly irradiated planets, whose expanded atmospheres may be detectable via transit spectroscopy. The simulations were performed with the PLUTO-CLOUDY interface, which couples a detailed photoionization and plasma simulation code with a general MHD code. We study the thermospheric escape and derive improved estimates for the planetary mass-loss rates. Our simulations reproduce the temperature-pressure profile measured via sodium D absorption in HD 189733 b, but show unexplained differences in the case of HD 209458 b. In contrast to general assumptions, we find that the gravitationally more tightly bound thermospheres of massive and compact...

  11. Evidence for Proportionate Partition Between the Magnetic Field and Hot Gas in Turbulent Cassiopeia A

    CERN Document Server

    Keohane, J W; Petre, R

    1998-01-01

    We present a deep X-ray observation of the young Galactic supernova remnant Cas A, acquired with the ROSAT High Resolution Imager. This high dynamic range (232 ks) image reveals low-surface-brightness X-ray structure, which appears qualitatively similar to corresponding radio features. We consider the correlation between the X-ray and radio morphologies and its physical implications. After correcting for the inhomogeneous absorption across the remnant, we performed a point by point (4" resolution) surface brightness comparison between the X-ray and radio images. We find a strong (r = 0.75) log-log correlation, implying an overall relationship of $\\log(\\Sigma_{_{\\rm X-ray}}) \\propto (2.21\\pm0.05) \\times \\log(\\Sigma_{_{\\rm radio}})$. This is consistent with proportionate partition (and possibly equipartition) between the local magnetic field and the hot gas --- implying that Cas A's plasma is fully turbulent and continuously amplifying the magnetic field.

  12. Hot gas ingestion characteristics and flow visualization of a vectored thrust STOVL concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George H.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.; Williams, Ben R.

    1990-01-01

    The study presents results obtained at the compressor face of a 9.2-percent scale vectored thrust model in ground effects from Phases I and II of a test program to evaluate the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, and to conduct flow visualization of the model flowfield in and out of ground effects, respectively. A description of the model, facility, a new model support system, and a sheet laser illumination system are provided. The findings contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, compressor face temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane temperature and pressure distributions, model airframe heating, and the location of the ground flow separation. Results from the sheet laser flow visualization test are also presented.

  13. Vertical assembly for hot gas cleaning system for short rotary furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabah, M.A. [Industrial Wastes Laboratory, Extractive Metallurgy Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1998-12-31

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of different ceramic fibres and metal wool as filtration media for cleaning lead sulphate from hot flue gas. Until recently, there was no established technology for removing particulates or condensable species such as salt vapours from flue gases at temperatures above 250 degrees C. In this study, the effects of the following parameters on the efficiency of filtration were examined: (1) gas temperature and velocity, (2) solid particle diameter, (3) density of solids in the gas, and (4) pressure gradient. A theoretical model for the removal of solid particles from a moving stream of hot gas was developed based on several assumptions. Results showed that ceramic fibres of high surface area per unit mass are a potentially significant means for cleaning lead smelter flue gases in hot conditions. 11 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  14. Heating of X-Ray Hot Gas in Groups by Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Y

    2001-01-01

    In order to find the conditions which determine whether X-Ray hot gas in galaxy groups (intragroup gas; IGG) is heated externally or internally, we investigate the evolution of blast waves in galaxy groups growing on a hierarchical clustering scenario. We find that the blast waves driven by quasars are confined in groups and heat the IGG internally at z~ 1, they expel the IGG from groups; the expelled gas may fall back into the groups later as externally heated gas. Moreover, this may explain the observed low metal abundance of IGG. For blast waves driven by strong starbursts, the shift of the fate of blast waves occurs at z~ 3. On the other hand, although blast waves driven by weak starbursts do not expel IGG from groups, the heating efficiency decreases at z>~ 3 because of radiative cooling. It will be useful to compare these results with XMM-Newton observations.

  15. Hot gas stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide from simulated and actual in situ retort waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    This study proved that ammonia and carbon dioxide could be removed from retort water by hot gas stripping and that overall transfer rates were slower than for physical desorption alone. The ammonia in solution complexed with the carbonate species with the result that the CO/sub 2/ transfer rates were linked to the relatively slower desorption of NH/sub 3/ from solution. Ionic reactions in the liquid phase limited the quantity of free NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/, thus decreasing the driving forces for mass transfer. The retort water exhibited foaming tendencies that affected the interfacial area which should be taken into account if a stripping tower is considered on a larger scale. Transfer unit heights were calculated for the process conditions studied and correlated such that scaleup to increased capacities is possible.

  16. Mechanical behavior of ceramic composite hot-gas filters after exposure to severe environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pysher, D.J.; Weaver, B.L.; Smith, R.G. [Ceramic Technology Center, St. Paul, MN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    A novel type of hot-gas filter based on a ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic matrix has been developed, as reported at previous Fossil Energy Materials Conferences, through research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the 3M Company. Simulated testing has been done at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. This filter technology has been extended to full size, 60 mm OD by 1.5 meter long candle filters and a commercially viable process for producing the filters has been developed filters are undergoing testing and demonstration use throughout the world for applications in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. Demonstration tests of this ceramic composite filter along with other filters are in progress at the Tidd PFBC plant Mechanical tests were performed on the 3 M brand Ceramic Composite Candle Filter after exposure to various corrosive environments in order to assess its ability to function as a hot gas filter in coal-fired applications. Due to the different construction of ceramic composite filters and the thin composite wall versus the typical thick-walled monolithic filter, standard mechanical property tests had to be refined or modified to accurately determine the filters properties. These tests and filter property results will be described Longitudinal tensile and diametral O-ring compression tests were performed on as-produced candle filters as well as on filters which had been exposed to various environments. The exposures were for 1000 hrs at 850{degrees}C in wet air, in wet air containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and in wet air containing NaCl. In addition, a filter which bad been coated with ash (Old Grimethorpe) was exposed to wet air at 850{degrees}C for 1000 hours.

  17. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Collins; David Nunn

    2003-10-01

    The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate

  18. The ATLAS3D project - XIX. The hot gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Young, Lisa M.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray-emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star formation history. A halo of hot gas may act as an effective shield against the acquisition of cold gas and can quickly absorb stellar mass loss material. Yet, sin

  19. The ATLAS(3D) project : XIX. The hot gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Young, Lisa M.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray-emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star formation history. A halo of hot gas may act as an effective shield against the acquisition of cold gas and can quickly absorb stellar mass loss material. Yet, sin

  20. Constraining the dynamical importance of hot gas and radiation pressure in quasar outflows using emission line ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Jonathan; Zakamska, Nadia L; Hennawi, Joseph F

    2015-01-01

    Quasar feedback models often predict an expanding hot gas bubble which drives a galaxy-scale outflow. In many circumstances the hot gas is predicted to radiate inefficiently, making the hot bubble hard to observe directly. We present an indirect method to detect the presence of a hot bubble using hydrostatic photoionization models of the cold (10^4 K) line-emitting gas. These models assume that the cold gas is in pressure equilibrium with either the hot gas pressure or with the radiation pressure, whichever is larger. We compare our models with observations of the broad line region (BLR), the inner face of the dusty torus, the narrow line region (NLR), and the extended NLR, and thus constrain the hot gas pressure over a dynamical range of 10^5 in radius, from 0.1 pc to 10 kpc. We find that the emission line ratios observed in the average quasar spectrum are consistent with radiation-pressure-dominated models on all scales. On scales > L_AGN/c inferred for galaxy-scale outflows in luminous quasars. This appare...

  1. Adsorptive desulfurization of diesel with mesoporous aluminosilicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Huang; LI Wang-Liang; LIU Qing-Fen; GUAN Li-Li; SONG Jia-Qing; XING dian-Min; LIU Hui-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous aluminosilicates (MAS) bearing microporous zeolite units and mesoporous structures were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Adsorptive desulfurization ability of model oil and hy-drotreated diesel was studied. The effects of template concentration, crystalization time and calcination time were investigated. The desulfurization ability of adsorbents was improved by transitional metal ion-exchanging. The adsorptive desulfurization of diesel was carried out on a fixed-bed system. The results show that the adsorptive capacity is MASMCM-41NaY. The improvement of desulfurization ability of MAS by Cu+ is more significant than that of Ag+.

  2. Unraveling heavy oil desulfurization chemistry: targeting clean fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Tushar V; Parrott, Stephen; Johnson, Byron

    2008-03-15

    The sulfur removal chemistry of heavy oils has been unraveled by systematically investigating several heavy oils with an extremely wide range of properties. The heavy oil feed and product properties have been characterized by advanced analytical methods, and these properties have been related to the sulfur conversion data observed in pilot hydrotreating units. These studies coupled with kinetic treatment of the data have revealed that the desulfurization chemistry of heavy oils is essentially controlled by the strongly inhibiting three and larger ring aromatic hydrocarbon content and surprisingly not by the content of the "hard-to-remove" sulfur compounds. Such enhanced understanding of the heavy oil sulfur removal is expected to open new avenues for catalyst/process optimization for heavy oil desulfurization and thereby assist the efficent production of clean transporation fuels.

  3. Microbial desulfurization of fuel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Culture conditions of desulfurization microbes were investigated with a bioreactor controlled by computer.Factors such as pH, choice of carbon source, optimal concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur sources were determined. The addition of carbon in a culture with a constant pH greatly improved the growth of Rhodococcus. Cells and cell debris from microbes rested using a sulfur- specific pathway were used to desulfurize diesel oil treated by hydrodesulfurization (acquired from the Research Institute of Fushun Petroleum with total sulfur level at 205 μg/mL).Strains 1awq, IG, X7B, ZT, ZCR, and a mixture of No. 5 and No. 6, were used in the biodesulfurization process. The reduction of total sulfur was between 10.6% and 90.3%.

  4. 吸附法脱除柴油中噻吩类含硫化合物的研究进展%Advances on adsorptive desulfurization of diesel for thiophenic sulfur compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广建; 仙保震; 刘影; 付信涛; 张路平

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviewed the latest developments of commonly used adsorbents,mechanisms of adsorptive desulfurization and adsorption kinetics studies from diesel fuel. Molecular sieve,activated carbon and metal organic frameworks (MOFs) materials have been widely studied. Although HDS can be used to produce low-sulfur diesel that meets the sulfur regulations,this process operates at high temperature and high hydrogen pressure,high cost and low removal rate of dibenzothiophene. The adsorption desulfurization technology has become a research hotpot of diesel desulfurization because of its low cost,moderate operating conditions. easy removal of tough sulfide,and little impact on oil quality. Adsorption desulfurization consists of reactive adsorption desulfurization and non-reactive adsorption desulfurization. The key factor in the adsorption desulfurization reaction is breaking the old bond while generating the new bond. Non-reactive adsorption desulfurization applies dispersion force between the sulfur atoms and sulfur sorbent interactions,to achieve the effect of adsorption desulfurization.%综述了吸附法脱除柴油中噻吩类含硫化合物的常用吸附剂、吸附脱硫的机理及吸附脱硫过程动力学研究的最新进展。阐述了近来研究较多的吸附剂主要有分子筛、活性炭和金属有机骨架(MOFs)材料。目前传统的加氢脱硫(HDS)技术虽然可以满足当前柴油中硫含量的国家标准,但是其需要高温高压、成本高且对二苯并噻吩类硫化物脱硫率低,而吸附脱硫技术由于成本低、操作条件温和、易脱除加氢脱硫难以脱除的硫化物、对油品品质影响小等优点成为当前柴油脱硫的研究热点。吸附脱硫主要包括反应型吸附脱硫和非反应型吸附脱硫,反应吸附脱硫关键是有旧键的断裂与新键的生成,而非反应吸附脱硫则是通过分散力使硫化物上的硫原子与吸附剂之间相互作用,从而达到吸

  5. Influence of rarefaction on the flow dynamics of a stationary supersonic hot-gas expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, G; Kleijn, C R; Thijsse, B J; Engeln, R; van de Sanden, M C M; Schram, D C

    2008-03-01

    The gas dynamics of a stationary hot-gas jet supersonically expanding into a low pressure environment is studied through numerical simulations. A hybrid coupled continuum-molecular approach is used to model the flow field. Due to the low pressure and high thermodynamic gradients, continuum mechanics results are doubtful, while, because of its excessive time expenses, a full molecular method is not feasible. The results of the hybrid coupled continuum-molecular approach proposed have been successfully validated against experimental data by R. Engeln [Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10, 595 (2001)] obtained by means of laser induced fluorescence. Two main questions are addressed: the necessity of applying a molecular approach where rarefaction effects are present in order to correctly model the flow and the demonstration of an invasion of the supersonic part of the flow by background particles. A comparison between the hybrid method and full continuum simulations demonstrates the inadequacy of the latter, due to the influence of rarefaction effects on both velocity and temperature fields. An analysis of the particle velocity distribution in the expansion-shock region shows clear departure from thermodynamic equilibrium and confirms the invasion of the supersonic part of the flow by background particles. A study made through particles and collisions tracking in the supersonic region further proves the presence of background particles in this region and explains how they cause thermodynamic nonequilibrium by colliding and interacting with the local particles.

  6. Development of a Calicum-Based Sorbent for Hot Gas Cleanup.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, T.W.; Constant, K.; Doraiswamy, L.K.; Akiti, T.; Zhu, J.; Amanda, A.; Roe, R.

    1997-09-01

    Further review of the technical literature has provided additional information which will support the development of a superior calcium-based sorbent for hot gas cleanup in IGCC systems. Two general methods of sorbent preparation are being investigated. One method involves impregnating a porous refractory substrate with calcium while another method involves pelletizing lime or other calcium containing materials with a suitable binder. Several potential substrates, which are made of alumina and are commercially available, have been characterized by various methods. The surface area and apparent density of the materials have been measured, and it has been shown that some of the high surface area materials (i.e., 200-400 m{sub 2}/g) undergo a large decrease in surface area when heated to higher temperatures. Some of the lower surface area materials (i.e., 1-30 m{sub 2}/g) have been successfully impregnated with calcium by soaking them in a calcium nitrate solution and then heat treating them to decompose the nitrate. Potentially useful sorbents have also been prepared by pelletizing type I Portland cement and mixtures of cement and lime.

  7. The effect of hot gas in early-type galaxies on the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trester, Jeffrey J.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1989-01-01

    The effects on the cosmic microwave background which are due to Compton scattering by the hot gas contained in early-type galaxies (the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect) are computed. Using the known properties of the gas deduced from X-ray observations, it is found that the fractional attenuation DeltaT/T at the center of a gas-rich galaxy is likely to be less than 10 to the -5th, which is just below current limits of detectability. A distribution function is derived for the attenuation which is due to a population of early-type galaxies out to some redshift and the expected rms fluctuations in the background on subarcmin scales are computed. These fluctuations are comparable to those intrinsic to the microwave background in the 'cold dark matter' scenario on these angular scales, but they fall orders of magnitude below the detection limits and below the level of fluctuations expected from nonlinear density perturbations at the epoch of galaxy formation.

  8. A Systematic Search for X-ray Cavities in the Hot Gas of Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing; Mulchaey, John S

    2010-01-01

    We have performed a systematic search for X-ray cavities in the hot gas of 51 galaxy groups with Chandra archival data. The cavities are identified based on two methods: subtracting an elliptical beta model fitted to the X-ray surface brightness, and performing unsharp masking. 13 groups in the sample 25% are identified as clearly containing cavities, with another 13 systems showing tentative evidence for such structures. We find tight correlations between the radial and tangential radii of the cavities, and between their size and projected distance from the group center, in quantitative agreement with the case for more massive clusters. This suggests that similar physical processes are responsible for cavity evolution and disruption in systems covering a large range in total mass. We see no clear association between the detection of cavities and the current 1.4 GHz radio luminosity of the central brightest group galaxy, but there is a clear tendency for systems with a cool core to be more likely to harbor de...

  9. Chandra Observations of MRK 273 Unveiling the Central AGN and the Extended Hot Gas Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, X Y; Mao, S; Boller, T; Deng, Z G; Wu, H; Boller, Th.

    2001-01-01

    We report X-ray observations of the field containing the ultraluminous IRAS galaxy Mrk~273 Using the ACIS-S3 instrument on board Chandra. The high resolution X-ray image, for the first time, reveals a compact hard X-ray nucleus in Mrk~273. Its X-ray energy distribution is well described by a heavily obscured power-law spectrum plus a narrow $\\Feka$ emission line at 6.4 keV. The neutral hydrogen column density is about $4\\times10^{23}\\cm^{-2}$, implying an absorption -corrected X-ray luminosity (0.1--10 keV) for the nucleus of $\\Lx\\approx 6.5\\times 10^{43} \\ergs$. There are also bright soft X-ray clumps and diffuse soft X-ray emissions surrounding the central hard X-ray nucleus within the $10\\arcsec$ of the nuclear region. Its spectrum can be fitted by a MEKAL thermal model with temperature of about 0.8 keV and high metallicity ($Z\\sim 1.5Z_\\odot$) plus emission lines from $\\alpha$ elements and ions. Further outside the central region, the Chandra observations reveal a very extended hot gas halo with a project...

  10. The Interaction of the Fermi Bubbles with the Milky Way's Hot Gas Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    The Fermi bubbles are two lobes filled with non-thermal particles that emit gamma rays, extend $\\approx$10 kpc vertically from the Galactic center, and formed from either nuclear star formation or accretion activity on Sgr A*. Simulations predict a range of shock strengths as the bubbles expand into the surrounding hot gas halo distribution ($T_{halo} \\approx 2 \\times 10^6$ K), but with significant uncertainties in the energetics, age, and thermal gas structure. The bubbles should contain thermal gas with temperatures between $10^6$ and $10^8$ K, with potential X-ray signatures. In this work, we constrain the bubbles' thermal gas structure by modeling the OVII and OVIII emission line strengths from archival XMM-Newton and Suzaku data. Our emission model includes a hot thermal volume-filled bubble component cospatial with the gamma-ray region, and a shell of compressed material. We find that a bubble/shell model with $n \\approx 1 \\times 10^{-3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and with log($T$) $\\approx$ 6.60-6.70 is consistent wit...

  11. X-Ray Evidence for Multiphase Hot Gas with Solar Abundances in the Brightest Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Buote, D A

    1998-01-01

    We examine whether single-phase models of the hot gas can successfully describe the ASCA and ROSAT spectra of NGC 1399, NGC 4472, NGC 4636, and NGC 5044. Broad-band spectral fitting of the ASCA SIS and GIS data accumulated within a radius of ~5 arcmin for each galaxy shows that single-phase models are unable to fit the SIS data near 1 keV. In addition, these single-phase models typically fail to produce the large equivalent widths of the K-alpha line blends of the H-like and He-like ions of Si and S which are measured independently of the Fe L emission lines. Two-phase models provide excellent broad-band fits to both the SIS and GIS data of each galaxy with the relative abundances (except for NGC 4636) fixed at their solar values. A simple multiphase cooling flow model fits nearly as well as the two-phase model for NGC 1399, NGC 4472, and NGC 5044. The multiphase models also predict more accurately the Si and S equivalent widths and the ratios of Si XIV/XIII and S XVI/XV than the single-phase models. Using va...

  12. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    Under Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Flow Industries, Inc., has developed computer models to simulate the physical performance of five hot-gas cleanup devices for pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), combined-cycle power plants. Separate cost models have also been developed to estimate the cost of each device. The work leading to the development of these models is described in Volume I of this report. This volume contains the user's manuals for both the physical and cost models. The manuals for the physical models are given first followed by those for the cost models. Each manual is a complete and separate document. The model names and devices and their respective subroutine names are: (1) Moving Granular Bed Filter by Combustion Power Company, USRCGB, QFCOST; (2) Ceramic Bag Filter by Acurex, USRACB, QDCOST; (3) Electrostatic Granular Bed Filter by General Electric, USRGGB, QACOST; (4) Electrostatic Precipitator by Research Cottrell, USRCEP, QECOST; and (5) Electrocyclone by General Electric, USRGCY, QBCOST.

  13. The scatter and evolution of the global hot gas properties of simulated galaxy cluster populations

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, Amandine M C Le; Schaye, Joop; Ponman, Trevor J

    2016-01-01

    We use the cosmo-OWLS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the scatter and evolution of the global hot gas properties of large simulated populations of galaxy groups and clusters. Our aim is to compare the predictions of different physical models and to explore the extent to which commonly-adopted assumptions in observational analyses (e.g. self-similar evolution) are violated. We examine the relations between (true) halo mass and the X-ray temperature, X-ray luminosity, gas mass, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) flux, the X-ray analogue of the SZ flux ($Y_X$) and the hydrostatic mass. For the most realistic models, which include AGN feedback, the slopes of the various mass-observable relations deviate substantially from the self-similar ones, particularly at late times and for low-mass clusters. The amplitude of the mass-temperature relation shows negative evolution with respect to the self-similar prediction (i.e. slower than the prediction) for all models, driven by an increase in non-the...

  14. Hot Gas Particulate Cleaning Technology Applied for PFBC/IGFC -The Ceramic Tube Filter (CTF) and Metal Filter-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatsu, H; Misawa, N; Kobori, K; Iritani, J

    2002-09-18

    Coal is a fossil fuel abundant and widespread all over world. It is a vital resource for energy security, because the supply is stable. However, its CO2 emission per unit calorific value is greater than that of other fossil fuels. It is necessary to develop more efficient coal utilization technologies to expand the coal utilization that meets the social demand for better environment. The Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) combined cycle has become a subject of world attention in terms of better plant operation, improved plant efficiency, lower flue gas emission and fuel flexibility. The gas turbine, one of the most important components in the PFBC, is eager for a hot gas (approximately 650-850C) cleaning system in order to eliminate the severe erosion problem with the less thermal loss. The cyclone is most popular system for a hot gas cleaning, however, the severe damage for gas turbine blades by highly concentrated fine fly ash from PFBC boiler is reported.

  15. The alignment and shape of dark matter, stellar, and hot gas distributions in the EAGLE and cosmo-OWLS simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Velliscig, Marco; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; van Daalen, Marcel P; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; Furlong, Michelle; McCarthy, Ian G; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We report the alignment and shape of dark matter, stellar, and hot gas distributions in the EAGLE and cosmo-OWLS simulations. The combination of these state-of-the-art hydro-cosmological simulations enables us to span four orders of magnitude in halo mass ($11 < log_{10}(M_{200}/ [h^{-1}M_\\odot]) < 15$), a wide radial range ($-2.3 < log_{10}(r/[h^{-1}Mpc ]) < 1.3$) and redshifts $0 < z < 1$. The shape parameters of the dark matter, stellar and hot gas distributions follow qualitatively similar trends: they become more aspherical (and triaxial) with increasing halo mass, radius and redshift. We measure the misalignment of the baryonic components (hot gas and stars) of galaxies with their host halo as a function of halo mass, radius, redshift, and galaxy type (centrals vs satellites and early- vs late-type). Overall, galaxies align well with local distribution of the total (mostly dark) matter. However, the stellar distributions on galactic scales exhibit a median misalignment of about 45-50 d...

  16. Hot Gas, Cold Gas and Sub-Halos in a Lyman-alpha Blob at Redshift 2.38

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Paul J; Colbert, James W; Palunas, Povilas; Scarlata, Claudia; Teplitz, Harry; Williger, Gerard M; Woodgate, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    We present integral field spectroscopy of a Lyman-alpha blob at redshift 2.38, with a spectral resolution three times better than previous published work. As with previous observations, the blob has a chaotic velocity structure, much of which breaks up into multiple components. Our spectroscopy shows, however, that some of these multiple components are extremely narrow: they have velocity widths of less than 100 km/s. Combining these new data with previous observations, we argue that this Lyman-alpha blob resides in a dark-matter halo of around 10^13 solar masses. At the centre of this halo are two compact red massive galaxies. They are surrounded by hot gas, probably a super-wind from merger-induced nuclear starbursts. This hot gas has shut down star formation in the non-nuclear region of these galaxies, leading to their red-and-dead colours. A filament or lump of infalling cold gas is colliding with the hot gas phase and being shocked to high temperatures, while still around 30kpc from the red galaxies. The...

  17. The Atlas3D project - XIX. The hot-gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    CERN Document Server

    Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star-formation history. Yet, it is still unclear what drives the precise amount of hot gas around these galaxies. By combining photometric and spectroscopic measurements for the early-type galaxies observed during the Atlas3D integral-field survey with measurements of their X-ray luminosity based on X-ray data of both low and high spatial resolution we conclude that the hot-gas content of early-type galaxies can depend on their dynamical structure. Specifically, whereas slow rotators generally have X-ray halos with luminosity L_X,gas and temperature T values that are in line with what is expected if the hot-gas emission is sustained by the thermalisaton of the kinetic energy carried by the stellar-mass loss material, fast rotators tend to display L_X,gas values that fall consistently below the prediction of this model, with similar T values that do not scale with the stellar kine...

  18. The electrothermal feasibility of carbon microcoil heaters for cold/hot gas microthrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. L.; Eriksson, A. B.; Thorslund, R.; Köhler, J.; Boman, M.; Stenmark, L.

    2006-07-01

    With the miniaturization of spacecraft the need for efficient, accurate and low-weight attitude control systems is becoming evident. To this end, the cold/hot gas microthruster system of this paper incorporates carbon microcoils—deposited via laser-induced chemical vapor deposition—for heating the propellant gas (nitrogen) before the nozzle inlet. By increasing the temperature of the propellant gas for such a system, the specific impulse (Isp) of the microthruster will increase. The benefits of a higher Isp are lower propellant mass, higher thrust and shorter burning times. Therefore, the feasibility of achieving this increase with the carbon microcoils is investigated. The carbon microcoils have been characterized experimentally with respect to their electrothermal performance, i.e. resistance, temperature, parasitic heat losses and degradation in ambient. The resulting heat losses from the heater and the heated gas have been estimated through a combination of experiments, numerical simulation and approximate analytical expressions. At high powers, degradation of the carbon material leads to coil failure in ambient where trace oxygen was present. Thus, the next generation of carbon microcoils to be tested will have a protective coating to extend their lifetime. Theoretical modeling showed that an increase in the propellant gas temperature from 300 to 1200 K and a corresponding two-fold increase in the Isp can be achieved if 1.0 W of power is supplied to each coil in a three-coil thruster. These simulation results show that if the coils are capable of dissipating 1 W of heat at 1700 K coil temperature, the doubling of the Isp may be achieved. Comparing to the electrothermal characterization results we find that the carbon coils can survive at 1700 K if protected, and that they can be expected to reach 1700 K at power below 1 W.

  19. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.H.; Abbasian, J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Bo, L.; Li, Li. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Honea, F.I. (Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents (i.e. copper-chromium and copper-cerium) for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650[degree] to 850[degree]C. New sorbent compositions from the selected Cu-Cr-O and Cu-Ce-O binary oxides were prepared and characterized by BET N[sub 2]-desorption surface area measurement following various calcination/time-temperature exposures. The general trends reported last quarter (on 11 different compositions) were validated this quarter in that both binary oxides lose surface area as the amount of CuO is increased. Time-resolved sulfidation tests were conducted at 850[degree]C using the equimolar CuO.Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] composition. The two selected binary oxides prepared in larger qauntities (for testing in a two-inch reactor) have physical properties typical of the sorbents prepared in past programs. Two multicycle desulfurization tests, conducted this quarter on the Cu-Ce-O sorbent at 850[degree]C, using a feed gas containing 5000 ppm H[sub 2]S, 10 vol % H[sub 2] and 10 vol % H[sub 2]O at a space velocity (STP) of 2000 h[sup [minus]1], demonstrated high sulfur removal efficiency for the first one or two cycles, and a significant reduction in efficiency in the following cycles.

  20. The interaction between radio lobes and hot gas in the nearby radio galaxies 3C285 and 3C442A

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J; Worrall, D M; Croston, J H; Evans, D A; Birkinshaw, M; Murray, S S

    2007-01-01

    We present Chandra observations of two nearby radio galaxies in group environments, 3C285 and 3C442A. The host galaxies of both sources are involved in mergers with nearby massive galaxies, and the hot gas in the systems is extended along lines joining the interacting galaxies. Both sources show strong evidence for interactions between the radio lobes and the asymmetrical hot gas. We argue that the structure in the hot gas is independent of the existence of the radio lobes in these systems, and argue that hot gas shaped by an ongoing massive galaxy merger may play an important role in the dynamics of radio lobes in other objects. For 3C442A, our observations show that gas is being driven out of both members of the host interacting galaxy pair, and the implied constraints on galaxy velocities are consistent with mildly supersonic motions with respect to the group-scale hot gas. The previously known filamentary radio structure in the center of 3C442A may be a result of the interaction between hot gas expelled f...

  1. Study on Desulfurization Efficiency and Products of Ce-Doped Nanosized ZnO Desulfurizer at Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fen; Yan Bo; Zhang Jie; Jiang Anxi; Shao Chunhong; Kong Xiangji; Wang Xin

    2007-01-01

    Ce-doped nanosized ZnO desulfurizer was prepared by homogeneous precipitation, and its desulfurization efficiency at ambient temperature was investigated through dynamic experiments. The results showed that the desulfurization activity of nanosized Ce-ZnO had improved greatly, compared to nanosized ZnO desulfurizer. Nanosized Ce-ZnO desulfurizer was characterized by XRD, TPD-MS, XPS, and TEM. The research results indicated that doping Ce decreased the particle size of the nanosized ZnO desulfurizer and ZnS was the principal desulfurization product. There were adsorption complexes of HS and S on the surface of desulfurizer as well. Only a small amount of vapor appeared in the tail gas on the condition of meeting the precision of desulfurization.

  2. Coal desulfurization through reverse micelle biocatalysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Yen, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel bioprocess using micelle biocatalysis has been attempted to minimize several disadvantages of conventional microbial coal desulfurization scale-up processes. The reverse micelle biocatalysis process consists of a water-immiscible organic medium, a surfactant, an aqueous phase and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria or enzymes. This process has been successful for removing sulfur from bituminous coal (Illinois coal 5). The preliminary results showed that coal desulfurization through the use of cell-free enzyme extracts of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 was better than that of bacteria itself. The use of enzymes has shown potential for commercial coal desulfurization process as well. This same process is being applied to the thermophillic bacteria Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ATCC 33909. The implications of these experimental results are discussed, including a hypothetical mechanism using reverse micelle biocatalytical process for coal desulfurization.

  3. Hot gas filtration: Investigations to remove gaseous pollutant components out of flue gas during hot gas filtration. Final report; HGR: Untersuchung zur Minimierung von gasfoermigen Schadstoffen aus Rauchgasen bei der Heissgasfiltration. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, A.; Gross, R.; Renz, U.

    1998-07-01

    Power plants with gas and steam turbines in pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized gasification processes enable power generation of coal with high efficiency and little emissions. To run these plants the cleaning of the flue gas is necessary before entering the turbines under the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ceramic filter elements are the most probable method for hot gas cleaning. A simultaneous reduction of gaseous pollutant components under these conditions could help to make the whole process more efficient. The aim of the project is to integrate the catalytic reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitric oxides into the hot gas filtration with ceramic filter elements as a one step mecanism. The project is focused on: - the catalytic behaviour of ferruginous ashes of brown coal, - the effectiveness of calcinated aluminates as a catalyst to remove uncombusted hydrocarbons in a hot gas filtration unit, - numerical simulation of the combined removal of particles and gaseous pollutant components out of the flue gas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Kraftwerke mit Druckwirbelschicht- oder mit Druckvergasungsverfahren ermoeglichen die Verstromung von Kohle mit hohem Wirkungsgrad und niedrigen Emissionen. Eine Voraussetzung fuer den Betrieb dieser Anlagen ist die Entstaubung der Rauchgase bei hohen Temperaturen und Druecken. Abreinigungsfilter mit keramischen Elementen werden dazu eingesetzt. Eine Reduzierung gasfoermiger Schadstoffe unter den gleichen Bedingungen koennte die Rauchgaswaesche ersetzen. Ziel des Gesamtvorhabens ist es, die Integration von Heissgasfiltration und katalytischem Abbau der Schadstoffe Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlenwasserstoffe und Stickoxide in einem Verfahrensschritt zu untersuchen. Die Arbeitsschwerpunkte dieses Teilvorhabens betreffen - die katalytische Wirkung eisenhaltiger Braunkohlenaschen, - die Wirksamkeit des Calciumaluminats als Katalysator des Abbaus unverbrannter Kohlenwasserstoffe im Heissgasfilter

  4. Desulfurizer desulphurization kinetics by the injection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun Han; Yanbin Hu; Wei Wu

    2008-01-01

    To obtain a better desulphurization effect in hot metal, suitable desulfurizers should be selected first according to thermodynamics. However, the effect of desulphurization is also strongly affected by kinetics. The conditions of different desulfurizers (Mg, CaC2, and lime) penetrating into hot metal, the rising up velocity in iron melt, residence time, and dissolving time are theoretically calculated and analyzed. The results are helpful to select the desulphurization process and equipment and to improve the desulphurization effect.

  5. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  6. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate several novel copper-based binary oxides for their suitability as regenerable sorbents for hot gas cleanup application in the temperature range of 650{degree} to 850{degree}C (1200{degree}--1550{degree}F). To achieve this objective, several novel copper-based binary oxide sorbents will be prepared. Experimental tests will be conducted at ambient pressure to determine the stability, sulfidation capacity, regenerability, and sulfidation kinetics of the novel sorbents. Tests will also be conducted at high pressure for the determination of the sulfidation reactivity, regenerability, and durability of the sorbents. The attrition characteristics of the sorbents will also be determined.

  7. Desulfurization of hot coal gas in fluidized bed with regenerable zinc titanate sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, W.; Salo, K.; Abbasian, J. (Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation processes are considered to be among the most attractive technologies for the 21st century. In such processes, solid fuels such as coal are gasified at pressure and the fuel gas is cleaned and combusted in the gas turbine. The gas cleanup is necessary not only for the protection of the gas turbine hardware, but also to comply with environmental regulations. In the so-called 'simplified' IGCC process, the fuel gas is cleaned at high temperature and pressure to improve the overall cycle efficiency. The hot gas cleanup system includes a high-temperature, high-pressure desulfurization unit and particulate removal system. The former comprises two fluidized bed reactors utilizing regenerable zinc titanate sorbents capable of removing the sulfur gases (primarily H[sub 2]S) to below 50 ppmv. The latter employs rigid ceramic filter elements operating at up to 700[degree]C and 20 bar and is capable of reducing the 'fines' concentration to an acceptable level for a gas turbine. Novel regenerable zinc titanate sorbents suitable for fluidized-bed application have been tested. The sulfur capture and attrition characteristics of these sorbents have been evaluated in extensive testing in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor operating at high pressure and temperature conditions expected in IGCC operation. Two different gas mixtures representing air-blown gasifier exit gas with and without in-situ desulfurization with Ca-based sorbents have been used. H[sub 2]S removal efficiencies of higher than 99% at acceptable levels of sorbent conversion have been achieved in all these experiments with minimal sorbent deterioration. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Control element for controlling a hot gas piston engine, and a hot gas engine with such a control element. Regelelement zur Regelung einer Heissgaskolbenmaschine sowie ein Heissgasmotor mit einem derartigen Regelelement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, H.A.

    1981-09-10

    The invention refers to a control element for controlling a hot gas piston engine, which contains a movable part, which takes up a certain position depending on the engine speed and with one or more adjustable valves for removing or introducing the working medium from or into the working part of the engine. The purpose of the invention is to create a robust and cheap control element, which emits a signal proportional to speed, by which the engine can be controlled and which is not mechanically connected to the crankshaft. According to the invention, the problem is solved by the part consisting of a movable wall, which separates 2 closed spaces, which are connected together by a capillary tube and where the first space on one side of the movable wall is connected to the working space of the hot gas piston engine by a first non-return valve allowing flow in the direction of the first space, and the second space on the other side of this wall is connected to the same working space by a second non-return valve preventing flow in the direction of the second space, where the gaseous working medium is in the working space and where cyclic pressure changes occur, and where further there is a spring loaded element, which exerts forces on the movable wall in the direction of the first space.

  9. Smelting Oxidation Desulfurization of Copper Slags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; HU Jian-hang; WANG Hua

    2012-01-01

    According to the mechanism of sulfur removal easily through oxidation, the process of smelting oxidation desulfurization of copper slags is studied, which supplies a new thinking for obtaining the molten iron of lower sulfur content by smelting reduction of copper slags. Special attention is given to the effects of the holding temperature, the holding time and CaF2, CaO addition amounts on the desulfurization rate of copper slags. The results indicate that the rate of copper slags smelting oxidation desulfurization depends on the matte mass transfer rate through the slag phase. After the oxidation treatment, sulfur of copper slags can be removed as SO2 efficiently. Amount of Ca2+ of copper slags affects the desulfurization rate greatly, and the slag desulfurization rate is reduced by adding a certain amount of CaF2 and CaO. Compared with CaF2, CaO is negative to slags sulfur removal with equal Ca2+ addition. Under the air flow of 0.3 U/min, the sulfur content of copper slags can be reduced to 0. 004 67% in the condition of the holding time of 3 min and the holding temperature of 1 500 ℃. The sulfur content of molten iron is reduced to 0. 000 8 % in the smelting reduction of treated slags, and the problem of high sulfur content of molten iron obtained by smelting reduction with copper slag has been successively solved.

  10. Development of regenerable copper-based sorbents for hot gas cleanup: Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Wangerow, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the copper-chromite sorbent (developed in previous ICCI-funded projects) for longer duration application under optimum conditions in the temperature range of 550{degrees}-650{degrees}C to minimize sorbent reduction and degradation during the cyclic process. Three (3) formulations of attrition resistant granules of the copper chromite sorbent (i.e., CuCr-10, CuCr-21, and CuCr-29) as well as one (1) copper chromite sorbent in pellet form (i.e., CuCr-36) were selected for cyclic desulfurization tests. The desulfurization and regeneration capabilities of the selected formulations as well as the effects of operating parameters were determined, to identify the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} sorbent formulation and the optimum operating conditions. The durability of the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} sorbent formulation was determined in {open_quotes}long-term{close_quotes} multicycle tests conducted at the optimum operating conditions. The attrition resistance of the selected formulations were determined and compared with those of other sorbents, including a limestone, a dolomite, and a commercial zinc titanate sorbent. The results obtained in this study indicate that, the CuCr-29 sorbent has excellent attrition resistance and desulfurization performance, which are far superior to the commercial zinc titanate sorbents. The optimum desulfurization temperature in terms of sorbent efficiency and utilization appears to be about 600{degrees}C. Sorbent regeneration at 750{degrees}C ensured complete conversion of the copper sulfide to oxide without sulfate formation or reactivity deterioration in subsequent cycles.

  11. Desulfurization kinetics of coal combustion gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Bragança

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Desulfurization of the gases from coal combustion was studied, using limestone (marble as the sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. The kinetic parameter, k, was measured by analyzing the reduction in SO2 emissions in relation to time when a batch of limestone was introduced directly into the combustor chamber. The influence of sorbent composition and particle size was also studied. The CaO content in the limestone was more important than the MgO content. Sorbent particle size showed a strong influence on the reaction time and efficiency of desulfurization. The results of this work prove that marble type is very important in the choice of sorbent for a desulfurization process. A magnesian limestone showed a better performance than a dolomite. Therefore, the magnesian limestone is more efficient for a shorter particle residence time, which is characteristic of the bubbling fluidized bed.

  12. Desulfurization kinetics of coal combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Jablonski, A.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2003-06-01

    Desulfurization of the gases from coal combustion was studied, using limestone (marble) as the sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. The kinetic parameter, k, was measured by analyzing the reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions in relation to time when a batch of limestone was introduced directly into the combustor chamber. The influence of sorbent composition and particle size was also studied. The CaO content in the limestone was more important than the MgO content. Sorbent particle size showed a strong influence on the reaction time and efficiency of desulfurization. The results of this work prove that marble type is very important in the choice of sorbent for a desulfurization process. A magnesian limestone showed a better performance than a dolomite. Therefore, the magnesian limestone is more efficient for a shorter particle residence time, which is characteristic of the bubbling fluidized bed.

  13. Hot gas injection as an artificial lift system through a concentric tubing completion in a heavy oil well, Pilon field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfissi, S.; Lujan, A. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Pilon Field in the Morichal District, Venezuela is producing heavy oil with numerous gas lift wells. Some of these wells are now inactive due to casing damage. The purpose of this paper is to assess the benefits of using hot gas injection as an artificial lift system through a concentric tubing completion in such wells. A pilot test was conducted on a well presenting a low water cut and 12 degree API, an indirect fire heater was installed near the wells. Results showed that heat losses were minimized thanks to the concentric pipe completion. In addition hot gas injection resulted in an oil production increase of 57%. The hot gas injection method used with a concentric tubing completion was proved to be a good alternative to the use of diluent but an economic analysis is nevertheless recommended to determine the costs of installing heating equipment.

  14. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E Ayala; V.S. Venkataramani; Javad Abbasian; Rachid B. Slimane; Brett E. Williams; Minoo K. Zarnegar; James R. Wangerow; Andy H. Hill

    2000-03-31

    assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration temperatures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent development at General Electric's Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

  15. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AYALA, R E; VENKATARAMANI, V S

    1998-09-30

    cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 °C (700 °F) to 538 °C (1000 °F) and regeneration tempera-tures up to 760 °C (1400 °F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electric's Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

  16. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  17. Modelling and experimental validation of the hot-gas defrost process of an air-cooled evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopazo, J. Alberto; Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Uhia, Francisco J.; Diz, Ruben [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No 9, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    A detailed transient simulation model has been developed to predict and evaluate the performance of the hot-gas defrost process of an air-coil evaporator. In the model, the defrost process is subdivided into six stages: preheating, tube frost melting start, fin frost melting start, air presence, tube-fin water film and dry-heating. In each stage, the control volume is subdivided into systems represented by a single node, which has the representative properties of the system. A finite difference approach was used to solve the model equations. The results include the time required to defrost, the distribution of the energy during defrost process, the instantaneous refrigerant properties and the instantaneous fin and tube temperature distribution. The results are compared with experimental data obtained in a local storage facility under actual operating conditions and also using data available in the literature. The model results substantially agree with the experimental data in both cases. (author)

  18. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems: Greenfield assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Both the KRW fluidized-bed gasifier and the transport gasifier case studies were used for this assessment. The transport technology is a high-velocity circulating fluidized-bed reactor currently under development by The M.W. Kellogg Company. In the earlier assessment, seven design concepts or cases were identified; a process design was developed; major equipment items were identified; estimates of capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, and cost of electricity were developed; reliability was predicted; and development issues were identified for six studies. Three of the most probable cases were further evaluated for a Greenfield assessment in this report to adequately determine all costs independent of facilities at Plant Wansley.

  19. Microbial desulfurization of coal by thermophilic archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Gunnel

    1994-04-01

    The investigation was focused on the removal of pyrite as well as organic sulfur. One major objective was to identify and outline difficulties associated with microbial desulfurization of coal. The work has particularly been concentrated on the desulfurization environment of the microorganisms, the reprecipitation of dissolved sulfate as jarosite, the effect of microbial treatment on the properties of the coal and the comparison of different thermophilic archaea suggested for coal desulfurization. The investigated microorganisms were the thermophilic archaea Acidianus brierleyi, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Sulfolobus solfataricus and for comparison the mesophilic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The major part of the work has been done with Acidianus brierleyi. Compounds leached from coal may seriously affect the growth of microorganisms suggested for coal desulfurization. Degradation of pyritic sulfur with the used strains of S. solfataricus and S. acidocaldarius, was observed to be impossible. However, both the thermophilic archaeon Acidianus brierleyi and the mesophilic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, were capable of degrading pure pyrite as well as pyrite from low-sulfur coals. Up to 85% removal of pyritic sulfur was obtained for coals when staring with a pyrite sulfur content of 0.5-0.7%. From kinetic studies, it was shown that A. brierleyi and T. ferrooxidans remove sulfur from coal at roughly the same rate, at least for the coals investigated in this study. However, the rate for microbial oxidation of pure pyrite was seen to be much higher for A. brierleyi than for T. ferroxidans. 62 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  20. [Performance of desulfurizing absorbent of roasted navajoite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Yang, Chun-ping; Gan, Hai-ming; Wu, Ting; Chen, Hai-lin; Chen, Hong; Xu, Ke-hui; Xie, Geng-xin

    2010-04-01

    An innovative flue gas desulfurization (FGD) coupling process was proposed in this study to overcome the problems in wet-type limestone/lime processes which include fouling, clogging, and difficulty of selling the by-products and the problems in traditional process for vanadium extraction from navajoite ore such as excessive consumption of sulfuric acid and emissions of pollutants. The performance of a jet bubbling reactor (JBR) at pilot-scale was evaluated using navajoite ore produced in the process of extracting vanadium pentoxide as desulfurization absorbent. Results showed that navajoite ore slurry achieved better desulfurization performance than limestone slurry. When the inlet flue gas pressure drop was 3.0 kPa, the gas flow was about 2350 m3 x h(-1) and the pH of the navajoite ore slurry was higher than 4.5, the desulfurization efficiency was stable about 90%. The SO2 removal efficiency appeared to increase along with the increasing of absorbent cycle-index. The efficiency of the second circulation was improved 3.5% compared to the first circulation. After an operating duration of 40 minutes, the leaching rate of vanadium pentoxide was about 20%, and reached 60% when the by-products were leached with 5% dilute sulfuric acid for 10 hours. The by-product from this process not only could be used to produce vanadium pentoxide which is a valuable industrial product, but also could significantly overcome the pollution problem existing in the traditional refining process of vanadium pentoxide when navajoite ore is used as the feed material. This FGD process using roasted navajoite slurry as absorbent is environmental sound and cost-effective, and shows the potential for application in the field of flue gas desulfurization as well as hydrometallurgy.

  1. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report summarizes the state of the art in performance modeling of advanced high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) gas cleanup devices. Volume I contains the culmination of the research effort carried over the past 12 months and is a summary of research achievements. Volume II is the user's manual for the computer programs developed under the present research project. In this volume, Section 2 presents background information on pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion concepts, a description of the role of the advanced gas cleanup systems, and a list of advanced gas cleanup systems that are currently in development under DOE sponsorship. Section 3 describes the methodology for the software architecture that forms the basis of the well-disciplined and structured computer programs developed under the present project. Section 4 reviews the fundamental theories that are important in analyzing the cleanup performance of HTHP gas filters. Section 5 discusses the effect of alkali agents in HTHP gas cleanup. Section 6 evaluates the advanced HTHP gas cleanup models based on their mathematical integrity, availability of supporting data, and the likelihood of commercialization. As a result of the evaluation procedure detailed in Section 6, five performance models were chosen to be incorporated into the overall system simulation code, ASPEN. These five models (the electrocyclone, ceramic bag filter, moving granular bed filter, electrostatic granular bed filter, and electrostatic precipitator) are described in Section 7. The method of cost projection for these five models is discussed in Section 8. The supporting data and validation of the computer codes are presented in Section 9, and finally the conclusions and recommendations for the HTHP gas cleanup system model development are given in Section 10. 72 references, 19 figures, 25 tables.

  2. Hot-gas filter manufacturing assessments: Volume 5. Final report, April 15, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of advanced filtration media for advanced fossil-fueled power generating systems is a critical step in meeting the performance and emissions requirements for these systems. While porous metal and ceramic candle-filters have been available for some time, the next generation of filters will include ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), intermetallic alloys, and alternate filter geometries. The goal of this effort was to perform a cursory review of the manufacturing processes used by 5 companies developing advanced filters from the perspective of process repeatability and the ability for their processes to be scale-up to production volumes. It was found that all of the filter manufacturers had a solid understanding of the product development path. Given that these filters are largely developmental, significant additional work is necessary to understand the process-performance relationships and projecting manufacturing costs. While each organization had specific needs, some common among all of the filter manufacturers were access to performance testing of the filters to aide process/product development, a better understanding of the stresses the filters will see in service for use in structural design of the components, and a strong process sensitivity study to allow optimization of processing.

  3. Study on Kinetics for Desulfurization of Model Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Jianhua; Zhou Yuenan; Liu Lin; Wang Yue; Xing Jinjuan; Lü Hong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, by means of the experiments for desulfurization of model diesel through oxi-dative extraction, the changes associated with the rate of desulfurization of diesel and the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides in diesel were explored. Through studying the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides and the principle of solvent extraction, the kinetic equation of desulfurization via oxidative extraction were determined. By means of the evaluation of model parameters and curve fitting, the reaction order between organic sulfide and sulfone, the intrinsic oxidation rate constant of organic sulfide and sulfone, and the equilibrium constant between suifone in model diesel and extractive sol-vent were determined. The experimental values of the desulfurization rate and the theoretical values of the corresponding model equation had closely demonstrated that the desulfurization reaction rate had high accuracy. And the reaction kinetics could provide an important basis for diesel desulfurization process in the future.

  4. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1995-11-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of Carboniferous materials in a gasifier is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials can occur. The objective of this task was to establish the potential risks of carbon deposition and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes by examining the current state of knowledge regarding these phenomena, making appropriate thermochemical calculations for representative coal gasifiers, and addressing possible mitigation methods. The paper discusses carbon activities, iron-based phase stabilities, steam injection, conditions that influence kinetics of carbon deposition, and influence of system operating parameters on carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  5. The Cosmic History of Hot Gas Cooling and Radio AGN Activity in Massive Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. M.; Luo, B.; Miller, N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Stott, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the X-ray properties of 393 optically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the redshift range of z approx equals 0.0-1.2 in the Chandra Deep Fields. To measure the average X-ray properties of the ETG population, we use X-ray stacking analyses with a subset of 158 passive ETGs (148 of which were individually undetected in X-ray). This ETG subset was constructed to span the redshift ranges of z = 0.1-1.2 in the approx equals 4 Ms CDF-S and approx equals 2 Ms CDF-N and z = 0.1-0.6 in the approx equals 250 ks E-CDF-S where the contribution from individually undetected AGNs is expected to be negligible in our stacking. We find that 55 of the ETGs are detected individually in the X-rays, and 12 of these galaxies have properties consistent with being passive hot-gas dominated systems (i.e., systems not dominated by an X-ray bright Active Galactic Nucleus; AGN). On the basis of our analyses, we find little evolution in the mean 0.5-2 keY to B-band luminosity ratio (L(sub x) /L(sub Beta) varies as [1 +z]) since z approx equals 1.2, implying that some heating mechanism prevents the gas from cooling in these systems. We consider that feedback from radio-mode AGN activity could be responsible for heating the gas. We select radio AGNs in the ETG population using their far-infrared/radio flux ratio. Our radio observations allow us to constrain the duty cycle history of radio AGN activity in our ETG sample. We estimate that if scaling relations between radio and mechanical power hold out to z approx equals 1.2 for the ETG population being studied here, the average mechanical power from AGN activity is a factor of approx equals1.4 -- 2.6 times larger than the average radiative cooling power from hot gas over the redshift range z approx equals 0-1.2. The excess of inferred AGN mechanical power from these ETGs is consistent with that found in the local Universe for similar types of galaxies.

  6. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5044. 1; Evidence for Limited Multiphase Hot Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Lewis, Aaron D.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Using new XMM and Chandra observations, we present an analysis of the temperature structure of the hot gas within a radius of 100 kpc of the bright nearby galaxy group NGC 5044. A spectral deprojection analysis of data extracted from circular annuli reveals that a two-temperature model (2T) of the hot gas is favored over single-phase or cooling flow (M = 4.5 +/- 0.2 solar mass/yr) models within the central approx.30 kpc. Alternatively, the data can be fitted equally well if the temperature within each spherical shell varies continuously from approx.T(sub h) to T(sub c) approx. T(sub h)/2, but no lower. The high spatial resolution of the Chandra data allows us to determine that the temperature excursion T(sub h) approaches T(sub c) required in each shell exceeds the temperature range between the boundaries of the same shell in the best-fitting single-phase model. This is strong evidence for a multiphase gas having a limited temperature range. We do not find any evidence that azimuthal temperature variations within each annulus on the sky can account for the range in temperatures within each shell. We provide a detailed investigation of the systematic errors on the derived spectral models considering the effects of calibration, plasma codes, bandwidth, variable NH, and background rate. We find that the RGS gratings and the EPIC and ACIS CCDs give fully consistent results when the same models are fitted over the same energy ranges for each instrument. The cooler component of the 2T model has a temperature (T(sub c) approx. 0.7 keV) similar to the kinetic temperature of the stars. The hot phase has a temperature (T(sub h) approx. 1.4 keV) characteristic of the virial temperature of the solar mass halo expected in the NGC 5044 group. However, in view of the morphological disturbances and X-ray holes visible in the Chandra image within R approx. equals 10 kpc, bubbles of gas heated to approx.T(sub h) in this region may be formed by intermittent AGN feedback. Some

  7. Thermal investigation of an internally cooled strut injector for scramjet application at moderate and hot gas conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröske, Nils C.; Förster, Felix J.; Weigand, Bernhard; von Wolfersdorf, Jens

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a combined experimental and numerical approach to assess the thermal loads and the cooling mechanism of an internally cooled strut injector for a supersonic combustion ramjet. Infrared measurements of the injector surface are conducted at a moderate external flow temperature. In addition, the main flow field is investigated with the LITA technique. Main features of the cooling mechanism are identified based on experimental data. However, a full evaluation can only be obtained using a complex, conjugate CFD simulation, which couples the external and internal flow fields to the heat conduction inside the injector body. Furthermore, numerical simulations are also presented for hot gas conditions corresponding to combustion experiments. Both hydrogen, which would be used as fuel for flight tests, and air are considered as coolants. While the main features of the cooling mechanism will be shown to remain unchanged, the combustor wall temperature is found to have a significant influence on the cooling. This emphasizes the importance and the usefulness of such complex conjugate numerical simulations.

  8. Hot gas in groups: NGC 5328 and the intriguing case of NGC 4756 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Trinchieri, G; Mazzei, P; Rampazzo, R; Wolter, A

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] NGC 5238 and NGC 4756 are the brightest unperturbed elliptical galaxies in their respective loose groups. In the present study we aim at characterizing the properties of the hot gas in the halos of the brightest members and in the environment. In NGC 4756 we are also interested in the properties of a substructure identified to the SW and the region connecting the two structures, to search for a physical connection between the two. However, we have to take into account the fact that the group is projected against the bright, X-ray emitting cluster A1361, which heavily contaminates and confuses the emission from the foreground structure. We present a careful analysis of XMM-Newton data of the groups to separate different components. We also present a re-evaluation of the dynamical properties of the systems and . SPH simulations to interpret the results. We find that the X-ray source associated with NGC 4756 indeed sits on top of extended emission from the background cluster A1361, but can be relative...

  9. X-ray emission from the nuclei, lobes and hot-gas environments of two FR-II radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Croston, J H; Hardcastle, M J; Worrall, D M

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of multiple components of X-ray emission from the two FR-II radio galaxies 3C 223 and 3C 284, based on new XMM-Newton observations. We attribute the detected X-ray emission from the lobes of both sources to inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. With this model, we find that the magnetic field strength in the lobes is at the equipartition value for 3C 284, and within a factor of two of the equipartition value for 3C 223. We also detect group-scale hot atmospheres around both sources, and determine temperatures and pressures in the gas. The lobes of both sources are in pressure balance with the hot-gas environments, if the lobes contain only the synchrotron-emitting particles and the measured magnetic field strength. The core spectra of both sources contain an unabsorbed soft component, likely to be related to the radio jet, and an additional heavily absorbed power-law component. 3C 223 also displays a bright (EW ~ 500 eV) Fe K-alpha emission line.

  10. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Wangerow, J.R. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Bo, L.; Patel, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate several novel copper-based binary oxides for their suitability as regenerable sorbents for hot gas cleanup application in the temperature range of 650{degrees} to 850{degrees}C. During this quarter cyclic sulfidation/regeneration tests of the sorbents Cu{sub 2}Cr-O and Cu-Ce-0 were conducted using different compositions of the feed gases to investigate the effects of H{sub 2}0, H{sub 2} and CO. These tests were conducted in a packed-bed microreactor at 850{degrees}C. The results of these tests showed that H{sub 2} and CO (along with C02) had a significant effect on the H{sub 2}S pre-breakthrough levels, whereas H{sub 2}0 did not have an effect. The physical properties of the fresh and reacted samples of the Cu-2Cr-O and Cu-Ce-0 sorbents prepared in this program and used in the cyclic sulfidation/regeneration tests were also measured. In addition, sulfidation/regeneration tests were conducted using two commercial copper chromite sorbents (G-13 and G-89, United Catalyst, Inc.) and a zinc titanate sorbent (L-3014) in a one-inch fluidized-bed reactor at 650{degrees}C. The G-13 sorbent appears to have a much higher sulfur capacity than the G-89 sorbent.

  11. X-ray Scaling Relation in Early-Type Galaxies: Dark Matter as a Primary Factor in Retaining Hot Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    We have revisited the X-ray scaling relations of early type galaxies (ETG) by investigating, for the first time, the LX,Gas - MTotal relation in a sample of 14 ETGs. In contrast to the large scatter (by a factor of 102-103) in the LX,Total - LB relation, we found a tight correlation between these physically motivated quantities with a rms deviation of a factor of 3 in LX,Gas = 1038 - 1043 erg s-1 or MTotal = a few x 1010 - a few x 1012 Mo. More striking, this relation becomes even tighter with a rms deviation of a factor of 1.3 among the gas-rich galaxies (with LX,Gas > 1040 erg s-1). In a simple power-law form, the new relation is (LX,Gas / 1040 erg s-1) = (MTotal / 3.2 x 1011 Mo)3. This relation is also consistent with the steep relation between the gas luminosity and temperature, LX,Gas ~ TGas4.5, identified by Boroson, Kim & Fabbiano (2011), if the gas is virialized. Our results indicate that the total mass of an ETG is the primary factor in regulating the amount of hot gas. Among the gas-poor galaxie...

  12. Evidence for the Direct Detection of the Thermal Spectrum of the Non-Transiting Hot Gas Giant HD 88133 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorz, Danielle; Crockett, Nathan R.; Lockwood, Alexandra; Benneke, Björn; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Barman, Travis S.; Bender, Chad F.; Bryan, Marta; Carr, John S.; Fischer, Debra; Howard, Andrew; Isaacson, Howard T.; Johnson, John A.

    2016-10-01

    We target the thermal emission spectrum of the non-transiting gas giant HD 88133 b with high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy, by treating the planet and its host star as a spectroscopic binary. For sufficiently deep summed flux observations of the star and planet across multiple epochs, it is possible to resolve the signal of the hot gas giant's atmosphere compared to the brighter stellar spectrum, at a level consistent with the aggregate shot noise of the full data set. To do this, we first perform a principal component analysis to remove the contribution of the Earth's atmosphere to the observed spectra. Then, we use a cross-correlation analysis to tease out the spectra of the host star and HD 88133 b to determine its orbit and identify key sources of atmospheric opacity. In total, six epochs of Keck NIRSPEC L band observations and three epochs of Keck NIRSPEC K band observations of the HD 88133 system were obtained. Based on an analysis of the maximum likelihood curves calculated from the multi-epoch cross correlation of the full data set with two atmospheric models, we report the direct detection of the emission spectrum of the non-transiting exoplanet HD 88133 b and measure a radial projection of its Keplerian orbital velocity, its true mass, its orbital inclination, and dominant atmospheric species. This, combined with eleven years of radial velocity measurements of the system, provides the most up-to-date ephemeris for HD 88133.

  13. Tidal interaction vs. ram pressure stripping effects as seen in X-rays. Hot gas in group and cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wezgowiec, M; Ehle, M; Chyzy, K T; Urbanik, M; Braine, J; Soida, M

    2012-01-01

    The hot intracluster/intragroup medium (ICM/IGM) and a high galaxy density can lead to perturbations of the galactic interstellar medium (ISM) due to ram pressure and/or tidal interaction effects. In radio polarimetry observations, both phenomena may manifest similar features. X-ray data can help to determine the real origin of the perturbation. We analyse the distribution and physical properties of the hot gas in the Virgo cluster spiral galaxies NGC 4254 and NGC 4569, which indicate that the cluster environment has had a significant influence on their properties. By performing both spatial and spectral analyses of X-ray data, we try to distinguish between two major phenomena: tidal and ram pressure interactions. We compare our findings with the case of NGC 2276, in which a shock was reported, by analysing XMM-Newton X-ray data for this galaxy. We use archival XMM-Newton observations of NGC 4254, NGC 4569, and NGC 2276. Maps of the soft diffuse emission in the energy band 0.2 - 1 keV are obtained. For the th...

  14. On the Structure of Hot Gas in Halos: Implications for the Lx-Tx Relation & Missing Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Prateek; Parrish, Ian J; Quataert, Eliot

    2012-01-01

    We present one-dimensional models of the hot gas in dark-matter halos, which both predict the existence of cool cores and explain their structure. Our models are directly applicable to semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation. We have previously argued that filaments of cold (~10^4 K) gas condense out of the intracluster medium (ICM) in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium when the ratio of the thermal instability timescale to the free-fall time $t_{TI}/t_{ff}$ falls below 5-10. This criterion corresponds to an upper limit on the density of the ICM and motivates a model in which a density core forms wherever $t_{TI}/t_{ff} \\lesssim 10$. Consistent with observations and numerical simulations, this model predicts larger and more tenuous cores for lower-mass halos---while the core density in a cluster may be as large as ~ 0.1 cm^{-3}, the core density in the Galactic halo should not exceed ~ 10^{-4} cm^{-3}. Our models produce a favorable match to the observational X-ray luminosity-temperature (Lx-Tx) rela...

  15. Evidence for the Direct Detection of the Thermal Spectrum of the Non-Transiting Hot Gas Giant HD 88133 b

    CERN Document Server

    Piskorz, Danielle; Crockett, Nathan R; Lockwood, Alexandra C; Blake, Geoffrey A; Barman, Travis S; Bender, Chad F; Bryan, Marta L; Carr, John S; Fischer, Debra A; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John A

    2016-01-01

    We target the thermal emission spectrum of the non-transiting gas giant HD 88133 b with high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy, by treating the planet and its host star as a spectroscopic binary. For sufficiently deep summed flux observations of the star and planet across multiple epochs, it is possible to resolve the signal of the hot gas giant's atmosphere compared to the brighter stellar spectrum, at a level consistent with the aggregate shot noise of the full data set. To do this, we first perform a principal component analysis to remove the contribution of the Earth's atmosphere to the observed spectra. Then, we use a cross-correlation analysis to tease out the spectra of the host star and HD 88133 b to determine its orbit and identify key sources of atmospheric opacity. In total, six epochs of Keck NIRSPEC L band observations and three epochs of Keck NIRSPEC K band observations of the HD 88133 system were obtained. Based on an analysis of the maximum likelihood curves calculated from the multi-epoch...

  16. The Origin of the Hot Gas in the Galactic Halo: Confronting Models with XMM-Newton Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, David B; Kwak, Kyujin; Joung, M Ryan; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2010-01-01

    We compare the predictions of three physical models for the origin of the hot halo gas with the observed halo X-ray emission, derived from 26 high-latitude XMM-Newton observations of the soft X-ray background between $l=120\\degr$ and $l=240\\degr$. These observations were chosen from a much larger set of observations as they are expected to be the least contaminated by solar wind charge exchange emission. We characterize the halo emission in the XMM-Newton band with a single-temperature plasma model. We find that the observed halo temperature is fairly constant across the sky (~1.8e6-2.4e6 K), whereas the halo emission measure varies by an order of magnitude ($\\sim$0.0005-0.006 cm^-6 pc), including significant sightline-to-sightline variation on scales as small as a few degrees. When we compare our observations with the model predictions, we find that most of the hot gas observed with XMM-Newton does not reside in an extended hot halo (predicted by disk galaxy formation models), nor is it contained within isol...

  17. Microstructure and Properties of Desulfurized Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures of general crumb rubber(CR), dynamic desulfurized crumb rubber(DDCR) and high speed agitation desulfurized crumb rubber(HSADCR) modified bitumens were investigated by a fluorescence microscope, and the physical properties of these three modified bitumens were studied.The results show that the dynamic desulfuration can improve the swelling capacity of crumb rubber in bitumen by destroying the sulfuratized bond of the crumb rubber,but the reunion of rubber particles during dynamic desulfuration also makes the swelling and the DDCR in bitumen difficult, so properties of the DDCR modified bitumen are not superior to the general crumb rubber modified bitumen.However,high speed agitation desulfuration can not only improve the swelling capacity of crumb rubber in bitumen,but also avoid the reunion of rubber particles,so some properties of bitumen can be improved by the modification of HSADCR.

  18. THE ORIGIN OF THE HOT GAS IN THE GALACTIC HALO: TESTING GALACTIC FOUNTAIN MODELS' X-RAY EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Kwak, Kyujin [School of Natural Science, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 50 UNIST-gil, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Hill, Alex S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW (Australia); Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark, E-mail: dbh@physast.uga.edu [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We test the X-ray emission predictions of galactic fountain models against XMM-Newton measurements of the emission from the Milky Way's hot halo. These measurements are from 110 sight lines, spanning the full range of Galactic longitudes. We find that a magnetohydrodynamical simulation of a supernova-driven interstellar medium, which features a flow of hot gas from the disk to the halo, reproduces the temperature but significantly underpredicts the 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness of the halo (by two orders of magnitude, if we compare the median predicted and observed values). This is true for versions of the model with and without an interstellar magnetic field. We consider different reasons for the discrepancy between the model predictions and the observations. We find that taking into account overionization in cooled halo plasma, which could in principle boost the predicted X-ray emission, is unlikely in practice to bring the predictions in line with the observations. We also find that including thermal conduction, which would tend to increase the surface brightnesses of interfaces between hot and cold gas, would not overcome the surface brightness shortfall. However, charge exchange emission from such interfaces, not included in the current model, may be significant. The faintness of the model may also be due to the lack of cosmic ray driving, meaning that the model may underestimate the amount of material transported from the disk to the halo. In addition, an extended hot halo of accreted material may be important, by supplying hot electrons that could boost the emission of the material driven out from the disk. Additional model predictions are needed to test the relative importance of these processes in explaining the observed halo emission.

  19. EVIDENCE FOR THE DIRECT DETECTION OF THE THERMAL SPECTRUM OF THE NON-TRANSITING HOT GAS GIANT HD 88133 b

    KAUST Repository

    Piskorz, Danielle

    2016-11-23

    We target the thermal emission spectrum of the non-transiting gas giant HD 88133 b with high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy, by treating the planet and its host star as a spectroscopic binary. For sufficiently deep summed flux observations of the star and planet across multiple epochs, it is possible to resolve the signal of the hot gas giant\\'s atmosphere compared to the brighter stellar spectrum, at a level consistent with the aggregate shot noise of the full data set. To do this, we first perform a principal component analysis to remove the contribution of the Earth\\'s atmosphere to the observed spectra. Then, we use a cross-correlation analysis to tease out the spectra of the host star and HD 88133 b to determine its orbit and identify key sources of atmospheric opacity. In total, six epochs of Keck NIRSPEC L-band observations and three epochs of Keck NIRSPEC K-band observations of the HD 88133 system were obtained. Based on an analysis of the maximum likelihood curves calculated from the multi-epoch cross-correlation of the full data set with two atmospheric models, we report the direct detection of the emission spectrum of the non-transiting exoplanet HD 88133 b and measure a radial projection of the Keplerian orbital velocity of 40 +/- 15 km s(-1), a true mass of 1.02(-0.28)(+0.61) M-J, a nearly face-on orbital inclination of 15(-5)(+60), and an atmosphere opacity structure at high dispersion dominated by water vapor. This, combined with 11 years of radial velocity measurements of the system, provides the most up-to-date ephemeris for HD 88133.

  20. Analysis of trace contaminants in hot gas streams using time-weighted average solid-phase microextraction: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcock, Patrick J; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Johnston, Patrick A; Brown, Robert C

    2013-03-15

    Time-weighted average (TWA) passive sampling using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography was investigated as a new method of collecting, identifying and quantifying contaminants in process gas streams. Unlike previous TWA-SPME techniques using the retracted fiber configuration (fiber within needle) to monitor ambient conditions or relatively stagnant gases, this method was developed for fast-moving process gas streams at temperatures approaching 300 °C. The goal was to develop a consistent and reliable method of analyzing low concentrations of contaminants in hot gas streams without performing time-consuming exhaustive extraction with a slipstream. This work in particular aims to quantify trace tar compounds found in a syngas stream generated from biomass gasification. This paper evaluates the concept of retracted SPME at high temperatures by testing the three essential requirements for TWA passive sampling: (1) zero-sink assumption, (2) consistent and reliable response by the sampling device to changing concentrations, and (3) equal concentrations in the bulk gas stream relative to the face of the fiber syringe opening. Results indicated the method can accurately predict gas stream concentrations at elevated temperatures. Evidence was also discovered to validate the existence of a second boundary layer within the fiber during the adsorption/absorption process. This limits the technique to operating within reasonable mass loadings and loading rates, established by appropriate sampling depths and times for concentrations of interest. A limit of quantification for the benzene model tar system was estimated at 0.02 g m(-3) (8 ppm) with a limit of detection of 0.5 mg m(-3) (200 ppb). Using the appropriate conditions, the technique was applied to a pilot-scale fluidized-bed gasifier to verify its feasibility. Results from this test were in good agreement with literature and prior pilot plant operation, indicating the new method can measure low

  1. Catalytic hot gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas that contains particulates can be purified from tars and ammonia by using nickel monolith catalysts. Temperatures over 900 deg C are required at 20 bar pressure to avoid deactivation by H{sub 2}S and carbon. Dolomites and limestones are effective tar decomposing catalysts only when calcined. Tar decomposition in gasification conditions can take place by steam or dry (CO{sub 2}) reforming reactions. These reactions follow apparent first order kinetics with respect to hydrocarbons in gasification conditions. (author) (16 refs.)

  2. Development of regenerable copper-based sorbents for hot gas cleanup. Technical report, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Hill, A.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the copper-chromite sorbent (developed in previous ICCI-funded projects) for longer duration application under optimum conditions in the temperature range of 550{degrees}-650{degrees}C to minimize sorbent reduction and degradation during the cyclic process. To achieve this objective, several formulations of copper chromite sorbents are prepared. These sorbent formulations are screened for their desulfurization and regeneration capability at predetermined temperatures and gas residence times. The durability of the best sorbent formulation identified in the screening tests is evaluated in ``long-term`` durability tests conducted at the optimum operating conditions. This includes testing the sorbent in pellet and granular forms in packed- and fluidized-bed reactors. During this quarter, twenty one copper chromite-based sorbent formulations were prepared. Two sorbent formulations that have acceptable crush strength, designated as CuCr-10 and CuCr-21, were tested over 5 and 6 cycles respectively. The results indicate that both sorbents are reactive toward H{sub 2}S at 650{degrees}C and that the reactivity of the sorbents are relatively constant over the first 5 to 6 cycles. The H{sub 2}S prebreakthrough concentrations were generally about 20 to 30 ppm, making them suitable for IGCC application.

  3. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot gas cleanup. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.H.; Abbasian, J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Bo, L.; Li, Li. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Honea, F.I. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents (i.e. copper-chromium and copper-cerium) for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650{degree} to 850{degree}C. New sorbent compositions from the selected Cu-Cr-O and Cu-Ce-O binary oxides were prepared and characterized by BET N{sub 2}-desorption surface area measurement following various calcination/time-temperature exposures. The general trends reported last quarter (on 11 different compositions) were validated this quarter in that both binary oxides lose surface area as the amount of CuO is increased. Time-resolved sulfidation tests were conducted at 850{degree}C using the equimolar CuO.Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} composition. The two selected binary oxides prepared in larger qauntities (for testing in a two-inch reactor) have physical properties typical of the sorbents prepared in past programs. Two multicycle desulfurization tests, conducted this quarter on the Cu-Ce-O sorbent at 850{degree}C, using a feed gas containing 5000 ppm H{sub 2}S, 10 vol % H{sub 2} and 10 vol % H{sub 2}O at a space velocity (STP) of 2000 h{sup {minus}1}, demonstrated high sulfur removal efficiency for the first one or two cycles, and a significant reduction in efficiency in the following cycles.

  4. Advanced low-temperature sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, R.E.; Venkataramani, V.S.; Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.

    1995-12-01

    A number of promising technologies are currently being optimized for coal-based power generation, including the Integrated-Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system. If IGCC is to be used successfully for power generation, an economic and efficient way must be found to remove the contaminants, particularly sulfur species, found in coal gas. Except for the hot gas desulfurization system, all major components of IGCC are commercially available or have been shown to meet system requirements. Over the last two decades, the U.S. Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has sponsored development of various configurations of high-temperature desulfurization systems including fixed-bed, moving-bed, transport-bed, and fluidized-bed systems. Because of their mode of operation and requirements for sorbent manufacturing, the fixed-bed systems can generally use the same materials as moving-bed configurations, i.e., pelletized or extruded sorbents, while fluidized-bed (circulating or bubbling configurations) and transport reactor configurations use materials generally described as agglomerated or granulated.The objective of this program is to remove hydrogen sulfides from coal gas using sorbent materials.

  5. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  6. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhong; Yan Cao; Wenying Li; Kechang Xie; Wei-Ping Pan

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se).The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues.It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal.A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS).It has been determined that Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 μg/L, respectively.The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples.Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is nigh in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(Ⅳ)).The toxicity of Se(Ⅳ) is the strongest of all Se species.Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  7. Biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) of petrodiesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebali, Ghasemali; Ball, Andrew S

    2008-08-01

    Oil refineries are facing many challenges, including heavier crude oils, increased fuel quality standards, and a need to reduce air pollution emissions. Global society is stepping on the road to zero-sulfur fuel, with only differences in the starting point of sulfur level and rate reduction of sulfur content between different countries. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is the most common technology used by refineries to remove sulfur from intermediate streams. However, HDS has several disadvantages, in that it is energy intensive, costly to install and to operate, and does not work well on refractory organosulfur compounds. Recent research has therefore focused on improving HDS catalysts and processes and also on the development of alternative technologies. Among the new technologies one possible approach is biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS). The advantage of BDS is that it can be operated in conditions that require less energy and hydrogen. BDS operates at ambient temperature and pressure with high selectivity, resulting in decreased energy costs, low emission, and no generation of undesirable side products. Over the last two decades several research groups have attempted to isolate bacteria capable of efficient desulfurization of oil fractions. This review examines the developments in our knowledge of the application of bacteria in BDS processes, assesses the technical viability of this technology and examines its future challenges.

  8. NID dry desulfurization system -- An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahman, S.; Bengtsson, S.

    1998-07-01

    The development of ABB's low cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been reported in various papers during 1997. The system combines low cost and simple operation with very good performance and is targeted especially for the emerging markets in Asia and East Europe. This method is capable of achieving 90+% SO{sub 2} removal, irrespective of sulphur content in the fuel. The system is further easy to retrofit at existing sites; it has a minimum space requirement. An important feature of the dry FGD technology, sometimes not highlighted enough, is the fact that particulate collection of fly ash is facilitated by the FGD system at no extra capital charge. The flue gas temperature after a DFGD system also often allows the flue gas to be passed on to an existing stack without reheat. ``NID'' is an acronym for ``Novel Integrated Desulfurization'', indicative of the innovative nature of this FGD technology enabled by the integration of several subfunctionalities into one unit. The first two commercial plants were installed by the Polish power company Elektrownia Laziska. These full scale units were commissioned during 1996. A third unit at a diesel power station in Finland is at the time of writing in the commissioning stage.

  9. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Verkade

    1998-08-31

    The nonionic superbase P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (A) efficiently desulfurizes trisulfides to disulfides and monosulfides, disulfides to monosulfides, and propylene sulfide to propene. S=P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (B) was formed as the sulfur acceptor. P(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} was a much poorer desulfurizing agent than A under the same reaction conditions. Thiocyanates and triphenylphosphine sulfide were also desulfurized with A, but N-(phenylthio)phthalimide formed [A-SP]{sup +} phthalimide in quantitative yield.

  10. THE APPLICATION OF REVERSE FLOCCULATION METHOD IN HIGH SULFUR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏; 张素清

    1999-01-01

    The reverse flocculation method for removing pyritic sulfur from high sulfur coals has been conceptually developed and investigated. The tentative tests on China high sulfur coals have shown that this advanced physical separation technique can be very efficient in coal desulfurization, provided the process parameters are properly optimized. Under the circumstances of acquiring high coal recovery, the total sulfur rejection with four kinds of coal samples normally falls in the range 5?% to 71% by one-step reverse flocculation, and within the range 40% to 59% by one-step normal flocculation process.

  11. Catalytic Desulfurization of Benzothiophene Using Keggin Type Polyoxometalates as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of catalytic desulfurization of benzothiophen (BT was studied using polyoxometalates as catalyst. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40], have different heteroatom in Keggin structure and catalytic activities. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] have high crystallinity with homogeneous distribution particles. Desulfurization of BT using polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] resulted % conversion up to 99% for 3 h reaction time and at temperature 40 oC. Application of polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] for crude oil desulfurization showed % conversion of 4-88%. The main functional groups of polyoxometalates still retained after catalytic desulfurization indicated the stability of polyoxometalate compounds

  12. Update on DOE Advanced IGCC/H2 Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Cooling Flow Reduction: a) Focus on improving turbine hot gas path part cooling efficiency. b) Applicable to current metallic turbine components and synergistic with advanced materials. c) Address challenges of IGCC/hydrogen fuel environment (for example, possible cooling hole plugging). Leakage Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing turbine parasitic leakages, i.e. between static-to-static, static-to-rotating turbine parts. b) Develop improved seal designs in a variety of important areas. Purge Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing required flows to keep rotor disk cavities within temperature limits. b) Develop improved sealing at the cavity rims and modified flow geometries to minimize hot gas ingestion and aerodynamic impact.

  13. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Wangerow, J.R. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Bo, L.; Patel, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate several novel copper-based binary oxides for their suitability as regenerable sorbents for hot gas cleanup application in the temperature range of 650{degrees} to 850{degrees}C. To achieve this objective, several novel copper-based binary oxide sorbents will be prepared. Experimental tests will be conducted at ambient pressure to determine the stability, sulfidation capacity, regenerability, and sulfidation kinetics of the novel sorbents. Tests will also be conducted at high pressure for the determination of the sulfidation reactivity, regenerability, and durability of the sorbents. The attrition characteristics of the sorbents will also be determined.

  14. Desulfurization of petroleum induced by ionization radiation: benzothiophene behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luana S.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Duarte, Celina L., E-mail: lsandrade@ipen.br, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is currently the most common method used by refineries; this removes significantly sulfur compounds from petroleum fractions, however, is not highly effective for removing thiophene compounds such as benzothiophene, and generates high costs for the oil industry. Another factor, are the environmental laws, which over the years has become increasingly strict, especially regarding the sulfur content. This compound cause incalculable damage both to the industry and to the environment. Therefore new methods for petroleum desulfurization should be studied in order to minimize the impacts that these compounds cause. In the present study it was used ionizing radiation, a promising method of advanced oxidation in reducing sulfur compounds. The analysis were performed after purge and trap concentration of samples, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then benzothiophene samples with the same concentration from 27 mg.L{sup -1} to 139 mg.L{sup -1} were irradiated with different absorbed doses of radiation ranging from 1 kGy to 20 kGy in gamma irradiator Cobalt-60, Gammacell. These samples were analyzed by the same procedure used for the calibration curve, and the removals of benzothiophene after ionizing radiation treatment were calculated. It was observed that at higher doses there was a greater degradation of this compound and the formation of fragments, such as 1,2-dimethylbenzene and toluene, which may be removed by simple processes. (author)

  15. Optimisation of Experimental Conditions for Ex-Bed Desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Ruiz, E.; Otero, J.

    2010-12-22

    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.3 Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds Abatement of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The assignment of CIEMAT in Task 6.3 has dealt with the experimental study of ex-bed desulfurization at high temperature and high pressure. Based on a review of the state of the art, a zinc oxide sorbent was chosen as a promising candidate for bulk sulfur removal in highly reducing gases such as those from coal and waste oxygen gasification or for a polishing stage in low sulfur content gases, which is typically the case in biomass gasification gases. The work accomplished has included the study of the sulfidation and regeneration stages in order to determine successful operating conditions and the assessment of the long term performance of the sorbent over subsequent sulfidation and regeneration cycles. (Author) 36 refs.

  16. Fractal desulfurization kinetics of high-sulfur coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longjun; Peng Tiefeng; Zhang Dingyue; Zhang Fukai

    2012-01-01

    The pore structure characteristics of high-sulfur coal from Wansheng in Chongqing have been studied by a nitrogen adsorption method (BET).The effects of grinding and pre-treating with nitric acid on the inorganic sulfur content of coal have been investigated.Organic sulfur in coal pretreated with nitric acid was desulfurized by using propylene-glycol-KOH (PG-KOH).Fractal kinetic properties of these two desulfurization procedures were investigated by using fractal geometric theory.The results show that both the specific surface area and pore volume increased with the decrease in particle diameter.The microspore surface of coal had fractal characteristics; the fractal dimension was 2.48.The sulfur content decreased with the decrease in particle diameter by grinding.After pretreatment with nitric acid,the desulfurization ratio (DFR) of inorganic sulfur increased to over 99% and the DFR of total sulfur to over 70%.The desulfurization procedure of inorganic sulfur had fractal kinetic characteristics; its reactive fractal dimension was 2.94.The organic sulfur desulfurization procedure by PG-KOH was also tallied with fractal kinetic properties; the reactive fractal dimension was 2.57.The effect of temperature on the desulfurization ratio of organic sulfur can be described with an Arrhenius empirical equation.The rate constant,pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the reaction increased with the decrease in particle diameter.

  17. Experimental Study on Deep Desulfurizer in LF Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long; PEI Fen; CHEN Yut; LI Shi-qi

    2012-01-01

    CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO was selected as the slag system for desulfurization in LF process.The reaction between steel and slag during desulfurization has been simulated by using Factsage software to study the influence of component on the sulfur distribution ratio.In order to research the influence of CaO content,aluminum powder content and its granularity on desulfurization,laboratory experiments have been carried out in a 200 kg inductive furnace.Results showed that the optimal composition of deep desulfurizer is wCaO=64% and aluminium powder 10% with a granularity of 30 μm.Industrial trials showed that the main composition range of final slag in LF process is wCaO=53.0%-57.0%,wAl2O3=23.4%-25.1%,wSiO2=8.1%-10.0%,and wCaF2=3.2%-4.7%.The sulfur mass percent in steel is lower than 0.0008% with a desulfurization rate above 89%.According to the result of industrial production,this desulfurizer could meet the production requirement for ultra-low sulfur steel,of which sulfur mass percent is under 0.0015%

  18. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  19. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Wangerow, J.R. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Bo, Luhong; Patel, C.; Chang, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate several novel copper-based binary oxides for their suitability as regenerable sorbents for hot gas cleanup application in the temperature range of 650{degree} to 850{degree}C. To achieve this objective, several novel binary oxides of copper were systematically evaluated and ranked in terms of their high-temperature stability against reduction to metal, sulfidation reactivity, and regenerability. The sorbents studied included oxides of chromium, cerium, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, titanium, iron, and silicon. The results of initial testing indicated that mixed binary oxides of copper with chromium (CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and cerium (CuO{circle_dot}CeO{sub 2}) were the most promising sorbents for such high temperature gas cleanup applications. These two sorbents were further evaluated in cyclic sulfidation/regeneration tests in 10--15 cycles to determine the effect of operating conditions on their performance. The results of this investigation indicate that the two selected sorbents, copper-chromium and copper-cerium, are capable of removing H{sub 2}S from the hot fuel gas to very low levels (<10 ppmv) at temperatures as high as 850{degree}C with good sorbent regenerability in cyclic process. These sorbents should be further studied to achieve optimum sorbent composition for hot gas cleanup application.

  20. Desulfurization sorbent development activities at METC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1995-06-01

    Development of a suitable regenerable sorbent is a major barrier issue in the hot gas cleanup program for integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems. This has been a challenging problem during the last 20 years, since many of the sorbents developed in the program could not retain their reactivity and physical integrity during repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration reactions. A series of promising sorbents (METC 2-10), which were capable of sustaining their reactivity and physical integrity during repeated sulfidation/ regeneration cycles, have been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). These sorbents were tested both in low-pressure (260 KPa/23 psig) and high-pressure (520 KPa/60.7 psig) fixed-bed reactors at 538{degrees}C (1000{degrees}F) with simulated coal gas. High-pressure testing was continued for 20 cycles with steam regeneration. A major research goal during the last year was to lower the cost of materials utilized during the sorbent preparation. The METC 9 sorbent was prepared by substituting low-cost materials for some of the materials in METC 6 sorbent. The sulfur capacity of the two sorbents were similar during the 20-cycle testing. METC 2 sorbent was exposed to coal gas in the Modular Gas Cleanup Rig and it was later tested in the high-pressure fixed-bed reactor. The reactivity of the METC 2 sorbent was unaffected by the exposure to the coal gas. Development of these sorbents will be continued for both fluid-bed and moving-bed applications.

  1. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions

  2. Adsorptive desulfurization over hierarchical beta zeolite by alkaline treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuping Tian; Xiaojian Yang; Yanchun Shi; Cuiying Jia; Yongying Chen

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical beta zeolites with SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratios of 16 to 25 were obtained by alkaline treatment in NaOH solution.The effects of treatment temperature on crystallinity,textural properties and chemical composites were studied by XRD,N2 sorption,FT-IR and XRF techniques.The desulfurization performance of parent and alkaline-treated beta zeolites was investigated by static absorption in four model fuels,containing four sulfur compounds of different molecular sizes like thiophene (TP),3-methylthiophene (3-MT),benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT),respectively.The crystallinity was observed to be successfully maintained when the treatment temperature was below 50℃.Mesoporosity of beta zeolite was evidently developed with alkaline treatment.The formation of mesopore remarkably improved the desulfurization performance for TP,3-MT,BT and DBT,especially for DBT with larger molecular diameter.Though the addition of toluene in the model fuels resulted in a significant drop of the desulfurization performance of mesoporous beta zeolite,the introduction of cerium ions to some extent mitigated the effect of toluene,which means that both the adsorbents porous structure and the adsorption mode are responsible for the desulfurization performance.The adsorbent of cerium ion-exchanged mesoporous beta showed about 80% recovery of desulfurization after the first regeneration.

  3. Adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation using metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-01-15

    With the increasing worldwide demand for energy, utilization of fossil fuels is increasing proportionally. Additionally, new and unconventional energy sources are also being utilized at an increasing rate day-by-day. These sources, along with some industrial processes, result in the exposal of several sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds (SCCs and NCCs, respectively) to the environment, and the exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats in the recent years. Although, several methods were established for the removal of these pollutants during the last few decades, recent advancements in adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation (ADS and ADN, respectively) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make this the most promising and remarkable method. Therefore, many research groups are currently involved with ADS and ADN with MOFs, and the results are improving gradually by modifying the MOF adsorbents according to several specific adsorption mechanisms. In this review, ADS and ADN studies are thoroughly discussed for both liquid-phase and gas-phase adsorption. The MOF modification procedures, which are important for improved adsorption, are also described. To improve the knowledge among the scientific community, it is very important to understand the detailed chemistry and mechanism involved in a chemical process, which also creates the possibility and pathway for further developments in research and applications. Therefore, the mechanisms related to the adsorption procedures are also discussed in detail. From this review, it can be expected that the scientific community will obtain an understanding of the current state of ADS and ADN, their importance, and some encouragement and insight to take the research knowledge base to a higher level.

  4. XMM-Newton Detection of Hot Gas in Two Evolved Elliptical Planetary Nebulae: the Eskimo Nebula and the Ghost of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Meixner, M.

    2004-12-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) consist of the stellar material ejected by low- and intermediate-mass stars (1-8 M⊙) at the end of the asymptotic giant branch phase (AGB). As such a star evolves off the AGB phase, the copious mass-loss strips off the stellar envelope and exposes the hot stellar core that ionizes the nebular material. The central stars of PNe present fast stellar winds with terminal velocities 1000-4000 km s-1, while fast collimated outflows with velocities up to 1000 km s-1 are also observed in PNe. The interactions of the fast stellar wind and/or collimated outflows with nebular material can give rise to diffuse X-ray emission from PNe. Diffuse X-ray emission has been detected only in young PNe previously. To investigate the evolution of hot gas in PN interiors, we obtained XMM-Newton observations of NGC 2392 (the Eskimo Nebula) and NGC 3242 (the Ghost of Jupiter), two evolved elliptical PNe. Diffuse X-ray emission is detected in both nebulae. In both cases, the hot gas is confined within the innermost shell, the X-ray spectrum can be described by a thin plasma emission model with temperature ˜2×106 K, and the X-ray luminosity is ˜1×1031 ergs s-1. Furthermore, the X-ray spectrum of NGC 3242 shows evidence of enhanced nitrogen abundance, while the X-ray morphology of NGC 2392 hints a possible association with its fast collimated outflows.

  5. The hot gas cleaning with multifunctional sorbent technique at 1-20 bar pressure; Kaasujen kuumapuhdistus multifunktionaalisella sorbenttitekniikalla 1-20 bar:n paineessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K.; Orjala, M.; Paakkinen, K.; Rantanen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the research was to study the simultaneous hot gas cleanup of alkali metals and selected heavy metals under pressure of 1-20 bar using multifunctional sorbent technology, to investigate effects of it on sulfur and nitrogen emissions and to improve the total efficiency of the hot gas cleanup method by reducing the concentrations of harmful components to the level required by the gas turbines. The research has started in the year 1993. The optimization of the test facility at 900 deg C and 20 bar has been accomplished, as targeted. The main topics have been the alkali metals. The main targets of the year 1994 was to concentrate on the research of sorbent effectiveness to remove the impurities like alkalies etc. from the flue gas. Furthermore researches on kinetics and mechanisms were started. The results showed that the developed multifunctional sorbent are highly effective to remove alkalies from the flue gas. Also a mechanism for alkali and lead sorption was proposed. The main topics for 1995 were scheduled to be the completion of the kinetic and mechanical studies and the modelling and the estimation of the data for the pilot scale unit. The kinetic data for one sorbent has been completed and a model for that has also been developed. The measured and calculated results are indicating that the developed multifunctional sorption process is highly effective to remove alkalies and heavy metals such as lead and cadmium from high-temperature combustion gases. The tests are carried out mainly using the pressurized entrained flow reactor of VTT Energy, located in Jyvaeskylae, and in the university of Arizona, where the tests are conducted under atmospheric pressure. Some comparisons of the results might be made with those of Aabo Akademi during the future modelling. 3. The results are applied to purification of the hot gases in boilers, power and process industry. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. The Hot-gas screw-type engine - Simulation as a basis for construction. Pt. 3; Die Heissgasschraubenmaschine - simulationsgestuetzte Auslegung. T. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauder, K.; Unwerth, T. von [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). FG Fluidenergiemaschinen

    1998-12-31

    In this paper new results of the research regarding the design of the first experimental plant for a hot-gas screw-type machine are reported. Target of the development is the verification of operating behaviour as well as the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the screw-type motor parts. The selection and dimensioning of the plant components is described with a main focus on the construction of the thermally high-loaded hot-gas screw-type engine. Its manufacturing tolerances are based on simulations, with which the mechanical deformations of the rotors and the casing respective the resulting clearance-heights can be calculated. With inclusion of an efficient cooling method for the motor parts, for the, in the article documented, projected nominal working condition with a material-depending limit for the entrance temperature at {theta}{sub E,} {sub M}=600 C, a pressure ratio {pi}=6 and a male rotor peripheral speed u{sub HR}=120 ms{sup -1}, each rotor should be decreased by 0.07 mm. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ueber neue Forschungsergebnisse im Hinblick auf die konstruktive Realisierung der ersten Versuchsanlage einer Heissgasschraubenmaschine berichtet. Ziel der daran durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen ist die Verifikation des Betriebsverhaltens sowie des thermischen und mechanischen Bauteilverhaltens des Heissgasschraubenmotors. Nachzulesen ist die Auswahl und Dimensionierung der Anlagenkomponenten, wobei ein Hauptaugenmerk auf der Auslegung des thermisch hoch belasteten Schraubenmotors liegt. Dessen Dimensionierung liegen Simulationsrechnungen zugrunde, mit deren Hilfe die mechanischen Verformungen der Rotoren und des Gehaeuses respektive der daraus resultierenden Spalthoehen a priori angegeben werden koennen. Fuer den hier dokumentierten, angestrebten Nennbetriebszustand mit einer werkstoffbedingt begrenzten Motoreintrittstemperatur von {theta}{sub E,} {sub M}=600 C, einem Druckverhaeltnis von {pi}=6 und einer Hauptrotorumfangsgeschwindigkeit von u{sub HR}=120 ms

  7. Durable metal oxide-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Wangerow, J.R.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cicero, D.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

    1998-12-31

    Development of high temperature desulfurization regenerable sorbents for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process has been pursued over the last two decades, primarily using various combinations of transition metal oxides. The primary focus has been directed toward applications above 550 C, restricting the choice of metal oxides to those that possess favorable thermodynamic equilibria. These efforts led to the emergence of zinc-based sorbents, such as zinc titanate, as the leading candidates. Recent studies have indicated that desulfurization system components become prohibitively expensive with increasing operating temperature and that the overall process efficiency gains of conducting desulfurization above 550 C may not be sufficient to justify operation at such high temperatures. The optimum desulfurization temperature appears to be in the range of 350 to 550 C, where technical viability and process efficiency result in lower overall process cost. In addition, because of the more favorable thermodynamic equilibria in the lower temperature range, a large number of metal oxides can be considered for coal gas desulfurization, increasing the likelihood of developing suitable sorbents. This paper reports on the results obtained in an on-going study at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), for the development of durable mixed-metal oxide sorbents for fluidized-bed desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range of 350 to 550 C. The sorbent formulations prepared, their sulfidation performance and regenerability, and the physical and chemical properties of a select group of sorbents are presented and discussed. The results from multi-cycle evaluation tests of a few sorbents in a bench-scale high-pressure high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor are also presented.

  8. Desulfurization of coal by an electrochemical-reduction flotation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; XU Wen-juan; ZHONG Shi-teng; ZONG Zhi-min

    2008-01-01

    The optimum conditions for sulfur removal from coal by electrochemical reduction flotation in an aqueous NaCI solution were determined from orthogonal experiments. The effect of electrolytic conditions on the desulfurization ratio was also studied.The electrochemical-reduction processed coal was examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis. The results show that electrochemical reduction converts hydrophobic pyrite in Nantong coal into hydrophilic FeS and S2 and leads to an increase in the concentration of hydroxyl groups and aliphatic moieties and a corresponding decrease in carboxyl and carbonyl groups, which enhances the flotation desulfurization of the coal.

  9. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  10. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12...

  11. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  12. Desulfurization of model aromatic molecules by Pedomicrobium sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercole, C.; Sulpizii, M.P.; Veglio, F.; Bartolini, S.; Toro, L.; Lepidi, A. [University of L`Alquila, L`Alquila (Italy). Dept. of Basic and Applied Biology

    1997-11-01

    A bacterial strain identified as Pedomicrobium sp., was isolated on the basis of the capability to remove volatile sulfur containing fragments including H{sub 2}S from carboxythiophene and the heterocyclic sulfurated molecules: benzothiolene, thianthrene, thiophene, thiophenecarboxyaldehyde and dibenzothiophene. The strain was selected for its desulfurizing capability on synthetic media in different culture conditions and atmosphere composition. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-xiang Yu; Xin-hua Wang; Mao Wang; Wan-jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity (B) and Al2O3 content (B=3.5−5.0;20wt%−25wt%Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity (CS) of the slag were calculated. Then slag−metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution (LS). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO−Al2O3−SiO2−MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5−5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%−25wt%has high activity of CaO (aCaO), with no deterioration of CS compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured LS between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt%and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt%is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5−5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt%has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  15. Progress of the technique of coal microwave desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuxiang Tao; Ning Xu; Maohua Xie; Longfei Tang

    2014-01-01

    With the advantages of its fast speed, effective and moderate controllable conditions, desulfurization of coal by microwave has become research focus in the field of clean coal technology. Coal is a homogeneous mixture which consists of various components with different dielectric properties, so their abilities to absorb microwaves are different, and the sulfur-containing components are better absorbers of microwave, which makes them can be selectively heated and reacted under microwave irradiation. There still remain controversies on the principle of microwave desulfurization at present, thermal effects or non-thermal effects. The point of thermal effects of microwave is mainly base on its characters of rapidly and selectly heating. While, in view of non-thermal effect, direct interactions between the microwave electromagnetic field and sulfur containing components are proposed. It is a fundamental problem to determine the dielectric properties of coal and the sulfur-containing components to reveal the interaction of microwave and sulfur-containing compounds. However, the test of dielectric property of coal is affected by many factors, which makes it difficult to measure dielectric properties accurately. In order to achieve better desulfurization effect, the researchers employ methods of adding chemical additives such as acid, alkali, oxidant, reductant, or changing the reaction atmosphere, or combining with other methods such as magnetic separation, ultrasonic and microorganism. Researchers in this field have also put forward several processes, and have obtained a number of patents. Obscurity of microwave desulfurization mechanism, uncertainties in qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulfur-containing functional groups in coal, and the lack of special microwave equipment have limited further development of microwave desulfurization technology.

  16. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-xiang; Wang, Xin-hua; Wang, Mao; Wang, Wan-jun

    2014-12-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity ( B) and Al2O3 content ( B = 3.5-5.0; 20wt%-25wt% Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity ( C S) of the slag were calculated. Then slag-metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution ( L S). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%-25wt% has high activity of CaO ( a CaO), with no deterioration of C S compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured L S between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt% is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  17. Application of Thiobacillus ferroxidans to the bacterial desulfurization of coal; Application du Thiobacillus ferroxidans a la desulfuration bacterienne du charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecko, P. [Ostrava Universite Technique (Czech Republic); Sedlackova, V. [MUS Republique Tcheque (Czech Republic)

    2001-03-01

    The applicability of bacterial lixiviation of coal is tested on a sample from the Merkur basin (Northern Bohemia, Czech republic). Clean cultures of Thiobacillus ferroxidans can totally remove the pyrite sulfur after one month of treatment. With this process, the desulfurization can reach 48%. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  18. The impact of stellar feedback on hot gas in galaxy haloes: the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and soft X-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    van de Voort, Freeke; Hopkins, Philip F; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Feldmann, Robert; Kereš, Dušan; Chan, T K; Hafen, Zachary H

    2016-01-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect and soft X-ray emission are routinely observed around massive galaxies and in galaxy groups and clusters. We study these observational diagnostics of galaxy haloes for a suite of cosmological `zoom-in' simulations from the `Feedback In Realistic Environments' project, which spans a large range in halo mass 10^10-10^13 Msun). We explore the effect of stellar feedback on the hot gas observables. The properties of our simulated groups, such as baryon fractions, SZ flux, and X-ray luminosities (L_X), are broadly consistent with existing observations, even though feedback from active galactic nuclei is not included. We make predictions for future observations of lower-mass objects for both SZ and diffuse X-ray measurements, finding that they are not just scaled-down versions of massive galaxies, but more strongly affected by galactic winds driven by star formation. Low-mass haloes (~10^13 Msun, on the other hand, L_X is much less variable and not correlated with the SFR, ...

  19. Selection of adsorbents for in-situ coupling technology of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In-situ coupling of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new desulfurization technology for fossil oil. It has the merits of high-selectivity of biodesulfurization and high-rate of adsorptive desulfurization. It is carried out by assembling nano-adsorbents onto surfaces of microbial cells. In this work, In-situ coupling desulfurization technology of widely used desulfurization adsorbents of γ-Al2O3, Na-Y molecular sieves, and active carbon with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8 were studied. Results show that Na-Y molecular sieves restrain the activity of R-8 cells and active carbon cannot desorb the substrate dibenzothiophene (DBT). Thus, they are not applicable to in-situ coupling desulfurization technology. Gamma-Al2O3 can adsorb DBT from oil phase quickly, and then desorb it and transfer it to R-8 cells for biodegradation, thus increasing desulfurization rate. It is also found that nano-sized γ-Al2O3 increases desulfurization rate more than regular-sized γ-Al2O3. Therefore, nano-γ-Al2O3 is regarded as the better adsorbent for this in-situ coupling desulfurization technology.

  20. Selection of adsorbents for in-situ coupling technology of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In-situ coupling of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new desulfurization technol- ogy for fossil oil. It has the merits of high-selectivity of biodesulfurization and high-rate of adsorptive desulfurization. It is carried out by assembling nano-adsorbents onto surfaces of microbial cells. In this work, In-situ coupling desulfurization technology of widely used desulfurization adsorbents of γ-Al2O3, Na-Y molecular sieves, and active carbon with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8 were studied. Results show that Na-Y molecular sieves restrain the activity of R-8 cells and active carbon cannot desorb the sub- strate dibenzothiophene (DBT). Thus, they are not applicable to in-situ coupling desulfurization tech- nology. Gamma-Al2O3 can adsorb DBT from oil phase quickly, and then desorb it and transfer it to R-8 cells for biodegradation, thus increasing desulfurization rate. It is also found that nano-sized γ-Al2O3 increases desulfurization rate more than regular-sized γ-Al2O3. Therefore, nano- γ-Al2O3 is regarded as the better adsorbent for this in-situ coupling desulfurization technology.

  1. Comparison of deep desulfurization methods in alumina production process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘战伟; 李旺兴; 马文会; 尹中林; 武国宝

    2015-01-01

    Several methods of deep desulfurization in alumina production process were studied, and the costs of these methods were compared. It is found that most of the S2− in sodium aluminate solution can be removed by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide in digestion process, and in this way the effect of S2− on alumina product quality is eliminated. However, the removal efficiency of2-23SOin sodium aluminate solution is very low by this method. Both S2− and2-23SO in sodium aluminate solution can be removed completely by wet oxidation method in digestion process. The cost of desulfurization by wet oxidation is lower than by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide. The results of this research reveal that wet oxidation is an economical and feasible method for the removal of sulfur in alumina production process to improve alumina quality, and provide valuable guidelines for alumina production by high-sulfur bauxite.

  2. Microbial desulfurization of coal by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and thermophilic archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, G.; Pott, B.-M.; Larsson, L.; Holst, O.; Karlsson, H.T. (Univ. of Lund, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II, Chemical Center)

    1994-11-01

    Several different microorganisms have been suggested for desulfurization. In the present investigation, the thermophilic archaea [ital Acidianus brierleyi] (DSM 1651), [ital Sulfolobus acidocaldarius] (DSM 639) and [ital Sulfolobus solfataricus] (DSM 1616) were compared with the mesophyilic bacterium [ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans] (DSM 583) concerning their capability of removing sulfur from coal. The desulfurization rate as well as the amount of sulfur removed by the microorganisms was studied. Two of the investigated microorganisms [ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans] and [ital Acidianus brierleyi], were capable of oxidizing pure pyrite as well as oxidizing sulfur in coal. A kinetic analysis was performed assuming first order reactions. The rate constant for oxidation of pure pyrite by [ital A. brierleyi] was observed to be higher than for [ital T. ferrooxidans]. The values of the rate constants for sulfur removal from coal were comparable for the two microorganisms, but were higher than for oxidation of pure pyrite. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Experimental and mechanism studies on seawater flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (Seawater FGD) process has a number of advantages, but the study on mechanism of seawater FGD is little. The effects of absorbing efficiency of SO2 by the constant component and part of trace transition elements in seawater are studied by the experiment. The results indicate that the effect factors of absorption of SO2 by seawater are alkaline, ion intensity, catalysis of Cl- and transition metal ions Fe, Mn. The degree of effect is alkaline > the catalysis of Cl-, Fe2+ and Mn > ion intensity. The mechanisms of catalysis oxidation for S(IV) by Cl, Feand Mnare discussed. According to the results, some measures can be used to improved the capability of desulfurization.

  4. Mathematical Model of Hot Metal Desulfurization by Powder Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cepeda Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a numerous number of studies on mathematical model of hot metal desulfurization by deep injection of calcium carbide, the research field as a whole is not well integrated. This paper presents a model that takes into account the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport processes to predict the sulfur levels in the hot metal throughout a blow. The model could be utilized to assess the influence of the treatment temperature, rate of injection, gas flow rate, and initial concentration of sulfur on the desulfurization kinetics. In the second part of this paper an analysis of the industrial data for injection of calcium carbide using this model is described. From a mathematical model that describes the characteristics of a system, it is possible to predict the behavior of the variables involved in the process, resulting in savings of time and money. Discretization is realized through the finite difference method combined with interpolation in the border domain by Taylor series.

  5. A Novel Desulfurizer-Catalyst Combination for Logistic Fuel Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    dictate more efficient use of fuel resources and the synthesis of alternative fuels. In the light of eventual energy shortages, the ever-increasing... synthesis processes are based on the gasification of fossil fuels, which produce a variety of undesirable “green- house” gases. So even in the...Desulfurizers The first step was to find a suitable support material to host the sorbent. Diatomaceous earth and clinoptilolite (zeolitic clay) were

  6. Mass Transfer Model of Desulfurization in the Electroslag Remelting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Jiang, Zhou-Hua; Dong, Yan-Wu; Li, Yang; Gong, Wei; Liu, Fu-Bin

    2017-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of the slag on desulfurization during the electroslag remelting (ESR) process with a focus of developing a mass transfer model to understand the mechanism of desulfurization. Stainless steel 1Cr21Ni5Ti was used as the electrode and remelted with two different kinds of slags using a 50-kg ESR furnace. The contents of sulfur along the axial direction of product ingots were analyzed. It was found that the sulfur content of 350 ppm in the electrode is reduced to 71 to 95 ppm in the ingot by remelting with the slag containing 5 wt pct of CaO, and lowered more to 47 to 59 ppm with another slag having 20 wt pct CaO. On the basis of the penetration and film theories, the theoretical model developed in this work well elucidates the kinetics of desulfurization revealing the mechanism of sulfur transfer during the ESR process. The calculation results obtained from the model agree well with the experimental results. The model indicates that when sulfur content in electrode is given, there is a corresponding minimum value of sulfur content in the ingot due to the kinetics limit. This lowest sulfur content cannot be further reduced even with increasing L S (sulfur distribution coefficient between metal and slag phases) or decreasing sulfur content in the slag. Constant addition of extra amount of CaO to the molten slag with the increase of sulfur content in the slag during the remelting process can improve the macrosegregation of sulfur distributed along the axial direction of ESR ingots. Since the rate-determining steps of the sulfur mass transfer lie in the metal phase, adding calcium as deoxidizer can change mass transfer of sulfur and thus promote desulfurization further during the ESR process.

  7. Mathematical Model of Natural Gas Desulfurization Based on Membrane Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuli; Ma Jun; Wang Ganyu; Zhou Heng

    2014-01-01

    Models of mass transfer kinetics combined with mass transfer differential equation and mass transfer resistance equation were established on the basis of double-iflm theory. Mass transfer process of H2S absorption by means of polypro-pylene hydrophobic microporous hollow ifber membrane contactor was simulated using MDEA (N-methyldiethanolamine) as the absorption liquid and corresponding experiments of natural gas desulfurization were performed. The simulation re-sults indicated that the removal rate of hydrogen sulifde showed positive dependence on the absorption liquid concentration and gas pressure. However, the desulfurization rate showed negative dependence on gas lfow. The simulated values were in good agreement with the experimental results. The in-tube concentration of hydrogen sulifde at the same point increased with increase in the gas velocity. Axial concentration of hydrogen sulifde decreased rapidly at the beginning, and the de-crease saw a slowdown during the latter half period. Hydrogen sulifde concentration dropped quickly in the radial direction, and the reduction in the radial direction was weakened with the increase of axial length due to the gradual reduction of hy-drogen sulifde concentration along the tube. The desulfurization rate under given operating conditions can be predicted by this model, and the theoretical basis for membrane module design can also be provided.

  8. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1994-12-31

    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  9. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%.

  10. Desulfurization of fuels with calcium-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A.; Leppin, D.; Banerjee, D.D. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Calcium-based sorbents, such as limestone and dolomite, are viable candidates for sulphur-capturing agents in an in-situ coal gasification/desulfurization process. The effect of limestone addition on the hydrodynamics of a fluidized-bed gasifier, desulfurization of the product gas, and stabilization of the solid wastes have been studied. The hydrodynamic characteristics of coal char/limestone mixtures, such as mixing and fines retention, have been studied in a 0.2 m diameter fluidization column. Kinetic data pertaining to the reaction between calcium oxide (which is obtained by calcination of limestone and dolomite) and hydrogen sulfide have been obtained by a gravimetric technique in the temperature range of 650 to 1050{degree}C. Kinetic data relating to the reaction between calcium sulfide (which is obtained by sulfidation of calcium-based sorbents) and oxygen have been obtained in the temperature range of 800 to 1050{degree}C and in the pressure range of 2 to 3.1 MPa. The operating conditions for these reactions have been chosen to be within the application range of a commercial coal gasification process that is accompanied by in situ desulfurization. 14 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12 MPa at the age of 28 d of curing. Stabilizer can meet the strength requirements of cement-soil mixing pile composite foundation and cement-soil mixing pile waterproof curtain.

  12. The impact of stellar feedback on hot gas in galaxy haloes: the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and soft X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Voort, Freeke; Quataert, Eliot; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Feldmann, Robert; Kereš, Dušan; Chan, T. K.; Hafen, Zachary

    2016-12-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect and soft X-ray emission are routinely observed around massive galaxies and in galaxy groups and clusters. We study these observational diagnostics of galaxy haloes for a suite of cosmological `zoom-in' simulations from the `Feedback In Realistic Environments' project, which spans a large range in halo mass (1010-13 M⊙). We explore the effect of stellar feedback on the hot gas observables. The properties of our simulated groups, such as baryon fractions, SZ flux, and X-ray luminosities (LX), are broadly consistent with existing observations, even though feedback from active galactic nuclei is not included. We make predictions for future observations of lower mass objects for both SZ and diffuse X-ray measurements, finding that they are not just scaled-down versions of massive galaxies, but more strongly affected by galactic winds driven by star formation. Low-mass haloes (≲1011 M⊙) retain a low fraction of their baryons, which results in a strong suppression of the SZ signal. Our simulations therefore predict a scaling with halo mass that is steeper than self-similar for haloes less massive than 1013 M⊙. For halo masses ≲1012 M⊙, LX is time variable and correlated primarily with the star formation rate (SFR). For these objects, the diffuse X-ray emission is powered mostly by galactic winds and the gas dominating the X-ray emission is flowing out with radial velocities close to the halo's circular velocity. For halo masses ≳1013 M⊙, on the other hand, LX is much less variable and not correlated with the SFR, because the emission originates from the quasi-hydrostatic, virialized halo gas.

  13. Ternary System of Fe-based Ionic Liquid, Ethanol and Water for Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解美莹; 李沛沛; 郭惠锋; 高丽霞; 余江

    2012-01-01

    Fe-based ionic liquid (Fe-IL) was synthesized by mixing FeCl3·6H2O and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Bmim]C1 in this paper. The phase diagram of a ternary Fe-IL, ethanol and water system was investigated to construct a ternary desulfurization solution for wet flue gas desulfurization. The effects of flow rate and concentration of SO2, reaction temperature, pH and Fe-IL fraction in aqueous desulfurization solution on the desulfiariza- tion efficiency were investigated. The results shows that the best composition of ternary desulfurization solution of Fe-IL, ethanol and water is 1 : 1.5 : 3 by volume ratio, and pH should be controlled at 2.0. Under such conditions, a desulfurization rate greater than 90% could be obtained. The product of sulfuric acid had inhibition effect on the wet desulfurization process. With applying this new ternary desulfurization solution, not only the catalyst Fe-IL can be recycled and reused, but also the product sulfuric acid can be separated directly from the ternary desulfurization system.

  14. Commercial Test of Multi-functional Desulfurizing Agent TS-01 for Gasoline in FCC Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Zhi; Wu Yingjian; Yu Weisheng

    2003-01-01

    Experimental use of multi-functional desulfurizing agent TS-01 for FCC gasoline in the FCC unitof SINOPEC Jiujiang Company shows that the multi-functional desulfurizing agent can effectivelyremove various kinds of sulfur in FCC gasoline and diesel fuel and fulfill passivation on heavy metals.

  15. Ni supported on activated carbon as catalyst for flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ni supported on activated carbon are prepared by excessive impregnation and the desulfurization activity is investigated. It has been shown that the activated carbon-supported Ni is an efficient solid catalyst for flue gas desulfurization. The activated carbon treated by HNO3 exhibits high desulfurization activity, and different amounts of loaded-Ni on activated carbon significantly influence the desulfurization activity. The catalysts are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of XRD and XPS indicate that the activated carbon treated by HNO3 can increase oxygen-containing functional groups. Ni on activated carbon after calcination at 800 °C shows major Ni phase and minor NiO phase, and with increasing Ni content on activated carbon, Ni phase increases and affects the desulfurization activity of the catalyst, which proves that Ni is the main active phase.

  16. The desulfurization behavior of mineral matter in ash during coal combustion at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tian-hua; Li, Run-dong; Li, Yan-ji; Zhou, Jun-huz; Cen, Ke-fa [Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang (China)

    2007-02-15

    In allusion to the desulfurization characteristic of coal ash, the desulfurization of the ash and CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} added to Changguang coal with different proportions at high temperature was studied. Sulphoaluminate as the main desulfurization product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and SEM visualization. Experimental results indicate that higher proportion of ash added can improve the desulfurization efficiency. The sulphoaluminate content in residue increases with increasing the addition of ash. The desulfurization efficiency of the additive CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is up to 24% at 1300{sup o}C, at the same time the sulphoaluminate is detected in the residue. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Ambient temperature desulfurizer of nano-ZnO modified with cerium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fen; YAN Bo; ZHANG Jie; JIANG An-xi; SHAO Chun-hong; ZHANG Yan-ping

    2008-01-01

    The compound nano-ZnO modified with Ce was prepared by homogeneous precipitation. IR, XRD and dynamic experiments show that the crystal size of nano-ZnO desulfurizer is decreased after being modified with Ce and its desulfurization activities are improved greatly. When calcined at 270 ℃, Ce distributes evenly calcining temperature is 570℃, the crystal CeO2separates out and the amorphous structure of zinc oxide disap-pears, at the same time, the crystal is perfect and its size increases, but the desulfurization activities decrease. The desulfurization product of nano-ZnO modified with Ce was analyzed with XPS. The results show that the ad-sorption compound of HS, S and ZnS exists on the surface of the desulfurizer.

  18. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.H.; Abbasian, J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Li, Li [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents (i.e. copper-chromium and copper-cerium) for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650{degrees} to 850{degrees}C. In this program, structural and kinetic studies are conducted on various compositions of the two selected copper-based sorbents to determine the optimum sorbent composition. The effect of operating conditions on the performance of the sorbents alone with the stability and regenerability of the selected sorbents in successive sulfidation/regeneration operation are determined. Parametric multicycle desulfurization tests were conducted this quarter in a bench-scale (5-cm-diameter) quartz reactor at one atmosphere using the CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuO/CeO{sub 2} sorbents. The parameters studied included temperature, space velocity, and feed gas composition. Both sorbents were able to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration of the reactor feed gas to <10 ppM under all conditions tested. The apparent reactivity of the CuO/CeO{sub 2} sorbent was lower after the first cycle which may be attributed to incomplete regeneration caused by sulfate formation.

  19. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1995-01-01

    Fresh isolates of bacteria presumptively identified as R. erythropolis unequivocally have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. The production of OH-BP from either DBT or DBTO{sub 2} was confirmed by difference spectroscopy, HPLC, and mass spectrometry. The temperature, pH, and means of supplying the thiophenic or sulfonic sole source of sulfur were optimized. The maximal rate of growth of the organism, its affinity for sulfone, and the extent to which substrate was converted to product were determined by using batch, fed batch, and continuous cultures. For strain N1-36, the maximum specific growth rate was 0.235 hr{sup -1} which corresponds to a minimal generation time of 2.95 hr. The K{sub s} was estimated to be 0.39 {mu}M. With 100 {mu}M DBT as the sole sulfur source, approximately 40 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth); with 100 {mu}M DBTO{sub 2} as the sole sulfur source, approximately 70 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth). The desulfurization activity is repressed by SO{sub 4}{sup =} OH-BP does not serve as a carbon source. The DbtS{sup +} phenotype of the R. erythropolis isolates is stable and discrete. The isolates selectively remove sulfur from DBT, a compound which models a refractory form of organic sulfur in compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. The desulfurization occurs with no oxidation of carbon-carbon bonds. The stability and specificity (along with genetic regulation) indicate that microbial desulfurization in a real phenomenon in which a noxious element is removed without significantly affecting the calorific value of the substrate. Additional characterization (and optimization) would provide the basis of a very important form of fossil fuel beneficiation.

  20. Study on Desulfurization of Gasoline by Electrochemical Oxidation and Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenbo; Wang Shujun; Liu Hongyan; Wang Zhenxin

    2006-01-01

    In order to further reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, a new desulfurization process was proposed by using catalytic oxidation and extraction realized in an electrochemical fluidized reactor. The fluidized layer of loaded catalyst particles consisted of lead dioxide (PbO2) supported on activated carbon particles (PbO2/C) and the electrolyte was aqueous NaOH solution. The PbO2/C particle anodes could remarkably accelerate the electrochemical reaction rate and promote the electrochemical catalysis of sulfur compounds. The sulfur compounds were at first oxidized to sulfones or sulfoxides, which were then removed after extraction. The experimental results indicated that the optimal desulfurization conditions were as follows: The cell voltage was 3.2 V, the concentration of hydroxyl ions in electrolyte was 0.12 mol/L, and the feed rate was 300 mL/min. Under these conditions the concentration of sulfur in gasoline was reduced from 310 ppm to 70 ppm. Based on these experimental results, a mechanism of indirect electrochemically catalytic oxidation was proposed.

  1. Preparation of activated ceria and its desulfurization performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-chun Yu; Yong Deng; Fei Wang; Yue-bin Feng; Xiu-min Chen; Bin Yang; Da-chun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Activated ceria (CeO2/γ-Al2O3) prepared by impregnation was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM), and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The desulfurization of the activated ceria was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The results showed that ceria could be highly dispersed or crystallized on the surface ofγ-alumina. The reduction temperatures of 0.1CeO2/γ-Al2O3, 0.45CeO2/γ-Al2O3, and CeO2 ranged from 250°C to 470°C, 330°C to 550°C, and 350°C to 550°C, respectively. The reduction peak tem-perature of 0.45CeO2/γ-Al2O3 was higher than that of 0.1CeO2/γ-Al2O3, which was consistent with the reduction temperature of CeO2. O2 participated in the reaction between ceria and sulfur dioxide. The desulfurization product was cerium(III) sulfate. The intensity of the hy-droxyl band decreased with the formation of sulfate species.

  2. Research on optimal domestication of thiobacillus ferooxidans and desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, G.; Tao, X.; Zhang, X.; ??? Luo, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2006-07-15

    In order to increase the efficiency of biodesulfurization and reduce the reaction time, based on the high selectivity adsorption and oxidation characteristic of thiobacillus ferooxidans (T.f.) for pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in coal, the strain of T.f. was acclimatized by changing concentration of Fe{sup 2+}, H{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} and adding FeS{sub 2} and glucose in the 9 K medium. The optimal conditions of growth were investigated and used in the biodesulfurization experiments. The results show that the normal growth of T.f. was achieved after two turns of acclimatization. The desulfurization efficiency is the best under the conditions of 10% inoculation, 1.85 pH value and 27{sup o}C. The smaller the size of coal particle is, the effective the biodesulfurization is. The maximum sulphur removal from coal of 76.2% was obtained after reaction time of 7 days. The mechanisms of desulfurization with T.f. can be explained by the cooperation reaction of dissolved oxygen, bacteria and Fe{sup 3+}. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Application of Microwave Technology for Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping; Zhao Shanlin; Kong Lingzhao; Li Jiandong; Zhai Yuchun

    2004-01-01

    The microwave technology was introduced for the desulfurization of diesel fuel. The atmosphericsecond side-cut diesel fraction, which was supplied by Liaohe Petrochemical Company, was desulfurized by anoxidation process under microwave irradiation. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), can oxidize the sulfur compounds indiesel fuel selectively and convert them into sulfones. Based on the rule of dissolution by similar substances,these sulfones are removed from diesel fuel because they could be dissolved in solvent phase. So the sulfurcontent of diesel fuel is decreased. The influence of the concentration of oxidizing reagent, solvent phase to oilphase volume ratio (S/O), irradiation pressure, irradiation time, and the irradiation power have been investigated.The optimum conditions for the refining process was determined. The sulfur removal rate was 59.7% under theoptimum conditions of 8%H2O2, S/O=0.25, 0.05MPa, 6 min, and 375W, respectively. When no microwave irradia-tion was applied, the removal rate was 11.5% only.

  4. Highly attrition resistant sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B.; Abbasian, J.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [and others

    1998-04-01

    One of the main obstacles in the commercialization of high-temperature desulfurization systems for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation processes is the development of regenerable sulfur sorbents with suitable physical and chemical characteristics. The focus of much of the current research on sorbent development has been on the use of zinc-based sorbents. These sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work; however, they have been shown to suffer from sulfate formation and zinc volatilization, leading to sorbent degradation over multi-cycle use. Therefore, investigation of non-zinc based sorbents is a logical approach to develop an effective alternative. An effective alternative to zinc-based sorbents could be manganese-based sorbents which have recently been shown to withstand high temperature ({ge} 750{degrees}C) operation and also maintain structural and reactive integrity over many cycles. However, because of process equipment limitations and other process variables such as fuel gas alkali content, a number of investigators have recently argued that the benefit to be gained by lower temperature application may outweigh the slight loss of efficiency, resulting in lower overall cost of electricity. Desulfurization temperatures {le} 538{degrees}C have been recommended to provide the best compromise between process equipment limitations and higher temperature operation.

  5. Thermodynamic Analysis of Desulfurization of Fine Coal by Electrochemical Reduction Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; ZHU Hong; ZHANG Yu

    2003-01-01

    Problems in desulfurization of coal by electrochemical reduction is analyzed and calculated. The result shows that 1) the △rGm function of the reaction of pyrite into FeS and the modifying reaction decreasing the oxygenous functions on coal surface is smaller than zero in a spontaneous reaction, and greater than zero in a nonspontaneous reaction; 2) the △rGm value can be adjusted by pH and the dosage of electrolyte to make it be greater than zero , which is favorable for the modifying reaction and useful for desulfurization of coal. The research has provided a theoretical foundation for determining reasonable technical parameters of desulfurization

  6. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. Final technical report, 1 September 1992--31 August, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.H.; Abbasian, J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents, namely Cu-Cr and Cu-Ce, for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650 to 850 C. Such high temperatures will be required for the new generation of gas turbines in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle systems. Structural and kinetic studies were conducted on various compositions of the two Cu-based sorbents to determine the optimum sorbent composition. The effect to operating conditions on the performance of the sorbents along with the stability and regenerability of the selected sorbents in successive sulfidation/regeneration operation were determined. Overall, the CuO-lean binaries (with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} or CeO{sub 2}) may benefit the H{sub 2}S breakthrough levels. While this is at the expense of sulfur capacity for the Cu-Cr-O sorbents, it may not affect the capacity of the Cu-Ce-O sorbents. Parametric multicycle desulfurization tests were conducted in a bench-scale quartz reactor at one atmosphere using the CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuO-CeO{sub 2} sorbents. The parameters studied included temperature, space velocity, and feed gas composition. Both sorbents were able to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration of the reactor feed gas from 5,000 ppmv to less than 1 ppmv to 10 ppmv at 750 to 850 C. Both sorbents were found to consume H{sub 2} and produce SO{sub 2} during the initial stages of sulfidation. Analysis of partially sulfided samples identified predominantly Cu metal, the additive oxide and small amounts of oxidic copper. For the Cu-Cr-O sorbents, the latter is apparently sufficient to keep the H{sub 2}S pre-breakthrough levels as low as has been reported in this work. For the Cu-Ce-O sorbents, in which very little or no oxidic copper remained, the low H{sub 2}S levels may be due to the participation of CeO{sub 2}, whose sulfidation is promoted by Cu.

  7. Characteristics of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 and its Dsz-negative mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Etemadifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodesulfurization is used as a selective method for lowering the sulfur content of petroleum products. Materials and methods: A sulfur-oxidation bacterial strain named Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GU570564 was used in this study for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT. Results: The induced culture of strain R1 was able to produce 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2- HBP from DBT followed 4S pathway without further degrading carbon backbone. This process confirmed by gas chromatography (GC analysis. The specific activity of DBT desulfurization by R1 was 45 µM (g dry wt-1 h-1. The addition of Tween 80 as surfactant and glycerol as carbon source determines a 100% rate of DBT-desulfurization during 3 days. The heavy plasmid detected in R1 strain carries dsz genes responsible for biodesulfurization of DBT that was shown by PCR reaction. The mutant strains which had lost this plasmid also had lost desulfurization phenotype. Both mutant and wild strain were sensitive to high concentration of 2-HBP and some antibiotics. Discussion and conclusion: Strain R1 desulfurize DBT through the sulfur-specific degradation pathway or 4S pathway with the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S bonds without reducing the energy content. Addition of surfactant enhanced the desulfurization of DBT by increasing its bioavailability and also could improve the growth and desulfurization rate. The location of desulfurization genes was on a heavy plasmid in strain R1. Based on the results of this study, R. erythropolis R1 could serve as a model system for efficient biodesulfurization of petroleum oil without reducing the energy value.

  8. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Gao, Ruimin [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Zhao, Jianshe, E-mail: jszhao@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Wang, Junlong [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China)

    2015-05-15

    M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2} (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5) or the M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2} doping W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 and Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N{sub 2} adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed.

  9. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the desulfurization of coal, coal liquids, and crude oil. Flotation heap leaching, oxydesulfurization, metal oxide, microwave process, and chlorination are among the pre-combustion processes discussed. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Low-temperature desulfurizing reaction with Cu-containing sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kwang Bok; Choi, Eun Mi; Song, Yi Keun; Rhee, Young Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Taejeon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    The sorbents containing Cu O as an active material were prepared and their effectiveness in desulfurization was investigated at low temperatures(350-550 degree C). M.I.5 and MnO{sub 2} were chosen as additives and SiO{sub 2} was chosen as support material. In the low temperature regeneration reaction, sulfate was formed, which could not be decomposed until regeneration temperature reached 650 degree C. Sulfidation reaction rate decreased as calcination temperature increased. Promoting effect of MoO{sub 3} was not observed throughout the sulfidation/regeneration reaction. When SiO{sub 2} content was below 25% of sorbents composition, sulfur loading of above 10% could be obtained. Mass transfer inhibition by sulfiding gas was observed for the sorbents containing no SiO{sub 2}. 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  12. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  13. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  14. Applying ACF to Desulfurization Process from Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义; 张智刚; 唐强; 曹子栋

    2004-01-01

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used.Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost.

  15. Advanced Low-Temperature Fluid Bed Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Wangerow, J.R. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the results obtained in an ongoing study geared towards developing advanced mixed-metal oxide sorbents for desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range of 350 to 550{degrees}C. The paper focuses on the study related to the development of durable sorbents suitable for fluidized-bed application and addresses thermodynamic considerations, sulfidation kinetics, regenerability, and the physical and chemical characteristics of a number of novel sorbents.

  16. Highly attrition resistant sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B.; Abbasian, J.; Zarnegar, M.K.; Wangerow, J.R.; Carty, R.H.

    1998-07-01

    One of the main obstacles in the commercialization of high-temperature desulfurization systems for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation processes is the development of regenerable sulfur sorbents with suitable physical and chemical characteristics. The focus of much of the current research on sorbent development has been on the use of zinc-based sorbents. These sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work; however, they have been shown to suffer from sulfate formation and zinc volatilization, leading to sorbent degradation over multi-cycle use. Therefore, investigation of non-zinc based sorbents is a logical approach to develop an effective alternative. An effective alternative to zinc-based sorbents could be manganese-based sorbents which have recently been shown to withstand high temperature ({gt} 750 C) operation and also maintain structural and reactive integrity over many cycles. However, because of process equipment limitations and other process variables such as fuel gas alkali content, a number of investigators have recently argued that the benefit to be gained by lower temperature application may outweigh the slight loss of efficiency, resulting in lower overall cost of electricity. Desulfurization temperatures {lt} 538 C have been recommended to provide the best compromise between process equipment limitations and higher temperature operation. This paper reports on an on-going research program to develop novel, highly reactive, attrition-resistant, and regenerable manganese-based sorbents for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal-derived fuel gases at temperatures of 316 to 538 C and pressures up to 300 psig. The primary focus of this study is placed on the preparation (method and composition), characterization, and evaluation of a number of sorbent formulations to identify the most suitable manganese-based sorbent. The manganese-based sorbent formulations prepared to

  17. Roles of Electrolyte Characterization on Bauxite Electrolysis Desulfurization with Regeneration and Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuhua; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-10-01

    The recycling of NaCl used as supporting electrolyte for bauxite electrolysis was carried out in this study. The electrolyte was regenerated by adding anhydrous CaCl2 into the solution after filtration, and effects of electrolyte characterization on bauxite electrolysis were examined by observing the change in desulfurization ratio and cell voltage. The results indicated that the desulfurization ratio increased with increasing recycling times of electrolyte. In the meantime, the increase in recycling times has led to the decrease in pH value as well as the increase in Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte, which were the main reasons for the increase in the desulfurization ratio with increasing recycling of electrolyte. The pH value of electrolyte after second electrolysis was lower than 1.5, and the desulfurization ratio increased obviously due to the increase in Fe3+ concentration and suppression of jarosite formation. The increase in Ca2+ concentration did not apparently change desulfurization ratio and anode surface activity. However, with Ca2+ addition, the cathode surface was covered by CaSO4·nH2O, thus resulting in the increase of cell voltage.

  18. Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Zhao, Suwei; Chen, Changhe; Qi, Haiying

    2008-03-01

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH)2 content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH)2 particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH)2 particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH)2 particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray.

  19. Adhesive carrier particles for rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; You, Changfu; Song, Chenxing

    2010-06-15

    A rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization was prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime. The circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler and chain boiler ash, both of which have rough surfaces with large specific surface areas and specific pore volumes, can improve the adhesion, abrasion resistance, and desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbent when used as the adhesive carrier particles. The adhesion ability of sorbent made from circulation ash is 67.4% higher than that of the existing rapidly hydrated sorbent made from fly ash, the abrasion ratio is 76.2% lower, and desulfurization ability is 14.1% higher. For sorbent made from chain boiler ash, the adhesion ability is increased by 74.7%, the desulfurization ability is increased by 30.3%, and abrasion ratio is decreased by 52.4%. The abrasion ratios of the sorbent made from circulation ash having various average diameters were all about 9%, and their desulfurization abilities were similar (approximately 150 mg/g).

  20. Roles of Electrolyte Characterization on Bauxite Electrolysis Desulfurization with Regeneration and Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuhua; Wang, Mingyong

    2017-02-01

    The recycling of NaCl used as supporting electrolyte for bauxite electrolysis was carried out in this study. The electrolyte was regenerated by adding anhydrous CaCl2 into the solution after filtration, and effects of electrolyte characterization on bauxite electrolysis were examined by observing the change in desulfurization ratio and cell voltage. The results indicated that the desulfurization ratio increased with increasing recycling times of electrolyte. In the meantime, the increase in recycling times has led to the decrease in pH value as well as the increase in Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte, which were the main reasons for the increase in the desulfurization ratio with increasing recycling of electrolyte. The pH value of electrolyte after second electrolysis was lower than 1.5, and the desulfurization ratio increased obviously due to the increase in Fe3+ concentration and suppression of jarosite formation. The increase in Ca2+ concentration did not apparently change desulfurization ratio and anode surface activity. However, with Ca2+ addition, the cathode surface was covered by CaSO4·nH2O, thus resulting in the increase of cell voltage.

  1. Deep desulfurization of full range and low boiling diesel streams from Kuwait Lower Fars heavy crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, A.; Al-Hindi, A.; Stanislaus, A. [Petroleum and Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2007-09-15

    Information on feed quality and, in particular, various types of sulfur compounds present in the diesel (gas oil) fractions produced form different crudes and their HDS reactivities under different operating conditions are of a great value for the optimization and economics of the deep HDS process. This paper deals with deep desulfurization of gas oils obtained from a new heavy Kuwaiti crude, namely, Lower Fars (LF) which will be processed in the future at Kuwaiti refineries. Comparative studies were carried out to examine the extent of deep HDS, and the quality of diesel product using two gas oil feeds with different boiling ranges. The results revealed that the full range diesel feed stream produced from the LF crude was very difficult to desulfurize due to its low quality caused by high aromatics content (low feed saturation) together with the presence of high concentrations of organic nitrogen compounds and sterically hindered alkyl DBTs. The low-boiling range gas oil showed better desulfurization compared with the full range gas oil, however, deep desulfurization to 50 ppm sulfur was not achieved even at a temperature as high as 380 C for both feeds. The desulfurized diesel product from the low-boiling gas-oil feed was better in quality with respect to the S, N and PNA contents and cetane index than the full-range gas-oil feed. (author)

  2. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, D.; Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-09-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E.T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}/O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This presentation gives the thermodynamic background for consideration of manganese-based sorbents as an alternative to zinc ferrite. To date the work which has been in progress for nine months is limited at this stage to thermogravimetric testing of four formulations of manganese-alumina sorbents to determine the optimum conditions of pelletization and induration to produce reactive pellets.

  3. Deep desulfurization of diesel fuels by catalytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guoxian; CHEN Hui; LU Shanxiang; ZHU Zhongnan

    2007-01-01

    Reaction feed was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT),which was selected as a model organosulfur compound in diesel fuels,in n-octane.The oxidant was a 30 wt-% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide.Catalytic performance of the activated carbons with saturation adsorption of DBT was investigated in the presence of formic acid.In addition,the effects of activated carbon dosage,formic acid concentration,initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide,initial concentration of DBT and reaction temperature on the oxidation of DBT were investigated.Experimental results indicated that performic acid and the hydroxyl radicals produced are coupled to oxidize DBT with a conversion ratio of 100%.Catalytic performance of the combination of activated carbon and formic acid is higher than that ofouly formic acid.The concentration of formic acid,activated carbon dosage,initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide and reaction temperature affect the oxidative removal of DBT.The higher the initial concentration of DBT in the n-octane solution,the more difficult the deep desulfurization by oxidation is.

  4. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P. Brown

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and –independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  5. Oxidative desulfurization of synthetic diesel using supported catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caero, Luis Cedeno; Hernandez, Emiliano [UNICAT, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pedraza, Francisco; Murrieta, Florentino [Programa de Tratamiento en Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-10-30

    In this work, an experimental study was carried out to obtain the reactivity of different organic sulfur compounds and to examine the effect of various parameters, such as temperature, solvent and the amount of oxidant reagent in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction. The oxidation was performed through a vanadium based catalyst in the presence of hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions, atmospheric pressure and temperature range of 303-343K. The sulfur compounds studied were: 2-methylthiophene (2-MT), 2,5-dimethylthiophene (2,5-DMT), benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). All of them are typical thiophenic sulfur compounds present in diesel fuels. A synthetic diesel was prepared with these compounds in hexadecane. The experimental results showed that oxidation reactivities decreased according to the following order: DBT>BT>4-MDBT>2-MT>2,5-DMT>4,6-DMDBT. A fraction of the S compounds removed from the diesel phase, was not transformed to its corresponding sulfone, under these experimental conditions. It is only removed as sulfur compound by extraction, without ODS reaction. The surplus amount of oxidant promoted the equilibrium reaction, but the thermal decomposition of oxidant and oxidation reactions produces water, which inhibits the ODS reactions. Therefore, the controlled addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} improves ODS reactivity of sulfur compounds.

  6. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. [Pyrococcus furiosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  7. Determination of Salt Impurities in MDEA Solution Used in Desulfurization of Highly Sulphurous Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yucheng; Zhang Bo; Chen Mingyan; Wu Danni; Zhou Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The foaming phenomenon of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solution used in desulfurization process occurs frequently in the natural-gas puriifcation plant. The foaming phenomenon has a strong impact on operation of the process unit. The salt impurities are the main reason for causing the foaming of MDEA solution, so the full analysis of salt impuri-ties is necessary. A method for comprehensive analysis of salt impurities in MDEA solution used in desulfurization process was established. Anions and non-metallic cations of MDEA solution were determined by different conditions of ion chro-matograph, respectively. Metallic cations of the solution were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer with the N2O-C2H2 lfame absorption. The analytical results of salt impurities in the desulfurization solution can provide a theoretical basis for an accurate analysis of the factors affecting the foaming of MDEA to unveil further control measures.

  8. Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel with Hydrogen Peroxide Using Na2WO4 s Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xin; Long Jun; Xu Benjing; Xie Chaogang

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative desulfurization was performed on Na2WO4 catalyst in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid under mild reaction conditions (atmospheric pressure and temperature range of 293-343 K). Different organic com-pounds including benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4, 6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene (4, 6-DMDBT) were used to investigate the reactivity of this catalyst, and the effect of various parameters, such as temperature, solvents and the amount of oxidant reagent used in oxidative desulfurization reaction, was also examined. The results showed that the Na2WO4-H2O2 system was very effective for oxidative desulfurization, and the oxidation of BT, DBT and 4, 6-DMDBT was influ-enced by different parameters.

  9. Application of Pt/CdS for the Photocatalytic Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization technology was designed to control emissions of SO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels. With the photocatalytic technology, we cannot only achieve the purpose of solving the problem of SO2 emissions but also realize the desire of hydrogen production from water. CdS loaded with Pt were selected as the model photocatalyst for the photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization. The factors influencing the rate of hydrogen production and ammonia sulfite solution oxidation were detected.

  10. Effect of Slag Chemistry on the Desulfurization Kinetics in Secondary Refining Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Gyu; Shin, Jae Hong; Chung, Yongsug; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Desulfurization behavior was investigated based on a wide slag composition and working temperature range. Moreover, the rate-controlling step (RCS) for desulfurization with regard to the ladle-refining conditions and the transition of the RCS by changing the slag composition was systematically discussed. The desulfurization ratio reached an equilibrium value within approximately 15 minutes irrespective of the CaO/Al2O3 (=C/A = 1.3 to 1.9) and CaO/SiO2 (=C/S = 3.8 to 6.3) ratios. However, the desulfurization behavior of less basic slags (C/A = 1.1 or C/S = 1.9) exhibited a relatively sluggish [S]-decreasing rate as a function of time. The equilibrium S partition ratio increased with an increase in slag basicity (C/A and C/S ratio), not only due to an increase in sulfide capacity but also due to a decrease in oxygen activity in the molten steel. There was a good correlation between the calculated and measured S partition ratios at various slag compositions. However, the measured S partition ratio increased by adding 5 pct CaF2, followed by a constant value. Multiphase slag exhibited a relatively slow desulfurization rate compared to that of fully liquid slag, possibly due to a decrease in the effective liquid slag volume, interfacial reaction area, and a relatively slow slag initial melting rate due to a high melting point. The activation energy of the desulfurization process was estimated to be 58.7 kJ/mol, from which it was proposed that the desulfurization reaction of molten steel via CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-CaF2 ladle slag was generally controlled by the mass transfer of sulfur in the metal phase. However, there was a transitional period associated with the rate-controlling mechanism due to a change in the physicochemical properties of the slag. For slag with a viscosity greater than about 1.1 dPa·s and an equilibrium S partition ratio lower than about 400, the overall mass-transfer coefficient was affected by the slag properties. Hence, it was theoretically and

  11. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used.

  12. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  13. Bio-regeneration of π-complexation desulfurization adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Wangliang; XING; Jianmin; XIONG; Xiaochao; SHAN; Guob

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of adsorption desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new approach to produce clean fuels. Sulfur compounds are firstly adsorbed on adsorbents, and then the adsorbents are regenerated by microbial conversion. π-Complexation adsorbent, Cu(Ⅰ)-Y, was obtained by ion exchanging Y-type zeolite with Cu2+ and then by auto-reduction in helium at 450℃ for 3 h. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) was used as a model compound. The effects of cell concentration, volume of oil phase, the ratio of aqueous phase to adsorbent on DBT desorption by a bacterium were studied. The amounts of DBT desorbed and 2-HBP produced can be apparently increased with addition of n-octane. BDS activity can be improved by increasing cell concentration and the ratio of water-to-adsorbent. 89% of DBT desorbed from the adsorbents can be converted to 2-HBP within 6 h and almost 100% within 24 h, when the volume ratio of oil-to-water was 1/5 mL/mL, the cell concentration was 60 g·L-1, and the ratio of adsorbent-to-oil was 0.03 g·mL-1. The amount of 2-HBP produced was strongly dependent on the volume ratio of oil-to- water, cell concentration and amount of adsorbent. Adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbent is 95% that of the fresh one after being desorbed with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8, washed with n-octane, dried at 100℃ for 24 h and auto-reduced in He.

  14. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Blythe; B. Marsh; S. Miller; C. Richardson; M. Richardson

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI have co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems and to future FGD installations. Field tests have been conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit has been used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998 and at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal in the fall of 1999. Testing at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, began in June 2000 and was completed at the end of January 2001. This Topical Reports includes results from Site 3; results from Sites 1 and 2 were reported previously. At Site 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in a commercially available form as a coated honeycomb structure. Field testing has been supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 3 field effort are also included and discussed in this Topical Report.

  15. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  16. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashutosh Bahuguna; Madhuri K. Lily; Ashok Munjal; Ravindra N. Singh; Koushalya Dangwal

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil.The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No.GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis.The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively.The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT.However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation.The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7.In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT.Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  17. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Lily, Madhuri K; Munjal, Ashok; Singh, Ravindra N; Dangwal, Koushalya

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil. The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively. The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT. However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation. The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7. In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT. Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  18. 超声速气流中煤油喷雾的热射流强迫点火%Forced ignition of kerosene spray in supersonic airflow with hot gas injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席文雄; 王振国; 李庆; 梁剑寒

    2012-01-01

    在来流马赫数为2、总温为840K的双模态超燃冲压发动机扩张型燃烧室的冷起动工况条件下,对凹腔上游的煤油横向射流喷雾的热射流强迫点火过程进行了试验研究.采用高速相机拍摄了点火过程中的煤油喷雾阴影和自发光火焰的动态发展图像,对比分析了热射流喷射位置和喷射方向对点火试验结果及其凹腔驻留火焰形成的影响.试验结果表明:热射流点火主要以凹腔下游热射流与煤油喷雾的掺混燃烧为主要特征;远场的火焰逆流传播形成凹腔驻留火焰是热射流实现成功点火的主要机制.%Forced ignition of kerosene spray with hot gas injection was investigated ex- perimentally in an expanding scramjet combustor with incoming air total temperature of 800 K and Mach number 2 which was related to a typical cold start-up condition of dual-model scramjet. The fuel was injected vertically into the crossflow upstream the flame-holding cav- ity. The kerosene spray shadow and self-luminosity flame evolvement during the process of ignition were observed using high speed camera. The effects of injection scheme such as po- sition and direction of hot jet on the ignition results and cavity-trapped flame generation were compared and analyzed. Results reveal that the enhanced ignition by hot gas injection is characterized by the far-field diffusive burning between spray and hot jet. The trapped flame within cavity is created due to the flame propagation upstream which is the dominant mecha- nism of successful flame establishment.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the experimental data of extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 have been presented. The data of FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]BF4. Further, the thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of the [BMIM]BF4 were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 73.02% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild reaction conditions. The ionic liquids could be reused four times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurizations of real fuels, multistage extraction were presented. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazoled ILs for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  20. Extractive Deep Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Using Lewis-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of green solvents, known as ionic liquids (ILs, has recently been the subject of intensive research on the extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels because of the limitation of traditional hydrodesulfurization method. In present work, eleven Lewis acid ionic liquids were synthesized and employed as promising extractants for deep desulfurization of the liquid fuel containing dibenzothiophene (DBT to test the desulfurization efficiency. [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 was the most promising ionic liquid and performed the best among studied ionic liquids under the same operating conditions. It can remove dibenzothiophene from the model liquid fuel in the single-stage extraction process with the maximum desulfurization efficiency of 75.6%. It was also found that [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 may be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency of 47.3%. Huge saving on energy can be achieved if we make use of this ionic liquids behavior in process design, instead of regenerating ionic liquids after every time of extraction.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Wasewar, Kailas L; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z

    2016-05-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM]SCN has been presented on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel. The FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]SCN. Further, thermal, conductivity, moisture content, viscosity, and solubility analyses of [BMIM]SCN were carried out. The effects of time, temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of [BMIM]SCN on removal of dibenzothiophene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization, removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 86.5 % for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild process conditions. [BMIM]SCN could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, in the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazolium-based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  2. Decreasing phosphorus loss in tile-drained landscapes using flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural non-point source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P...

  3. A Novel Biomass Supported Na2CO3 System for Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The breakthrough and stoichiometric SO2 adsorption efficiencies of a biomass supported Na2CO3 system (80 wt %Na2CO3/straw) have reached 48.9 % and 80.6 % respectively at a desulfurization temperature of 80(C.

  4. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  5. Adsorptive Desulfurization of JP-8 Fuel Using Ag+/Silica Based Adsorbents at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    cell-quality hydrogen is liquid phase desulfurization (figure 1). Any organic sulfur compounds in the fuel are converted into hydrogen sulfide in...the fuel processing reformer, resulting in poisoning the reformation catalysts as well as poisoning downstream operations. Therefore, it is essential...the reformation catalysts from potential poisoning (1). Figure 1. Schematic diagram of logistic fuel processing. Adsorbents with a high

  6. A Reusable Calcium-Based Sorbent for Desulfurizing Hot Coal Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, T.D.; Hasler, D.J.L.

    2002-09-19

    The overall objective of this project has been to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. The sorbent should be strong, durable, inexpensive to manufacture, and capable of being reused many times. To achieve these objectives the project has focused on the development of the very promising core-in-shell sorbent.

  7. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  8. Results of testing various natural gas desulfurization adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Gordon

    2004-06-01

    This article presents the results of testing many commercially available and some experimental sulfur adsorbents. The desired result of our testing was to find an effective method to reduce the quantity of sulfur in natural gas to less than 100 ppb volume (0.1 ppm volume). An amount of 100 ppb sulfur is the maximum limit permitted for Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The tested adsorbents include some that rely only on physical adsorption such as activated carbon, some that rely on chemisorption such as heated zinc oxide, and some that may use both processes. The testing was performed on an engineering scale with beds larger than those used for typical laboratory tests. All tests were done at about 3.45 barg (50 psig). The natural gas used for testing was from the local pipeline in Pittsburgh and averaged 6 ppm volume total sulfur. The primary sulfur species were dimethyl sulfide (DMS), isopropyl mercaptan, tertiary butyl mercaptan, and tetrahydrothiophene. Some tests required several months to achieve a sulfur breakthrough of the bed. It was found that DMS always came through a desulfurizer bed first, independent of adsorption process. Since the breakthrough of DMS always exceeds the 100 ppb SOFC sulfur limit before other sulfurs were detected, an index was created to rate the adsorbents in units of ppm DMS × absorbent bed volume. This index is useful for calculating the expected adsorbent bed lifetime before sulfur breakthrough when the inlet natural gas DMS content is known. The adsorbents that are included in these reports were obtained from suppliers in the United States, the Netherlands, Japan, and England. Three activated carbons from different suppliers were found to have identical performance in removing DMS. One of these activated carbons was operated at four different space velocities and again showed the same performance. When using activated carbon as the basis of comparison for other adsorbents, three high-performance adsorbents

  9. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83-13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185-0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  10. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  11. Development of Desulfurization Process Technology in Combinative Methanol Process%联醇工艺中脱硫工艺技术的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜鑫

    2012-01-01

    Author has discussed and compared the technical principle and process feature for tannin extract dcsulfurization method, ADA desulfuriza- tion process, PDS desulfurization process, Zinc oxide desulfurization process,iron-oxide desulfurization process, active carbon desulfurization process, Fe-Mo hydrogenation reformation method desulfurization process, organic sulfur hydrolysis desulfurization process, which were adopted during process of raw material gas desulfurization in combinative methanol process ; has presented that making the wet desulfurization process and dry desulfurization process was reasonably combined, and in combination with selecting idea for desulfurization process of organic sulfur hydrolysis unit; has summarized the important role in combinative methanol production process for desulfurization process of "desulfurization in 3 times and reformation in 2 times".%论述和对比了联醇工艺中原料气脱硫所采用的栲胶脱硫工艺、ADA脱硫工艺、PDS脱硫工艺、氧化锌脱硫工艺、氧化铁脱硫工艺、活性炭脱硫工艺、铁钼加氢转化法脱硫工艺、有机硫水解脱硫工艺的技术原理和工艺特点;提出了将湿法脱硫与干法脱硫工艺进行合理组合,并结合有机硫水解装置的脱硫工艺选择理念;总结了“3次脱硫2次转化”脱硫工艺在联醇生产中的重要作用。

  12. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  13. Impact of fuel properties on advanced power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Jones, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Willson, W.G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power systems currently in development and demonstration have the goal of increasing generating efficiency to a level approaching 50% while reducing the cost of electricity from new plants by 20% and meeting stringent standards on emissions of SO{sub x} NO{sub x} fine particulates, and air toxic metals. Achieving these benefits requires that clean hot gas be delivered to a gas turbine at a temperature approaching 1350{degrees}C, while minimizing energy losses in the gasification, combustion, heat transfer, and/or gas cleaning equipment used to generate the hot gas. Minimizing capital cost also requires that the different stages of the system be integrated as simply and compactly as possible. Second-generation technologies including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), externally fired combined cycle (EFCC), and other advanced combustion systems rely on different high-temperature combinations of heat exchange, gas filtration, and sulfur capture to meet these requirements. This paper describes the various properties of lignite and brown coals.

  14. A complementary and synergistic effect of Fe-Zn binary metal oxide in the process of high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁斯灏; 吴幼青

    1996-01-01

    57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to investigate the evolution of Fe-Zn binary metal oxide sorbent in the process of high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization. The results of phase analyses show that Fe-Zn binary metal oxide sorbent is rapidly reduced in hot fuel gas and decomposed to new phases of highly dispersed microcrystalline elemental iron and zinc oxide, both of which become the active desulfurization constituents. A complementary and synergistic effect between active iron acting as a high sulfur capacity constituent and active zinc oxide acting as a deep refining desulfurization constituent exists in this type of sorbent for hot fuel gas desulfurization.

  15. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  16. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (similar to 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  17. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Braganca; J.L. Castellan [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidised bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (about 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Low sulfur content hot reducing gas production using calcium oxide desulfurization with water recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinman, J.; Mcgreal, J.E.

    1982-03-23

    A process and apparatus are claimed for producing a low sulfur content, hot reducing gas by desulfurizing hot reducing gas. This is done in the following manner; by contacting the sulfur-bearing hot reducing gas with a bed of a particulate calcium oxide desulfurizing agent to thereby produce a product gas stream and a byproduct calcium sulfide compositions recovering sulfur from the calcium sulfide composition by contacting the calcium sulfide composition with hot liquid water at a temperature and corresponding pressure sufficient to maintain steam in the system and to thereby convert the sulfide to calcium hydroxide and hydrogen sulfide and to produce a liquid water stream containing sulfur; combining the sulfur containing water stream with a fresh water stream and recycling this water stream for contacting the calcium sulfide composition. Preferably water vapor produced in the contacting step is condensed and returned to the system in the final stage of contacting the calcium sulfide composition with hot liquid water.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications.

  20. Feasibility of an innovative integrated process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification for high strength wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-jie; LIU Chun-shuang; REN Nan-qi; DENG Xu-liang; WAN Chun-li; YU Zhen-guo; XU Xin

    2008-01-01

    An anaerobic expanding-bed reactor was adopted to investigate the feasibility of an innovative inte-grated process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification (SDD) for high strength wastewater. In the re-actor, beterotrophic bacteria (including sulfate reducing bacterium and denitrifying bacteria) and autotrophic bacteria (including Thiobacillus denitrificans) cooperated together by incubating and enriching functional bac-teria on different carriers in the anaerobic activated sludge. Synthetic wastewater with high concentrations of sul-fate and nitrate was employed. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency of sulfate and nitrate was above 85%, elemental sulfur was observed while nitrate was absent in effluent. The balance of sulfur, ni-trogen and electron was discussed respectively, which indicated that the integrated SDD process could be actual-ized. These results might provide a guidance to further investigate the key factors affecting the integrated SDD process and to improve the efficiency of desulfurization and denitrification in wastewater treatment.

  1. {sup 29}Si-NMR study of the absorbent for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Hideshi; Kanuka, Nariyasu; Kanai, Ryu-ichi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The flue gas from a coal fired boiler contains a high concentration of SO{sub 2} which should be removed before emitted from a chimney for protection of environment from pollution. A wet desulfurization system is commonly adopted for flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in the absorbent, but needs a large amount of water. As dry FDD systems, a duct injection and a slurry spraying are adopted. The efficiency, however, is not so high as compared to a wet FGD system. Recently, the SO{sub 2} absorbent which exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in a dry FGD process was prepared from a coal fly-ash, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaSO{sub 4} by hydrothermal reaction. In this project, we studied the structural changes of the absorbent during the hydrothermal reation and sulfur dioxide absorption by silicon 29-MASNMR.

  2. Deep Extractive Desulfurization of Gasoline with Ionic Liquids Based on Metal Halide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haojie; He Jianxun; Yang Cairong; Zhang Hang

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquid [Et3NH]Cl-FeCl3/CuCl was synthesized by mixing [Et3NH]Cl, anhydrous FeCl3 and anhydrous CuCl, and the desulfurization activity of this ionic liquid was tested. It exhibited remarkable ability in effective desulfurization of model gasoline (thiophene in n-octane) and lfuid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline, and the sulfur removal of thiophene in model oil (V(IL):V(oil)=0.08) could reach 93.9%in 50 min at 50℃. Low-sulfur (﹤10μg/g) FCC gasoline could be obtained after three extraction runs at an ionic liquid/oil volume ratio of 0.1, with the yield of FCC gasoline reaching 94.3%. The ionic liquid could be recycled 5 times with merely a slight decrease in activity.

  3. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO2 sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O2 level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (~60% for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  4. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal. Second quarterly report, October 1--December 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, J.K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine; Kitchell, J.P. [Holometrix, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of ``model`` organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  5. Experimental Study on Demercurization Performance of Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO, Jingjing; YANG, Linjun; YAN, Jinpei

    2009-01-01

    The demercurization performance of wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system was investigated by measuring mercury concentrations at the inlet and outlet of WFGD system with a QM201H mercury analyzer. The selected desulfurizer included NH_3·H_2O, NaOH, Na_2CO_3, Ca(OH)_2 and CaCO_3. The influences of adding oxidant and coagulant such as KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions were also studied.The results show that elemental mercury is the main component of gaseous mercury in coal-fired flue gas, and the proportion of oxidized mercury is less than 36%. Oxidized mercury could be removed by WFGD system efficiently,and the removal efficiency could amount to 81.1%-92.6%. However, the concentration of elemental mercury slightly increased at the outlet of WFGD as a result of its insolubility and re-emission. Therefore, the removal efficiency of gaseous mercury is only 13.3%-18.3%. The mercury removal efficiency of WFGD system increased with increasing the liquid-gas ratio. In addition, adding KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions could increase the mercury removal efficiency obviously. Various additives have different effects, and Na_2S is demonstrated to be the most efficient, in which a mercury removal efficiency of 67.2% can be reached.

  6. Biocatalytic desulfurization of thiophenic compounds and crude oil by newly isolated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy El-Said Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms possess enormous highly specific metabolic activities, which enable them to utilize and transform nearly every known chemical class present in crude oil. In this context, one of the most studied biocatalytic processes is the biodesulfurization (BDS of thiophenic sulfur-containing compounds such as benzothiophene (BT and dibenzothiophene (DBT in crude oils and refinery streams. Three newly isolated bacterial strains, which were affiliated as Rhodococcus sp. strain SA11, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SA21, and Rhodococcus sp. strain SA31, were enriched from oil contaminated soil in the presence of DBT as the sole S source. GC-FID analysis of DBT-grown cultures showed consumption of DBT, transient formation of DBT sulfone (DBTO2 and accumulation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP. Molecular detection of the plasmid-borne dsz operon, which codes for the DBT desulfurization activity, revealed the presence of dszA, dszB, and dszC genes. These results point to the operation of the known 4S pathway in the BDS of DBT. The maximum consumption rate of DBT was 11 µmol/g Dry Cell Weight (DCW/h and the maximum formation rate of 2-HBP formation was 4 µmol/g DCW/h. Inhibition of both cell growth and DBT consumption by 2-HBP was observed for all isolates but SA11 isolate was the least affected. The isolated biocatalysts desulfurized other model DBT alkylated homologs. SA11 isolate was capable of desulfurizing BT as well. Resting cells of SA11 exhibited 10% reduction in total sulfur present in heavy crude oil and 18% reduction in total sulfur present in the hexane-soluble fraction of the heavy crude oil. The capabilities of the isolated bacteria to survive and desulfurize a wide range of S compounds present in crude oil are desirable traits for the development of a robust BDS biocatalyst to upgrade crude oils and refinery streams.

  7. Desulfurization of Hydrocarbon Fuels at Ambient Conditions Using Supported Silver Oxide-Titania Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    reaction pathways for hydrotreating [3]. Adsorptive desulfurizing units can provide low sulfur fuel for sulfur intolerant systems such as fuel...considered to be an alternative to process intensification of hydrotreating processes to cope with tightening sulfur regulations which calls for higher...remove the sulfur species that represent the hardest species to hydrotreat may be operated in tandem to traditional hydrotreating units. Large scale

  8. Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2009-05-15

    To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Hot gas in clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Klypin, A.A.

    1979-03-01

    The origin, space distribution, and emission of the hot intergalactic gas in galaxy clusters are discussed. This gas may have been left over from the period when the clusters were formed. According to the adiabatic theory of galaxy formation, primordial gas would have become heated and compressed into hot, thin pancake-shaped structures, representing protoclusters. As the primordial gas crosses the shock waves bounding the protocluster, its temperature and entropy will rise significantly. The gas not consumed in the formation of galaxies will remain in the hot phase, enriched with heavy elements from supernova explosions in the cluster members and from galactic winds. This gas will retain the entropy acquired during the contraction process, but its temperature will be governed by the depth of the cluster potential well. The primordial entropy of intracluster gas is estimated from this theory, and the results are compared with x-ray observations of clusters. The best fit is achieved for a nuclear region of 0.3-Mpc radius. Temperature fluctuations ..delta..T/Tapprox. = (1--2) x 10/sup -4/ in the microwave background radiation are inferred, depending only weakly on the model parameters.

  10. Hot Gas Lines in T Tauri Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ardila, David R; Gregory, Scott G; Ingleby, Laura; France, Kevin; Brown, Alexander; Edwards, Suzan; Johns-Krull, Christopher; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Yang, Hao; Valenti, Jeff A; Abgrall, Hervé; Alexander, Richard D; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Brown, Joanna M; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Hussain, Gaitee; Roueff, Evelyne; Schindhelm, Eric R; Walter, Frederick M

    2013-01-01

    For Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), the resonance lines of N V, Si IV, and C IV, as well as the He II 1640 A line, act as diagnostics of the accretion process. Here we assemble a large high-resolution dataset of these lines in CTTSs and Weak T Tauri Stars (WTTSs). We present data for 35 stars: one Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. We decompose the C IV and He II lines into broad and narrow Gaussian components (BC & NC). The most common (50 %) C IV line morphology in CTTSs is that of a low-velocity NC together with a redshifted BC. The velocity centroids of the BCs and NCs are such that V_BC > 4 * V_NC, consistent with the predictions of the accretion shock model, in at most 12 out of 22 CTTSs. We do not find evidence of the post-shock becoming buried in the stellar photosphere due to the pressure of the accretion flow. The He II CTTSs lines are generally symmetric and narrow, less redshifted than the CTTSs C IV lines, by ~10 km/sec. The flux in the BC of the He II line is small compared to that of t...

  11. Cold dust clumps in dynamically hot gas

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S; Madden, S C; Meixner, M; Hony, S; Panuzzo, P; Sauvage, M; Roman-Duval, J; Gordon, K D; Engelbracht, C; Israel, F P; Misselt, K; Okumura, K; Li, A; Bolatto, A; Skibba, R; Galliano, F; Matsuura, M; Bernard, J -P; Bot, C; Galametz, M; Hughes, A; Kawamura, A; Onishi, T; Paradis, D; Poglitsch, A; Reach, W T; Robitaille, T; Rubio, M; Tielens, A G G M

    2010-01-01

    We present clumps of dust emission from Herschel observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their physical and statistical properties. We catalog cloud features seen in the dust emission from Herschel observations of the LMC, the Magellanic type irregular galaxy closest to the Milky Way, and compare these features with HI catalogs from the ATCA+Parkes HI survey. Using an automated cloud-finding algorithm, we identify clouds and clumps of dust emission and examine the cumulative mass distribution of the detected dust clouds. The mass of cold dust is determined from physical parameters that we derive by performing spectral energy distribution fits to 250, 350, and 500 micronm emission from SPIRE observations using DUSTY and GRASIL radiative transfer calculation with dust grain size distributions for graphite/silicate in low-metallicity extragalactic environments. The dust cloud mass spectrum follows a power law distribution with an exponent of gamma=-1.8 for clumps larger than 400 solar mass and is si...

  12. Hot gas in the large magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Hua Chu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a su cercanía, su orientación casi de frente y la baja extinción externa e interna, la Nube Mayor de Magallanes (LMC es un laboratorio excelente para estudiar la estructura física del medio interestelar (ISM. Estudios del gas de la LMC en el óptico y en el radio han mostrado estructuras interestelares que van de unos cuantos parsecs hasta más de 1000 pc. Los mosaicos hechos con ROSAT en rayos-X muestran la abundancia del gas caliente a 106 K, el cual a veces está rodeado de grandes cascarones, pero el resto no parece estar asociado a ninguna estructura interestelar visible. Las observaciones de rayos-X han sido analizadas para determinar las condiciones físicas del gas caliente. Para determinar su origen, la distribución del gas caliente puede ser comparada con la del gas más frío y con la de las estrellas masivas. Observaciones UV de líneas de absorción de iones de alta ionización como C IV, N V y O VI, pueden ser usadas para estudiar las interfases del gas a 106 K con el gas más frío y para dar restricciones sobre la localización de ambos a lo largo de la línea de visión.

  13. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and gasification gas. Operation conditions free of external or internal mass transfer limitations were used. Apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for all the studied gas mixtures. In addition, for the CO{sub 2} reaction, a mechanistic model of Langmuir-Hinshelwood type was derived and tested. The best mode was based on benzene single site adsorption as the rate determining step and non-dissociable adsorption of CO{sub 2}. To be active in gasification gas carbonate rocks have to be in a calcined state. When the catalyst was carbonated and water was present, the activity of the catalysts was lost almost completely. This decline of activity closely followed the equilibrium decomposition pressure and temperature of CaCO{sub 3}. (orig.) 56 refs.

  14. Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene in the presence of iron chlorideionic liquid catalyst and ultrasound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Seyedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene refinery in Tehran with sulfur content of 0/293% with iron chloride - hydrogen peroxide and ultrasonic liquid catalysts in the presence of acetic acid - formic acid and an oxidizinghydrogen peroxide has been studied. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, reaction time, mole ratio of moles of sulfur oxidation (no/ ns,mole ratio of moles of acid per mol of sulfur (nacid/ ns (on the desulfurization of kerosene checked(the molar ratio of oxidant to 15-40 and 20-80 mole ratio of sulfur to sulfur acidThe results showed that the optimal conditions for the removal of sulfur from iron chloride catalyst system kerosene by 93% and sulfur content of residual 128 ppm is obtained. The effect of ultrasonic waves on system performance oxidationwas studied, the results showed that the percentage of desulfurization systems, oxidation of acetic acid- hydrogen peroxide in combination with ultrasound (96% and without ultrasound was 93%, which indicates improved performance oxidation The presence of ultrasound.

  15. Desulfurization of coal: enhanced selectivity using phase transfer catalysts. Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Due to environmental problems related to the combustion of high sulfur Illinois coal, there continues to be interest in the development in viable pre-combustion desulfurization processes. Recent studies by the authors have obtained very good sulfur removals but the reagents that are used are too expensive. Use of cheaper reagents leads to a loss of desired coal properties. This study investigated the application phase transfer catalysts to the selective oxidation of sulfur in coal using air and oxygen as oxidants. The phase transfer catalyst is expected to function as a selectivity moderator by permitting the use of milder reaction conditions that otherwise necessary. This would enhance the sulfur selectivity and help retain the heating value of the coal. The use of certain coal combustion wastes for desulfurization, and the application of cerium (IV) catalyzed air oxidation for selective sulfur oxidation are also being studied. If successful, this project could lead to the rapid development of a commercially viable desulfurization process. This would significantly improve the marketability of Illinois coal.

  16. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  17. Preparation of Ag/TiO2-zeolite adsorbents, their desulfurization performance, and benzothiophene adsorption isotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hua; Yang, Gang; Song, Hua-Lin; Wang, Deng; Wang, Xue-Qin

    2017-02-01

    A series of Ag/TiO2-NaY (TY) composite adsorbents were successfully prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The effects of TiO2 and Ag contents on the structure and desulfurization performance of NaY zeolite were studied. The results show that anatase phase is the main form of TiO2 in AgTY adsorbent, and the Y-zeolite framework remained unchanged. AgTY with 6 wt % of Ag and 50 wt % of TiO2 exhibited the best desulfurization performance with the effluent volume of 63.2 mL/g at 10 mg/L sulfur breakthrough level (desulfurization rate of 95%). The benzothiophene (BT) removal performance of the various adsorbents follows the order: NaY < TiO2 < TY-50 < AgTY-50-6. The equilibrium data were modeled by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The Langmuir model can describe well the adsorption isotherms of BT over AgTY.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, P.W.; Miknis, F.P.

    1997-09-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.

  19. Competitive adsorption desulfurization performance over K - Doped NiY zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haizheng; Han, Xiaona; Huang, Haokai; Wang, Yuxian; Zhao, Liang; Cao, Liyuan; Shen, Baojian; Gao, Jinsen; Xu, Chunming

    2016-12-01

    NiY and KNiY were successfully prepared by impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption (BET), scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The competitive adsorption mechanisms of adsorbents were studied by in situ FTIR to explain different desulfurization performance which was evaluated in a miniature fixed-bed flow by gasoline model compounds with 1-hexene or toluene. NiY and KNiY adsorbents showed better desulfurization performance than HY zeolite due to the high selectivity of loaded active metals. Especially, KNiY adsorbent showed its advantages in desulfurization performance with 5vol% olefins or 5vol% aromatics involvement. It could be assigned that introduced K cation enhanced dispersion and content of active Ni species on the surface which made Ni species reduce easily. On the other hand, adsorption mechanisms showed that the protonation reactions of thiophene and 1-hexene occurred on the Brönsted acid sites of NiY, which resulted in pore blockage and the coverage of adsorption active centers. By doping K cation on NiY, the amount of the Brönsted acid sites of NiY was decreased and protonation reactions were weaken. Therefore, the negative effects of Brönsted acid sites were reduced.

  20. Ionic Liquid Catalyst Used in Deep Desulfuration of the Coking Benzene for Producing Sulfurless Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia-Ping; WANG Yan-Liang; MENG Fan-Wei; FAN Xing-Ming; QIN Song-Bo

    2008-01-01

    For the widening need of benzene used in organic synthesis, ionic liquid catalyst was prepared to study the process of deep desulfuration in the coking benzene. The result shows that the effect of de-thiophene by the ionic liquid catalyst (N-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Hmim][HSO4]) is related to its acid function value.Hammett indicator was used to determine the acid function value H0 of the ionic liquid. It can be concluded that while the acid function value is in the range from -4 to -12, the ionic liquid catalyst can make the concentration certain acid quantity and strength, the ionic liquid catalyst helps to form alkyl thiophene through Friedel-Crafts reaction, which differs from the character of benzene and it is absolutely necessary for the separation and refinement of benzene. But overabundant quantity and higher acid value of [Hmim][HSO4] are more suitable for the side copolymerization of benzene, thiophene and alkene, thereby affecting repeated use of the ionic liquid catalyst([Hmim][HSO4]). In our research, thiophene derivant produced by desulfurization in the coking benzene was used as the polymer to provide the passing channel of the charges. The ionic liquid composition in poor performance after repeated use was made to prepare conductive material (resisting to static electricity) as an "electron-receiving" and "electron-giving" doping agent. The result shows that thiophene derivant after desulfuration in the coking benzene can be used to prepare doping conductive materials.

  1. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  2. Bioprocessing of crude oils and desulfurization using electro-spray reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.; Borole, A.P.

    1998-07-01

    Biological removal of organic sulfur from petroleum feedstocks offers an attractive alternative to conventional thermochemical treatment due to the mild operating conditions afforded by the biocatalyst. Electro-spray bioreactors were investigated for use in desulfurization due to their reported operational cost savings relative to mechanically agitated reactors and their capability of forming emulsions < 5 {micro}m. Here, the rates dibenzothiophene (DBT) oxidation to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in hexadecane, by Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8 are compared in the two reactor systems. Desulfurization rates ranged from 1.0 and 5.0 mg 2-HBP/(dry g cells-h), independent of the reactor employed. The batch stirred reactor was capable of forming a very fine emulsion in the presence of the biocatalyst IGTS8, similar to that formed in the electro-spray reactors, presumably due to the fact that the biocatalyst produces its own surfactant. While electro-spray reactors did not prove to be advantageous for the IGTS8 desulfurization system, it may prove advantageous for systems which do not produce surface-active bioagents in addition to being mass transport limited.

  3. Desulfurization of jet fuel for fuel cell-based APU systems in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Pasel, J.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To prevent the catalysts in fuel cell systems from poisoning by sulfur containing substances the fuel to be used must be desulfurized to a maximum of 10 ppmw of sulfur. Since the conventional hydrodesulfurization process employed in the refinery industry is not suitable for mobile fuel cell applications (e.g. auxiliary power units, APUs), the present study aims at developing an alternative process and determining its technical feasibility. A large number of processes were assessed with respect to their application in fuel cell APUs. The results revealed that a two-step process combining pervaporation and adsorption is a suitable process for the on-board desulfurization of jet fuel. The investigations to evaluate this process are presented in this paper. Seven different membrane materials and ten sorbent materials were screened to choose the most suitable candidates. Further laboratory experiments were conducted to optimize the operating conditions and to collect data for a pilot plant design. Different jet fuel qualities with up to 1650 ppmw of sulfur can be desulfurized to a level of 10 ppmw. (orig.)

  4. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by a newly isolated Corynebacterium sp.ZD-1 in aqueous phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Miao-dong; LI Wei; WANG Da-hui; SHI Yao

    2004-01-01

    Sulfur emission through fuel combustion is a global problem because it is a major cause of acid rain. Crud oil contains many heterocyclic organic sulfur compounds, among which dibenzothiophene(DBT) and DBTs bearing alkyl substitutions usually are representative compounds. A strain was isolated from refinery sludge and identified as Corynebacterium ZD-1. The behavior of DBT degradation by ZD-1 in aqueous phase was investigated. Corynebacterium ZD-1 could metabolize DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl(2-HBP) as the dead-end metabolite through a sulfur-specific pathway. In shake flask culture, ZD-1 had its maximal desulfurization activity in the late exponential growth phase and the specific production rate of 2-HBP was about 0.14(mmol·kg dry cell-1·min-1, mmol·KDC-1·min-1). Active resting cells for desulfurization should be prepared only in this period. 2-HBP inhibited the growth of strain ZD-1, the production of DBT degradation enzymes, and the activity of enzymes. Sulfate inhibited the production of dibenzothiophene(DBT) degradation enzymes but had no effect on the enzymes' activity. The production rates of 2-HBP at lower cell densities were higher and the maximum amount conversion of DBT to 2-HBP(0.067 mmol/L) after 8 h was gained at 9.2(g dry cell/L) rather higher cell density. The results indicated that this newly isolated strain could be a promising biocatalyst for DBT desulfurization.

  5. Desulfurization of Model Oil via Adsorption by Copper(II) Modified Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Dezhi; Huang, Huan; Shi, Li [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2013-03-15

    In order to further reduce the sulfur content in liquid hydrocarbon fuels, a desulfurization process by adsorption for removing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and propylmercaptan (PM) was investigated. Bentonite adsorbents modified by CuCl{sub 2} for the desulfurization of model oil was investigated. The results indicated that the modified bentonite adsorbents were effective for adsorption of DMS and PM. The bentonite adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TGA). The acidity was measured by FT-IR spectroscopy. Several factors that influence the desulfurization capability, including loading and calcination temperature, were studied. The maximum sulfur adsorption capacity was obtained at a Cu(II) loading of 15 wt %, and the optimum calcination temperature was 150 .deg. C. Spectral shifts of the v(C-S) and v(Cu-S) vibrations of the complex compound obtained by the reaction of CuCl{sub 2} and DMS were measured with the Raman spectrum. On the basis of complex adsorption reaction and hybrid orbital theory, the adsorption on modified bentonite occurred via multilayer intermolecular forces and S-M (σ) bonds.

  6. Study on Reactive Adsorption Desulfurization of Model Gasoline on Ni/ZnO-HY Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Huan; Salissou M. Nour; Yi Dezhi; Meng Xuan; Shi Li

    2013-01-01

    The reactive adsorption desulfurization of model gasoline was carried out on Ni/ZnO-HY adsorbent. The Ni/ZnO-HY adsorbent was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption test (BET), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and tempera-ture-programmed reduction (TPR) analysis. The test results have demonstrated that HY-zeolite is a feasible support for Ni/ZnO components used in reactive adsorption desulfurization. The results of XRD and TPR analyses showed that most of nickel element was present as Ni2+species with only a small part existing as Ni3+species, and the Ni2+species had interac-tions with HY-zeolite. Under the conditions of this study, which speciifed a 50%ratio of HY-zeolite in the adsorbent, a Zn/Ni molar ratio of 10, and a reduction temperature of 400℃, the Ni/ZnO-HY adsorbent showed the best desulfurization per-formance. The sulfur capacity of Ni/ZnO-HY adsorbent could be recovered to 92.19%of the fresh one after being subjected to regeneration at 500℃, and could be maintained at 82.17%of the fresh one after 5 regeneration cycles.

  7. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y.; Kato, K.; Kuroda, M.; Nakagawa, N. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  8. Effect of Fe2O3 Addition in MgO-CaO Refractory on Desulfurization of Liquid Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yao-wu; LI Nan; CHEN Fang-yu

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Fe2O3 addition in MgO-CaO refractory on desulfurization of liquid iron were studied by SEM, EDA and chemical analysis. Fe2O3 of 1 % and 4 % were added to MgO-CaO refractory as the lining of graphite crucible in which 150 g iron powder with sulfur of 0.15 % was charged. It is found that when the sample is heated at 1 600 ℃ for 40 min, 60 min and 90 min, the addition with Fe2O3 of 1 % improves desulfurization greatly. However, the desulfurization ratio of the refractory with Fe2O3 addition of 4 % is less than that with Fe2O3 addition of 1 %. For the soaking time of 90 min, the desulfurization ratio is less than those of 40 min and 60 min. These phenomena were explained by the contrary roles of O2- and Fe2+ formed by reaction between liquid iron and Fe2O3 on desulfurization.

  9. Ultrasonic coal-wash for de-ashing and de-sulfurization. Experimental investigation and mechanistic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambedkar, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-07-01

    This study focuses on the physical aspects of ultrasonic de-ashing and de-sulfurization, such as cavitation, streaming and their combined effects. Ambedkar Balraj proposes an ultrasound-assisted coal particle breakage mechanism and explores aqueous and solvent-based ultrasonic techniques for de-ashing and de-sulfurization. Ambedkar designs a Taguchi L-27 fractional-factorial matrix to assess the individual effects of key process variables. In this volume he also describes process optimization and scale-up strategies. The author provides a mechanism-based model for ultrasonic reagent-based coal de-sulfurization, proposes a flow diagram for ultrasonic methods of high-throughput coal-wash and discusses the benefits of ultrasonic coal-wash. Coal will continue to be a major fuel source for the foreseeable future and this study helps improve its use by minimising ash and sulfur impurities.

  10. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-12-31

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  11. Study on the reaction activity of CuO/y-Al2O3 for dry flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG Chao; ZHENG Ying; ZHENG Chu-guang

    2004-01-01

    The copper oxide bed regenerable adsorber process can efficiently remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) and reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas with no solid or liquid byproducts. This paper investigates the dry flue gas desulfurization activities of the CuO/γ-Al2O3 under different operation conditions finding that the dispersion degree of copper oxide can achieve a threshold value, which is 0.47mg/m2 carriers. The conclusion confirms that the sulfur capacity of desulfurizer is associated with flue gas' space velocity, reaction temperature, copper content and the structure of sorbent pellet, etc. And with the condition of the desulfurization reaction temperature 673 K, the space velocity 11 200 h-1 and the S/Cu mole ratio under 1, the sulfur removal efficiency can go upwards to 95%.

  12. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...... operation has been carried out. Foaming caused by 0.03 g SDS/(L slurry) reduced the desulfurization degree from 84 to 74% and the solids and limestone concentrations of the slurry from 58 to 48 g/(L slurry) and from 1.4 to 1.0 g/(L slurry), respectively. These effects were attributed to the foaming...... transferring small particles to the foam layer present on top of the slurry in the holding tank. The addition of 0.03 g antifoams/(L slurry) to SDS foam eliminated the foam, but the desulfurization degree remained low. Potential mechanisms for the observed behavior are analyzed. (c) 2014 American Institute...

  13. Interaction between Ni and HZSM-5 in aromatization-enhanced reactive adsorption desulfurization catalysts for FCC gasoline upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinchong; Zhang, Lulu; She, Nannan; Liu, Yunqi; Chai, Yongming; Liu, Chenguang

    A compound catalyst (RA) consisted of Ni, ZnO and HZSM-5 with functions of reactive adsorption desulfurization (RADS) and olefin aromatization for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline upgrading was prepared. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction and low-temperature N2 adsorption were used to characterize the properties of the catalysts. Performance evaluation by FCC gasoline was carried out, and the result showed that the catalyst RA performed well in desulfurization and aromatization. For comparison, RADS catalyst (represented by DS) consisted of Ni and ZnO and aromatization catalyst (represented by Ar) consisted of HZSM-5 were prepared, respectively. They were combined in different ways to help investigating interaction between Ni and HZSM-5. Performance evaluated by FCC gasoline showed that catalyst RA performed best in desulfurization with a slight octane number loss. Interaction between Ni and HZSM-5 is a significant factor which influences the performance of the catalyst.

  14. Reduction of industrial waste by the employment of simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization method using magnesium; Maguneshiumu wo mochiita datsuryu/kokuen kyujoka doji shoriho no saiyo ni yoru sangyo haikibutsu no teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toriyama, T.; Yamamuro, S.; Yoshida, A.; Ono, S. [Kurimoto Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    The Sakai Factory of KURIMOTO LTD. employed a continuous porous plug desulfurization method in 1992. In this desulfurization method, the molten iron from a cupola is desulfurized with a desulfurizing agent in which calcium carbide and lime are mixed. This paper reports the details of the development of a simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization method using Mg, which aims at disusing the operation in a high-temperature environment and reducing the quantity of slag which is an industrial waste. The main results obtained are as follows. The quantity of desulfurized slag in a porous plug ladle could be reduced to zero. A total quantity of slag produced was reduced by about 70%, which was better than the target reduction. Owing to the employment of this simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization method using Mg, the operations of mixing the desulfurizing agent and removing desulfurized slag in a high-temperature environment were omitted. The S-value after the simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization became lower than 0.010%. It could be ascertained that the graphite spheroidization rate and mechanical properties of the product did not differ from those of the product obtained by a conventional desulfurization and fully satisfied the standard values of the product. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Influence of Fe loadings on desulfurization performance of activated carbon treated by nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia-Xiu; Shu, Song; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Yin, Hua-Qiang; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-02-01

    A series of Fe supported on activated carbon treated by nitric acid are prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with ultrasonic assistance and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has shown that Fe loadings significantly influence the desulfurization activity. Fe/NAC5 exhibits an excellent removal ability of SO2, corresponding to breakthrough sulfur capacity of 323 mg/g. With the increasing Fe loadings, the generated Fe3O4 and Fe2SiO4 increase, but Fe2(SO4)3 is observed after desulfurization. Fe/NAC1 has a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 925 m(2)/g with micropore surface area of 843 m(2)/g and total pore volume of 0.562 cm(3)/g including a micropore volume of 0.300 cm(3)/g. With the increasing Fe loadings, BET surface area and micropore volume decrease, and those of Fe/NAC10 decrease to 706 m(2)/g and 0.249 cm(3)/g. The Fe loadings influence the pore-size distribution, and SO2 adsorption mainly reacts in micropores at about 0.70 nm. C=O and C-O are observed for all samples before SO2 removal. After desulfurization, the C-O stretching is still detected, but the C=O stretching vibration of carbonyl groups disappears. The stretching of S-O or S=O in sulfate is observed at 592 cm(-1) for the used sample, proving that the existence of [Formula: see text].

  16. Mechanism of flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using the highly reactive absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; SUN Xiaojun; XU Peiyao; MA Shuangchen; WANG Lidong; LIU Feng

    2005-01-01

    Fly ash, industry-grade lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive were used to prepare the "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out using the highly reactive absorbent in the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system. Removal efficiencies of 94.5% for SO2 and 64.2% for NO were obtained respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, common highly reactive absorbent, "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The white flake layers were observed in the SEM images about surfaces of the common highly reactive absorbent and "Oxygen- riched" one, and the particle surfaces of the spent absorbent were porous. The content of calcium on surface was higher than that of the average in the highly reactive absorbent. The manganese compound additive dispersed uniformly on the surfaces of the "Oxygen- riched" highly reactive absorbent. There was a sulfur peak in the energy spectra pictures of the spent absorbent. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods, and the results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the absorbent except sulfur species, and SO2 and NO were removed by chemical absorption according to the experimental results of X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis. Sulfate being the main desulfurization products, nitrite was the main denitrification ones during the process, in which NO was oxidized rapidly to NO2 and absorbed by the chemical reaction.

  17. Mechanism for the desulfurization of L-cysteine catalyzed by the nifS gene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; White, R H; Cash, V L; Dean, D R

    1994-04-19

    The nifS gene product (NIFS) is a pyridoxal phosphate binding enzyme that catalyzes the desulfurization of L-cysteine to yield L-alanine and sulfur. In Azotobacter vinelandii this activity is required for the full activation of the nitrogenase component proteins. Because the nitrogenase component proteins, Fe protein and MoFe protein, both contain metalloclusters which are required for their respective activities, it is suggested that NIFS participates in the biosynthesis of the nitrogenase metalloclusters by providing the inorganic sulfur required for Fe-S core formation [Zheng, L., White, R. H., Cash, V. L. Jack, R. F., & Dean, D. R. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 2754-2758]. In the present study the mechanism for the desulfurization of L-cysteine catalyzed by NIFS was determined in the following ways. First, the substrate analogs, L-allylglycine and vinylglycine, were shown to irreversibly inactivate NIFS by formation of a gamma-methylcystathionyl or cystathionyl residue, respectively, through nucleophilic attack by an active site cysteinyl residue on the corresponding analog-pyridoxal phosphate adduct. Second, this reactive cysteinyl residue, which is required for L-cysteine desulfurization activity, was identified as Cys325 by the specific alkylation of that residue and by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Third, the formation of an enzyme-bound cysteinyl persulfide was identified as an intermediate in the NIFS-catalyzed reaction. Fourth, evidence was obtained for an enamine intermediate in the formation of L-alanine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. 31P NMR study of the desulfurization of oligonucleoside phosphorothioates effected by "aged" trichloroacetic acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Ausín, Cristina; Chmielewski, Marcin K; Kauffman, Jon S; Snyder, John; Del-Grosso, Alfred; Beaucage, Serge L

    2005-04-15

    When employing phosphoramidites 1a-d in the solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleoside phosphorothioates, the thermolytic 2-[N-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)]aminoethyl thiophosphate protecting group is lost to a large extent during the course of the synthesis. The resulting phosphorothioate diesters are then substantially desulfurized upon recurring exposure to a commercial solution of deblocking reagent during chain assembly. This problem is caused by the secondary decomposition product(s) of the reagent and is alleviated by using a fresh solution of the deblocking reagent prepared from solid trichloroacetic acid.

  19. OH radicals generated by DC corona discharge for improving the pulsed discharge desulfuration efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; LI Guo-feng; WU Yan; WANG Ning-hui; HUANG Qiu-nan

    2004-01-01

    Positive DC corona discharge is formed with needle-plate electrode configuration, in which the water vapor is ejected though the needle points. The purpose is to increase the numbers of the water-based radicals, ionize the water molecule and improve the desulfuration efficiency of pulsed corona reactor. The water ions were determined by four stages molecular beam mass spectrometer and diagnose the water-based radicals by emission spectrograph. A conclusion on formation of ions and radicals with DC corona discharges can be drawn.

  20. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  1. 铝酸钡与氢氧化钡脱硫过程比较%Comparison of Barium Aluminate and Barium Hydroxide Desulfurization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张念炳; 黎志英; 丁彤

    2012-01-01

    The seed precipitation liquor was desulfurized with barium aluminate and barium hydroxide respectively. The desulfurization slag was characterized by XRD analysis, and the desulfurization process was compared. The results show that barium hydroxide exceeds barium aluminate with better desulfurization in terms of effect, speed and duration. In the desulfurization process with barium aluminate, 2BaO · Al2O3 · 5H2O is firstly produced in the reaction of barium aluminate with alkali, and then it reacts with sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate. To compare, Ba(OH)2 · 8H2O directly reacts with sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate in the desulfurization process with barium hydroxide. Both of desulfurization reaction processes can be described with "shrinking core model".%用铝酸钡和氢氧化钡对种分母液进行脱硫试验,对脱硫渣进行XRD分析,并比较脱硫过程.结果表明,氢氧化钡的脱硫效果更好,脱硫完成时间更短,速率更快;铝酸钡先与碱液反应生成2BaO·Al2O3·5H2O,再与硫碱和碳碱反应,而氢氧化钡直接与硫碱和碳碱反应,脱硫过程均可用未反应核模型描述.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Desulfurization Behavior in Gas-Stirred Systems Based on Computation Fluid Dynamics-Simultaneous Reaction Model (CFD-SRM) Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2014-10-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-simultaneous reaction model (CFD-SRM) coupled model has been proposed to describe the desulfurization behavior in a gas-stirred ladle. For the desulfurization thermodynamics, different models were investigated to determine sulfide capacity and oxygen activity. For the desulfurization kinetic, the effect of bubbly plume flow, as well as oxygen absorption and oxidation reactions in slag eyes are considered. The thermodynamic and kinetic modification coefficients are proposed to fit the measured data, respectively. Finally, the effects of slag basicity and gas flow rate on the desulfurization efficiency are investigated. The results show that as the interfacial reactions (Al2O3)-(FeO)-(SiO2)-(MnO)-[S]-[O] simultaneous kinetic equilibrium is adopted to determine the oxygen activity, and the Young's model with the modification coefficient R th of 1.5 is adopted to determine slag sulfide capacity, the predicted sulfur distribution ratio LS agrees well with the measured data. With an increase of the gas blowing time, the predicted desulfurization rate gradually decreased, and when the modification parameter R k is 0.8, the predicted sulfur content changing with time in ladle agrees well with the measured data. If the oxygen absorption and oxidation reactions in slag eyes are not considered in this model, then the sulfur removal rate in the ladle would be overestimated, and this trend would become more obvious with an increase of the gas flow rate and decrease of the slag layer height. With the slag basicity increasing, the total desulfurization ratio increases; however, the total desulfurization ratio changes weakly as the slag basicity exceeds 7. With the increase of the gas flow rate, the desulfurization ratio first increases and then decreases. When the gas flow rate is 200 NL/min, the desulfurization ratio reaches a maximum value in an 80-ton gas-stirred ladle.

  3. Photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene catalyzed by amorphous TiO{sub 2} in ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenshuai; Xu, Yehai; Li, Huaming; Dai, Bilian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Chao; Chao, Yanhong; Liu, Hui [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2014-02-15

    Three types of TiO{sub 2} were synthesized by a hydrolysis and calcination method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), Raman spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD and Raman spectra indicated that amorphous TiO{sub 2} was successfully obtained at 100 .deg. C. The results indicated that amorphous TiO{sub 2} achieved the highest efficiency of desulfurization. The photocatalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT), benzothiophene (BT), 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) and dodecanethiol (RSH) in model oil was studied at room temperature (30 .deg. C) with three catalysts. The system contained amorphous TiO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and [Bmim]BF{sub 4} ionic liquid, ultraviolet (UV), which played vitally important roles in the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization. Especially, the molar ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and sulfur (O/S) was only 2 : 1, which corresponded to the stoichiometric reaction. The sulfur removal of DBT-containing model oil with amorphous TiO{sub 2} could reach 96.6%, which was apparently superior to a system with anatase TiO{sub 2} (23.6%) or with anatase - rutile TiO{sub 2} (18.2%). The system could be recycled seven times without a signicant decrease in photocatalytic activity.

  4. Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuna, E-mail: zhangshujuan@tust.edu.cn [College of Textile Engineering, Zhejiang Industry Polytechnic College, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Limin, E-mail: tjpu2012@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wu, Xiaoqing [Institute of Composite Materials and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composite Materials, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Fang, Sheng, E-mail: songlmnk@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P has been prepared using foam nickel as a template. • The microstructures interconnected and formed sponge-like porous networks. • Three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P shows superior hydrodesulfurization activity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional microstructured nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 2}P) was fabricated by the reaction between foam nickel (Ni) and phosphorus red. The as-prepared Ni{sub 2}P samples, as interconnected networks, maintained the original mesh structure of foamed nickel. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-synthesized Ni{sub 2}P were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, automatic mercury porosimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study showed adjacent hollow branches were mutually interconnected to form sponge-like networks. The investigation on pore structure provided detailed information for the hollow microstructures. The growth mechanism for the three-dimensionally structured Ni{sub 2}P was postulated and discussed in detail. To investigate its catalytic properties, SiO{sub 2} supported three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P was prepared successfully and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). DBT molecules were mostly hydrogenated and then desulfurized by Ni{sub 2}P/SiO{sub 2}.

  5. Characteristics of fly ash from the dry flue gas desulfurization system for iron ore sintering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Guanghong; Huang, Peng; Mou, Yaqin; Zhou, Chenhui

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of fly ash from the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system are important for its reuse and are mainly depend on the desulfurization process. The physical and chemical properties of DSF ash, which refers to fly ash from the dry FGD system for the iron ore sintering process, were investigated. Its mineralogical contents were determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis, and its micro-morphology was studied by scanning electric micrograph analysis. The results show that DSF ash has a higher CaO and SO3 content, and the main sulfur form is sulfite, with only a part of it oxidized to sulfate. The major minerals present in DSF ash are hannebachite, anhydrite, calcite and portlandite; a minor constituent is calcium chloride. The particles of DSF ash are irregular, fragmentary and small, and hannebachite grows on their surfaces. Particle size is affected by the FGD process, and the ash size from the maximized emission reduction of the sintering-FGD process is lower than that from the circulating fluidized bed-FGD process. The particle size distribution of DSF ash follows the Rosin--Rammler-Bennet equation.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of liquid fuels and its industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-08-01

    Latest environmental regulations require a very deep desulfurization to meet the ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD, 15 ppm sulfur) specifications. Due to the disadvantages of hydrotreating technology on the slashing production conditions, costs and safety as well as environmental protection, the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) as an alternative technology has been developed. UAOD process selectively oxidizes sulfur in common thiophenes in diesel to sulfoxides and sulfones which can be removed via selective adsorption or extractant. SulphCo has successfully used a 5000 barrel/day mobile "Sonocracking" unit to duplicate on a commercial scale its proprietary process that applies ultrasonics at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The UAOD technology estimate capital costs less than half the cost of a new high-pressure hydrotreater. The physical and chemical mechanisms of UAOD process are illustrated, and the effective factors, such as ultrasonic frequency and power, oxidants, catalysts, phase-transfer agent, extractant and adsorbent, on reaction kinetics and product recovery are discussed in this review.

  7. Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Titania Nanomaterial for Desulfurization of Model Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik A. Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reported on the development of novel nanomaterials of multiwalled carbon nanotubes doped with titania (CNT/TiO2 for the adsorptive desulfurization of model fuel oils. Various analytical techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were used for the characterization of the nanomaterials. The initial results indicated the effectiveness of the prepared CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials in removing sulfur compounds from model fuel oil. The adsorption of DBT, BT, and thiophene from model fuel onto the derived sorbents was performed using batch mode system. These CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials initially afforded approximately 45% removal of DBT, 55% BT, and more than 65% thiophene compounds from model fuels. The CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials provided an excellent activity towards interaction with organosulfur compounds. More experiments are underway to optimize the parameters for the adsorptive desulfurization processes. We believe that these nanomaterials as adsorbents will find useful applications in petroleum industry because of their operational simplicity, high efficiency, and high capacity.

  8. Desulfurization of diesel by oxidation/extraction scheme. Influence of the extraction solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Verduzco, L.F.; Torres-Garcia, E.; Gomez-Quintana, R.; Gonzalez-Pena, V.; Murrieta-Guevara, F. [Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, CP 07730 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    Due to the future specifications for sulfur content in middle distillate like diesel, a lot of research work has been done to develop alternative methods for desulfurization. This work presents the results for the desulfurization of diesel by an oxidation and extraction (O/E) scheme. This process can be considered like a post-treatment to the traditional hydrodesulfurization. A diesel with 320ppmw of total sulfur was employed to evaluate the elimination of sulfur compounds. The oxidation reaction was carried out with hydrogen peroxide at 30wt.%, in a heterogeneous system with a WO{sub x}/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst at 15wt.% of W; the extraction was performed with four polar solvents. The experiments were done in a batch reactor at 333K and atmospheric pressure. As an average, the sulfur content in the diesel after treatment was 90ppmw. A speciation of the sulfur compounds before and after O/E scheme was also included. Additionally, solubility data of dibenzothiophene sulfone in the polar solvents as a function of temperature were obtained.

  9. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  10. Performance and characterization of a newly developed self-agitated anaerobic reactor with biological desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You

    2011-05-01

    The continuous operation of a newly developed methane fermentation reactor, which requires no electricity for the agitation of the fermentation liquid was investigated, and the extent of the biological desulfurization was monitored. Inside the reactor, the continual change in the liquid level and the self-agitation, occurring between 5 and 16 times every day, distributed the organic load near the inlet port of the reactor, as well as providing a nutrient supply to the hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria. At different COD(Cr) loading rates (5, 7, 10 kg m(3)d(-1)), the reactor achieved a biogas production yield of 0.72-0.82 m(3)g(-1)-TS, a COD(Cr) reduction of 79.4-85.5% and an average of 99% hydrogen sulfide removal. This investigation demonstrated that the self-agitated reactor is comparable in digestion performance to the completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) investigated in a previous study, and that the desulfurization performance was significantly enhanced compared to the CSTR.

  11. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  12. Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2000-12-15

    The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

  13. Development of secondary salt recovery technology from desulfurization waste water%脱硫废液中副盐回收技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建孝; 杨建杰

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a conclusion for dry desulfurization and wet desulfurization ,introduces the principle and methods of desulfurization waste water treatment such as partial conversion ,com-plete conversion , multistep crystallization and diaphragm separation , and analyzes the problems of each method .%对干法脱硫和湿法脱硫方法进行归纳总结,介绍了部分转化、全部转化、分步结晶、膜分离等方法处理脱硫废液的原理及方法,并对其存在的问题进行分析。

  14. Desulfurization in Reducing Atomosphere and Ammonia Injection Denitrification in a Coal—Fired Fluidized Bed COmbustor with FLy—Ash Recycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhongZhaoping; ZhengHaiyun

    1997-01-01

    With the rising of IGCC and the second generation PFBC-CC,and with the development of tech-nology of staged combustion to lower emission of NOx,the desulfurization efficiency under reducing atmosphere is raised.In this paper,with the application of the fly-ash recycle and two-stage combustion technologies in a fluidized bed combustor,the desulfurization test under reducing atmosphere is described.Meanwhile,ammonia injection test was also conducted.Results show that desulfurization under reducing atmosphere has higher efficiency,and amoonia injection denitrification effect is very perfect.

  15. Photocatalytic Oxidative Desulfurization of Gasoline by TiO2 in [BMIm]Cu2CI3 Ionic Liguid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fatang; Liu Ruihong; Sun Zhimin

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of gasoline in [BMIm]Cu2C13 ionic liquid was studied.A 500-W high-pressure mercury lamp was used as the light source for irradiation,nano-TiO2 was used as the photocatalyst and air was introduced by a gas pump to supply 02 as the oxidant.Influence of the ratio of V(ionic liquid) to V(oil) and the TiO2 addition on the desulfurization rate of gasoline was investigated.An oxidative kinetics equation was founded.The results showed that the [BMIm]CuaCI3 ionic liquid was an effective extractant for the desulfurization of gasoline.The appropriate TiO2 addition was 0.05 g in 50 mL of reaction mixture.The yield of desulfurized gasoline could reach 98.2% after being subjected to reaction for 2 h under the conditions of adopting a ratio of V(ionic liquid): V(oil)=1:4,an air flow of 100 mL/min and a TiO2 addition dosage of 0.05 g.The kinetics reaction for photo-oxidation of gasoline was a first-order reaction with an apparent rate constant of 1.9664 h-1 and a half-time of 0.3525 h.

  16. The influence of process parameters on desulfurization of Mezino coal by HNO{sub 3}/HCl leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, H.G.; Moghaddam, A.Z.; Omidkhah, M.R. [Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    Coal desulfurization prior to usage is a preprocessing in order to achieve clean fuel and reduce environmental impacts such as acid rain. Desulfurization of Tabas Mezino coal was conducted with two consecutive steps of froth flotation at ambient temperature followed by leaching at various conditions. Reducing the ash content of Mezino coal by 35.7 wt.% and its total sulfur content by 36.9% using froth flotation process was successful. HCl and HNO{sub 3} were used, separately, to leach the floated coal, and the effectiveness of each acid on Mezino coal desulfurization was investigated. Nitric acid was found to be much more effective than HCl and the effects of reaction time, acid concentration and temperatures as well as stirring speed were studied as major parameters in the nitric leaching process. Taguchi orthogonal experiment with the above mentioned parameter elements; one at three levels was used to optimize the experiment parameters by the analysis of variances. Applying of the Taguchi technique significantly reduced the time and cost required for the experimental investigation. The findings indicated that acid concentration, with a high contribution, had the most dominant effect on desulfurization performance, followed by temperature, stirring speed and time. Accordingly, the optimum condition was obtained as, temperature: 90 C., acid concentration: 30%., and stirring rate: 1000 rpm. The total sulfur and ash removal after flotation and leaching at optimum condition reached to 75.4 and 53.2% respectively that is a remarkable result compared to the previous works. (author)

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of 1-Butyl-3 Methylimidazolium Chloride as Green Material for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3 methylimidazolium chloride as green material for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z; Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Wasewar, Kailas L

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency.

  19. Desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbents with various adhesive carrier particles for a semidry CFB-FGD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Changfu; Li, Yuan

    2013-03-19

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) experiments were conducted using rapidly hydrated sorbents with four different adhesive carrier particles: circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB circulation ash), fly ash from the first electrical field of the electrostatic precipitator of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB ESP ash), fly ash from a chain boiler (chain boiler ash), and river sand smaller than 1 mm. The influences of various adhesive carrier particles and operating conditions on the desulfurization characteristics of the sorbents were investigated, including sprayed water, reaction temperature, and the ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S). The experimental results indicated that the rapidly hydrated sorbents had better desulfurization characteristics by using adhesive carrier particles which possessed better pore, adhesion, and fluidization characteristics. The desulfurization efficiency of the system increased as the reaction temperature decreased, it improved from 35% to 90% as the mass flow rate of the sprayed water increased from 0 to 10 kg/h, and it increased from 65.6% to 82.7% as Ca/S increased from 1.0 to 2.0. Based on these findings, a new semidry circulating fluidized bed (CFB)-FGD system using rapidly hydrated sorbent was developed. Using the rapidly hydrated sorbent, this system uses a cyclone separator instead of an ESP or a bag filter to recycle the sorbent particles, thereby decreasing the system flow resistance, saving investment and operating costs of the solids collection equipment.

  20. Experimental study on the reuse of spent rapidly hydrated sorbent for circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zheng, Kai; You, Changfu

    2011-11-01

    Rapidly hydrated sorbent, prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime, is a highly effective sorbent for moderate temperature circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) process. The residence time of fine calcium-containing particles in CFB reactors increases by adhering on the surface of larger adhesive carrier particles, which contributes to higher sorbent calcium conversion ratio. The circulation ash of CFB boilers (α-adhesive carrier particles) and the spent sorbent (β and γ-adhesive carrier particles) were used as adhesive carrier particles for producing the rapidly hydrated sorbent. Particle physical characteristic analysis, abrasion characteristics in fluidized bed and desulfurization characteristics in TGA and CFB-FGD systems were investigated for various types of rapidly hydrated sorbent (α, β, and γ-sorbent). The adhesion ability of γ-sorbent was 50.1% higher than that of α-sorbent. The abrasion ratio of β and γ-sorbent was 16.7% lower than that of α-sorbent. The desulfurization abilities of the three sorbent in TGA were almost same. The desulfurization efficiency in the CFB-FGD system was up to 95% at the bed temperature of 750 °C for the β-sorbent.

  1. Structural Elucidation of DNA-Protein Crosslinks Using Reductive Desulfurization and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramaratne, Susith; Tretyakova, Natalia Y.

    2014-01-01

    Structural characterization of DNA-protein crosslinks involving cysteine using reductive desulfurization in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is highlighted. The novel approach was used to identify hydrolytically stable DNA-protein lesions involving alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT).

  2. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83—13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185—0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  3. Synthesis of rare earth metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) and their properties of adsorption desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘想; 王景艳; 李庆远; 蒋赛; 张天浩; 季生福

    2014-01-01

    The rare earth metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) materials, Ln(BTC)(H2O)·(DMF), were synthesized using the rare earth metal (Ln=Sm, Eu, Tb, Y) and 1,3,5-trimesic acid (BTC) as a metal ion center and ligand, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the Ln-MOFs structural features. The property of adsorption desul-furization of Ln-MOFs materials was evaluated with thiophene/n-octane as model oil. The results showed that Ln-MOFs with rare earth metals Sm, Eu, Tb and Y had perfect crystalline and good adsorption desulfurization ability. Y(BTC)(H2O)·(DMF) material had a comparatively better activity for the adsorption desulfurization with desulfurization rate up to 80.7%and the sulfur adsorption ca-pacity was found 30.7 mgS/g(Y-MOFs). The Ln-MOFs materials had excellent reusability.

  4. Preparing an SbSn intermetallic compound by melt-annealing and application to electric desulfurization of crude oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; YUN Zhi

    2008-01-01

    We prepared an SbSn intermetallic compound powder with a mixture of equal molar amounts of antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn) by melt-annealing and high-energy ball milling, and characterized the obtained substance with XRD (X-ray diffraction), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The prepared SbSn has a hexagonal structure with a melting point of 425 °C. The particles have a dendritic appearance in micromorphology images. More Sb atoms are enriched on the surface than Sn atoms. A desulfurization efficiency of up to 33.92% can be obtained when applying this powder as a medium in the electric desulfurization of crude oil under the following conditions: an emulsion with a volumetric ratio of water to oil at 20:80, a surfactant mass fraction in the emulsion of 0.18%, a processing time of 17 h, and a voltage of 9.68 V. SbSn could be a promising catalyst for desulfurizing crude oil. The desulfurization performance is ascribed to the electron cavities formed by current induction.

  5. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  6. Three annual flue gas desulfurization gypsum applications on macronutrient and micronutrient losses in runoff from bermudagrass fertilized with poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable amounts of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are being produced as a by-product of generating electricity. As a result, beneficial reuse of this by-product is being sought to reduce landfilling and its associated cost. The use of this byproduct as a low-cost soil amendment for suppl...

  7. 我国石油产品非加氢脱硫技术研究进展%Research Progress in Non-hydrogenation Desulfurization Technology for Petroleum Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世强; 李晓鸥; 李东胜; 何新发; 吴冰阳; 姜岩

    2014-01-01

    综述了脱除石油产品中硫的重要性,主要的脱硫的手段,加氢脱硫的一些缺点和非加氢脱硫的一些优势。重点综述了石油产品的非加氢脱硫方法,包括:烷基化脱硫、生物脱硫、氧化脱硫、吸附脱硫、膜分离脱硫、萃取脱硫的原理及其这些技术在我国的最新研究状况,并对我国未来的非加氢脱硫技术进行了展望。%The importance of removing sulfur in petroleum products was summarized as well as main means of desulfurization, some shortcomings of hydrodesulfurization and some advantages of non-hydrogenation desulfurization. The non-hydrogenation desulfurization methods of petroleum products were introduced, such as alkylation desulfurization, biological desulfurization, oxidation desulfurization, adsorption desulfurization, membrane separation desulfurization, extraction desulfurization. At last, development trend of the non-hydrogenation desulfurization techniques were discussed.

  8. Impact of impregnation pressure on desulfurization performance of Zn-based sorbents supported on semi-coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianrong Zheng; Weiren Bao; Qingmai Jin; Ruiyuan He; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure impregnation,a new preparation method for sorbents to remove H2S from hot coal gas,is introduced in this paper.Semi-coke (SC) and ZnO is selected as the support and active component of sorbent,respectively.The sorbent preparation process includes high-pressure impregnation,filtration,ovendry and calcination.The aim of this research is to primarily study the effects of the impregnation pressure on physical properties and desulfurization ability of the sorbent.The desulfurization experiment was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 500 ℃ and a simulated coal gas used in this work was composed of CO (33 vol%),H2 (39 vol%),H2S (300 ppm in volume),and N2 (balance).Experimental results show that the pore structure of the SC support can be improved effectively and ZnO active component can be uniformly dispersed on the support,with the small particle size of 10-500 nm.Sorbents prepared using high-pressure impregnation have better desulfurization capacity and their active components have higher utilization rate.P20-ZnSC sorbent,obtained by high-pressure impregnation at 20 atm,has the best desulfurization ability with a sulfur capacity of 7.54 g S/100g sorbent and a breakthrough time of 44 h.Its desulfurization precision and efficiency of removing H2S from the middle temperature gases can reach < 1 ppm and >99.7%,respectively,before sorbent breakthrough.

  9. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  10. Effectiveness Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization by Alumina Red Mud%氧化铝赤泥进行烟气脱硫有效性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾帅动; 董继业; 王博

    2013-01-01

    Based on desulfurization test platform, use Bayer-sintered joint red mud as raw material, and the mechanism and wet flue gas desulfurization desulfurization effect of red mud was analyzed, we got the idea that the flue gas desulfurization by red mud combined method was feasibility and superiority.%  在搭建的脱硫试验平台上采用拜耳-烧结联合法赤泥为原料,以电厂工业废气为脱硫对象,对赤泥进行湿法烟气脱硫的机理和脱硫的效果进行分析研究,认为使用联合法赤泥进行烟气脱硫具有可行性和优越性。

  11. THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC PARAMETERS OF MIXTURES DESULFURIZING THE MADE WITH CaO, MgO, SiO2 AND CaF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nylo de Aguiar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the kinetics and thermodynamics of marble residue mixtures utilisation on desulfurization of pig iron. The desulfurization was carried out using lime, marble residue, fluorite and pig iron. Different mixtures of these materials were added into a bath of pig iron at 1,450°C. Metal samples were collected via vacuum samplers at times of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes, in order to check the variation of sulfur content. Based on the results of chemical analysis of the metal and the desulfurizer mixture, the sulfide capacity of mixtures, the sulfur partition coefficient and the sulfur mass transport coefficient values were calculated.The results show the technical feasibility of using marble waste as desulfurizer agent.

  12. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montebello, Andrea M.; Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R.; Bezerra, Tercia [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gamisans, Xavier [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resources, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Lafuente, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Baeza, Mireia [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gabriel, David, E-mail: david.gabriel@uab.cat [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S is feasible by acidic biotrickling filtration. • Robustness of the process is demonstrated in the long-term (550 d). • Biosulfur to sulfate oxidation under H{sub 2}S starvation was successfully performed. • Lower sulfate production found at acidic pH compared to that at neutral pH. • Plastic material is recommended for long-term acidic biotrickling filtration. - Abstract: Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130 s, H{sub 2}S loading rate of 52 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and pH 2.50–2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75 s and the maximum EC 100 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Stepwise increases of the inlet H{sub 2}S concentration up to 10,000 ppm{sub v} lead to a maximum EC of 220 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. The H{sub 2}S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70–80% of the total H{sub 2}S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H{sub 2}S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H{sub 2}S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred.

  13. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  14. Experimental Research on Desulfurization of Fine Coal Using an Enhanced Centrifugal Gravity Separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO You-jun; LUO Zhen-fu; ZHAO Yue-min; TAO Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A desulphurization experimental study under the effects of compounding physical force fields has been described for < 0.5 mm fine particles of high sulfur coal. A statistical test using the Box-Behnken Design of experiments was conducted to evaluate the effects of individual operating variables and their interactions on desulfurization of fine coal using an enhanced centrifugal gravity separator. A model describing the relation between desulphurization efficiency of pyrite sulfur and different operating variables has been designed. The interactions between different factors on the pyrite sulfur desulphurization efficiency have been analysed. The optimal test conditions for desulfarization are extracted from the Design-Expert 6.0 software. Finally, the advantage of centrifugal gravity separation for fine coal is pointed out.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DESULFURIZATION OF ZHONG LIANG SHAN HIGH SULFUR COAL BY FLOTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志伟; 黄波; 曹炅

    1994-01-01

    Emission of large amount of SO2 from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious envjsonmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of bigh sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desuifurtzation with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shah was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sultur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0. 84%, with 72.22% recovery ofcombustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurlzatlon Efficiency Index Eofor comprehensive evaluation of dcsuifurlzation process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters.

  16. Tentative Study on a New Way of Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱杰; 杜大仲; 任南琪; 程翔; 刘春爽

    2005-01-01

    Thiobacillus denitrificans, a kind of autotrophic facultative bacteria, can oxidize sulfide into elemental sulfur or sulfate when nitrate was adopted as its electron accepter and carbon dioxide as its carbon resource under anoxic or anaerobic environment. In this way, nitrate is converted into nitrogen. In addition, Thiobacillus denitrificans can accumulate sulfur extracellularly. In this study, in a process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification, a strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans is employed as sulfur-producer in the treatment of wastewater containing sulfide and nitrate. The key factors affecting this process are investigated through batch tests. The experimental results indicate that the sulfide concentration and the ratio of sulfide to nitrate (S2-/NO3-) in the influent are the key factors, and their suitable values are suggested to be 5/3 and no more than 300mg·L-1, respectively, in order to achieve high conversion of sulfur.

  17. Material Properties of Marine Hydrogenous Ferromanganese Crust and Its Performance in Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Marine hydrogenous ferromanganese crust, an important metal resource in the future, has significant potential in various applications as a type of natural nano-structured material. By employing scanning electronic microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement, Xray fluorescence spectrometer and X-ray diffraction methods, the micro-structure, surface properties and chemical composition of several plate-like ferromanganese crusts sampled from the northwestern Pacific were investigated comprehensively. Although obvious differences were observed from different layers, the crust is a typical porous material with high specific surface area, unique pore structure and abundant transition elements. Furthermore, the performance of natural crust in desulfurization process was preliminarily tested in laboratory experiments. The sulfur capacities of the crust are 13.1%and 18.1% at room temperature and 350 ℃, respectively. The crust can be used not only as a metal resource, but also as an environmental material.

  18. Integrated Mg/TiO{sub 2}-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yee Cia, E-mail: gabrielle.ciayin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Kait, Chong Fai, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Fatimah, Hayyiratul, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Wilfred, Cecilia, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  19. Transport—Reaction Process in the Reaction of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanYan; DuuJongLee; 等

    2000-01-01

    A theoreticasl investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization.A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed,which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time.BHased on this model,the reaction rate and t6he absorbent utilization can be calculated.The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time,the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa,the optimum initial radius and absorent concentration are 210-310μm and 23% respectively.The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  20. Influence of Basicity and MgO on Fluidity and Desulfurization Ability of High Aluminum Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Meng, Qing-min; Long, Hong-ming; Li, Jia-xin

    2016-08-01

    The viscosity of experimental slag, which was mixed based on the composition of a practical blast furnace slag, was measured in this paper. The influence of Al2O3 and MgO content, basicity R2 = w(CaO)/w(SiO2) on the fluidity of slag was studied. The stepwise regression analysis in SPSS was used to reveal the relationship between sulfur distribution coefficient LS and slag composition as well as furnace temperature. The results show that increasing of MgO up to 12% can decrease the slag viscosity. The w(MgO) should be controlled below 8% when there is 20% Al2O3 in the slag. Temperature of hot metal and content of CaO in slag are the two dominant factors on the desulfurization capacity of slag.

  1. The study of high-temperature stable phase sulphoaluminate for desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.; Zhou, J.; Ma, Y. (and others) [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). National Key Lab. of MOE Clean Energy and Environment Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Sulphoaluminate (3CaO{center_dot}3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) {center_dot}CaSO{sub 4} is produced when coal is calcined to about 1200{sup o}C. This article studies the forming mechanisms of high-temperature stable phase sulphoaluminate systematically. The influence laws of such factors as the combustion temperature, retention period, the mixed proportion of compound and additives to desulfurization have been obtained, and the forming mechanism was analyzed later. The result of experiment indicates that the most sulphoaluminate is produced at 1300{sup o}C when the molar ratio of the compounds calcium oxide, aluminium oxide and calcium sulfate is 3:3:1. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Experimental approach and techniques for the evaluation of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber fluid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strock, T.W. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gohara, W.F. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fluid mechanics within wet flue desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers involve several complex two-phase gas/liquid interactions. The fluid flow directly affects scrubber pressure drop, mist eliminator water removal, and the SO{sub 2} mass transfer/chemical reaction process. Current industrial efforts to develop cost-effective high-efficiency wet FGD scrubbers are focusing, in part, on optimizing the fluid mechanics. The development of an experimental approach and test facility for understanding and optimizing wet scrubber flow characteristics is discussed in this paper. Specifically, scaling procedures for downsizing a wet scrubber for the laboratory environment with field data comparisons are summarized. Furthermore, experimental techniques for the measurement of wet scrubber flow distribution, pressure drop, spray nozzle droplet size characteristics and wet scrubber liquid-to-gas ratio are discussed. Finally, the characteristics and capabilities of a new hydraulic test facility for wet FGD scrubbers are presented. (author)

  3. Performance of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilot Plant under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Fogh, Folmer; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2011-01-01

    vol % CO2, at a holding tank pH 5.4, reduced the limestone dissolution rate significantly and thereby increased the residual, particulate limestone concentration in the gypsum slurry from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L slurry relative to a base-case (air-firing) experiment with a flue gas CO2 concentration around 7......, but an additional increase in desulfurization degree, from 94 to 97%, was obtained. Using a holding tank pH 5.0 (no adipic acid) returned both parameters to the levels observed in the base-case experiment.......Oxy-fuel firing is a promising technology that should enable the capture and storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as power plants and heavy industry. However, this new technology has a high energy demand for air separation and CO2 compression and storage...

  4. Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

  5. Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  6. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of high-temperature coal gas desulfurization sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, S.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the properties of and evaluate mixed oxides of zinc and titanium for hot fuel gas desulfurization. Uncombined ZnO was also investigated as a base case. Detailed investigation of the reduction and sulfidation reactions of Zn-Ti-O sorbents was performed. The intrinsic kinetics and the product layer diffusion rates in reduction and sulfidation were determined. Kinetic experiments with sorbents containing various Zn/Ti atomic ratios were performed. Chemical phase and structural transformations were followed by various methods. The results were compared to similar experiments performed with ZnO. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how the presence of titanium dioxide affects the reduction and sulfidation of ZnO. This information would be used to identify and select the sorbent composition that gives the best combination of low reduction rate and acceptable sulfidation performance at temperatures exceeding 600{degree}C. (VC)

  7. Finned tubes in purified gas heat exchangers of flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, J. Jr.; Meyer, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The use of helical rolled, corrosion resistant finned tubes in the purified gas heat exchangers of flue gas desulfurization plant has considerable economic advantages over conventional heat exchangers with smooth tubes. As a result of a threefold larger external surface and hence improved heat transfer properties, heat exchangers with finned tubes can be made considerably smaller. The weight and space requirements are reduced and the pressure drop also falls owing to the smaller diameter. Thus piping, pumps, and fittings can all be made smaller. Moreover, deposition on the finned tubes is considerably lower. It is found that finned tubes can be recommended in all cases where the difference in heat transfer coefficients between the inside and the outside of the tube is considerable. (orig.).

  8. MOSSBAUER ANALYSIS ON THE MICROWAVE—MAGNETIC DESULFURIZATION OF RAW COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁斯灏

    1994-01-01

    The selective dielectric heating of microwave energy to convert a portion of each pyrite particle to moderately magnetic pyrrhotite has been suggested to enhance the magnetic separation of inorganic sulfur from coal.The results for Mossbauer analyses show that the considerable amount of pyrrhotite produced during microwave irradiation,carrying with it some of non-magnetic pyrite(unconverted),ferrous sulfate,and troilite,is completely removed from coal after magnetic separation.The optimum desulfurization efficiency can be attained by appropriately controlling the irradiation time to maximize the amount of pyrrhotite formed pyrite decomposition.Excessive irradiation would be ddisadvantageous for improving magnetic separation due to the further decomposition of pyrrhotite to antiferromagnetic troilite.

  9. Modification of Bitumen with Desulfurized Crumb Rubber in the Present of Reactive Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zhigang; ZHANG Yuzhen; KONG Xianming

    2005-01-01

    Bitumen was modified with desulfurized crumb rubber (DCR) in the present of reactive additives. The effect of the kinds and content of the reactive additive on properties of DCR modified bitumen (DCRMB) was investigated. The morphology of DCRMB was characterized by SEM and the changes of the chemical structure of DCRMB without and with the addition of the reactive additive were analyzed by FTIR. The experimented results show that the softening point,the elasticity recovery and the storage stability of DCRMB were improved significantly by the addition of the reactive additive. This is because that a network structure of rubber in DCRMB was formed and the chemical reaction between C=C double bonds in bitumen and DCR has happened after the reactive additive was added into DCRMB.

  10. Surface characterization of adsorbents in ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization process of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Omid; Yen, Teh Fu

    2007-09-01

    Surface properties of two different phases of alumina were studied through SEM images. Characterization of amorphous acidic alumina and crystalline boehmite by XRD explains the differences in adsorption capacities of each sample. Data from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) provide further results regarding the ordering in amorphous and crystalline samples of alumina. Quantitative measurements from SANS are used for pore size calculations. Higher disorder provides more topological traps, irregularities, and hidden grooves for higher adsorption capacity. An isotherm model was derived for adsorption of dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO) by amorphous acidic alumina to predict and calculate the adsorption of sulfur compounds. The Langmuir-Freundlich model covers a wide range of sulfur concentrations. Experiments prove that amorphous acidic alumina is the adsorbent of choice for selective adsorption in the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process to produce ultra-low-sulfur fuel (ULSF).

  11. 90`s for the 90`s: High efficiency dry flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, T.E.; Buschmann, J.C. [ABB Environmental Systems, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendments with additional State regulation have pushed the requirements for SO{sub 2} reduction on coal fired boiler emissions to 90% and above. The development and application of spray dryer reactors in the 1990`s to meet these increasingly difficult requirements has continued. This paper describes two spray dryer absorption processes which are capable of high efficiency. A cost benefit comparison between the two is included. Specific design features at several plants are presented. Full scale application and operation of spray dryer reactors with fabric filters on coal fired boilers has demonstrated that the dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) process is a proven technology for high SO{sub 2} removal. Low capital cost coupled with high SO{sub 2} removal makes the DFGD process attractive, competitive and proven for meeting the performance requirements in the 1990`s.

  12. A DFT study of the extractive desulfurization mechanism by [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongping; Chang, Yonghui; Zhu, Wenshuai; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Xia, Jiexiang; Yin, Sheng; Li, Huaming

    2015-05-14

    In this work, the interaction nature between [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) ionic liquid (IL) and aromatic sulfur compounds (thiophene, benzothiophene, and dibenzothiophene) has been studied by means of density functional theory (M06-2X functional) combined with an implicit solvation model. Although [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) is a metal-containing IL, its extractive desulfurization mechanism is different from other metal-containing ILs but similar to non-metal-containing ILs. Important reactions involved in extractive desulfurization (EDS) were systematically studied. Our results have demonstrated that both the cation and the anion play important roles in EDS. On the basis of the structure analysis, reduced density gradient analaysis (RDG), and energy decomposition analysis, [BMIM](+) cation affords a π-π interaction while [AlCl4](-) anion provides a hydrogen bonding interaction. Electrostatic potential analysis implies the dominant π-π interaction and hydrogen bonding interaction are driven by electrostatic interaction between IL and aromatic sulfur compounds. Interaction energy between [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) and thiophene (TH), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) follows the order TH < BT < DBT. Moreover, Al-containing IL with a high molar ratio of AlCl3 ([BMIMCl]/2[AlCl3]) has also been studied. Results show that [Al2Cl7](-) species will be formed with excess AlCl3. However, the [Al2Cl7](-)-based IL cannot improve the EDS performance. Improvement of EDS performance with a high molar ratio of AlCl3 is credited to the Lewis acidity of AlCl3. Charge analysis reveals that there is no obvious charge transfer during the reaction, which is different from Fe-containing ILs as well as solid sorbents. In addition, CH-π interaction is not important for the current system.

  13. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  14. Preparation of AAO-CeO2 nanotubes and their application in electrochemical oxidation desulfurization of diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yumeng; Yi, Chenxi; Chen, Yu; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-02-01

    The coaxial arrays of AAO-CeO2 NTs have been successfully galvanostatically deposited on an anode, characterized and adopted as a catalyst for removing organic sulfurs from diesel. The influence of the main electrochemical oxidation factors on the efficiency of desulfurization have also been investigated. The results show that the fabrication process of AAO-CeO2 NTs is accompanied by the formation of a new phase, namely Al3Ce, and the main oxidation products of the diesel are soluble inorganic sulphides, especially Ce2(SO4)3. When compared with dibenzothiophene and 4, 6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, benzothiophene is much more easily removed, with a removal efficiency that reaches 87.2%. Finally, a possible electrochemical oxidation desulfurization pathway for diesel is proposed.

  15. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; XU PeiYao; SUN XiaoJun; WANG LiDong

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash, industry lime, and an oxidizing additive M. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification. Removal efficiencies of 95.5% for SO2 and 64.8% for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods. The results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was proposed according to the experimental results.

  16. Enhancement of gas desulfurization with hydrated lime at low temperature by the presence of NO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bausach, M.; Pera-Titus, M.; Fite, C.; Cunill, F.; Izquierdo, J.F.; Tejero, J.; Iborra, M. [University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-11-01

    The effect of NO{sub 2} on the desulfurization reaction of simulated flue gas by Ca(OH){sub 2} was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor at 333-353 K and at relative humidities (RHs) in the range of 30%-70%. NO{sub 2} was determined to be a promoter for SO{sub 2} uptake, because its retention can be increased up to 200%. The effect of NO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentration on the kinetics of the desulfurization reaction was surveyed and successfully simulated by means of a deactivation model implemented with an inverse shrinking-core model (DM-ISCM). Solid analyses were also performed to identify the reaction products and provide insight into the chemistry of the process.

  17. A novel metabolite (1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl) production by Exophiala spinifera strain FM through dibenzothiophene desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti

    2015-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide which is released from petroleum oil combustion causes pollution over the atmosphere and the soil. Biodesulfurization can be used as a complementary method of hydrodesulfurization, the common method of petroleum desulfurization in refineries. Many studies have been carried out to develop biological desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with bacterial biocatalysts. However, fungi are capable to metabolize a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbons through cytochrome P450 and their extracellular enzymes. The aim of the present work was isolation and identification of fungi biocatalysts capable for DBT utilization as sulfur source and production of novel metabolites. DBT consumption and the related produced metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS respectively. One of the isolated fungi that could utilize DBT as sole sulfur source was identified by both traditional and molecular experiments and registered in NCBI as Exophiala spinifera FM strain (accession no. KC952672). This strain could desulfurize 99 % of DBT (0.3 mM) as sulfur source by co-metabolism reaction with other carbon sources through the same pathway as 4S and produced 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) during 7 days of incubation at 30 °C and 180 rpm shaking. However, the isolate was able to transform 2-HBP to 1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl. While biphenyl compounds are toxic to leaving cells, biotransformation of them can reduce their toxicity and the fungi will be more tolerant to the final product. These data are the first report about the desulfurization of DBT comparable to 4S-pathway and production of innovative metabolite by E. spinifera FM strain.

  18. Selective desulfurization of cysteine in the presence of Cys(Acm) in polypeptides obtained by native chemical ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentelute, Brad L; Kent, Stephen B H

    2007-02-15

    Increased versatility for the synthesis of proteins and peptides by native chemical ligation requires the ability to ligate at positions other than Cys. Here, we report that Raney nickel can be used under standard conditions for the selective desulfurization of Cys in the presence of Cys(Acm). This simple and practical tactic enables the more common Xaa-Ala junctions to be used as ligation sites for the chemical synthesis of Cys-containing peptides and proteins. [reaction: see text].

  19. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  20. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  1. Investigation on Modification of NaY Zeolite and Its Behaviors in Selective Adsorptive Desulfurization of FCC gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Heli; Song Lijuan; Gao Xiang; Wang Hongguo; Zhang Xiaotong; Sun Zhaolin

    2009-01-01

    NaY zeolite was modified with oxalic acid, and Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite was obtained via liquid phase ion exchange between the modified NaY zeolite and cerium nitrate. The Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite was obtained via liquid phase ion exchange between NaY zeolite and cerium nitrate. The performance of two Y zeolites ICe(Ⅳ)Y(1) and Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2)] was compared through static selective adsorptive desulfurization of FCC gasoline at room tem-perature and normal pressure. The sulfur compounds and contents of the FCC gasoline were analyzed by microcoulometry and GC-SCD chromatogram. The results showed that the effect of adsorptive desulfurization of FCC gasoline achieved by Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite was better than that of Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite. The rate for adsorp-tive desulfurization of FCC gasoline by Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite and Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite was 85.0% and 62.4%, respectively. The Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite could adsorb DMTs, which could not be adsorbed by Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite. The rate of regeneration of extruded Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1)zeolite was 95.5%.

  2. 吸附脱硫工艺技术的研究进展%Research Development of Adsorption Desulfurization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦林宏; 韩维亮

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption desulfurization technique had golden prospect because of its advantages , such as mild conditions and less investment.The technology of industrialized adsorption desulfurization at home and abroad was reviewed.At last, research development of different adsorbent was introduced.The carriers of adsorbent were zeolite , activated carbon , clay and metallic oxide , respectively.Although adsorption desulfurization had promising prospect , there were several disadvantages , for example, the low sulfur content , the poor selective ability and regeneration.Thus, the future trend of research should be focused on preparation of adsorbents.%吸附脱硫的优点是反应条件温和,投资成本低,在油品脱硫中具有很大的发展潜力。综述了目前国内外已经工业化的吸附脱硫技术,并介绍了分别以分子筛、活性炭、黏土、金属氧化物为载体的吸附剂的研究进展及其优缺点。认为吸附脱硫虽具广阔前景,但仍需解决硫容量低、选择性差和再生等问题。因此未来的研究方向应集中在吸附剂的制备上。

  3. An oxidative desulfurization method using ultrasound/Fenton's reagent for obtaining low and/or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yongchuan; Qi, Yutai [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 115001 (China); Zhao, Dezhi [Department of Petroleum Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Zhang, Huicheng [Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals of SINOPEC Corp., Fushun 113001 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The total development trend in the world is towards continuously lower of sulfur content as a quality standard of diesel fuels. Integrating of an oxidative desulfurization unit with a conventional hydrotreating unit can bring benefits to producing low and/or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels. Using the hydrotreated Middle East diesel fuel as a feedstock, four processes of the oxidative desulfurization have been studied: a hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid system and a Fenton's reagent system both without/with ultrasound. Results showed that the oxidative desulfurization reaction mechanics fitted apparent first-order kinetics. The addition of Fenton's reagent could enhance the oxidative desulfurization efficiency for diesel fuels and sono-oxidation treatment in combination with Fenton's reagent shows a good synergistic effect. Under our best operating condition for the oxidative desulfurization: temperature 313 K, ultrasonic power 200 W, ultrasonic frequency 28 kHz, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 0.05 mol/mol, pH 2.10 in aqueous phase and reaction time 15 min, the sulfur content in the diesel fuels was decreased from 568.75 {mu}g/g to 9.50 {mu}g/g. (author)

  4. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  5. Overview on Microbial Desulfurization for Pyrite Cinder%硫铁矿烧渣的微生物脱硫概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文博; 邹平; 孙珮石

    2013-01-01

    对硫酸渣微生物氧化脱硫研究进行了综述,主要包括硫酸渣的特性、脱硫工艺、脱硫微生物种类、细菌氧化机理、微生物脱硫影响因素、硫酸渣生物氧化脱硫现状和存在问题等,展望了该技术未来的研究方向及应用前景.%The research on microbial oxidation desulfurization for pyrite cinder is summarized in this paper, which mainly includes the characteristics of pyrite cinder, desulfuration process, desulfurization microbial species, bacterial oxidation mechanism, the influence factors of microbial desulfurization, the present situation and the existing problems of pyrite cinder's biological oxidation desulfurization, and so on, the future direction of the research and the application prospect are also forecasted in this paper.

  6. Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil using untreated, acid activated and magnetite nanoparticle loaded bentonite as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research work focuses on a novel ultraclean desulfurization process of model oil by the adsorption method using untreated, acid activated and magnetite nanoparticle loaded bentonite as adsorbent. The parameters investigated are effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dibenzothiophene (DBT concentration and temperature. Experimental tests were conducted in batch process. Pseudo first and second order kinetic equations were used to examine the experimental data. It was found that pseudo second order kinetic equation described the data of the DBT adsorption onto all types of adsorbents very well. The isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model fits the data very well for the adsorption of DBT onto all three forms of adsorbents. The adsorption of DBT was also investigated at different adsorbent doses and was found that the percentage adsorption of DBT was increased with increasing the adsorbent dose, while the adsorption in mg/g was decreased with increasing the adsorbent dose. The prepared adsorbents were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S.

    2001-07-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha{sup -1}. Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  8. Synthesis of magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-OMC) adsorbent and its evaluation for fuel desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzin Nejad, N., E-mail: Farzinnejadn@ripi.ir [Petroleum Refining Technology Development Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran 14857-33111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams, E.; Amini, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent was synthesized using soft templating method to adsorb sulfur from model oil (dibenzothiophene in n-hexane). Through this research, pluronic F-127, resorcinol-formaldehyde and hydrated iron nitrate were respectively used as soft template, carbon source and iron source. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement revealed the high surface area (810 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), maxima pore size of 3.3 nm and large pore volume (1.01 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}) of the synthesized sample. The adsorbent showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 111 mg dibenzothiophene g{sup −1} of adsorbent. Sorption process was described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation and could be better fitted by the Freundlich model, showing the heterogeneous feature of the adsorption process. In addition, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent was 78.6% of the initial level, after five regeneration cycles. - Highlights: • Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil with magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent, Fe-OMC, was studied. • Maximum adsorption capacity (q{sub max}) of Fe-OMC for DBT was found to be 111.1 mg g{sup −1}. • Freundlich isotherm best represents the equilibrium adsorption data. • Rate of DBT adsorption process onto Fe-OMC is controlled by at least two steps.

  9. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas by Ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Han, Yinghui; Ma, Tianzhong; Guo, Tianxiang

    2011-05-01

    An innovative semidry process has been developed to simultaneously remove NO and SO₂ from flue gas. According to the conditions of the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system, ferrate(VI) absorbent was prepared and added to humidified water, and the effects of the various influencing factors, such as ferrate(VI) concentration, humidified water pH, inlet flue gas temperature, residence time, molar ratio of Ca/(S+N), and concentrations of SO₂ and NO on removal efficiencies of SO₂ and NO were studied experimentally. Removal efficiencies of 96.1% for SO₂ and 67.2% for NO were obtained, respectively, under the optimal experimental conditions, in which the concentration of ferrate(VI) was 0.03 M, the humidified water pH was 9.32, the inlet flue gas temperature was 130 °C, the residence time was 2.2 s, and the molar ratio of Ca/(S+N) was 1.2. In addition, the reaction mechanism of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using ferrate(VI) was proposed.

  10. Preparation of manganese dioxide loaded activated carbon adsorbents and their desulfurization performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaojing; Wang, Guojian; Wang, Wenyi; Song, Hua; Wang, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Manganese dioxide loaded activated carbon adsorbents (MnO2/AC) were prepared and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, BET method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effects of preparation conditions and adsorption conditions on desulfurization performance of the adsorbents were studied in a fixed-bed adsorption apparatus. Experimental results show that the surface area and pore volume of MnO2/AC decreased compared with the unmodified activated carbon, but the adsorption capacity to H2S was improved greatly. A suitable H2S removal activity was obtained with manganese dioxide to activated carbon ratio of 1.1: 1 and the calcination temperature of 250°C. At the adsorption temperature of 40°C and gas flow rate of 20 mL/min, the H2S saturation capacity and H2S removal rate reached up to 713.25 mg/g and 89.9%, respectively.

  11. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD is CaSO(4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1 and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3 ha(-1. The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, pH and total dissolved salts (TDS in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1 and water was supplied at 1200 m(3·ha(-1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  12. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas.

  13. Industrial-scale experiments of desulfuration of coal flue gas using a pulsed corona discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Wang, N.H.; Li, G.F.; Huang, Q.N. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Inst. of Electrostatics

    2003-06-01

    The flow rate of flue gas in the industrial experiments was 3000 Nm{sup 3}/h. The flue gas from the boiler burning coal was used. The influences of operating parameters on the efficiency of desulfurization (DeSO{sub 2}) were studied, which include the retention period of flue gas in the reactor, the initial concentration of SO{sub 2} in flue gas, a mole ratio of NH{sub 3} to SO{sub 2} in the gas, the temperature of the gas, as well as the power consumption of pulsed corona discharges. The experimental results shown that the efficiency of DeSO{sub 2} was above 80%, when the initial concentration of SO{sub 2} was 1000 -2000 ppm, the gas temperature was 60 - 75 {degree}C, the retention period was more than 5.8 s, a mole ratio of NH{sub 3} to SO{sub 2} was 2:1, the water content in flue gas was above 6%, and the consumption was 2.5-3.5 Wh/Nm{sup 3}.

  14. Growth of forage legumes and grasses in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA)

    2003-07-01

    Large amounts of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are produced when SO{sub 2} emissions are trapped in the coal burning process for generation of electricity. FGDs are normally discarded instead of being reused, and reuse on soils could be important in overall management of these products. Glasshouse experiments were conducted to determine effects of various levels of three FGDs (a FGD gypsum, an oxidized FGD + Mg, and a stabilized FGD) and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4} on growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult). The FGDs enhanced growth of each plant species, with alfalfa, white clover, and tall fescue receiving greater increases than the other species, especially when grown in soil amended with FGD + Mg. FGD gypsum did not often enhance growth unless high amounts were added. FGDs containing high B and low levels of CaSO{sub 3} were detrimental to growth. Overall, FGDs improved growth responses of these forage plants grown in an infertile low pH soil.

  15. Adsorptive desulfurization on a heteroatoms Y zeolite prepared by secondary synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gallium atoms have been introduced into the framework of Y zeolite by treating the zeolite with an aqueous solution of ammonium hexafluoro gallate.Desulfurization of various model fuels containing about 500 μg/g sulfur has been studied over the synthesized Y zeolite(GaAlY).The sulfur adsorption capacity is 7.0,17.4,14.5,16.9,6.9 and 5.8 mg(S)/g adsorbent for thiophene,tetrahydrothiophene(THT),4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene(4,6-DMDBT),dibenzophiophene(DBT),benzothiophene(BT) and 4-methyldibenzothiophene(4-MDBT),respectively.The charges on the S atom in thiophene,THT,4,6DMDBT,DBT,BT and 4-MDBT,calculated using the density functional theory(DFT),are-0.159,-0.298,-0.214,-0.211,-0.193 and-0.188,respectively,implying that the S-M bond between the adsorption sites and thiophene is much weaker than that between the adsorption sites and THT,4,6-DMDBT or DBT.The sulfur removal of FCC gasoline on GaAlY is 68%.

  16. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  17. Attapulgite-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhang, Zuosong; Yao, Chao; Lu, Xiaowang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Ni, Chaoying

    2016-02-01

    Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO2/MoS2 composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 to MoS2 on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO2 particles and MoS2 nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO2/MoS2 is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  18. Silica-gel Supported V Complexes:Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Oxidative Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎俊波; 刘习文; 曹灿灿; 郭嘉; 潘志权

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, a series of catalyst SGn-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] (SG=silica gel, PAMAM=poly-amidoamine, MSA=5-methyl salicylaldehyde, n=0, 1, 2, 3) was prepared and their structures were fully charac-terized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelec-tron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP) etc. XPS revealed that the metal V and SGn-PAMAM-MSA combined more closely after the formation of Schiff base derivatives. Their cata-lytic activities for oxidation of dibenzothiophene were evaluated using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant. The results showed that the catalyst SG2.0-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] presented good catalytic activity and recycling time. Mean-while, the optimal condition for the catalytic oxidation of SG2.0-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] was also investigated, which showed that when the oxidation temperature was 90 °C, time was 60 min, the O/S was 3︰1, and the mass content of catalyst was 1%, the rate of desulfurization could reach 85.2%. Moreover, the catalyst can be recycled several times without significant decline in catalytic activity.

  19. Effect of pH Value on the Desulfurization Process in Flue Gas Desulfurization%烟气脱硫中pH值对脱硫过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振华

    2014-01-01

    Wet Limestone - gypsum flue gas desulfurization system (FGD system) is currently dominant in the domestic coal-fired power plant FGD system. FGD is designed to chemically remove sulfur dioxide in the flue gas leaving the flue gas will be purified. pH value as a measure of gypsum slurry pH, is an important technical parameters of the desulfurization process, at the same time as an environmental indicators relate with chemical reaction. Utilization of limestone, desulfurization efficiency and quality of gypsum slurry are closely related with the control of pH value. We usually control the pH value by controlling the mixing amount of limestone (CaCO3). Increasing the pH value can increase the amount of limestone, and vice versa reduction. On operation, the stability of pH value must be maintained. Increasing the pH value will increase the alkalinity of system and desulfurization efficiency, but the utilization of limestone will be reduced, and accelerate the formation of scale, ultimately affect the quality of gypsum. Reducing the pH value will increase the acidity of the system, improve the utilization of limestone, accelerate precipitation of gypsum crystals, but it will also accelerate the corrosion of the system, make the system is unstable, and the desulfurization efficiency will be greatly reduced. Therefore, the control of slurry pH value should seek the best value to meet the requirements under the premise of the desulfurization rate and generally the pH is controlled in the best range of 5.0-5.8.%湿法石灰石-石膏烟气脱硫系统(即FGD系统)目前在国内外燃煤电站FGD系统中占绝对优势。FGD的目的是用化学方法除去烟气中的二氧化硫而使烟气得以净化。pH值作为石膏浆液酸碱度的度量,是脱硫工序中一项重要的技术参数,同时可作为一项与化学反应相关的环境指标。石灰石利用率、脱硫效率和石膏浆液品质等与pH值的控制密切相关。通常我们

  20. Theoretical investigation of the interaction between aromatic sulfur compounds and [BMIM](+)[FeCl4](-) ionic liquid in desulfurization: A novel charge transfer mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongping; Zhu, Wenshuai; Chang, Yonghui; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Yin, Sheng; Xia, Jiexiang; Li, Huaming

    2015-06-01

    In this work, interaction nature between a group of aromatic sulfur compounds and [BMIM](+)[FeCl4](-) have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). A coordination structure is found to be critical to the mechanism of extractive desulfurization. Interaction energy and extractive selectivity follow the order: thiophene (TH)ionic liquid, but steric hindrance effects of some alkylic derivatives (e.g. 2,7-dimethylbenzothiophene) lead to a weaker interaction with ionic liquid. The mechanism of extractive desulfurization is attributed to the charge transfer effect. During extractive desulfurization, electrons on aromatic sulfur compounds transfer into the Lewis part of ionic liquid, namely, [FeCl4](-). Furthermore, it is better to consider the Lewis acidity of Fe-containing ionic liquid by the whole unit (such as [FeCl4](-) and aromatic sulfur compounds (X)) rather than only Fe or S atom.

  1. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. First annual report, September 1, 1990--August 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  2. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  3. 活性焦烟气脱硫技术及其应用前景%Desulfurization Technology for Flue Gas by Active Coke and Its Application Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家铭

    2012-01-01

    Desulfurization technology for flue gas by active coke was using its inherent functions of adsorption, catalysis and filtration,it was a dry purification treatment for the sulfur contained flue gas, in same one of reactor the three functions of desulfurization, de-nitride and de-dust were finished. Author hasintroduced the basic principle,process flow,technical feature,studying and developing situation taking coal as mainraw material to produce the active coke ; has compared the desulfurization hy active coke with the other some kinds of conventional desulfurization processes. Result indicates that the desulfurization technology of flue gas by active coke has an obvious superiority in the aspects of desulfurization rate,utilization of by-product,investment of plant and operating cost etc.%活性焦烟气脱硫技术利用活性焦特有的吸附、催化和过滤功能,对含硫烟气进行干法净化处理,在同1个反应器内完成脱硫、脱硝、除尘3种功能。介绍了以煤为主要原料生产活性焦的基本原理、工艺流程、技术特点和研发概况;将活性焦脱硫工艺与其他几种常用的脱硫工艺进行了对比,结果表明,活性焦烟气脱硫技术在脱硫率、副产品利用、装置投资及运行费用等方面均具有明显优势。

  4. Integrated hot fuel gas cleaning for advanced gasification combined cycle process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, J.; Staahlberg, P.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1996-12-01

    The fate of halogens in pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas filtration is determined. Potential halogen removal sorbents, suitable for integrated hot gas cleaning, are screened and some selected sorbents are tested in bench scale. Finally, halogen removal results are verified using the PDU-scale pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and integrated hot gas cleaning facilities of VTT. The project is part of the JOULE II Extension programme of the European Union. (author)

  5. Kinetics of pozzolanic reaction for preparation of flue gas desulfurizer from fly ash and Ca(OH)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingang; HU Jinbang; WANG Daobin; DUAN Zhenya

    2007-01-01

    A kinetic model of the pozzolanic reaction for the preparation of flue gas desulfurizers from fly ash and Ca(OH)2 was deduced on the basis of solid phase reaction kinetic theory.Kinetic expressions and parameters were obtained and verified by experiment.A comparison of calculated results with experimental results showed that precision in kinetic expressions was good.The apparent reaction rate constants of the pozzolanic reaction could be raised by increasing the specific surface area of fly ash and the hydration temperature,and by using a suitable additive.

  6. Foaming in wet flue gas desulfurization plants: Laboratory‐scale investigation of long‐term performance of antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous foaming can cause a range of operational problems in industrial processes such as wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This work investigates the performance of selected antifoaming agents (Nalco FM‐37, Foamtrol 2290, and rapeseed oil) on foams generated by egg white albumin (protein......), sodium dodecyl sulfate, and adipic acid at conditions of relevance for wet FGD plants. The addition of antifoaming agents breaks any existing foam and causes an induction period without foaming, after which the foam gradually will begin to reappear. Foaming by egg white albumin (2 g/L) at 0.014 m/s could...

  7. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing -- Phase 3. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  8. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercial demonstration. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished in 2Q97.

  9. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercialization demonstration. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue.

  10. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercial demonstration. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished in 1Q97.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization products as sulfur sources for alfalfa and soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.M.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (US). School of Natural Resources

    2005-02-01

    Sulfur deficiencies in soil are expected to increase due to growth of high-yielding crop varieties, use of S-free fertilizers, and removal of S from industrial emissions. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, created when coal is burned and SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gases, may serve as efficient S sources. However, there are few reports on their use for the enhancement of crop growth. Agricultural gypsum and two types of FGD products, that contain either vermiculite or perlite, were applied at 0, 16, and 67 kg S ha{sup -1} to an agricultural soil (Wooster silt loam, Typic Fragiudalf). Dry weight of a new planting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was increased up to 40% by the treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Gypsum and FGD products were also applied at 0, 8,16, and 24 kg S ha{sup -1} to five established alfalfa stands in different Ohio regions. Mean alfalfa yield was significantly (P {le} 0.05) increased by approximately 5.0% in 2001 and 6.0% in 2002 with the S treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Alfalfa yields for FGD products and gypsum treatments were similar. A slight positive yield response was observed for soybean (Glycine max L.) when soils were treated with S-containing materials. Soil and plant analyses were made to assess potential adverse environmental impacts and none were observed. Thus, these FGD products can be safely applied to agricultural soils as S sources and can improve alfalfa yields in S-deficient soils.

  12. Regenerable copper-based sorbents for high temperature flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.; Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Williams, B.E.; Khalili, N.R.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-07-01

    During conventional combustion process the sulfur in the coal is converted to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). This hazardous air pollutant combines with the moisture in the atmosphere and creates what is commonly known as acid rain. Thus the removal of this pollutant from flue gas prior to its discharge is very important. Government regulations have been introduced and have become progressively more stringent. In the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, for example, legislation was introduced requiring electric utilities to adopt available technology for removal of pollutant gases and particulates from coal combustion flue gases so that the increased use of coal is done in an environmentally acceptable manner. A number of processes have been developed for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The moving bed copper oxide process has been regarded as one of the most promising emerging technologies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal from flue gases at elevated temperatures. This process is based on the utilization of a dry, regenerable sorbent, that consists of copper oxide (CuO) supported on gamma alumina ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), in a cross flow moving-bed reactor. This study has been directed toward evaluation of the commercially available alumina-supported copper-based (ALCOA) sorbent to establish the baseline for development of new and improved sorbents for the copper oxide process. Evaluation of the baseline sorbent included determination of effective sulfur capacity and sulfur removal efficiency of the sorbent, the effects of operating parameters on the performance of the sorbent, as well as long term durability of the sorbent. Physical and chemical properties of the baseline sorbent were also determined.

  13. Copper-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization at moderate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B.; Abbasian, J.

    2000-05-01

    In a previous paper, the authors reported on the development of a regenerable copper chromite sorbent, designated as CuCr-29, that is capable of achieving less than 5 ppmv H{sub 2}S concentration in the cleaned fuel gas at about 600 C. This paper reports on recent research carried out to develop a new class of copper-based sorbents for hot fuel gas desulfurization applications in the moderate temperature range of 350--550 C that is currently of industrial interest. A reproducible sorbent preparation technique has been extended to the formulation of highly reactive and attrition-resistant sulfur sorbents based on reagent-grade oxides of copper, manganese, and alumina. The results of packed-bed experiments carried out for the evaluation of the performance of several copper-based sorbents at 350 and 450 C as well as the assessment of the long-term durability and regenerability of one selected formulation are presented and discussed. Three copper-based sorbents were shown to exhibit excellent sulfur removal efficiency and effective capacity, with one formulation (IGTSS-145) being particularly effective in the range of 450--600 C and two formulations (IGTSS-179 and IGTSS-326A) for the range of 350--450 C. The IGTSS-326A formulation maintained excellent sulfur removal efficiency (<1 ppmv H{sub 2}S in the cleaned fuel gas) as well as excellent effective sulfur capacity throughout extended durability testing. This sorbent was also shown to have significantly high attrition resistance, as determined in accordance with the ASTM D5757-95 procedure. These results strongly suggest the suitability of this formulation as a candidate sorbent for demonstration in the Sierra Pacific (Pinon Pine) Clean Coal Technology IGCC Demonstration Program.

  14. Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

    1999-07-01

    Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of

  15. A NOVEL VAPOR-PHASE PROCESS FOR DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF NAPHTHA/DIESEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.S. Turk; R.P. Gupta; S.K. Gangwal

    2003-06-30

    Tier 2 regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require a substantial reduction in the sulfur content of gasoline. Similar regulations have been enacted for the sulfur level in on-road diesel and recently off-road diesel. The removal of this sulfur with existing and installed technology faces technical and economic challenges. These challenges created the opportunity for new emerging technologies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) with subcontract support from Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc., (KBR) used this opportunity to develop RTI's transport reactor naphtha desulfurization (TReND) process. Starting with a simple conceptual process design and some laboratory results that showed promise, RTI initiated an accelerated research program for sorbent development, process development, and marketing and commercialization. Sorbent development has resulted in the identification of an active and attrition resistant sorbent that has been prepared in commercial equipment in 100 lb batches. Process development has demonstrated both the sulfur removal performance and regeneration potential of this sorbent. Process development has scaled up testing from small laboratory to pilot plant transport reactor testing. Testing in the transport reactor pilot plant has demonstrated the attrition resistance, selective sulfur removal activity, and regeneration activity of this sorbent material. Marketing and commercialization activities have shown with the existing information that the process has significant capital and operating cost benefits over existing and other emerging technologies. The market assessment and analysis provided valuable feedback about the testing and performance requirements for the technical development program. This market analysis also provided a list of potential candidates for hosting a demonstration unit. Although the narrow window of opportunity generated by the new sulfur regulations and the conservative nature of the refining

  16. Preparation of flexible zinc oxide/carbon nanofiber webs for mid-temperature desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soojung; Bajaj, Bharat [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Chang Ki; Kwon, Soon-Jin [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Han-Ik [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kwang Bok, E-mail: cosy32@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungho, E-mail: sunghol@kist.re.kr [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Material Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and zinc precursor were electrospun and heat-treated for preparing zinc oxide (ZnO) modified carbon nanofibers (CNF). • A facile synthesis of composite webs resulted in uniformly loaded ZnO on the surface of CNFs. • The composites showed significant hydrogen sulfide adsorption efficiency at 300 °C. • The flexible webs can be applied for mid-temperature desulfurization. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) derived carbon nanofiber (CNF) webs loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized using electrospinning and heat treatment at 600 °C. Uniformly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, clarified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, were observed on the surface of the nanofiber composites containing 13.6–29.5 wt% of ZnO. The further addition of ZnO up to 34.2 wt% caused agglomeration with a size of 50–80 nm. Higher ZnO contents led the concentrated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanofibers rather than uniform dispersion along the cross-section of the fiber. The flexible composite webs were crushed and tested for hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) adsorption at 300 °C. Breakthrough experiments with the ZnO/CNF composite containing 25.7 wt% of ZnO for H{sub 2}S adsorption showed three times higher ZnO utilization efficiency compared to pure ZnO nano powders, attributed to chemisorption of the larger surface area of well dispersed ZnO particles on nanofibers and physical adsorption of CNF.

  17. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  18. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hughes, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Berry, Jonathan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Russell, Tamara [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lau, Y. C. [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Liu, Shan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Arnett, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Peck, Arthur [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Tralshawala, Nilesh [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Weber, Joseph [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Benjamin, Marc [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Iduate, Michelle [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kittleson, Jacob [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Garcia-Crespo, Andres [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Delvaux, John [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Casanova, Fernando [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lacy, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Brzek, Brian [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Wolfe, Chris [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Palafox, Pepe [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Ding, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Badding, Bruce [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2015-07-30

    stage hot gas path components, and systems analyses to determine benefits of all previously mentioned technologies to a gas turbine system in an IGCC configuration. This project built on existing gas turbine technology and product developments, and developed and validated the necessary turbine related technologies and sub-systems needed to meet the DOE turbine program goals. The scope of the program did not cover the design and validation of a full-scale prototype machine with the technology advances from this program incorporated. In summary, the DOE goals were met with this program. While the commercial landscape has not resulted in a demand for IGCC gas turbines many of the technologies that were developed over the course of the program are benefiting the US by being applied to new higher efficiency natural gas fueled gas turbines.

  19. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash,industry lime,and an oxidizing additive M.Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed(CFB).The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification.Removal efficiencies of 95.5%for SO2 and 64.8%for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods.The results in- dicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species.A scanning electron microscope(SEM)and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples,including fly ash,oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent.The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was pro- posed according to the experimental results.

  20. Novel dry-desulfurization process using Ca(OH)2/fly ash sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Norihiko; Li, Yan; Nishioka, Masateru; Sadakata, Masayoshi; Qi, Haiying; Xu, Xuchang

    2004-12-15

    A dry-desulfurization process using Ca(OH)2/fly ash sorbent and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was developed. Its aim was to achieve high SO2 removal efficiency without humidification and production of CaSO4 as the main byproduct. The CaSO4 produced could be used to treat alkalized soil. An 83% SO2 removal rate was demonstrated, and a byproduct with a high CaSO4 content was produced through baghouse ash. These results indicated that this process could remove SO2 in flue gas with a high efficiency under dry conditions and simultaneously produce soil amendment. It was shown that NO and NO2 enhanced the SO2 removal rate markedly and that NO2 increased the amount of CaSO4 in the final product more than NO. These results confirmed that the significant effects of NO and NO2 on the SO2 removal rate were due to chain reactions that occurred under favorable conditions. The amount of baghouse ash produced increased as the reaction progressed, indicating that discharge of unreacted Ca(OH)2 from the reactor was suppressed. Hence, unreacted Ca(OH)2 had a long residence time in the CFB, resulting in a high SO2 removal rate. It was also found that 350 degrees C is the optimum reaction temperature for dry desulfurization in the range tested (320-380 degrees C).

  1. The control of H2S in biogas using iron ores as in situ desulfurizers during anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiying; Jiang, Xia; Li, Xi; Jiang, Wenju

    2016-09-01

    In this study, five kinds of iron ores, limonite, hematite, manganese ore, magnetite and lava rock, were used as the in situ desulfurizers in the anaerobic digestion reactors to investigate their effects on controlling H2S in biogas. The results show that the addition of the five iron ores could significantly control the content of H2S in biogas, with the best performance for limonite. As limonite dosages increase (10-60 g/L), the contents of H2S in biogas were evidently decreased in the digesters with different initial sulfate concentrations (0-1000 mg/L). After the anaerobic digestion, the removed sulfur was mostly deposited on the surface of limonite. A possible mechanism of H2S control in biogas by limonite was proposed preliminarily, including adsorption, FeS precipitation, and Fe (III) oxidation. The results demonstrated that limonite was a promising in situ desulfurizer for controlling H2S in biogas with low cost and high efficiency.

  2. Analysis on the Oversize Blast Furnace Desulfurization and a Sulfide Capacity Prediction Model Based on Congregated Electron Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyang, Wang; Jianliang, Zhang; Gang, An; Zhengjian, Liu; Zhengming, Cheng; Junjie, Huang; Jingwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Through analyzed and regressed the actual productive desulfurization data from the oversize blast furnace (5500 m3) in north China, the relationship between the sulfur distribution parameters and the slag composition in actual production situation was investigated. As the slag and hot metal phases have their own balance sulfur content or sulfur partial pressure in gas phase, respectively, the non-equilibrium of sulfur among gas, slag, and metal phases leads to the transmission and distribution of sulfur. Combined with sulfur transmission reactions between gas, slag and metal phases, C/CO pairs equilibrium, and Wagner model, the measured sulfide capacity can be acquired using sulfur distribution ratio, sulfur activity coefficient, and oxygen activity in hot metal. Based on the theory of congregated electron phase, a new sulfide capacity prediction model (CEPM) has been developed, which has a good liner relationship with the measured sulfide capacity. Thus, using the burden structure for BF, the ironmaking slag composition can be obtained simply and can be used to reliably predict the ironmaking slag desulfurization ability a few hours later after charging under a certain temperature by CEPM.

  3. Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica-zirconia Supported Phosphotungstic Acid and Its Catalytic Performance for Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xuemin; DAI Kai; MEI Ping

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous silica-zirconia supported phosphotungstic acid was synthesized by evaporation induced self-assembly method and used as oxidative desulfurization catalysts. The structural properties of as-prepared catalysts were characterized using various analytical techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption desorption. The experimental results showed that HPW was highly dispersed on mesoporous framework. The surface acidity of catalysts was analyzed by FTIR measurement of adsorbed pyridine.The surface Lewis acidity was improved with increasing the content of zirconium in the samples. The mesoporous composites were used as catalysts with H2O2 as oxidant for oxidative desulfurization of model fuel. The catalytic activity results showed that the surface Lewis acid sites acted as selective adsorption active sites for dibenzothiophene, which facilitated the sulfur removal from model fuel in the presence of arene. A slight decrease in activity of the recovered catalyst used in the proceeding rounds indicated the reusability of the catalyst.

  4. Kinetic model of hot-metal desulfurization by deep injection of synthetic powder mixtures - Part II; Modelo cinetico da dessulfuracao do gusa na panela atraves de injecao de misturas sinteticas - parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesshadri, V. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia; Silva, C.A. da; Silva, I.A. da [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia

    1995-12-31

    The model developed in Part I of this study was used to analyze a series of industrial trials of hot metal hot desulfurization by deep injection of Ca O base synthetic mixtures, using N{sub 2} as carrier gas. The model allows the simulation of the industrial practice and, under the examined conditions it was observed that the major contribution for the process desulfurization come from the top slag. However, since the values range covered by some other parameters were not extensive enough to affect the desulfurization, further experiments are required to fully assess the the influence of these variables 28 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. 电厂脱硫废水曝气装置设计优化%Power Plant Desulfurization Wastewater Aeration Device Design Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守超

    2015-01-01

    介绍了电厂常见脱硫废水处理系统的工作流程和流程优化部分,总结了多个电厂脱硫废水处理系统曝气装置的设计经验,提出了脱硫废水处理系统曝气装置设计优化的关键细节。该方案已经在多个电厂投入运行,且运行稳定、效果明显,可为相关单位的火电厂脱硫废水处理系统设计提供参考。%The power plant desulfurization wastewater treatment system common workflow and process optimization section summarizes a number of power plant desulfurization wastewater treatment system design experience aerator proposed key details desulfurization wastewater treatment system aeration device design optimization. The program has invested in a number of plant operations and stable operation, the effect is obvious, can desulfurization wastewater treatment system designed for the relevant units of thermal power plants to provide a reference.

  6. 麻石水膜法在烟气脱硫除尘中的应用%The Application of Granite Water Method in Desulfurization and Dust Removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖耀; 任芸芸

    2012-01-01

    烟气脱硫除尘的技术方法有许多种,每种技术的应用要充分考虑经济、技术、环境方面的因素,因地制宜。文章介绍了几种烟气脱硫技术,根据公司实际情况介绍了用于中小燃煤锅炉烟气脱硫的技术-麻石水膜法烟气脱硫,并成功的应用于公司的中小型燃煤改造。适合对有条件的老厂进行技术改造。%There are many technologies for desulfurization of flue gas dusting,factors on economy,technology and environment must be considered for the application of technology.The paper introduces several flue gas desulfurization technology,according to the practical situation is introduced in this small and medium-sized coal boiler flue gas desulfurization technology-the granite water film flue gas desulfurization,and successful application in the company of small and medium-sized coal-fired transformation.This technology is suitable for some old factory technical to reform.

  7. Design of Oxidation Regenerator for Coal-bed Methane Desulfurization%煤层气脱硫氧化再生槽的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文娟

    2013-01-01

    Before the use of the coal-bed methane, H2 S content in it must be lowered down to the demand with the desulfurizing system. This paper described the oxidation regeneration method for coal-bed methane desulfurization, and expounded the principle and technological process of the presently-used PDS wet oxidation regeneration method for coal-bed methane desulfurization, discussed the influence of some factors such as the regenerating time, temperature and the alkalinity of desulfurizing solution on the oxidation regeneration method, and based on these conditions, the structure of the oxidation regenerator and the injector were designed.%煤层气在利用之前,需要通过脱硫系统将其中的H2 S脱除至要求浓度以下。介绍了煤层气脱硫氧化再生技术,阐述了目前常用的PDS法湿式脱硫氧化再生技术的原理和工艺过程;讨论了再生时间、温度、脱硫液碱度等因素对氧化再生工艺的影响,基于这些条件,对氧化再生槽的结构、喷射器进行了设计。

  8. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  9. Preparation of crude oil desulfurizer and its performance%原油脱硫剂的研制及其效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 张俊晟; 田永宏; 戚建平; 周保平

    2014-01-01

    A novel oil-soluble/water-dispersed crude oil desulfurizer was developed. The composition of the desulfurizer was alkali metal nitrite of 36%-38%, organic aliphatic amine of 43%-47%, methanol of 15% and OP-7 of 1.5% by mass. The performance of the desulfurizer for different crude oils was evaluated by using iodometry and ultraviolet fluorescence sulfur analyzer. The results showed that the hydrogen sulfide removal rate reached up to 98% and the organic sulfur removal rate was higher than 20%. Meanwhile, the desulfurization conditions, effect and cost were compared with other commercially available desulfurizers.%研制了一种新型的油溶性-水中分散的原油脱硫剂,该剂组成为:碱金属亚硝酸盐36%~38%、有机脂族胺43%~47%、甲醇15%、OP-71.5%。利用碘量法测定了其对伊朗原油、塔里木原油和模拟原油中硫化氢的脱除效果,脱除率可达98%;利用紫外荧光定硫仪测定了其对有机硫的脱除效果,脱除率为20%以上。同时,将该剂与市售脱硫剂的脱硫条件、脱硫效果及成本进行了比较。

  10. Analysis of Influence Factors on Coal Desulfurization with Dielectric Barrier Discharge%煤介质阻挡放电脱硫的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许允之; 李国欣; 曹海洋

    2011-01-01

    依据介质阻挡放电理论,对原煤进行煤介质阻挡放电脱硫实验.实验结果表明,煤介质阻挡放电脱硫的影响因素与电极结构、介质成分和气隙距离等因素有关,如将介质放到放电间隙中间时脱硫的效果没有将介质直接放在放电极板上的脱硫效果好,加煤的情况下微放电的强度明显大于不加煤的微放电过程强度;脱硫效果呈"U"字型变化,由此推论,在一定的外界条件下,煤介质阻挡放电除硫有一个最佳的施加电压;随着电压的增加,放电脉冲的相位范围逐渐扩展.%According to the theory of dielectric barrier discharge, coal desulfurization experiment of dielectric barrier discharge was done.The experiment result showed that influence factors of coal desulfurization with dielectric barrier discharge are electrode structure, medium composition and air-gap distance, for example, desulfurization effect of putting medium on discharge board is better than the one of putting medium in air-gap, the intensity of microdischarge of adding coal is stronger than that the one of unadding coal; the desulfurization effect changes in "U" type, so it can be deduced that desulfurization has a best applied voltage in certain external conditions with dielectric barrier discharge; the phase scope of discharge pulse expands gradually with increase of the voltage.

  11. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-10-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between Ge and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially be GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished from 4Q97 through 3Q98.

  12. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-15

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  13. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Technology Readiness Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-29

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown in Figure 1-1. This report summarizes work accomplished in 2Q98. The most significant accomplishments are listed in the report.

  14. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted horn DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include fill speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  15. Effect of heavy metals on the stabilization of mercury(II) by DTCR in desulfurization solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Jiaai; Lu, Rongjie; Sun, Mingyang; Baig, Shams Ali; Tang, Tingmei; Cheng, Lihua [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Xinhua, E-mail: xuxinhua@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interference of heavy metals on Hg{sup 2+} removal by DTCR was first investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of the decrease in the participating performance over Hg{sup 2+} was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal DTCR dosage was determined in the coexistence of Cu{sup 2+} or Pb{sup 2+} with Hg{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of pH value on the interference of Hg{sup 2+} removal rate was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The equilibrium constant of Cu{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+} with DTCR was obtained. - Abstract: Several heavy metals, including Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+}, were investigated in simulated desulfurization solutions to evaluate their interferences with Hg{sup 2+} during the reaction with dithiocarbamate type chelating resin (DTCR). Appropriate DTCR dosage and the effect of pH were also explored with respect to restoration of high Hg{sup 2+} precipitation efficiency and reduction of mercury concentrations. The experimental results suggested that increasing heavy metal concentration inhibited Hg{sup 2+} precipitation efficiency to a considerable extent and the inhibition order of the four heavy metals was Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+}. However, the coordination ability was closely related to the configuration and the orbital hybridization of each metal. In the cases of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, increased DTCR dosage was beneficial to Hg{sup 2+} precipitation, which could lay the foundation of practical applications of DTCR dosage for industrial wastewater treatment. The enhanced Hg{sup 2+} precipitation performance seen for increasing pH might have come from the deprotonation of sulfur atoms on the DTCR functional groups and the formation of metal hydroxides (M(OH){sub 2}, M = Cu, Pb, Hg).

  16. Harvesting microalgae cultures with superabsorbent polymers: desulfurization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín del Campo, Julia S; Patiño, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    It is presented in this work a new methodology to harvest fresh water microalgae cultures by extracting the culture medium with superabsorbent polymers (SAPs). The microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grown in the Sueoka culture medium, harvested with polyacrylic SAPs and re-suspended in the culture medium tris-acetate-potassium without sulfur (TAP-S) to generate hydrogen (H2 ) under anoxic conditions. The H2 production as an alternative fuel is relevant since this gas has high-energy recovery without involving carbon. Before microalgae harvesting, a number of range diameters (1-7 mm) for SAPs spherical particles were tested, and the initial rate (V0 ) and the maximal capacity (Qmax ) were determined for the Sueoka medium absorption. The SAP particles with the diameter range 2.0-2.5 mm performed the best and these were employed for the rest of the experiments. The Sueoka medium has a high salt content and the effect of the ionic strength was also studied for different medium concentrations (0-400%). The SAPs were reused in consecutive absorption/desorption cycles, maintaining their absorption capacity. Although the Sueoka medium reduces the SAPs absorption capacity to 40% compared with deionized water, the use of SAPs was very significant for the desulfurization process of C. reihardtii. The presence of C. reinhardtii at different concentrations does not affect the absorption capacity of the Sueoka culture medium by the SAPs. In order to reduce the time of the process, an increase of the SAPs concentration was tested, being 20 g of SAP per liter of medium, a condition to harvest the microalgae culture in 4 h. There were no evident cell ruptures during the harvesting process and the cells remained alive. Finally, the harvested biomass was re-suspended in TAP-S medium and kept under anaerobic conditions and illumination to produce H2 that was monitored by a PEM fuel cell. The use of SAPs for microalgae harvesting is a feasible non-invasive procedure to obtain

  17. 燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术创新和应用探讨%Discussion on technology innovation of coal -fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆虎; 吴金土

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the existing coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion technolo-gy, summed up the basic reason desulfurization chimney corrosion failures, technological innovation ideas pro-posed chimney desulfurization corrosion.And briefly describes the use of self-vulcanized butyl rubber anti-corrosion lining for coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney antiseptic feasibility and success stories.%通过对现行燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术分析,总结了脱硫烟囱防腐失效的原因,提出了脱硫烟囱防腐的技术创新思路。简要介绍了采用自硫化丁基橡胶防腐衬里对燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱进行防腐的可行性和成功案例。

  18. Studies involving high temperature desulfurization/regeneration reactions of metal oxides for fuel cell development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalan, V.

    1983-10-01

    Research conducted at Giner, Inc. during 1981 to 1983 under the present contract has been a continuation of the investigation of a high temperature regenerable desulfurization process capable of reducing the sulfur content in coal gases from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. The overall objective has been the integration of a coal gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell, which requires that the sulfur content be below 1 ppM. Commercially available low temperature processes incur an excessive energy penalty. Results obtained with packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors have demonstrated that a CuO/ZnO mixed oxide sorbent is regenerable and capable of lowering the sulfur content (as H/sub 2/S and COS) from 200 ppM in simulated hot coal-derived gases to below 1 ppM level at 600 to 650/sup 0/C. Four potential sorbents (copper, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide and zinc oxide) were initially selected for experimental use in hot regenerable desulfurization in the temperature range 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Based on engineering considerations, such as desulfurization capacity in per weight or volume of sorbents, a coprecipitated CuO/ZnO was selected for further study. A structural reorganization mechanism, unique to mixed oxides, was identified: the creation of relatively fine crystallites of the sulfided components (Cu/sub 2/S and ZnS) to counteract the loss of surface area due to sintering during regeneration. Studies with 9 to 26% water vapor in simulated coal gases show that sulfur levels below 1 ppM can be achieved in the temperature range of 500/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The ability of CuO/ZnO to remove COS, CS/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/SH at these conditions has been demonstrated in this study. Also a previously proposed pore-plugging model was further developed with good success for data treatment of both packed bed and fluidized-bed reactors. 96 references, 42 figures, 21 tables.

  19. 液体火箭发动机涡轮燃气通道用搪瓷涂层性能改善研究%Property Improvement of the Enamel Coating Used in Turbine Hot Gas Duct for Liquid Rocket Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李护林; 王国强

    2013-01-01

      在搪瓷涂层的基础上,磨加一定比例的Cr2O3陶瓷颗粒制备了颗粒增强搪瓷复合涂层,并研究了其抗热震性能。结果表明,经10次1000℃到室温的冷热循环试验后,传统搪瓷涂层出现严重崩瓷现象,而颗粒增强搪瓷复合涂层无明显变化,表明陶瓷颗粒的添加可一定程度上改善搪瓷涂层的抗热震性能。%  Enamel coating plays an important role in protecting the turbine hot gas duct of the liquid rocket engine. However, poor ductility and low thermal-shocking resistance of the enamel coating restrict the property of the liquid rocket engine. In this paper, an enamel-ceramic composite coating was prepared by adding Cr2O3 ceramic powder into enamel slurry. The thermal-shocking resistance of the composite coating was also investigated. Results show that gaffing occurs on the surface of the enamel coating after 10 cycles at 1000℃ in air, however, the surface of the composite coating was smooth without undulating and gaffing. It is suggested that Cr2O3 ceramic powder could enhance the thermal-shocking resistance of the coating.

  20. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  1. Origin of the hot gas in low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kempen, T. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; Herczeg, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a Herschel key programme aimed at understanding the physical and chemical structure of young stellar objects (YSOs) with a focus on water and related species. Methods. The low-mass protostar HH 46 was observed with the Photodetector Ar...

  2. On determining the sources of hot gas in the halo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Shelton

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El gas caliente sobre el disco gal actico representa un problema importante e interesante. >Podr a este gas haber sido lanzado desde el disco por burbujas calientes, provenir de fuera de la Galaxia o ser calentado in situ? Cada una de estas posibilidades tiene consecuencias importantes para la evoluci on de la Galaxia, por lo que es necesario tener mejores pruebas. Discutimos varios modelos sobre el origen del gas caliente, su historial de ionizaci on y su apariencia espectral, as como un esquema que permita diferenciar los diferentes modelos con los datos de rayos-X y lejano UV que colectar an los nuevos observatorios.

  3. Origin of the hot gas in low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kempen, T. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; Herczeg, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a Herschel key programme aimed at understanding the physical and chemical structure of young stellar objects (YSOs) with a focus on water and related species. Methods. The low-mass protostar HH 46 was observed with the Photodetector...

  4. Hot gas and the gaseous structure of the galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P. Cox

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En la d ecada pasada se lograron grandes avances en nuestra concepci on del gas interestelar caliente de la V a L actea. El Di use X-ray Spectrometer obtuvo espectros del plano gal actico (esto es, de la Burbuja Local, en el rango 0.15{0.28 keV, que muestran l neas y mezclas de l neas de emisi on. Los espectros con rman que el fondo de rayos-X suaves, en estas energ as, es de origen t ermico a aproximadamente 106 K, pero el espectro no puede ser bien ajustado con los modelos de emisi on de plasma existentes. Los datos del sat elite ROSAT, tanto de muestreo de todo el cielo como de observaciones puntuales, restringen las distancias del gas que emite dentro de la Burbuja Local, el medio interestelar local y el halo. Los datos con rman que la Burbuja Local tiene un tama~no de 100 pc y que el halo gal actico tiene dos componentes de gas caliente; una componente muy inhomog enea de 106 K y otra componente m as caliente, de varios 106 K, cuya distribuci on es suave y sigue a la estructura general de la Galaxia. El sat elite ASCA ha detectado emisi on de plasmas a m as de 107 K en la cresta gal actica, en dos regiones del centro gal actico y en el bulbo. M as recientemente, el micro calor metro del experimento Wisconsin/Goddard con cohetes observ o el espectro de la emisi on difusa en (l; b (90 ; 60 , con un campo visual de 1 sr en el rango espectral 0.1{1 keV y con una resoluci on de 8 eV. Las l neas de O VII y O VIII son detectadas, pero s olo se obtienen l mites superiores para las l neas esperadas de Fe XVII.

  5. Ceramic Hot Gas Filter with Integrated Failsafe System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, S.; Haag, W.; Walch, A.; Scheibner, B.; Mai, R.; Leibold, H.; Seifert, H.

    2002-09-18

    In order to integrate a failsafe system and to improve the cleaning intensity a new cleaning method was recently developed, the CPP (coupled pressure pulse) cleaning (Heidenreich et al. 2001). For the CPP method the cleaning system is directly coupled with the filter candles. One feature of this new technique is that the cleaning gas pressure exceeds the system pressure only by 0.05 to 0.1 MPa, whereas in case of conventional jet pulse systems two times the system pressure (at least 0.6 MPa) is standard. The key advantage of the coupled pressure pulse cleaning is that a safety filter for each filter candle can be integrated in the clean gas side of the filter. Thus, a candle failure is not longer a serious problem. The integrated safety filter enables the operation of the filter system also in case a filter candle breaks. This increases the availability of the filter and prevents an unscheduled costly shut-down of the system. In this paper the design of the ceramic filter wit h the failsafe system and the CPP cleaning will be described. The new developed safety filter elements, their pressure drop and their filtration and clogging behavior will be shown. Tests of single system components, of the whole filter system and first experiences of operating this system will be reported.

  6. Application of CFCC technology to hot gas filtration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richlen, S.

    1995-06-01

    Discussion will feature high temperature filter development under the DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite (CFCC) Program. Within the CFCC Program there are four industry projects and a national laboratory technology support project. Atlantic Research, Babcock & Wilcox, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Textron are developing processing methods to produce CFCC Components with various types of matrices and composites, along with the manufacturing methods to produce industrial components, including high temperature gas filters. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is leading a National Laboratory/University effort to increase knowledge of such generic and supportive technology areas as environmental degradation, measurement of mechanical properties, long-term performance, thermal shock and thermal cycling, creep and fatigue, and non-destructive characterization. Tasks include composite design, materials characterization, test methods, and performance-related phenomena, that will support the high temperature filter activities of industry and government.

  7. Hot gas flow cell for optical measurements on reactive gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff

    2013-01-01

    was validated for high resolution measurements at temperatures of up to 800 K (527 degrees C) in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) regions (190-20 000 nm). Verification of the gas temperature in the cell is provided by a thermocouple and emission/transmission measurements in the IR and UV regions. High......-resolution measurements are presented for the absorption cross-section of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the UV range up to 773 K (500 degrees C)...

  8. Hot Gas TVC For Planetary Ascent Vehicle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Mars ascent vehicle (MAV) uses solid rocket motors to propel soil samples into orbit, but the motors cannot provide steering. Cold gas thrusters are used for...

  9. Hot Gas TVC For Planetary Ascent Vehicle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Mars ascent vehicle (MAV) uses solid rocket motors to propel soil samples into orbit, but the motors cannot provide steering. Flexseal TVC control is planned for...

  10. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  11. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  12. MTBE蒸馏脱硫工艺模拟%The simulation of MTBE desulfurization process by distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文钊; 韩志忠; 张玉东

    2011-01-01

    为使中国汽油达到欧V汽油的含硫标准,研究蒸馏脱硫工艺的可行性有实际意义.以甲基叔丁基硫醚为关键含硫组分,使用Aspen Hysys v 7.0模拟其与MTBE分离过程.按MTBE单塔蒸馏、双塔能量集成蒸馏和与分馏塔能量集成3种方案脱除硫化物,进料硫化物含量100 μg/g的条件下,塔顶MTBE含硫化合物1μg/g,3种方案吨产品蒸汽消耗分别为0.233 t、0.13t和0.08 t.MTBE中含硫化合物与MTBE容易分离,简单精馏可以实现深度脱硫.双塔能量集成方案比单塔直接分离方案节水50%,节约蒸汽45%.MTBE脱硫塔与MTBE分馏塔或催化蒸馏塔进行能量集成,不增加冷却水,蒸汽消耗每吨MTBE增加小于0.1 t.辅助塔可以使硫化物浓缩到99%(m/m),MTBE含硫化物30μg/g,可以混兑低硫产品中或循环回分离系统,MTBE几乎无损失.%To reach the Euro V fuel standard in terms of sulfur content, the study of the feasibility of desulfurization process by distillation was of practical value in China. MTBE desulfurization by distillation was simulated by Aspen Hysys v 7.0, with tert-butyl methyl sulfide as the key sulfur containing compound. Three cases were simulated with regard to one-column simple distillation, two columns at different pressure with energy integration configuration, and high pressure distillation integrating energy with MTBE separation column or with catalytic distillation column. The heating steam consumptions of the three cases were 0.233 ton, 0.131 ton and 0.08 ton for 1 ton of MTBE. Sulfide contents in MTBE could be lowered from 100 ug/g to 1 ug/g. Deep desulfurization could be achieved with simple distillation. The two-column energy integration method saved 50% water and 45% steam compared with one-column direct distillation. The amount of steam required for MTBE per ton increasing by less than 0.1 ton, the energy integration of MTBE desulfurization column with MTBE separation column or with the catalytic distillation

  13. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of high-temperature coal gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report, July 1988--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, S.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the properties of and evaluate mixed oxides of zinc and titanium for hot fuel gas desulfurization. Uncombined ZnO was also investigated as a base case. Detailed investigation of the reduction and sulfidation reactions of Zn-Ti-O sorbents was performed. The intrinsic kinetics and the product layer diffusion rates in reduction and sulfidation were determined. Kinetic experiments with sorbents containing various Zn/Ti atomic ratios were performed. Chemical phase and structural transformations were followed by various methods. The results were compared to similar experiments performed with ZnO. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how the presence of titanium dioxide affects the reduction and sulfidation of ZnO. This information would be used to identify and select the sorbent composition that gives the best combination of low reduction rate and acceptable sulfidation performance at temperatures exceeding 600{degree}C. (VC)

  14. Integrated photooxidative extractive deep desulfurization using metal doped TiO2 and eutectic based ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd; Kait, Chong Fai; Mutalib, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul

    2016-11-01

    A series of metal doped TiO2 namely Fe/TiO2, Cu/TiO2 and Cu-Fe/TiO2 were synthesized and characterized, to be used as a photocatalyst in the integrated photooxidative extractive deep desulfurization for model oil (dodecane) and diesel fuel. The order of the photocatalytic activity was Cu-Fe/TiO2 followed by Cu/TiO2 and then Fe/TiO2. Cu-Fe/TiO2 was an effective photocatalyst for sulfur conversion at ambient atmospheric pressure. Hydrogen peroxide was used as the source of oxidant and eutectic-based ionic liquid as the extractant. Sulfur conversion in model oil reached 100%. Removal of sulfur from model oil was done by two times extraction with a removal of 97.06% in the first run and 2.94% in the second run.

  15. Experimental study on SO2 recovery using a sodium-zinc sorbent based flue gas desulfurization technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhang; Tao Wang; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Xuyi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A sodium–zinc sorbent based flue gas desulfurization technology (Na–Zn-FGD) was proposed based on the experiments and analyses of the thermal decomposition characteristics of CaSO3 and ZnSO3·2.5H2O, the waste products of calcium-based semi-dry and zinc-based flue gas desulfurization (Ca–SD-FGD and Zn–SD-FGD) tech-nologies, respectively. It was found that ZnSO3·2.5H2O first lost crystal H2O at 100 °C and then decomposed into SO2 and solid ZnO at 260 °C in the air, while CaSO3 is oxidized at 450 °C before it decomposed in the air. The ex-perimental results confirm that Zn–SD-FGD technology is good for SO2 removal and recycling, but with problem in clogging and high operational cost. The proposed Na–Zn-FGD is clogging proof, and more cost-effective. In the new process, Na2CO3 is used to generate Na2SO3 for SO2 absorption, and the intermediate product NaHSO3 reacts with ZnO powders, producing ZnSO3·2.5H2O precipitate and Na2SO3 solution. The Na2SO3 solution is clogging proof, which is re-used for SO2 absorption. By thermal decomposition of ZnSO3·2.5H2O, ZnO is re-generated and SO2 with high purity is co-produced as well. The cycle consumes some amount of raw material Na2CO3 and a small amount of ZnO only. The newly proposed FGD technology could be a substitute of the traditional semi-dry FGD technologies.

  16. Research Progress in Flue Gas Desulfurization Technologies%烟气脱硫处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵鲁华; 黄冲; 潘一; 杨双春

    2013-01-01

      烟气脱硫是从废气中去除含硫物质如 SO2,SO3,H2S 的一种工艺,怎样脱除烟气中的含硫物质,减少含硫物质排放已逐步成为全球关注的热点。笔者主要介绍了国内外烟气脱硫处理技术研究现状及进展,包括醇胺类离子液体法、石灰石(石灰)/石膏法、双碱法、金属氧化物法、生物膜法、非生物膜法等,对各种方法进行了评价和比较,并对今后烟气脱硫处理技术的发展提出了建议。%The flue gas desulfurization is to remove sulfur substances from exhaust gas,such as SO2,SO3,H2S. It has gradually become the focus of global attention to remove sulfur containing materials in flue gas and reduce sulfur material discharge. In this paper,flue gas desulfurization treatment technologies at home and abroad were introduced, such as alcohol amine ion liquid method,lime method,dual alkali method,metal oxide method,biofilm process, non biofilm process,and so on. At last, above methods were compared and the future research suggestions were presented.

  17. Technical description of parameters influencing the pH value of suspension absorbent used in flue gas desulfurization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głomba, Michał

    2010-08-01

    As a result of the large limestone deposits available in Poland, the low cost of reagent acquisition for the largescale technological use and relatively well-documented processes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies based on limestone sorbent slurry, wet scrubbing desulfurization is a method of choice in Poland for flue gas treatment in energy production facilities, including power plants and industrial systems. The efficiency of FGD using the above method depends on several technological and kinetic parameters, particularly on the pH value of the sorbent (i.e., ground limestone suspended in water). Consequently, many studies in Poland and abroad address the impact of various parameters on the pH value of the sorbent suspension, such as the average diameter of sorbent particles (related to the limestone pulverization degree), sorbent quality (in terms of pure calcium carbonate [CaCO3] content of the sorbent material), stoichiometric surfeit of CaCO3 in relation to sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbed from flue gas circulating in the absorption node, time of absorption slurry retention in the absorber tank, chlorine ion concentration in sorbent slurry, and concentration of dissolved metal salts (Na, K, Mg, Fe, Al, and others). This study discusses the results of laboratory-scale tests conducted to establish the effect of the above parameters on the pH value of limestone slurry circulating in the SO2 absorption node. On the basis of the test results, a correlation equation was postulated to help maintain the desirable pH value at the design phase of the wet FGD process. The postulated equation displays good coincidence between calculated pH values and those obtained using laboratory measurements.

  18. The effect of oxygen supply on the dual growth kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under acidic conditions for biogas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgung, Hyeong-Kyu; Song, JiHyeon

    2015-02-01

    In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO) effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%-6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration.

  19. The Effect of Oxygen Supply on the Dual Growth Kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under Acidic Conditions for Biogas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Kyu Namgung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%–6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration.

  20. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  1. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    WO3/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO3 and g-C3N4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C3N4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO3/g-C3N4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The WO3/g-C3N4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO3 and g-C3N4 than the WO3 and pure g-C3N4. In addition, two WO3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% -WO3/g-C3N4 composite. This finding indicated that WO3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO3. The WO3/g-C3N4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO3 or pure g-C3N4, which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  2. The effects of the soil improvement by the desulfurization gypsum on the agricultural production and the Tianjin economy - the case study of China's Tianjin City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahi, S. [Yokkaichi University, Yokkaichi (Japan). Faculty of Environmental and Information Sciences

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the utilization of the desulfurization gypsum (by-product) as an inducement in installation the desulfurization equipment. In particular, this allocated the focus for increased yield of agricultural products by the by-product. The following conclusions can be drawn from this analysis. In the case where the soil was improved on a quarter of the arable land of the corn, the rate of the increase in 1995 was 1.85% of the total output for corn in Tianjin city. A year later, in 1996, the rate increased by 4.25% of total output for corn. Increased production by the soil improvement in the first year is equal to about 22000 persons, when increased production is evaluated at the consumption rate per farming village in China, and the repercussion effect of the increased yield of agricultural products benefits mostly the industrial sector. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Identification of a new operon involved in desulfurization of dibenzothiophenes using a metagenomic study and cloning and functional analysis of the genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    The presence of sulphur-substituted hydrocarbons in fossil fuels are one of main reasons for the release of sulfur oxides into the environment. Dibenzothiophenes (DBT) are organic sulfur-containing molecules in crude oil, which have the potential for biological oxidation, with the sulphur being removed through an enzymatic cleavage of the CS bonds. Therefore, finding new strains that can desulfurize this compound has recently become a point of interest. In this study, three new genes involved in the bacterial desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene, which were sequenced in the course of a metagenomic study, were isolated by PCR amplification in the laboratory. The activities of these genes were then analysed following insertion into an expression vector and cloning in Escherichia coli DH5α cells. Based on the results, all three genes were actively expressed and their products could act on their corresponding substrates.

  4. Research on Method of Coke oven Gas Desulfurization Process%焦炉煤气脱硫效率分析及工艺选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛辉; 马强

    2012-01-01

    煤气中所含的硫会造成环境污染、催化剂中毒和设备腐蚀等不良影响。文章探讨了脱除焦炉煤气中硫化氢常用工艺方法的原理及利弊,总结出提高脱硫效率的方法,为选择合理、高效的脱硫工艺提供了帮助。%The sulfur contained in the gas will cause the adverse effects of environmental pollution,catalyst poisoning and equipment corrosion.The paper discussed the principle and the pros and cons of the removal of hydrogen sulfide in the coke oven gas commonly used process,summed up to improve the desulfurization efficiency for the selection of a reasonable,efficient desulfurization process has helped.

  5. 以氨为碱源的焦炉煤气脱硫工艺%Coke oven gas desulfurization technology taking ammonia as alkali source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管福征; 陈夏; 朱建梅

    2014-01-01

    介绍了以煤气中氨为碱源,OMC-对苯二酚为催化剂的湿法脱硫工艺。生产实践表明,该工艺不但脱硫脱氰效率高,而且无废液产生,是一种清洁生产工艺。%This paper describes the wet desulfurization technology taking ammonia,which is contained in the gas,as alkali source and OMC-hydroquinone as catalyst.Production practice shows that this technology is very effective in desulfurization,and produces no wastewater.It is a clean production technology.

  6. Experimental Study on Microbial Desulfurization of Pyrite Cinder%硫铁矿烧渣微生物脱硫试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文博; 邹平; 孙珮石

    2013-01-01

    The mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria was used to remove sulfur from pyrite cinder .The effects of different culture mediums ,solid-liquid ratio ,pH ,inoculum volume ,surfactant usage , temperature and particle size on the desulfurization rate were examined by shake flask experiments . The results indicated that the optimal conditions of desulfurization were solid-liquid ratio of 3∶10 , inoculation amount of 3% ,pH of 1 .5 ,rotation speed of 180 r/min and temperature of 25 ℃ .After 72 hours leaching ,the total sulfur content in the pyrite cinder was reduced significantly from 1 .78% to 0 .28% with a desulfurization rate of 86 .02% ,and iron content was enriched effectively from 53 .78%to 59 .56% .The desulfurization slag meet the requirements of ore concentrate for steelmaking .%  研究了从高硫硫铁矿烧渣中微生物脱硫,考察了培养基种类、矿浆固液质量体积比、pH、细菌接种量、表面活性剂、温度及粒度等因素对微生物脱硫的影响。试验结果表明:在菌种接种量3%、矿浆pH=1.5、温度30℃条件下对固液质量体积比3∶10的硫酸渣矿浆进行脱硫,72 h内,烧渣的硫质量分数由1.78%降至0.28%,脱硫率达86.02%,铁品位由53.78%提高到59.56%;脱硫后的烧渣符合铁精矿要求。

  7. 半水煤气脱硫技改运行总结%Sum-Up of Operation of Updated Technology for Desulfurization of Semi-Water Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学斌; 徐勤永

    2013-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the technological renovation of desulfurization of semi-water gas over the years and operation parameters,and an analysis is done of the existing problems.After the renovation the desulfurization efficiency reaches over 99.50%,after desulfurization the H2S mass concentration in the gas is essentially controlled at below 0.010 g/m3,the soda consumption per ton of ammonia decreases from 6.0 kg to about 2.5 kg,and the resistance in the system drops from 6.0 ~ 8.0 kPa to 1.8 ~ 2.1 kPa.%介绍了历年半水煤气脱硫技改的详细过程、运行参数,并对存在的问题进行了分析.改造后,脱硫效率达到99.50%以上,脱硫后气体中H2S质量浓度基本控制在0.010 g/m3以下,吨氨纯碱消耗由6.0 kg降至2.5 kg左右,系统阻力由6.0~8.0 kPa降至1.8~2.1kPa.

  8. The Spray Drying Desulfurization Process of Precise Control of the Spray to the Influence of Output%喷雾干燥脱硫过程中喷雾的精确控制对产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳萍; 袁亚

    2013-01-01

    为研究脱硫塔内不同喷雾的精确对脱硫效率的影响,提出了基于反馈平衡方程的喷雾干燥脱硫方程和相应的数学模型,并采用仿真软件对脱硫塔内流场进行了数值模拟计算.选用精度反馈信息来调节喷雾的精度,根据统计分析法实现脱硫塔内的喷雾精度仿真,通过建立硫吸收模型,根据脱硫效果的实时信息完成喷雾调节.结果表明,数值模拟结果与实验台测量值基本相符,精确的喷雾控制有利于物料与烟气充分混合,提高脱硫效率.%For the research of desulfurization tower in different spray accurate to desulfurizing efficiency influence,proposed based on feedback balance equation of the spray drying desulfurization equation and the corresponding mathematical model,and the simulation software for desulfurization tower internalflow field is studied with the numerical simulation method.Choose precision feedback information to control the precision of the spray,according to statistics analysis method to realize desulfurization tower in the spray accuracy simulation,through the establishment of sulfur absorption model,according to the desulfurization effect of real-time information complete spray regulation.The results show that the numerical simulation results and experiment table measured value are consistent,precise spray control to material and flue gas fully mix,improve the desulfurization efficiency.

  9. Effects of pore sizes and oxygen-containing functional groups on desulfurization activity of Fe/NAC prepared by ultrasonic-assisted impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Song; Guo, Jia-Xiu; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Yin, Hua-Qiang; Luo, De-Ming

    2016-01-01

    A series of Fe-loaded activated carbons treated by HNO3 (Fe/NAC) were prepared by incipient impregnation method with or without ultrasonic assistance and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy disperse spectroscope (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption/desorption. The desulfurization activities were evaluated at a fixed bed reactor under a mixed gas simulated from flue gas. The results showed that desulfurization activity from excellent to poor is as follows: Fe/NAC-60 > Fe/NAC-80 > Fe/NAC-30 > Fe/NAC-15 > Fe/NAC-0 > Fe/NAC-100 > NAC. Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity and has breakthrough sulfur capacity of 319 mg/g and breakthrough time of 540 min. The introduction of ultrasonic oscillation does not change the form of Fe oxides on activated carbon but can change the dispersion and relative contents of Fe3O4. The types of oxygen-containing functional groups have no obvious change for all samples but the texture properties show some differences when they are oscillated for different times. The fresh Fe/NAC-60 has a surface area of 1045 m2/g and total pore volume of 0.961 cm3/g with micropore volume of 0.437 cm3/g and is larger than Fe/NAC-0 (823 m2/g, 0.733 and 0.342 cm3/g). After desulfurization, surface area and pore volume of all samples decrease significantly, and those of the exhausted Fe/NAC-60 decrease to 233 m2/g and 0.481 cm3/g, indicating that some byproducts deposit on surface to cover pores. Pore size distribution influences SO2 adsorption, and fresh Fe/NAC-60 has more pore widths centralized at about 0.7 nm and 1.0-2.0 nm and corresponds to an excellent desulfurization activity, showing that micropore is conducive to the removal of SO2.

  10. Microbial CO conversions with applications in synthesis gas purification and bio-desulfurization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Henstra, A.M.; Parshina, S.N.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of microbial physiology demonstrate that carbon monoxide is a readily used substrate by a wide variety of anaerobic micro-organisms, and may be employed in novel biotechnological. processes for production of bulk and fine chemicals or in biological treatment of waste str

  11. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Material characterization of the clay bonded silicon carbide candle filters and ash formations in the W-APF system after 500 hours of hot gas filtration at AEP. Appendix to Advanced Particle Filter: Technical progress report No. 11, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.

    1993-04-05

    (1) After 500 hours of operation in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas environment, the fibrous outer membrane along the clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candles remained intact. The fibrous outer membrane did not permit penetration of fines through the filter wall. (2) An approximate 10-15% loss of material strength occurred within the intact candle clay bonded silicon carbide matrix after 500 hours of exposure to the PFBC gas environment. A relatively uniform strength change resulted within the intact candles throughout the vessel (i.e., top to bottom plenums), as well as within the various cluster ring positions (i.e., outer versus inner ring candle filters). A somewhat higher loss of material strength, i.e., 25% was detected in fractured candle segments removed from the W-APF ash hopper. (3) Sulfur which is present in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas system induced phase changes along the surface of the binder which coats the silicon carbide grains in the Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filter matrix.

  13. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  14. Exergetic comparison of two KRW-based IGCC power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsaronis, G.; Tawfik, T.; Lin, L.; Gallaspy, D. T.

    1994-04-01

    In studies supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, several design configurations of Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW)-based Integrated Gasification-Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power plants were developed. Two of these configurations are compared here from the exergetic viewpoint. The first design configuration (case 1) uses an air-blown KRW gasifier and hot gas cleanup while the second configuration (reference case) uses an oxygen-blown KRW gasifier and cold gas cleanup. Each case uses two General Electric MS7001F advanced combustion turbines. The exergetic comparison identifies the causes of performance difference between the two cases: differences in the exergy destruction of the gasification system, the gas turbine system, and the gas cooling process, as well as differences in the exergy loss accompanying the solids to disposal stream. The potential for using (a) oxygen-blown versus air-blown-KRW gasifiers, and (b) hot gas versus cold gas cleanup processes was evaluated. The results indicate that, among the available options, an oxygen-blown KRW gasifier using in-bed desulfurization combined with an optimized hot gas cleanup process has the largest potential for providing performance improvements.

  15. Desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ultra-fine CaO particles prepared from brown coal; Kattan wo mochiite choseishita CaO chobiryushi no datsuryu tokusei to sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, G.; Roman, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Harano, Y.; Takarada, Y. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The effect of reaction temperature and oxygen concentration on the desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ion-exchanged brown coal by Ca as new desulfurizing agent was studied. In experiment, Yallourn coal was used for ion- exchange, and limestone produced in Tochigi prefecture was also used for comparative study. Ca-exchanged brown coal was prepared by agitating coal in Ca(OH)2 slurry for 24 hours. The desulfurization behavior of a desulfurizing agent was obtained by measuring H2S and sulfur compounds in outlet gas of a reactor, and the oxidation behavior by measuring SO2 emission in outlet gas after oxidation reaction. As the experimental result, CaO produced from Ca-exchanged brown coal offered the extremely high activity to desulfurization reaction in a temperature range of 850-950{degree}C as compared with limestone. Although the oxidation behavior was dependent on oxidation temperature and oxygen concentration, CaS obtained from Ca-exchanged brown coal was more rapidly converted to CaSO4 than limestone. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Modeling and process optimization for microbial desulfurization of coal by using a two-level full factorial design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Golshani T.; Jorjani E.; Chelgani S.Chehreh; Shafaei S.Z.; Nafechi Y.Heidari

    2013-01-01

    The microbial sulfur removal was investigated on high sulfur content (1.9%) coal concentrate from Tabas coal preparation plant.A mixed culture of ferrooxidans microorganisms was isolated from the tailing dam of the plant.Full factorial method was used to design laboratory test and to evaluate the effects of pH,particle size,iron sulfate concentration,pulp density,and bioleaching time on sulfur reduction.Statistical analyses of experimental data were considered and showed increases of pH and particle size had negative effects on sulfur reduction,whereas increases of pulp density and bioleaching time raised microbial desulfurization rate.According to results of designing,and regarding statistical factors,the optimum values for maximum sulfur reduction were obtained; pH (1.5),particle size (-180μm),iron sulfate concentration (2.7 mmol/L),pulp density (10%) and bioleaching time (14d),which leaded to 51.5% reduction from the total sulfur of sample.

  17. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  18. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  19. Mineral concentrations of forage legumes and grasses grown in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). Beltsville Agricultural Research Center West

    2003-07-01

    Considerable quantities of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are generated when coal is burned for production of electricity, and these products have the potential to be reused rather than discarded. Use of FGDs as soil amendments could be important in overall management of these products, especially on acidic soils. Glasshouse studies were conducted to determine shoot concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dacrylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) grown in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult) amended with various levels of three FGDs and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4}. Shoot concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, and B generally increased as levels of soil applied FGD increased. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu were lower in shoots, especially when soil pH was high ({gt}7). Shoot concentrations of the trace elements Mo, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb were not above those reported as normal for foliage. Overall concentrations of most minerals remained near normal for shoots when plants were grown in FGD amended acidic soil.

  20. Extractive oxidative desulfurization of model oil/crude oil using KSF montmorillonite-supported 12-tungstophosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Rafiee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 12-Tungstophosphoric acid (PW supported on KSF montmorillonite, PW/KSF, was used as catalyst for deep oxidative desulfurization (ODS of mixed thiophenic compounds in model oil and crude oil under mild conditions using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an oxidizing agent. A one-factor-at-a-time method was applied for optimizing the parameters such as temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, type of extractant and oxidant-to-sulfur compounds (S-compounds molar ratio. The corresponding products can be easily removed from the model oil by using ethanol as the best extractant. The results showed high catalytic activity of PW/KSF in the oxidative removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT and mixed thiophenic model oil under atmospheric pressure at 75 °C in a biphasic system. To investigate the oxidation and adsorption effects of crude oil composition on ODS, the effects of cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene and o-xylene with different concentrations were studied.