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Sample records for advanced hiv infection

  1. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with advanced HIV infection

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    A. Krishna Prasad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients has prolonged survival and reduced the frequency of opportunistic infections (OI. However, following starting of antiretroviral therapy (ART, some patients experience a paradoxical worsening of clinical condition termed as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS an entity, characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to a preexisting antigen or pathogen. Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the important pathogens that can cause an IRIS, in patients with low CD 4 cell counts in HIV patients. It is important to consider the possibility of cryptococcal infection in patients with advanced HIV infection, look for cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid along with blood culture. Blood cultures should be kept for further incubation for slow growing organisms by as demonstrated in the present case. We herewith report a case of IRIS due to cryptococcal meningitis in a patient with HIV1 infection with very low CD4 counts.

  2. The incidence of complications after cesarean section in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease

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    S Shevchenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of HIV infection in Ukraine is 1.6% overall, with antenatal prevalence of 0.52%, the highest in Europe. According to national protocol, cesarean section has been recommended for women with viral load above 50 copies/mL to further prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The aim of our study was to compare the infectious complication rates after cesarean delivery in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease who received HAART, and HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on data derived from 150 HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease (group I and 150 HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages (group II, who underwent cesarean delivery. Postoperative infectious morbidity in both groups was analyzed according to whether the cesarean section was an elective or emergent delivery. Descriptive, comparison analyses were performed. Results: There was no significant difference between the both groups in terms of gravidity, parity, number of previous cesarean sections, estimated gestational age at time of delivery. It has been shown that HIV-infected women from the group I have 2 times more factors for the appearance of postpartum infectious complications, such as anemia, the urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted infections. Both groups of women were statistically more likely to experience postpartum endometritis when being delivered by emergent cesarean section than by elective cesarean section (14.6% versus 4.6%, respectively in the group I and 5.3% versus 0.5%, respectively, in the group II, superficial or deep wound breakdown (22.6% versus 4.6%, respectively, in the first group and 5.3% versus 2.6%, respectively, in the second group. Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis was only in 2% of HIV-infected women from the group I. Urinary tract infection had 25% HIV-infected women in the both groups. Overall, the rate of postpartum infectious

  3. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with advanced HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    A. Krishna Prasad; M.V.S. Subbalaxmi; P. Umabala; T. Roshni Paul; Mallikarjun Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients has prolonged survival and reduced the frequency of opportunistic infections (OI). However, following starting of antiretroviral therapy (ART), some patients experience a paradoxical worsening of clinical condition termed as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) an entity, characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to a preexisting antigen or pathogen. Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the important pa...

  4. Microbiome in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...

  5. FOXP3+Helios+ Regulatory T Cells, Immune Activation, and Advancing Disease in HIV-Infected Children.

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    Khaitan, Alka; Kravietz, Adam; Mwamzuka, Mussa; Marshed, Fatma; Ilmet, Tiina; Said, Swalehe; Ahmed, Aabid; Borkowsky, William; Unutmaz, Derya

    2016-08-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are functionally suppressive CD4 T cells, critical for establishing peripheral tolerance and controlling inflammatory responses. Previous reports of Tregs during chronic HIV disease have conflicting results with higher or lower levels compared with controls. Identifying true Tregs with suppressive activity proves challenging during HIV infection, as traditional Treg markers, CD25 and FOXP3, may transiently upregulate expression as a result of immune activation (IA). Helios is an Ikaros family transcription factor that marks natural Tregs with suppressive activity and does not upregulate expression after activation. Coexpression of FOXP3 and Helios has been suggested as a highly specific marker of "bona fide" Tregs. We evaluated Treg subsets by FOXP3 coexpressed with either CD25 or Helios and their association with HIV disease progression in perinatally infected HIV-positive children. Identifying Tregs by FOXP3 coexpression with Helios rather than CD25 revealed markedly higher Treg frequencies, particularly in HIV+ children. Regardless of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected children had a selective expansion of memory FOXP3+Helios+ Tregs. The rise in memory Tregs correlated with declining HIV clinical status, indicated by falling CD4 percentages and CD4:CD8 ratios and increasing HIV plasma viremia and IA. In addition, untreated HIV+ children exhibited an imbalance between the levels of Tregs and activated T cells. Finally, memory Tregs expressed IA markers CD38 and Ki67 and exhaustion marker, PD-1, that tightly correlated with a similar phenotype in memory CD4 T cells. Overall, HIV-infected children had significant disruptions of memory Tregs that associated with advancing HIV disease. PMID:27003495

  6. [Advanced Testing and Laboratory for HBV, HCV, and HIV Infection].

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    Deguchi, Matsuo

    2015-06-01

    Most target substances for immunoassay of infectious disease are antigens or antibodies which do not exist in the human body. Therefore, the method to set reference values is different from chemistry or hematology testing. High sensitivity is required for infectious disease testing, particularly for screening. Also, its reference values (cut-off values) are set as low as possible. Therefore, a false-positive reaction can be caused due to slightly non-specific reactions in infectious disease reagents. The specificities for infectious disease reagents were evaluated with 9 kinds of HCV antibody test kit and 9 kinds of HIV screening kit. The frequencies of false-positive results were 0.2-1.8 and 0.2-1.3%, respectively, and even a kit with a high specificity showed a false-positive result for 1 in 500 samples. The sensitivities for infectious disease reagents were evaluated with a newly developed super-high- sensitive HBs antigen assay kit and 8 kinds of chemiluminescence HBs antigen assay kit which are highly sensitive conventional kits. As a result, the super-high-sensitive kit was 10 to 40 times more sensitive than conventional kits. After introducing the super-high-sensitive kit to routine assays, 16 HBV-infected patients, who were not identified with the conventional kits, were detected for six months. On the other hand, we confirmed false-positive results due to contamination between specimens after introducing the super-high-sensitive kit. It is recommended to use the super-high-sensitive kit in a well-controlled environment to prevent contamination between specimens in order to generate highly reliable test results. PMID:26548240

  7. Levels of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and neopterin in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection

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    P Bipath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the value of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP and neopterin as indicators of immune deficiency, co-infection, efficacy of treatment, and disease progression, in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection. Design. Cross-sectional, investigating baseline blood measurements and clinical observations in 82 HIV-positive patients divided into an antiretroviral treatment (ART group and an ART-naïve group. Setting. Secondary general hospital in Pretoria. Results. Procalcitonin and CRP levels showed no significant differences between the ART and ART-naïve groups, and no correlations with CD4 counts or viral loads. CRP levels were significantly higher with TB co-infection (p<0.05. Neopterin levels were raised above normal in 92% of the ART-naïve group and in 75% of the ART group. The levels were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the ART- naïve group. Negative correlations were found between neopterin and CD4 counts for the total patient group (r=-0.482; p<0.001. Neopterin was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the HIV/TB co-infection group than in those without TB. Higher neopterin levels at baseline were associated with a decline in CD4 counts over the ensuing 6-month period, and patients with higher baseline neopterin levels developed more complications over the 6-month period. Conclusions. Compared with procalcitonin and CRP, neopterin appears to be associated with the degree of immunodeficiency and of co-infection with TB. Neopterin levels may be investigated further as a measure of disease progression or treatment response. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:78-82.

  8. Sexual risk factors for HIV infection in early and advanced HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic overview of 68 epidemiological studies.

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    Li Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is commonly assumed that sexual risk factors for heterosexual HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, such as multi-partner sex, paid sex and co-infections, become less important as HIV epidemics mature and prevalence increases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review of 68 African epidemiological studies from 1986 to 2006 involving 17,000 HIV positive adults and 73,000 controls. We used random-effects methods and stratified results by gender, time, background HIV prevalence rates and other variables. The number of sex partners, history of paid sex, and infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 or other sexually-transmitted infections (STIs each showed significant associations with HIV infection. Among the general population, the odds ratio (OR of HIV infection for women reporting 3+ sex partners versus 0-2 was 3.64 (95%CI [2.87-4.62], with similar risks for men. About 9% of infected women reported ever having been paid for sex, versus 4% of control women (OR = 2.29, [1.45-3.62]. About 31% of infected men reported ever paying for sex versus 18% of uninfected men (OR = 1.75, [1.30-2.36]. HSV-2 infection carried the largest risk of HIV infection: OR = 4.62, [2.85-7.47] in women, and OR = 6.97, [4.68-10.38] in men. These risks changed little over time and stratification by lower and higher HIV background prevalence showed that risk ratios for most variables were larger in high prevalence settings. Among uninfected controls, the male-female differences in the number of sex partners and in paid sex were more extreme in the higher HIV prevalence settings than in the lower prevalence settings. SIGNIFICANCE: Multi-partner sex, paid sex, STIs and HSV-2 infection are as important to HIV transmission in advanced as in early HIV epidemics. Even in high prevalence settings, prevention among people with high rates of partner change, such as female sex workers and their male clients, is likely to reduce transmission overall.

  9. Maraviroc Failed to Control Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy-Associated IRIS in a Patient with Advanced HIV Infection

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    Mónica Rodríguez; Fernando Antonio Silva-Sánchez; César Luna-Rivero; Ricardo Vega-Barrientos; Claudia Alvarado-de la Barrera; Gustavo Reyes-Terán

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of therapeutic options for patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (PML-associated IRIS), maraviroc has generated expectations among the medical community. However, we report a patient with advanced HIV infection, who developed PML-associated IRIS and had a fatal outcome despite the addition of maraviroc to suppressive ART. Future studies are required to define the therapeutic role of maraviroc in PML-asso...

  10. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

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    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  11. Functional and morphological findings in early and advanced stages of HIV infection: A comparison of 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT with CT and MRI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fourty patients at early and advanced stages of HIV infection (Water-Reed stages I-VI) regional cerebral blood flow was determined by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT, comparing the results with CT and MRI findings. All patients with HIV encephalopathy (AIDS dementia complex) had pathologic SPECT results (multilocular, patchy uptake defects), but also in earlier and even earliest stages of HIV infection positive SPECT findings were observed. Compared to functional SPECT imaging, morphologically orientated method (CT, MRI) were insensitive in detecting HIV-induced foci: More than 50% of the patients with pathologic SPECT findings had negative CT or MRI scans. Most patients in advanced Walter Reed stages had neurological abnormalities accompanied by positive SPECT. Subtle alterations of HMPAO uptake were observed even in a few cases of early HIV infection without neurological CNS symptoms. The data presented suggest that HMPAO SPECT is highly sensitive in the detection of altered brain perfusion not only in advanced but also early stages of HIV infection. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow are presented before noticeable structural defects may be observed. (orig./MG)

  12. Factors associated with initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the advanced stages of HIV infection in six Ethiopian HIV clinics, 2012 to 2013

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    Denis Nash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most HIV-positive persons in sub-Saharan Africa initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART with advanced infection (late ART initiation. Intervening on the drivers of late ART initiation is a critical step towards achieving the full potential of HIV treatment scale-up. This study aimed to identify modifiable factors associated with late ART initiation in Ethiopia. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, Ethiopian adults (n=1180 were interviewed within two weeks of ART initiation. Interview data were merged with HIV care histories to assess correlates of late ART initiation (CD4+ count <150 cells/µL or World Health Organization Stage IV. Results: The median CD4 count at enrolment in HIV care was 263 cells/µL (interquartile range (IQR: 140 to 390 and 212 cells/µL (IQR: 119 to 288 at ART initiation. Overall, 31.2% of participants initiated ART late, of whom 85.1% already had advanced HIV disease at enrolment. Factors associated with higher odds of late ART initiation included male sex (vs. non-pregnant females; adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.50 to 2.73, high levels of psychological distress (vs. low/none, aOR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.87, perceived communication barriers with providers (aOR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.24 to 4.75, diagnosis via provider initiated testing (vs. voluntary counselling and testing, aOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.04, tuberculosis (TB treatment prior to ART initiation (aOR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.43 to 3.25 and a gap in care of six months or more prior to ART initiation (aOR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.10 to 3.72. Testing because of partner illness/death (aOR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.95 was associated with lower odds of late ART initiation. Conclusions: Programmatic initiatives promoting earlier diagnosis, engagement in pre-ART care, and integration of TB and HIV treatments may facilitate earlier ART initiation. Men and those experiencing psychological distress may also benefit from targeted support prior to ART initiation.

  13. Preventing HIV infection.

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    Coates, T J; Collins, C

    1998-07-01

    The primary way of preventing HIV infections is to change behaviors that enable transmission of the virus, specifically those behaviors relating to sex and drug injection. Realistic public health workers have focused on encouraging adoption of safer sexual practices, primarily condom use. The fundamental way to persuade people to engage in preventive practices is through targeted education aimed at particularly at-risk communities. Other effective behavioral interventions against HIV infections are: testing and follow-up counseling; comprehensive sex education; peer influence and community action; advertising and marketing; easing access to condoms; physician-patient dialogue; drug treatment; access to clean needles; and direct outreach. On the contrary, interventions that do not work are the following: one-time exposure to information; delivering a single message; abstinence-only programs; and coercive measures to identify people with HIV or their sexual partners. PMID:9648304

  14. Psychopathological and Behaviour Dimensions in HIV Infection

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    Margalho, R; Velez, J; D. Guzman; Oliveira, J.; A. Saraiva da Cunha; A. Meliço Silvestre

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection has been studied by various sciences, since it articulates biological, clinical and social realities. Since the time of its appearance to the present, advances in the treatment of HIV infection have been notorious and fascinating. Antiretroviral therapy promotes an improved quality of life for patients and increases life expectancy but has had difficulties with treatment associated behaviour, i.e., adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ps...

  15. ORAL CANDIDIASIS AND HIV INFECTION

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    Prabhu, Rachana Vishnudas

    2013-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dramatically illustrates the awesome transmission capabilities of disease. Oral manifestations of HIV have been important in identification of patients harboring the HIV virus and in predicting the decline in their immune system Oral candidiasis is one of the earliest premonitory signs of HIV infection and its diagnosis may have grave prognostic implications for the eventual dev...

  16. Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Hae-Young; Kasonde Prisca; Mwiya Mwiya; Thea Donald M; Kankasa Chipepo; Sinkala Moses; Aldrovandi Grace; Kuhn Louise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth) and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004) in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infa...

  17. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection.

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    Jabs, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of ocular complications and the clinical outcomes of these complications in patients with various stages of HIV infection. METHODS: Retrospective review of all HIV-infected patients seen in an AIDS ophthalmology clinic from November 1983 through December 31, 1992. RESULTS: Eleven-hundred sixty-three patients were seen for ophthalmologic evaluation. Of these, 781 had the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 226 had symptomatic HIV infection (AIDs-rel...

  18. HIV INFECTION PRESENTING AS APLASTIC ANEMIA: A CASE REPORT

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    Fayaz Ahmad; Lateef Ahmad; Javid; Roohi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Disorders of the hematopoietic system including lym phadenopathy, anemia, leukopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia are common thro ughout the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may be t he direct result of HIV infection, manifestations of opportunistic infections and neop lasms, or side effects of therapy. However aplastic anemia due to HIV infection is very rare. Though anemia is seen with advanced disease and associated with poor...

  19. Laboratory diagnostics for HIV infection

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    Stefano Buttò

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is fundamental for detecting and monitoring infection. Many diagnostic tools are available that are based on both detection of HIV-specific antibodies and virus antigen, or nucleic acid. As technology evolves, HIV testing assays are being improved providing better sensitivity and specificity. In this short review, we summarize the common and new methodologies that are being used in laboratories, from the HIV antibody-based assays to the new tests for the detection of HIV nucleic acids.

  20. Psychopathological and Behaviour Dimensions in HIV Infection

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    R. Margalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection has been studied by various sciences, since it articulates biological, clinical and social realities. Since the time of its appearance to the present, advances in the treatment of HIV infection have been notorious and fascinating. Antiretroviral therapy promotes an improved quality of life for patients and increases life expectancy but has had difficulties with treatment associated behaviour, i.e., adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychopathological and behavioral determinants of HIV-positive patients. We have found that behavioral risk pattern exists in both genders and predominantely sexual in nature. Men are more compliant than women regarding treatment, but exhibit high levels in the hostility dimension. Indeed, in HIV infection, there's a limited perception of control over disease, which contributes to an adaptation guided by feelings of inadequacy. We underline the vulnerability in the female gender, since women had a behavioral pattern of significant risk.

  1. Potential utility of empirical tuberculosis treatment for HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency in high TB-HIV burden settings.

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    Lawn, S D; Ayles, H; Egwaga, S; Williams, B; Mukadi, Y D; Santos Filho, E D; Godfrey-Faussett, P; Granich, R M; Harries, A D

    2011-03-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB-HIV) epidemics remain uncontrolled in many resource-limited regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The scale of these epidemics requires the consideration of innovative bold interventions and 'out-of-the-box' thinking. To this end, a symposium entitled 'Controversies in HIV' was held at the 40th Union World Conference on Lung Health in Cancun, Mexico, in December 2009. The first topic debated, entitled 'Annual HIV testing and immediate start of antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-infected persons', received much attention at international conferences and in the literature in 2009. The second topic forms the subject of this article. The rationale for the use of empirical TB treatment is premised on the hypothesis that in settings worst affected by the TB-HIV epidemic, a subset of HIV-infected patients have such a high risk of undiagnosed TB and of associated mortality that their prognosis may be improved by immediate initiation of empirical TB treatment used in conjunction with antiretroviral therapy. In addition to morbidity and mortality reduction, additional benefits may include prevention of nosocomial TB transmission and TB preventive effect. Potential adverse consequences, however, may include failure to consider other non-TB diagnoses, drug co-toxicity, compromised treatment adherence, and logistical and resource challenges. There may also be general reluctance among national TB programmes to endorse such a strategy. Following fruitful debate, the conclusion that this strategy should be carefully evaluated in randomised controlled trials was strongly supported. This paper provides an in-depth consideration of this proposed intervention. PMID:21333094

  2. Infections due to Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species in patients with advanced HIV disease — a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

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    Tammer, Ina; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger C.; Mawrin, Christian; Scherlach, Cordula; Schlüter, Dirk; König, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of infections caused by members of the genera Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium in HIV-positive patients. Methods: We describe a case of a fatal scedosporiosis in a treatment-naïve HIV patient and review all previously reported cases of pseudallescheriosis/scedosporiosis from a search of the PubMed and Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information (DIMDI) databases, applying the terms ‘Pseudallescheria’, ‘Scedos...

  3. Morphine Enhances HIV Infection of Neonatal Macrophages

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    Li, Yuan; MERRILL, JEFFREY D.; Mooney, Kathy; Song, Li; Wang, Xu; GUO, CHANG-JIANG; Savani, Rashmin C; Metzger, David S.; Douglas, Steven D.; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2003-01-01

    Perinatal transmission of HIV accounts for almost all new HIV infections in children. There is an increased risk of perinatal transmission of HIV with maternal illicit substance abuse. Little is known about neonatal immune system alteration and subsequent susceptibility to HIV infection after morphine exposure. We investigated the effects of morphine on HIV infection of neonatal monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Morphine significantly enhanced HIV infection of neonatal MDM. Morphine-induced...

  4. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

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    Ramani S. Durvasula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co-infection

  5. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

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    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  6. Stages of HIV Infection

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    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  7. Bromodomain Proteins in HIV Infection

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    Melanie Ott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromodomains are conserved protein modules of ~110 amino acids that bind acetylated lysine residues in histone and non-histone proteins. Bromodomains are present in many chromatin-associated transcriptional regulators and have been linked to diverse aspects of the HIV life cycle, including transcription and integration. Here, we review the role of bromodomain-containing proteins in HIV infection. We begin with a focus on acetylated viral factors, followed by a discussion of structural and biological studies defining the involvement of bromodomain proteins in the HIV life cycle. We end with an overview of promising new studies of bromodomain inhibitory compounds for the treatment of HIV latency.

  8. Circulating Biomarkers of Immune Activation Distinguish Viral Suppression from Nonsuppression in HAART-Treated Patients with Advanced HIV-1 Subtype C Infection

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    Glen Malherbe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined immune activation profiles in patients with advanced HIV-1 subtype C infection or assessed their potential to predict responsiveness to HAART. BioPlex, ELISA, and nephelometric procedures were used to measure plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers in HIV-1 subtype C-infected patients sampled before and after 6 months of successful HAART (n=20; in patients failing HAART (n=30; and in uninfected controls (n=8. Prior to HAART, CXCL9, CXCL10, β2M, sTNF-R1, TGF-β1, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF, and sCD14 were significantly elevated in HIV-1-infected patients compared to controls (P<0.01. All of these markers, with the exception of sTNF-R1, were also elevated in patients failing HAART (P<0.05. The persistently elevated levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and β2M in patients failing therapy in the setting of a marked reduction in these markers in patients on successful HAART suggest that they may be useful not only to monitor immune activation during HAART, but also to distinguish between good and poor responders. In the case of sCD14 and TGF-β1, the levels of these biomarkers remained persistently elevated despite HAART-induced virological suppression, a finding that is consistent with ongoing monocyte-macrophage activation, underscoring a potential role for adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapy.

  9. Research on HIV Co-Infections

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    ... this page Get email updates Order publications Featured Research The Path to a Cure for Hepatitis C ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Research on HIV Co-Infections HIV-infected people are ...

  10. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

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    ... fullstory_159344.html HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System But symptoms tend to subside once antiretroviral drugs ... mild, it is clear that HIV affects the nervous system within days of infection," she said in a ...

  11. Bladder cancer in HIV-infected adults: an emerging concern?

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    Sylvain Chawki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients (1. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide (2, only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far (3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013 in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results: Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients, we found 15 patients (0.2% with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56 than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years (4. Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions: Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with

  12. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

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    ... the roles of HIV, hepatitis C infection, and alcohol abuse. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2006; 24(31):5005–5009. [PubMed Abstract] Massad LS, Seaberg EC, Wright RL, et al. Squamous cervical lesions in women with human immunodeficiency virus: long-term follow-up. ...

  13. Treatment of primary HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Grijsen

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the treatment of PHI. Early cART transiently lowered the viral setpoint and deferred the need for restart of cART during chronic HIV infection, which was most likely caused by the effects of the CD4 gain during treatment and the transient lowering of the viral setpoint. Eve

  14. Neurologic Complications in Treated HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Nisha S; Chow, Felicia C

    2016-07-01

    Effective combination antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic disease, with HIV-infected individuals living longer and reaching older age. Neurological disease remains common in treated HIV, however, due in part to ongoing inflammation and immune activation that persist in chronic infection. In this review, we highlight recent developments in our understanding of several clinically relevant neurologic complications that can occur in HIV infection despite treatment, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, symptomatic CSF escape, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy. PMID:27170369

  15. The effect of aging, nutrition, and exercise during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Somarriba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Somarriba, Daniela Neri, Natasha Schaefer, Tracie L MillerDivision of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: Medical advances continue to change the face of human immunodeficiency virus–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. As life expectancy increases, the number of people living with HIV rises, presenting new challenges for the management of a chronic condition. Aging, nutrition, and physical activity can influence outcomes in other chronic conditions, and emerging data show that each of these factors can impact viral replication and the immune system in HIV. HIV infection results in a decline of the immune system through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. From initial infection, viral replication is a continuous phenomenon. Immunosenescence, a hallmark of aging, results in an increased susceptibility to infections secondary to a delayed immune response, and this phenomenon may be increased in HIV-infected patients. Optimal nutrition is an important adjunct in the clinical care of patients with HIV. Nutritional interventions may improve the quality and span of life and symptom management, support the effectiveness of medications, and improve the patient’s resistance to infections and other disease complications by altering immunity. Moderate physical activity can improve many immune parameters, reduce the risk of acute infection, and combat metabolic abnormalities. As people with HIV age, alternative therapies such as nutrition and physical activity may complement medical management.Keywords: HIV replication, aging, diet, nutrition, exercise, immunity

  16. Toddler "Functionally Cured" of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mississippi Medical Center led a team of laboratory investigators who provided HIV antiretroviral therapy for 18 months to a baby ... The landmark discovery was made by two pediatric HIV experts, Deborah ... findings at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections ( ...

  17. Additive effects of aging and HIV infection on category verbal fluency : an analysis of component processes

    OpenAIRE

    Iudicello, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the management of HIV infection have resulted in a growing population of older adults living with HIV. Both aging and HIV infection have been independently associated with central nervous system changes and corresponding declines in neurocognitive functioning. Poorer semantic verbal fluency output is also common in both HIV infection and healthy older adults, although, the possible additive effects of these risk factors are unknown. The present study aimed to examine the combined ...

  18. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard;

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR).......To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)....

  19. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D.N.; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. The present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Methods: Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. Results: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (PHIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to initiate appropriate ART regimen. PMID:27488008

  20. Monitoring renal function during combination therapy with telaprevir in HIV/HCV co-infected patients with advanced/fibrosis cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Puzzolante

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Telaprevir (TVR plus peg interferon (PEG-IFN and ribavirin (RBV substantially increase treatment efficacy for genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection but data about its safety in HIV patients with cirrhosis are lacking. Our purpose was to evaluate estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates (eGFR variations during combination therapy in a difficult-to-treat HIV/HCV population with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis through three different scores commonly used in clinical practice: CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD scores (that consider gender, ethnicity, age, serum creatinine level [SCL] and MDRD 6 variable (that considers the previous parameters plus blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. Second objective was to identify any association between creatinin clearance and haemoglobin (Hb variation during combination therapy. Materials and Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective study including 18 HIV/HCV patients attending our clinic who started combination therapy for HCV, including in the analysis the first 16 weeks of therapy. Treatment included TVR 1125 mg BID (twice a day for 12 weeks, PEG-IFN α-2a 180 mcg QW and RBV daily dose according to body weight (800 mg in individuals 75 kg. Advanced fibrosis was defined as Metavir score=F3 or Ishak 3–4 and cirrhosis was defined as Metavir score F4 or Ishak 5–6 assessed by liver biopsy or transient elastography respectively. P per trend were assessed to evaluate any change of SCL and eGFR (according to different formulas. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed to estimate factors associated with reduction of Hb. Results: Baseline characteristics and HCV virological responses were collected. Figure 1 shows median SCL and eGFR trends across follow-up period: SCR p-per-trend was 0.28, for CKD-EPI was 0.50, for MDRD was 0.48, for MDRD-6 variables was 0.27. Hb trend was also assessed and a

  1. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  2. Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Palacios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012 were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results: There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%, and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2, with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9 years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7% patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5% had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232, the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397, and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0% and 23 (38.3% cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3% cases with advanced stages (III and IV at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%, chemotherapy 14 (24.1%, surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%, radiotherapy 7 (12.1%, surgery 4 (6.9%, and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%. Forty-six (76.7% patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis

  3. HIV, HCV & Leprosy co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A; Kanish, B

    2014-01-01

    In the era where Hansen's disease has achieved elimination status in India, co-infection with HIV can possibly cause a resurgence of this disease. A young intravenous drug abuser was found to have triple affliction, where HIV and HCV infection were discovered on testing after the patient was clinically diagnosed to have Hansen's disease. To our knowledge, there has been no case reported where leprosy was seen with HIV and HCV infection. We are reporting a patient with lepromatous Hansen's disease in type 2 reaction in whom HIV and HCV was incidentally diagnosed. PMID:26118224

  4. The natural history of HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sabin, C. A.; Lundgren, J D

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanis...

  5. Discrepant coagulation profile in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Anna Karen; Lund, Tamara T.; Birch, Carsten; Rönsholt, Frederikke; Trøseid, Marius; Ullum, Henrik; Gerstoft, Jan; Johansson, Per I.; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2013-01-01

    In HIV infection, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a clinical problem, and elevated D-dimer has been reported. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether untreated HIV-infected individuals display evidence of functional coagulopathy...

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... within 1–2 months after becoming infected, and signs may disappear within 1–4 weeks. HIV is often mistaken for other types of viral ... to consult with your doctor to confirm your diagnosis. Who's At Risk More than 950,000 Americans may be infected with HIV, and one fourth of them may not know ...

  7. Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present two cases of avascular osteonecrosis, one involving the knees and the other the hips, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who met the criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We review the literature concerning this rare complication of HIV infection, focussing especially on the clinical and radiological features and its possible etiopathogenesis. (Author) 30 refs

  8. Coinfection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lartey, Margaret; Adusei, L; Hanson-Nortey, L; Addy, JH

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported case of dual infection of HIV and Leishmaniasis in Ghana.

  9. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  10. Progress and Prospects in Therapeutics against HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous advances have occurred in recent decades in the development of safe and effective medications for the treatment of viral diseases. Currently there are more than 20 HIV drugs approved for use in humans. Combined chemotherapy has been found useful for a number of viral infections comprising drugs with different mechanism of action. HIV treatment guidelines recommend the use of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NsRTIs) plus a third antiretroviral drug for treatment-naiv...

  11. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K; Haissman, Judith M; Kvale, Dag; Nielsen, Susanne D

    2014-01-01

    crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers...... translocation and cardiovascular risk factors will translate into increased risk of acute events, and whether strategies to target gut microbiota and microbial translocation might reduce such a risk....

  12. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper F W; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  13. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis Email ... the progression of other chronic diseases as well. HIV and Fibrosis Dr. Kirk and his team tapped ...

  14. Maraviroc in the treatment of HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Neelanjana

    2009-01-01

    While a successful HIV vaccine will likely take several more years to become a reality, many anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs are currently available to treat HIV infection, and their efficacious use has improved the quality of life and life expectancy of millions of HIV-infected individuals. A recent addition to these ARVs is a new class of drug that targets the HIV entry process by interfering with the action of the CCR5 coreceptor. The first licensed member of this class is a drug called maravi...

  15. HIV: Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Infection and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its recognition in the 80s, HIV infection has reached 65 million people worldwide. The presence of the virus in CNS occurs in most patients, increasingly being identified neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection and / or treatment with ARV. This article intends to briefly review the neuro-pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection and treatment with HAART, as well as its therapeutic approach.

  16. HIV infection and maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, P

    1988-01-01

    Collaborative studies to determine the consequences of pregnancy in HIV infected women have been begun in the last 2 years. Both HIV and HIV antibodies pass through the placenta, and 30-50% of infants born to HIV infected mothers are infected in utero. In developed countries it is feasible to screen pregnant women in high risk groups for HIV positivity. In developing countries, where heterosexual transmission is the main route of infection, there are no high risk groups, and it is not feasible to screen all pregnant women. Some data have shown that HIV infection in pregnancy is associated with intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and high infant mortality. There is no evidence that cesarean section reduces infection in neonates, and it should not be performed on HIV infected women. By 1987 almost 1.5% of AIDS cases in the US were in vertically infected infants. In Africa also the main factor in HIV in infancy is vertical transmission. AIDS in infancy follows 1 of 2 distinct patterns: failure to thrive and death from Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia within the 1st year or else apparent health during infancy but death from opportunistic infections by age 3. HIV infection in childhood is uncommon and can usually be traced to blood transfusions or unsterilized needles used for vaccinations. Neurological symptoms often develop early in children. Breast feeding probably does not infect any infants who have not already been infected in utero, and in developing counties breast feeding is still the best assurance of total nutrition. Pooled, unpasteurized milk banks, on the other hand, represent an unnecessary danger, and milk donors should be screened. Since there is no evidence that routine immunization accelerates the course of HIV infection, and since mass screening is not feasible in developing countries, the World Health Organization recommends that routine immunizations be continued. Since the best protection from in utero HIV infection is the use of

  17. Epidemiology of HIV infection in Northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)

  18. Contraception for HIV-Infected Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtis, Athena P; Mirza, Ayesha

    2016-09-01

    Access to high-quality reproductive health care is important for adolescents and young adults with HIV infection to prevent unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and secondary transmission of HIV to partners and children. As perinatally HIV-infected children mature into adolescence and adulthood and new HIV infections among adolescents and young adults continue to occur in the United States, medical providers taking care of such individuals often face issues related to sexual and reproductive health. Challenges including drug interactions between several hormonal methods and antiretroviral agents make decisions regarding contraceptive options more complex for these adolescents. Dual protection, defined as the use of an effective contraceptive along with condoms, should be central to ongoing discussions with HIV-infected young women and couples wishing to avoid pregnancy. Last, reproductive health discussions need to be integrated with discussions on HIV care, because a reduction in plasma HIV viral load below the level of detection (an "undetectable viral load") is essential for the individual's health as well as for a reduction in HIV transmission to partners and children. PMID:27573084

  19. THE MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTION IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Marcaelia Valerian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is a RNA retrovirus which causes the clinical disease termed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Mother-to-child transmission is the main source of spreading HIV infection to the child with frequency is as high as 25-30%. This may occurred because of the intrapartum maternal blood exposure, infected genital tract secretions and during breastfeeding. The right combination of ARV treatment and elective section caesarean delivery has been proved to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection prevalence and preventing obstetric complications significantly. Consultation and follow up with specialists is highly recommended.

  20. Effect of Cocaine on HIV Infection and Inflammasome Gene Expression Profile in HIV Infected Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata Subba Rao Atluri; Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel; Gabriella Garcia; Rahul Dev Jayant; Vidya Sagar; Thangavel Samikkannu; Adriana Yndart; Madhavan Nair

    2016-01-01

    We have observed significantly increased HIV infection in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine that could be due to the downregulation of BST2 restriction factor in these cells. In human inflammasome PCR array, among different involved in inflammasome formation, in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine, we have observed significant upregulation of NLRP3, AIM2 genes and downstream genes IL-1β and PTGS2. Whereas negative regulatory gene MEFV was upregulated, CD40LG ...

  1. NKT cells in HIV-1 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique T cell population that have important immunoregulatory functions and have been shown to be involved in host immunity against a range of microorganisms. It also emerges that they might play a role in HIV-1 infection, and therefore be selectively depleted during the early stages of infection. Recent studies are reviewed regarding the dynamics of NKT depletion during HIV-I infection and their recovery under highly active antiretrovirai treatment (HAART). Possible mechanisms for these changes are proposed based on the recent developments in HIV pathogenesis. Further discussions are focused on HIV's disruption of NKT activation by downregulating CDId expression on antigen presentation cells (APC). HIV-1 protein Nefis found to play the major role by interrupting the intraceilular trafficking of nascent and recycling CDId molecules.

  2. HIV infection and the kidneys, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basta-Jovanović Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV- (Human immunodeficiency Virus infected patients may be faced with a variety of renal problem patterns. Acute renal failure is common and most often the result of sepsis, hypertension, and toxic agents. Besides acute renal failure, HIV-associated nephropathy occurs in many HIV-positive patients, representing a unique pattern of sclerosing glomerulopathy, Many authors consider it to be the most rapidly progressive form of focal segmental sclerosis.

  3. Triple trouble : tuberculosis, HIV infection and malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lettow, Monique Hendrika Elizabeth van

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis has emerged as the second commonest cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, after HIV/AIDS, killing nearly 2 million people each year. Most cases occur in less-developed countries. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the greatest single risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis in adults. Hence, over the past decade, tuberculosis incidence has increased in Africa, mainly as a result of the burden of HIV infection. The association between tuberculosis ...

  4. Pneumonia in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tural Önür

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is an immune system disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The purpose of this review is to investigate the correlation between an immune system destroyed by HIV and the frequency of pneumonia. Observational studies show that respiratory diseases are among the most common infections observed in HIV-infected patients. In addition, pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. According to articles in literature, in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the use of prophylaxis provides favorable results for the treatment of pneumonia. Here we conduct a systematic literature review to determine the pathogenesis and causative agents of bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB, nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, fungal pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, viral pneumonia and parasitic infections and the prophylaxis in addition to ART and HAART for treatment. Pneumococcus-based polysaccharide vaccine is recommended to avoid some type of specific bacterial pneumonia.

  5. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  6. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a clinical fellow in the department of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). " ... early [HIV] infection." Valcour is a professor of neurology at UCSF. "Additionally, the ubiquity of symptoms in ...

  7. Brucella canis causing infection in an HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nidia E; Maldonado, Patricia I; Kaufman, Sara; Escobar, Gabriela I; Boeri, Eduardo; Jacob, Néstor R

    2010-06-01

    From the blood culture of an HIV-positive patient with a febrile syndrome (CD4 count 385 cells/microL and viral load nondetectable), Brucella canis was isolated. The patient was presumptively infected from his dogs, which tested positive, and showed good outcome after the therapy with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin, and the HIV infection would seem not to have been influenced by brucellosis. To our knowledge, no other case of B. canis in the setting of HIV infection has been reported in the literature, and the emerging zoonotic potential of the disease in urban areas should be considered. PMID:19725766

  8. Research Advances in Pathogenesis of HIV Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome%HIV/AIDS发病机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽

    2010-01-01

    获得性免疫缺陷综合征是由人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)所引起的致命性慢性传染病,除可通过相关表面分子受体主要感染CD4+T淋巴细胞外,还能影响CD8+T淋巴细胞、单核/巨噬细胞、B细胞及自然杀伤细胞的功能和数量,甚至Th1/Th2的平衡也会发生改变.而这些改变与宿主感染HIV后病情进展的相关机制越来越多地被人们发现,同时也为疫苗的研究指明了方向.

  9. Interventions Targeting HIV-Infected Risky Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Samet, Jeffrey H.; Walley, Alexander Y.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use is common among people infected with HIV and may contribute to adverse consequences such as reduced adherence to treatment regimens and increased likelihood of risky sexual behaviors. Therefore, researchers and clinicians are looking for treatment approaches to reduce harmful alcohol consumption in this population. However, clinical trials of existing treatment models are scarce. A literature review identified only 11 studies that included HIV-infected patients with past or curren...

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoharan G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8%

  11. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan G; Padmavathy B; Vasanthi S; Gopalte R

    2001-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8&#x...

  12. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, G; Padmavathy, B K; Vasanthi, S; Gopalte, R

    2001-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8% PMID:17664823

  13. Global oral inequalities in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challacombe, S J

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection globally reveal striking variances with regard to continent, country, region and gender. Of the global total of 33 million people infected with HIV, approximately 65% are in sub-Saharan African countries and 15% in South and South-East Asia with the remaining 20% spread over the rest of the world. As a percentage of the population, the Caribbean at 1.1% is second only to sub-Saharan Africa (5.5%). The majority of the world's HIV is in women. Deaths from HIV are twenty-fold greater in Africa than in Europe or the USA. Individual countries in sub-Saharan Africa show huge variances in the HIV+ prevalence with most West African countries having a rate of less than 2% whilst southern African countries including Swaziland and Botswana have rates of around 25%. Environment, education and social habits all contribute to the HIV infection rates. Similar variations between countries are seen in SE Asia with Cambodia and Papua New Guinea having rates three times greater than Pakistan. One of the most striking examples of inequality is in life years added to HIV populations as a result of antiretroviral therapy. UN AIDS figures over 1996-2008 suggest an average of 2.88 added years in the USA and Europe, but only 0.1 in sub-Saharan Africa, a thirty-fold difference largely due to accessibility to ART. ART leads to a reduction in oral lesions but it is estimated that some 10 million HIV+ subjects do not have access to oral care. Thus, inequalities exist both for HIV infection and for the associated oral lesions, mainly related to ART access. HIV infection and oral mucosal lesions both appear to be related to general social determinants of health. Oral HCW must be part of mainstream healthcare teams to address these inequalities. PMID:27109270

  14. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  15. HIV INFECTION AND AIDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alparslan BABAYIÐIT

    Full Text Available Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV was first discovered in 1981 in the United States of America and the day of December 1, was announced as ?World AIDS Day? by WHO (World Health Organization. In Turkey, the first announcement of the people living with HIV was made in 1985. HIV/AIDS has killed more than 20 millions people and more than 16,000 people become newly infected each day since the first cases were diagnosed in 1981. It is estimated that 39.4 million people would have been infected with HIV at the end of 2004, with 4.9 million new cases that year. Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst-hit region, with 70 percent of all people living with HIV. In Africa alone, 10,000 people become infected each day. This year?s main theme is ?Women, Girls, HIV and AIDS,? which reflects a focus on how the effects of HIV/AIDS have significantly increased among women. Women now make up half of all people living with HIV worldwide with the number of 17,6 million. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(11.000: 280-290

  16. Herpesvirus infection of eye and brain in HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R.; Howard, M; Frith, P.; Perrons, C.; Pecorella, I.; Lucas, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To compare histological with genome detection methods for diagnosis of herpesvirus infection in eye and brain of HIV infected patients undergoing necropsy and to correlate these findings with both antemortem clinical findings and postmortem evidence of extraocular herpesvirus infection, especially in the CNS.

  17. The natural history of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course of...

  18. Modeling the within-host dynamics of HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Alan S Perelson; Ribeiro, Ruy M.

    2013-01-01

    The new field of viral dynamics, based on within-host modeling of viral infections, began with models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but now includes many viral infections. Here we review developments in HIV modeling, emphasizing quantitative findings about HIV biology uncovered by studying acute infection, the response to drug therapy and the rate of generation of HIV variants that escape immune responses. We show how modeling has revealed many dynamical features of HIV infection and...

  19. Biomarkers and bacterial pneumonia risk in patients with treated HIV infection : a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerk, Sonja M.; Baker, Jason V.; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Gordin, Fred M.; Pett, Sarah L.; Stephan, Christoph; Ken M Kunisaki; Finley, E.; Dietz, D.; Chesson, C.; Vjecha, M; Standridge, B.; Schmetter, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist. Methods We performed a nested, matched, case-control study among participants randomized to continuous combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial. Patients wh...

  20. Thymic function in HIV-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolte, Lilian

    2013-04-01

    This thesis is based on seven previously published articles. The work was performed during my employment at The Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, as a scholarship student from 2000-2001 and as a research assistant in the period 2004-2010. HIV-infection is characterized by CD4+ cell depletion. The differences between patients in the degree of CD4+ cell recovery upon treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may in part be due to differences in the supply of naïve CD4+ cells from the thymus. The thymus atrophies with increasing age for which reason the adult thymus was previously assumed to be without function. The aim of these investigations was to examine the role of the thymus in different aspects of HIV-infection: In adult HIV-infected patients, during HIV-positive pregnancy, and in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) children born to HIV-infected mothers. Thymic size and output were determined in 25 adult HIV-infected patients receiving HAART and in 10 controls. Larger thymic size was associated with higher CD4 counts and higher thymic output. Furthermore, patients with abundant thymic tissue seemed to have broader immunological repertoires, compared with patients with minimal thymic tissue. The study supports the mounting evidence of a contribution by the adult thymus to immune reconstitution in HIV-infection. In a follow-up study conducted till 5 years of HAART, the importance of the thymus to the rate of cellular restoration was found to primarily lie within the first two years of HAART. The effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was then investigated in a randomized, double-blinded placebo controlled trial in 46 adult HIV-infected patients on HAART. Daily treatment with a low dose of rhGH of 0.7mg for 40 weeks stimulated thymopoiesis as expressed by thymic size, density, and output strongly supporting the assumption that rhGH possesses the potential to stimulate the ageing thymus, holding

  1. Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.

  2. Modeling the three stages in HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.; Middleton, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    A typical HIV infection response consists of three stages: an initial acute infection, a long asymptomatic period and a final increase in viral load with simultaneous collapse in healthy CD4+T cell counts. The majority of existing mathematical models give a good representation of either the first two stages or the last stage of the infection. Using macrophages as a long-term active reservoir, a deterministic model is proposed to explain the three stages of the infection including the progress...

  3. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women: Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Shrinivas Darak; Inge Hutter; Sanjeevani Kulkarni; Vinay Kulkarni; Fanny Janssen

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Directly standardized overall and parity-specific pregnancy rates were compared among HIV infected women before and after coming to know about their HIV status. The age- and parity-standardiz...

  4. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Madhavan P.N.; Zainulabedin Saiyed; Saxena, Shailendra K; Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel; Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest th...

  5. The role of enacted stigma in parental HIV disclosure among HIV-infected parents in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies have delineated that HIV-infected parents face numerous challenges in disclosing their HIV infection to the children (“parental HIV disclosure”), and practices of parental HIV disclosure vary with individual characteristics, family contexts, and social environment. Using cross-sectional data from 1254 HIV-infected parents who had children aged 5–16 years in southwest China, the current study examined the association of parental HIV disclosure with mental health and medication...

  6. Microbiome alterations in HIV infection a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Landay, Alan; Presti, Rachel M

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in molecular techniques have allowed researchers to identify previously uncultured organisms, which has propelled a vast expansion of our knowledge regarding our commensal microbiota. Interest in the microbiome specific to HIV grew from earlier findings suggesting that bacterial translocation from the intestines is the cause of persistent immune activation despite effective viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies of SIV infected primates have demonstrated that Proteobacteria preferentially translocate and that mucosal immunity can be restored with probiotics. Pathogenic SIV infection results in a massive expansion of the virome, whereas non-pathogenic SIV infection does not. Human HIV infected cohorts have been shown to have microbiota distinctive from that of HIV negative controls and efforts to restore the intestinal microbiome via probiotics have often had positive results on host markers. The microbiota of the genital tract may play a significant role in acquisition and transmission of HIV. Modification of commensal microbial communities likely represents an important therapeutic adjunct to treatment of HIV. Here we review the literature regarding human microbiome in HIV infection. PMID:26945815

  7. Mycobacterial Lung Disease Complicating HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michelle K; Daley, Charles L

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterial infections have caused enormous morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Of these, the most devastating has been tuberculosis (TB), the leading cause of death among HIV-positive persons globally. TB has killed more people living with HIV than any other infection. Diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) is critical as treatment can prevent emergence of TB disease. Bacteriologic confirmation of TB disease should be sought whenever possible as well as drug susceptibility testing. When detected early, drug susceptible TB is curable. Similar to TB, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can also produce pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections including disseminated disease that can be fatal. Diagnosis through accurate identification of the pathogenic organism will greatly inform treatment. Depending on the NTM identified, treatment may not be curable. Ultimately, preventive strategies such as initiation of antiretroviral drugs and treatment of LTBI are interventions expected to have significant impacts on control of TB and NTM in the setting of HIV. This chapter will review the impact of pulmonary mycobacterial infections on HIV-positive individuals. PMID:26974300

  8. Evolving character of chronic central nervous system HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard W; Spudich, Serena S; Peterson, Julia; Joseph, Sarah; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) begins early in systemic infection and continues throughout its untreated course. Despite a common cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory response, it is usually neurologically asymptomatic for much of this course, but can evolve in some individuals to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), a severe encephalopathy with characteristic cognitive and motor dysfunction. While widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a marked decline in both the CNS infection and its neurologic severe consequence, HAD continues to afflict individuals presenting with advanced systemic infection in the developed world and a larger number in resource-poor settings where ART is more restricted. Additionally, milder CNS injury and dysfunction have broader prevalence, including in those treated with ART. Here we review the history and evolving nomenclature of HAD, its viral pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24715483

  9. Effect of Cocaine on HIV Infection and Inflammasome Gene Expression Profile in HIV Infected Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Garcia, Gabriella; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Sagar, Vidya; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Yndart, Adriana; Nair, Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    We have observed significantly increased HIV infection in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine that could be due to the downregulation of BST2 restriction factor in these cells. In human inflammasome PCR array, among different involved in inflammasome formation, in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine, we have observed significant upregulation of NLRP3, AIM2 genes and downstream genes IL-1β and PTGS2. Whereas negative regulatory gene MEFV was upregulated, CD40LG and PYDC1 were significantly downregulated. Among various NOD like receptors, NOD2 was significantly upregulated in both HIV alone and HIV plus cocaine treated cells. In the downstream genes, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL7 and IL-6 were significantly up regulated in HIV plus cocaine treated macrophages. We have also observed significant ROS production (in HIV and/or cocaine treated cells) which is one of the indirect-activators of inflammasomes formation. Further, we have observed early apoptosis in HIV alone and HIV plus cocaine treated macrophages which may be resultant of inflammasome formation and cspase-1 activation. These results indicate that in case of HIV infected macrophages exposed to cocaine, increased ROS production and IL-1β transcription serve as an activators for the formation of NLRP3 and AIM2 mediated inflammasomes that leads to caspase 1 mediated apoptosis. PMID:27321752

  10. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no sig...

  11. Modeling the three stages in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A; Middleton, Richard H

    2013-03-01

    A typical HIV infection response consists of three stages: an initial acute infection, a long asymptomatic period and a final increase in viral load with simultaneous collapse in healthy CD4+T cell counts. The majority of existing mathematical models give a good representation of either the first two stages or the last stage of the infection. Using macrophages as a long-term active reservoir, a deterministic model is proposed to explain the three stages of the infection including the progression to AIDS. Simulation results illustrate how chronic infected macrophages can explain the progression to AIDS provoking viral explosion. Further simulation studies suggest that the proposed model retains its key properties even under moderately large parameter variations. This model provides important insights on how macrophages might play a crucial role in the long term behavior of HIV infection. PMID:23238280

  12. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2010-01-01

    replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood...... leucocytes-SCID reconstituted mice. In addition, a prospective nonrandomized trial of HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation indicated significantly better control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication among patients taking RAPA monotherapy. Taken together, the......The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...

  13. Virology, Immunology, and Clinical Course of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, J. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;…

  14. Autophagy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV infections

    OpenAIRE

    Espert, Lucile; Beaumelle, Bruno; Vergne, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are among the most lethal human pathogens worldwide, each being responsible for around 1.5 million deaths annually. Moreover, synergy between acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) has turned HIV/M.tb co-infection into a major public health threat in developing countries. In the past decade, autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic process, has emerged as a major host immune defense mechanism against in...

  15. Current approaches to prevention of HIV infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, W L

    1991-01-01

    The HIV education and prevention strategy of the Centers for Disease Control has three principal components: (a) public information and education, (b) education for school-aged populations, and (c) risk reduction education and individual counseling and testing services for people at increased risk of HIV infection. The most visible components of the public information and education programs are the National Public Information Campaign ("America Responds to AIDS"), the National AIDS Hotline sy...

  16. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sumeet R; Gupta, Anju; Gupta, Vivek; Singhi, Pratibha D

    2016-08-01

    Neurological findings in HIV are common and include cognitive impairment, microcephaly, nonspecific white matter lesions and seizures. Cerebral vasculopathy and stroke are uncommon and may be due to primary HIV vasculopathy or opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis. The authors describe a 7-y-old boy who presented with severe headache and was detected to have aneurysmal bleed due to intracranial aneurysm. PMID:27072660

  17. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC ...

  18. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J; Belshan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. PMID:26774171

  19. Durability of Stavudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine among Advanced HIV-1 Infected Patients with/without Prior Co-administration of Rifampicin: A 144-week Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasithisirikul Wisit

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, data on the durability of a regimen of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine are very limited, particularly from the resource-limited settings. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 140 antiretroviral-naïve patients who were enrolled to initiate d4T, 3TC and NVP between November 2004 and March 2005. The objectives were to determine immunological and virological responses after 144 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. Seventy patients with tuberculosis also received rifampicin during the early period of antiviral treatment (TB group. Results Of all, median (IQR baseline CD4 cell count was 31 (14–79 cells/mm3; median (IQR baseline HIV-1 RNA was 433,500 (169,000–750,000 copies/mL. The average body weight was 55 kilograms. By intention-to-treat analysis at 144 weeks, the overall percentage of patients who achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA P = 0.731. Eight (5.8% patients discontinued d4T due to neuropathy and/or symptomatic lactic acidosis. Conclusion The overall durability and efficacy of antiviral response of d4T, 3TC and NVP are satisfied and they are not different between HIV-1 infected patients with and without co-administration of rifampicin due to tuberculosis. However, stavudine-related adverse effects are concerns. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00703898

  20. Insulin resistance and diabetes in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Satyajit

    2011-09-01

    Insulin resistance is an important and under recognized consequence of HIV treatment. Different studies have yielded widely varying estimates of the prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in people on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The risk increases further with hepatitis C co infection. Although Protease inhibitors (PIs) are the main drug class implicated in insulin resistance, some studies have shown an association of increased risk of diabetes with cumulative exposure of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The effect of switching to other antiretrovirals has not been fully determined and the long-term consequences of insulin resistance in this population are not known. Treatment of established diabetes mellitus should generally follow existing guidelines. It is therefore reasonable to recommend general measures to increase insulin sensitivity in all patients infected with HIV, such as regular aerobic exercise and weight reduction for overweight persons. The present review article has the information of some recent patents regarding the insulin resistance in HIV infection. PMID:21824074

  1. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) usually results in diminished viral replication, increasing CD4⁺ cell counts, a reversal of most immunological disturbances, and a reduction in risk of morbidity and mortality. However, approximately 20% of all HIV......-infected patients do not achieve optimal immune reconstitution despite suppression of viral replication. These patients are referred to as immunological nonresponders (INRs). INRs present with severely altered immunological functions, including malfunction and diminished production of cells within lymphopoetic...... tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution...

  2. The Incidence of Exudative Otitis Media in HIV Infected Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nuriddin U. Narzullaev, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the ENT organs are among the commonly prevalent and dangerous pathologies of childhood, occurring as a complication of respiratory, bacterial diseases and HIV infection. One of the serious complications of HIV infection in children is the lesion of ENT organs. In HIV infected children, in addition to suppurative diseases occur middle ear diseases with nonsuppurative origin. A total of 79 HIV infected children aged 3-14 years with different pathologies of the nasal cavity, nasophar...

  3. Prevalence and Change in Psychiatric Disorders Among Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Mellins, Claude A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Santamaria, E. Karina; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; McKay, Mary M.; Abrams, Elaine J

    2012-01-01

    As the pediatric HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries evolves into an adolescent epidemic, there is a substantive need for studies elucidating mental health needs of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth as they transition through adolescence. This article examines the role of perinatal HIV infection in influencing mental health by comparing changes in psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (P...

  4. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001...

  5. Occurence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women : Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kulkarni, Vinay; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Direct

  6. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women : Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Darak (Shrinivas); I. Hutter (Inge); S. Kulkarni (Sanjeevani); V. Kulkarni (Vinay); F. Janssen (Fanny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were anal

  7. Occurrence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women: Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, S.; Hutter, I.; Kulkarni, S.; Kulkarni, V.; Janssen, F.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India , were analysed. Directly standa

  8. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Antwal

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Signs and symptoms associated with HIV positivity observed in this study can be used by health care providers to detect HIV infection early. Moreover, similar to HIV testing in patients with tuberculosis, strategies can be developed for considering Herpes zoster as a predictor of HIV infection.

  9. HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary; Wiegand, Ann;

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical...

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Helminth Co-infection in Kenyan HIV-1 Infected Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Walson, Judd L; Stewart, Barclay T; Sangaré, Laura; Mbogo, Loice W.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Piper, Benjamin K. S.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Background Deworming HIV-1 infected individuals may delay HIV-1 disease progression. It is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1/helminth co-infection in helminth-endemic areas. Methods HIV-1 infected individuals (CD4>250 cells/ul) were screened for helminth infection at ten sites in Kenya. Prevalence and correlates of helminth infection were determined. A subset of individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infection was re-evaluated 12 weeks following albendazole the...

  11. Patterns of HIV infection among native and refugee Afghans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Amna S; Khanani, Muhammad R; Abidi, Syed H; Shah, Farida; Shahid, Aniqa; Ali, Syed H

    2011-07-17

    The current study was conducted to explore the origins of the HIV epidemics among the Afghan refugees in Pakistan and the native Afghans in Afghanistan. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV gag gene from 40 samples showed diverse HIV variants, originating from a number of countries. Intermixing of diverse HIV variants among Afghans may give rise to seeding of infections with rare HIV strains which may pose serious challenges for the treatment and control of infection. PMID:21516026

  12. Legionellosis in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Jensen, B N; Friis-Møller, A; Bruun, B

    1990-01-01

    During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. The majority of specimens were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids (84%), but tracheal suctions and lung tissue from...... autopsies were also examined. The diagnostic methods used were a direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) for the detection of Legionella antigen, and culture on buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE-alpha) media. All specimens were also examined for the presence of other bacterial lung pathogens, and all BAL...... specimens additionally for Pneumocystis carinii and mycobacteria. Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. Dual infection with Legionella and P...

  13. HIV Infection and Osteoarticular Tuberculosis: Strange Bedfellows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hodkinson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 47-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis and HIV infection presenting with a 3-week history of a painful swollen knee, increased serum inflammatory markers, and a low CD4 lymphocyte count. The diagnosis of TB arthritis was made by synovial fluid culture, GeneXpert/PCR, and confirmed by histopathology of a synovial biopsy. A mini literature review suggests that although HIV infection is associated with extrapulmonary TB, osteoarticular TB is a relatively unusual presentation in an HIV positive patient. The diagnostic utility of the GeneXpert test is explored. We also describe the patient’s good response to an intra-articular corticosteroid injection in combination with standard anti-TB therapy.

  14. [The atypical course of syphilis in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrle, G; Rasokat, H; Kurz, K; Steigleder, G K

    1989-05-15

    We report on 3 HIV patients showing atypical courses of syphilis. Both the history and serology of the first patient proved a recent re-infection with T. pallidum, whereas the histopathological findings corresponded to an advanced stage of the disease (S II-III). The second patient showed the clinical picture of syphilis maligna with slowly converting and slightly positive serological reactions. The third patient had a refractory syphilis and an early relapse. Our observations suggest that syphilis might take an unusual course in HIV patients. Considering our total HIV clientèle (800 patients greater than or equal to WR 2) the frequency of these atypical cases must be rated very low (0.38%). PMID:2741530

  15. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, R A; Schim van der Loeff, M.F.; Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of anal HPV infection was lower among HIV-infected compared to HIV-negative MSM. HIV infection was strongly associated with HPV infection, independent of sexual behavior and other possible confounder...

  16. Multiple roles of the capsid protein in the early steps of HIV-1 infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Fassati, A.

    2012-01-01

    The early steps of HIV-1 infection starting after virus entry into cells up to integration of its genome into host chromosomes are poorly understood. From seminal work showing that HIV-1 and oncoretroviruses follow different steps in the early stages post-entry, significant advances have been made in recent years and an important role for the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein, the constituent of the viral core, has emerged. CA appears to orchestrate several events, such as virus uncoating, recognitio...

  17. Vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected patients: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Giusti A; Penco G; Pioli G

    2011-01-01

    Andrea Giusti1, Giovanni Penco2, Giulio Pioli31Bone Clinic, Department of Gerontology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Galliera Hospital, Genoa, Italy; 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Galliera Hospital, Genoa, Italy; 3Department of Geriatrics, ASMN Hospital, Reggio Emilia, ItalyAbstract: Advances in the diagnosis and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have resulted in a dramatic decrease in mortality in HIV-infected individuals (HIV+). The subsequent increase in life expectancy...

  18. Women and HIV Infection: The Makings of a Midlife Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Santoro, Nanette; Fan, Maria; Maslow, BatSheva; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral agents, women with HIV infection can expect to live longer than ever before. This increased survival has led to concerns about the long-term implications of HIV disease and its treatment. Women with HIV infection appear to lose ovarian function earlier in life than women without HIV infection. They also have evidence of reduced bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, many of these increases in risk factors are present e...

  19. Neuroimaging studies of the aging HIV-1-infected brain

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, John L.; Kraft-Terry, Stephanie D.; Chang, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals, and by 2015, at least half of all HIV-infected individuals will be over 50 years of age. Neurodegenerative processes associated with aging may be facilitated by HIV-1 infection, resulting in premature brain aging. This review will highlight brain abnormalities in HIV patients in the setting of aging, focusing on recent neuroimaging studies of the structural, physiological, functional and...

  20. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schadé Annemiek; van Grootheest Gerard; Smit Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problem...

  1. HIV shedding from male circumcision wounds in HIV-infected men: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Godfrey Kigozi; Jordyn Manucci; Grabowski, Mary K.; David Serwadda; Richard Musoke; Redd, Andrew D.; Fred Nalugoda; Steven J Reynolds; Nehemiah Kighoma; Oliver Laeyendecker; Justin Lessler; Gray, Ronald H.; Thomas C Quinn; Wawer, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 35 million people are currently infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS by destroying immune system cells, and every year, 2 million more people become HIV-positive. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can keep HIV in check, but there is no cure for AIDS. Consequently, prevention of HIV acquisition and transmission is an important component of efforts to control the AIDS epidemic. Because HIV is most often spread through unprotected sex with an infected partne...

  2. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  3. Multicentric Castleman's disease & HIV infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.

  4. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Antwal; Rohan Gurjar; Shweta Chidrawar; Jyoti Pawar; Sunil Gaikwad; Narayan Panchal; Varsha Kale; Madhuri Thakar; Arun Risbud; Srikanth Tripathy

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected several million individuals in India. Various interventions have been implemented for early detection and prevention of transmission of HIV infection. This has progressively changed the clinical profile of HIV infected individuals and this study documents the clinical presentation of individuals positive for HIV in 2010, in Pune, Maharashtra, India. Methods: This cross-sectional study included subjects who had come ...

  5. Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected individuals with previous syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Marra, CM; Deutsch, R; Collier, AC; Morgello, S.; Letendre, S; Clifford, D; Gelman, B.; McArthur, J.; McCutchan, JA; Simpson, DM; Duarte, NA; Heaton, RK; Grant, I.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in HIV-infected individuals, as is syphilis. Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis, invades the central nervous system early in disease. We hypothesized that HIV-infected patients with a history of syphilis or neurosyphilis would have more cognitive impairment than HIV-infected individuals without these infections. Eighty-two of 1574 enrollees in CHARTER, a prospective, observational study, had reactive serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. The...

  6. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Goldberg

    Full Text Available The oral microbial community (microbiota plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are

  7. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Brittany E; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Jones, Cheron E; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better

  8. HIV infection surveillance in Mogadishu, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burans, J P; Fox, E; Omar, M A; Farah, A H; Abbass, S; Yusef, S; Guled, A; Mansour, M; Abu-Elyazeed, R; Woody, J N

    1990-07-01

    A group of 89 prostitutes and 45 patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Mogadishu, Somalia were examined for evidence of HIV infection. Both groups reported more than 1 sexual partner routinely and had sexual contacts with prostitutes. There was a significant amount of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in these two groups, with 11.2% and 6.7% respectively being culture positive for N. gonorrhoea. Among the prostitutes, 28.1% were positive for antibodies to T. pallidum while only 4.4% of the STD patients were positive. One isolate of N. gonorrhoea was resistant to penicillin. All study participants were negative for antibodies to HIV suggesting an extremely low prevalence of HIV in high risk behaviour groups in the capital city of Somalia. PMID:2226225

  9. Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, C; Patsche, C B; Kühle, A;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection has been shown to impact the outcome of patients with tuberculosis (TB), but data regarding the impact of HIV-2 on TB outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the...... predictive ability of the TBscoreII, a clinical score used to assess disease severity. METHODS: In a prospective follow-up study, we examined the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 co-infection in TB patients in Guinea-Bissau, and the impact on outcomes at 12 months of follow-up. We included all adult...... seventy-nine patients were HIV-infected: 241 had HIV-1, 93 had HIV-2, and 45 were HIV-1+2 dual infected. The HIV type-associated risk of TB was 6-fold higher for HIV-1, 7-fold higher for HIV-1+2 dual infection, and 2-fold higher for HIV-2 compared with the HIV-uninfected. Of the patients included, 144 (11...

  10. Diagnosis of Perinatal Transmission of HIV-1 Infection by HIV DNA PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Shah

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV DNA PCR (Qualitative at various age groups todetect or rule out HIV infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers. Pediatric and perinatal HIVclinic in a tertiary pediatric hospital.Sixteen infants born to HIV positive mother enrolled in the preventionof mother to child transmission of HIV at our center were tested for HIV infection by HIV DNAPCR at 1.5 months, 3 months, 5.5 months and/or 7 months of age. Their HIV status was confirmedby an HIV ELISA test at 18 months of age by 2 different ELISA kits. Eight patients (50% had anegative HIV DNA PCR whereas 8 patients (50% had a positive DNA PCR of which 6 patients(75% had a false positive HIV DNA PCR and no false negative DNA PCR. Thus, the sensitivity ofHIV DNA PCR was 100% and specificity was 57.1% with a total efficiency of the test being62.5%. The efficiency of HIV DNA PCR at 1.5 months of age was 50%, at 3 months of age42.9%, at 5.5 months of age 60% and at 7 months of age was 100%. HIV DNA PCR has a highsensitivity but low specificity to diagnose HIV infection in infants less than 7 months of age. Hence,the results of the test have to be interpreted with caution in infants born to HIV positive mothers.

  11. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Medical Complications and Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    Care of patients with HIV infection starts with diagnosis as soon as possible, preferably at or near the time of acute infection. Opportunistic infections, malignancies, and other conditions develop progressively over time, particularly in untreated patients. The AIDS-defining opportunistic infections most common in the United States include Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Candida esophagitis, toxoplasmic encephalitis, tuberculosis, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, cryptococcal meningitis, and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Specific prophylaxis regimens exist for several opportunistic infections, and effective antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of most others. Other AIDS-defining conditions include wasting syndrome and HIV encephalopathy. AIDS-defining malignancies include Kaposi sarcoma, systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. Although not an AIDS-defining condition, anal cancer is common in patients with HIV infection. Other HIV-related conditions include thrombocytopenia, recurrent bacterial respiratory infections, HIV-associated nephropathy, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. PMID:27092563

  12. Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infections by qualitative and quantitative PCR in HIV infected patients Diagnóstico de infecção por CMV em pacientes infectados pelo HIV utilizando PCR qualitativa e quantitativa

    OpenAIRE

    CUNHA Aldo de Albuquerque; Lauro Juliano MARIN; Aquino, Victor Hugo; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2002-01-01

    A high incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections is observed in Brazil. These viruses are causatives of significant morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This work, shows the application of a PCR on determination of CMV load in the buffy coat and plasma. We analyzed the samples of 247 HIV infected patients in order to diagnose CMV infection and disease. We developed a semi-quantitative PCR that amplifies part of the glycoprotein...

  13. True story about HIV: theory of viral sequestration and reserve infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Simon Situma

    2011-01-01

    Radical cure of infectious disease lies in the principle that the contagion is eliminated and its propagation within the body is stopped. By understanding the true mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, effective cure is possible. Vertical research in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has produced much advanced data about its nature without discovering a true cure, implying that the infective concept may have been missed. Overall, current interventions have had a significant impact on the pandemic, but they definitely have not achieved a cure. Given that modern research has already provided almost all significant data on HIV/AIDS, this inevitably means that understanding of the HIV and AIDS mechanism in the human body and population is less than sufficient. This paper advances a new concept using the available scientific data in an attempt to open a new frontier in HIV research. PMID:22267945

  14. The macrophage: the intersection between HIV infection and atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Suzanne M.; Westhorpe, Clare L. V.; Mukhamedova, Nigora; Jaworowski, Anthony; Sviridov, Dmitri; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) with underlying mechanisms including chronic immune activation and inflammation secondary to HIV-induced microbial translocation and low-grade endotoxemia; direct effects of HIV and viral proteins on macrophage cholesterol metabolism; and dyslipidemia related to HIV infection and specific antiretroviral therapies. Monocytes are the precursors of the lipid-laden foam cells within the atherosclerotic plaque and prod...

  15. Aging of the Human Innate Immune System in HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Heidi J; Shaw, Albert C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with a chronic inflammatory state arising from multiple factors, including innate immune recognition of HIV, increased microbial translocation, and release of endogenous ligands from damaged cells (such as CD4 T cells). In many respects, this heightened pro-inflammatory environment resembles that associated with aging in the absence of HIV infection, and evidence of dysregulated innate immune responses can be found in not only older HIV-negative a...

  16. Oxidative stress and the HIV-infected brain proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Uzasci, Lerna; Nath, Avindra; Cotter, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is capable of infiltrating the brain and infecting brain cells. In the years following HIV infection, patients show signs of various levels of neurocognitive problems termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the incidence of HIV-dementia, which is the most severe form of HAND, the milder forms have become more prevalent today due to the increased life expectan...

  17. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    OpenAIRE

    Anousheh Safarcherati; Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili; Behrang Shadloo; Minoo Mohraz; Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that ther...

  18. Progress in drug therapies for HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Broder, S; Fauci, A S

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of effective therapies for HIV requires a fundamental knowledge of retroviral infections. Research by the Public Health Service and collaborating organizations on oncogenic viruses, including retroviruses, has provided much of the basic understanding of retroviruses in general and anti-retroviral therapeutic strategies in particular. Early work by the Viral Cancer and Developmental Therapeutic Programs of the National Cancer Institute and the Intramural Research Program of the N...

  19. Clinical development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2004-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues its spread at a rate of over 15,000 new infections every day. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 is the dominant mode of this pandemic spread. For the first time since the disease emerged in the early 1980s, about half the 42 million people now living with HIV/AIDS worldwide are women. Worldwide, more than 90 percent of all adolescent and adult HIV infections have resulted from heterosexual intercourse. The "feminization" of the pandemic largely driven by the social, economic, and biological factors warrants urgent attention particularly for the adolescent female population. In the absence of an effective prophylactic anti-HIV therapy or vaccine, current efforts are aimed at developing intravaginal/intrarectal topical formulations of anti-HIV agents or microbicides to curb the mucosal and perinatal HIV transmission. Microbicides would provide protection by directly inactivating HIV or preventing HIV from attaching, entering or replicating in susceptible target cells as well as dissemination from target cells present in semen or the host cells that line the vaginal/rectal wall. Thus, ideally, anti-HIV microbicides should be capable of attacking HIV from different angles. In addition, a contraceptive microbicide could help prevent unintended pregnancies worldwide. To be a microbicide, these agents must be safe, effective following vaginal or rectal administration, and should cause minimal or no genital symptoms following long-term repeated usage. A safe and efficacious anti-HIV microbicide is not yet available despite the fact that more than 60 candidate agents have been identified to have in vitro activity against HIV, 18 of which have advanced to clinical testing. Targeting HIV entry has been a favored approach because it is the first step in the process of infection and several readily available anionic polymeric products seem to variably interfere with these processes are the primary candidates for potential microbicides. Formulations of

  20. The role of statins in the setting of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Allison Ross; McComsey, Grace A

    2015-09-01

    HIV-infected individuals are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other HIV-related co-morbidities. This is due in part to dyslipidemia associated with antiretroviral therapy and increased inflammation and immune activation from chronic HIV infection. Statins not only have potent lipid-lowering properties but are also anti-inflammatory and immunomodulators. Studies suggest that statin therapy in the HIV-infected population may decrease the risk of CVD and other non-AIDS-defining co-morbidities. This review summarizes the recent literature on statin use in the HIV setting. PMID:26126687

  1. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Kwiatkowska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:HIV infected patients, especially those treated with antiretroviral (ARV drugs, show an increased risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease.Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, expressed as the value of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and the amount of atherosclerotic plaques, and to analyze the correlation between cIMT and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in a cohort of HIV infected patients.Methods:The analysis included 72 HIV infected patients, mean age 39.4 years, and 27 healthy HIV negative individuals, matched for age and sex. The data collected included evaluation of the infection, ARV treatment, past cardiovascular events, assessment of traditional and nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, cIMT measurements and amount of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries.Results:HIV infected patients show more advanced subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries (cIMT and plaques incidence. The cardiovascular risk profile of the HIV infected patients is significantly different from HIV negative people. Among the HIV positive group lower body mass index (BMI and higher waist/hip ratio (WHR are observed. The concentration of all cholesterol fractions is lower, whereas the concentration of triglycerides is higher. Cigarette smoking is more common among HIV-infected individuals. A strong statistical correlation between cIMT and age, hypertension, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL cholesterol and ARV time were found. Total and LDL cholesterol, and lifetime smoking exposure also affect the cIMT. The relationship between cIMT and current HIV RNA may indicate the impact of the current infection status on the cIMT dynamics in this subpopulation.

  2. Neutralizing antibodies in slowly progressing HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Nielsen, C; Iversen, Johan;

    1995-01-01

    Ten asymptomatic individuals who had experienced only limited CD4+ cell loss after prolonged infection with HIV-1 were studied. These individuals had a mean CD4+ cell count of 674 x 10(6) cells/L and a mean duration of infection of 8.5 years. Also included were 10 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected indi...

  3. The physical and psychological effects of HIV infection and its treatment on perinatally HIV-infected children

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeman, Rachel C.; Michael L Scanlon; Megan S McHenry; Winstone M Nyandiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. Methods: We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+) infection and its treatment in the e...

  4. Suppression of HIV-1 Infectivity by Human Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Tanaka, Atsushi; Islam, Salequl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infection to the central nervous system (CNS) is very common in AIDS patients. The predominant cell types infected in the brain are monocytes and macrophages, which are surrounded by several HIV-1-resistant cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and microvascular cells. The effect of these HIV-1-resistant cells on HIV-1 infection is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the stability of HIV-1 cultured with several human glioblastoma cell lines, for example, NP-2, U87MG, T98G, and A172, to determine whether these HIV-1-resistant brain cells could enhance or suppress HIV-1 infection and thus modulate HIV-1 infection in the CNS. The HIV-1 titer was determined using the MAGIC-5A indicator cell line as well as naturally occurring CD4(+) T cells. We found that the stability of HIV-1 incubated with NP-2 or U87MG cells at 37°C was significantly shorter (half-life, 2.5-4 h) compared to that of HIV-1 incubated with T98G or A172 cells or in culture medium without cells (half-life, 8-18 h). The spent culture media (SCM) of NP-2 and U87MG cells had the ability to suppress both R5- and X4-HIV-1 infection by inhibiting HIV-1 attachment to target cells. This inhibitory effect was eliminated by the treatment of the SCM with chondroitinase ABC but not heparinase, suggesting that the inhibitory factor(s) secreted by NP-2 and U87MG cells was chiefly mediated by chondroitin sulfate (CS) or CS-like moiety. Thus, this study reveals that some but not all glioma cells secrete inhibitory molecules to HIV-1 infection that may contribute in lowering HIV-1 infection in the CNS in vivo. PMID:26650729

  5. Profile of hematological abnormalities of Indian HIV infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Aman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Methods Two hundred HIV infected individual were screened for hematological abnormalities from March 2007–March 2008. Absolute CD4 cell count analysis was carried out by flowcytometry. Depending on the results of the primary screening further investigations were performed, like iron studies, hemolytic work up, PNH work up and bone marrow evaluation. Other investigations included coagulation profile, urine analysis, blood culture (bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, serology for Epstein Barr virus (EBV, Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Hepatitis B and C, and Parvo B19 infection. Results The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 65.5% (131/200 patients. Iron deficiency anemia was seen in 49.2% (/200 cases while anemia of chronic disease occurred in 50.7% (/200 cases. Bone marrow evaluation was carried out in 14 patients out of which staging marrow was performed in 2 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL and did not show any bone marrow infiltration. In remaining12 cases bone marrow was done for evaluation of pancytopenia. Among patients with pancytopenia 50% (6/12 showed granulomas (4 were positive for AFB, 2 were positive for fungal cryptococci, 25% (3/12 showed hemophagocytosis. There was a strong negative correlation between anemia and CD4 counts in this study. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 7% (14/200 cases and had no significant correlation with CD4 counts. No patient had absolute neutrophil count (ANC Conclusion Anemia in HIV patients can be a good clinical indicator to predict and access the underlying immune status. Patients should be investigated for hematological manifestations and appropriate steps should be taken to identify and treat the reversible factors.

  6. A mathematical approach to HIV infection dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, A.; Oharu, S.; Oharu, Y.

    2007-07-01

    In order to obtain a comprehensive form of mathematical models describing nonlinear phenomena such as HIV infection process and AIDS disease progression, it is efficient to introduce a general class of time-dependent evolution equations in such a way that the associated nonlinear operator is decomposed into the sum of a differential operator and a perturbation which is nonlinear in general and also satisfies no global continuity condition. An attempt is then made to combine the implicit approach (usually adapted for convective diffusion operators) and explicit approach (more suited to treat continuous-type operators representing various physiological interactions), resulting in a semi-implicit product formula. Decomposing the operators in this way and considering their individual properties, it is seen that approximation-solvability of the original model is verified under suitable conditions. Once appropriate terms are formulated to describe treatment by antiretroviral therapy, the time-dependence of the reaction terms appears, and such product formula is useful for generating approximate numerical solutions to the governing equations. With this knowledge, a continuous model for HIV disease progression is formulated and physiological interpretations are provided. The abstract theory is then applied to show existence of unique solutions to the continuous model describing the behavior of the HIV virus in the human body and its reaction to treatment by antiretroviral therapy. The product formula suggests appropriate discrete models describing the dynamics of host pathogen interactions with HIV1 and is applied to perform numerical simulations based on the model of the HIV infection process and disease progression. Finally, the results of our numerical simulations are visualized and it is observed that our results agree with medical and physiological aspects.

  7. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 Infection and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Talia H.; Dubyak, George R.; Chen, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 30 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent antiretroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV-1 have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV-1 pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are ...

  8. Disseminated tuberculosis in an AIDS/HIV-infected patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Abdi-Liae; Pardis Moradnejad; Neda Alijani; Hamide Khazraiyan; Sedigeh Mansoori; Naseh Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Disseminated tuberculosis (TB) is commonly seen in HIV-infected patients and is major cause of death in these patients. In HIV-infected patients disseminated tuberculosis is frequently undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In this article we report a case of disseminated TB in a HIV-infected patient with a relatively long history of fever and other complaints without definite diagnosis. Diagnosis of disseminated TB was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy and polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR) of the...

  9. Probability of HIV Transmission During Acute Infection in Rakai, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkerton, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the probability of HIV transmission during various stages of infection are needed to inform epidemiological models. Very limited information is available about the probability of transmission during acute HIV infection. We conducted a secondary analysis of published data from the Rakai, Uganda seroconversion study. Mathematical and computer-based models were used to quantify the per-act and per-partnership transmission probabilities during acute and chronic HIV infection...

  10. Defining the HLA class I-associated viral antigen repertoire from HIV-1-infected human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternette, Nicola; Yang, Hongbing; Partridge, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and eradication of infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is a key defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. High-throughput definition of HLA class I-associated immunopeptidomes by mass spectrometry is an increasingly important analytical tool to advance our understanding...... time the identification of 75 HIV-1-derived peptides bound to HLA class I complexes that were purified directly from HIV-1-infected human primary CD4+ T cells and the C8166 human T-cell line. Importantly, one-third of eluted HIV-1 peptides had not been previously known to be presented by HLA class I...

  11. CD4+ T Cell Depletion in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Infection: Role of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Rebollo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is principally a mucosal disease and the gastrointestinal (GI tract is the major site of HIV replication. Loss of CD4+ T cells and systemic immune hyperactivation are the hallmarks of HIV infection. The end of acute infection is associated with the emergence of specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and the establishment of a chronic phase of infection. Abnormal levels of immune activation and inflammation persist despite a low steady state level of viremia. Although the causes of persistent immune hyperactivation remain incompletely characterized, physiological alterations of gastrointestinal tract probably play a major role. Failure to restore Th17 cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT might impair the recovery of the gut mucosal barrier. This review discusses recent advances on understanding the contribution of CD4+ T cell depletion to HIV pathogenesis.

  12. CD4+ T Cell Depletion in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Role of Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Février, Michèle; Dorgham, Karim; Rebollo, Angelita

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is principally a mucosal disease and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the major site of HIV replication. Loss of CD4+ T cells and systemic immune hyperactivation are the hallmarks of HIV infection. The end of acute infection is associated with the emergence of specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and the establishment of a chronic phase of infection. Abnormal levels of immune activation and inflammation persist despite a low steady state level of viremia. Although the causes of persistent immune hyperactivation remain incompletely characterized, physiological alterations of gastrointestinal tract probably play a major role. Failure to restore Th17 cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) might impair the recovery of the gut mucosal barrier. This review discusses recent advances on understanding the contribution of CD4+ T cell depletion to HIV pathogenesis. PMID:21994747

  13. Hematological Manifestation in HIV Infected Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the common hematological abnormalities in HIV infected children and any association of these abnormalities with HIV disease severity. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Regional Pediatric ART centre, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, from November 2011 to November 2012. Methodology: Children up to 12 years with confirmed diagnosis of HIV infection were clinically examined and tested for complete hemogram and CD4 count. Bone marrow study was done in selected patient depending on hemogram report. Children were divided in different stages according to WHO clinical staging. Each of the hematological parameters was assessed for any association with progression of disease. Fisher's Exact Test was used for determining the association between WHO clinical staging and abnormal blood parameters. P-value < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Sixty nine percent of the study population was anemic; 47.37% (18/38), 66.67% (8/12), 71.43% (15/21) and 93.10% (27/29) of stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively were anemic in the study population (p=0.001). Leucopenia was present in 34% (34/100) children. Neutropenia and lymphopenia was present in 19% (19/100) and 22% (22/100) children. Lymphopenia was present in 7.89% (3/38), 16.67% (2/12), 19.05% (4/21) and 44.83% (13/29) of patient with stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively (p=0.020). Eosinophilia was present in 17% (17/100) and thrombocytopenia in 11% (11/100) children. 2 patients with stage 4 disease were with hypoplastic bone marrow. Conclusion: Anemia was the most common hematological abnormality in HIV infected children. Anemia and lymphopenia had a significant association with the stage of the disease. (author)

  14. Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    C. Wejse; C.B. Patsche; Kühle, A.; F.J.V. Bamba; Mendes, M. S.; G. Lemvik; V.F. Gomes; F. Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV-1 infection has been shown to impact the outcome of patients with tuberculosis (TB), but data regarding the impact of HIV-2 on TB outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the predictive ability of the TBscoreII, a clinical score used to assess disease severity. Methods: In a prospective follow-up study, we examined the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 co-infection ...

  15. Brief Report: Macrophage Activation in HIV-2-Infected Patients Is Less Affected by Antiretroviral Treatment-sCD163 in HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 Dually Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hønge, Bo L; Andersen, Morten N; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida; Correira, Faustino G; Jakobsen, Martin R; Laursen, Alex; Erikstrup, Christian; Møller, Holger J; Wejse, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The course of disease among HIV-2, HIV-1, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients is different. We investigated the macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163) dynamics in 212 HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. There were no differences in sCD163 levels at baseline or during follow-up without antiretroviral therapy (ART). At follow-up on ART, median sCD163 levels were decreased for HIV-1-infected patients (P < 0.001), but not among HIV-2 (P = 0.093) or HIV-1/2 dually infected patients (P = 0.145). The larger decrease in sCD163 levels among HIV-1-infected patients during ART may indicate an HIV type-dependent differential effect of ART on macrophage activation during HIV infection. PMID:26825178

  16. Differences between the course of the drug addict's HIV infection and that of other HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölz, J

    1993-11-01

    Drug addicts have, in general, a less complicated course of HIV infection than homosexual HIV patients. They show fewer opportunistic infections and tumors. But this advantage is lost by unnecessary complications due to their psychic disorders. Their non-compliance and concealment of signs of disease lead to worse outcomes of infections, which could be well-treated or prevented. PMID:8300042

  17. Emerging Microsporidian Infections in Russian HIV-Infected Patients▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova, Olga I.; Demyanov, Anton V.; Bowers, Lisa C.; Didier, Elizabeth S.; Yakovlev, Alexei V.; Skarlato, Sergei O.; Sokolova, Yuliya Y.

    2011-01-01

    Microsporidia were identified in stool specimens by histochemistry and PCR of 30 (18.9%) of 159 HIV-infected patients presenting to the S. P. Botkin Memorial Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia. The higher prevalence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, in 21 (12.8%) patients, than of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in 2 patients (1.2%), was unexpected. Encephalitozoon cuniculi was detected in three patients: one with strain I and two with strain II. Encephalitozoon hellem w...

  18. Virulence of Candida albicans isolated from HIV infected and non infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Wibawa, Tri; Praseno,; Aman, Abu Tholib

    2015-01-01

    Candida sp contributes 33.1 % of fungal infections among HIV patients. Among the species of the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated from HIV patients. This study aimed to analyze putative virulence factors of C. albicans isolated from oral cavities of HIV infected patients and healthy individuals. Twenty isolates from HIV infected patients and fourteen from healthy individuals were analyzed for phenotypic switching, cell growth rate, hyphae formation, hemolytic act...

  19. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Antiretroviral Drug Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    The advent of combination antiretroviral drug regimens has transformed HIV infection from a fatal illness into a manageable chronic condition. All patients with HIV infection should be considered for antiretroviral therapy, regardless of CD4 count or HIV viral load, for individual benefit and to prevent HIV transmission. Antiretroviral drugs affect HIV in several ways: entry inhibitors block HIV entry into CD4 T cells; nucleotide and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription from RNA to DNA via chain-terminating proteins; nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription through enzymatic inhibition; integrase strand transfer inhibitors block integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA; protease inhibitors block maturation and production of the virus. Current guidelines recommend six combination regimens for initial therapy. Five are based on tenofovir and emtricitabine; the other uses abacavir and lamivudine. Five include integrase strand transfer inhibitors. HIV specialists should assist with treating patients with complicated HIV infection, including patients with treatment-resistant HIV infection, coinfection with hepatitis B or C virus, pregnancy, childhood infections, severe opportunistic infections, complex drug interactions, significant drug toxicity, or comorbidities. Family physicians can treat most patients with HIV infection effectively by choosing appropriate treatment regimens, monitoring patients closely, and retaining patients in care. PMID:27092564

  20. Dynamics of HIV infection in lymphoid tissue network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Shinji; Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a fast replicating ribonucleic acid virus, which can easily mutate in order to escape the effects of drug administration. Hence, understanding the basic mechanisms underlying HIV persistence in the body is essential in the development of new therapies that could eradicate HIV infection. Lymphoid tissues are the primary sites of HIV infection. Despite the recent progress in real-time monitoring technology, HIV infection dynamics in a whole body is unknown. Mathematical modeling and simulations provide speculations on global behavior of HIV infection in the lymphatic system. We propose a new mathematical model that describes the spread of HIV infection throughout the lymphoid tissue network. In order to represent the volume difference between lymphoid tissues, we propose the proportionality of several kinetic parameters to the lymphoid tissues' volume distribution. Under this assumption, we perform extensive numerical computations in order to simulate the spread of HIV infection in the lymphoid tissue network. Numerical computations simulate single drug treatments of an HIV infection. One of the important biological speculations derived from this study is a drug saturation effect generated by lymphoid network connection. This implies that a portion of reservoir lymphoid tissues to which drug is not sufficiently delivered would inhibit HIV eradication despite of extensive drug injection. PMID:26507442

  1. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands ... is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  2. Human defensins 5 and 6 enhance HIV-1 infectivity through promoting HIV attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wuyuan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. The levels of defensins are frequently elevated in genital fluids from individuals with STIs. We have previously shown that human defensins 5 and 6 (HD5 and HD6 promote HIV entry and contribute to Neisseria gonorrhoeae-mediated enhancement of HIV infectivity in vitro. In this study, we dissect the molecular mechanism of the HIV enhancing effect of defensins. Results HD5 and HD6 primarily acted on the virion to promote HIV infection. Both HD5 and HD6 antagonized the anti-HIV activities of inhibitors of HIV entry (TAK 779 and fusion (T-20 when the inhibitors were present only during viral attachment; however, when these inhibitors were added back during viral infection they overrode the HIV enhancing effect of defensins. HD5 and HD6 enhanced HIV infectivity by promoting HIV attachment to target cells. Studies using fluorescent HIV containing Vpr-GFP indicated that these defensins enhanced HIV attachment by concentrating virus particles on the target cells. HD5 and HD6 blocked anti-HIV activities of soluble glycosaminoglycans including heparin, chondroitin sulfate, and dextran sulfate. However, heparin, at a high concentration, diminished the HIV enhancing effect of HD5, but not HD6. Additionally, the degree of the HIV enhancing effect of HD5, but not HD6, was increased in heparinase-treated cells. These results suggest that HD5 and haparin/heparan sulfate compete for binding to HIV. Conclusions HD5 and HD6 increased HIV infectivity by concentrating virus on the target cells. These defensins may have a negative effect on the efficacy of microbicides, especially in the setting of STIs.

  3. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia H Swartz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 38 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent anti-retroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are known to mediate inflammation and have been shown to be required for HIV-1 infection at the level of HIV-1 membrane fusion. Here we review the literature on the role of purinergic receptors in HIV-1 infection and associated inflammation and describe a role for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  4. Characteristics, Immunological Response & Treatment Outcomes of HIV-2 Compared with HIV-1 & Dual Infections (HIV 1/2) in Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara, Montaldo; Rony, Zachariah; Homa, Mansoor; Bhanumati, Varghese; Ladomirska, Joanna; Manzi, M.; Wilson, N; Alaka, Deshpande; Harries, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background & objectives: Information available on HIV-2 and dual infection (HIV-1/2) is limited. This study was carried out among HIV positive individuals in an urban referral clinic in Khar, Mumbai, India, to report on relative proportions of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 and baseline characteristics, response to and outcomes on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: Retrospective analysis of programme data (May 2006-May 2009) at Khar HIV/AIDS clinic at Mumbai, India was done. Three test algori...

  5. Clinical challenges in HIV/AIDS: Hints for advancing prevention and patient management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sued, Omar; Figueroa, María Inés; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome has been one of the most devastating epidemics of the last century. The current estimate for people living with the HIV is 36.9 million. Today, despite availability of potent and safe drugs for effective treatment, lifelong therapy is required for preventing HIV re-emergence from a pool of latently infected cells. However, recent evidence show the importance to expand HIV testing, to offer antiretroviral treatment to all infected individuals, and to ensure retention through all the cascade of care. In addition, circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and other biomedical tools are now available for included in a comprehensive preventive package. Use of all the available tools might allow cutting the HIV transmission in 2030. In this article, we review the status of the epidemic, the latest advances in prevention and treatment, the concept of treatment as prevention and the challenges and opportunities for the HIV cure agenda. PMID:27117711

  6. Increasing rates of obesity among HIV-infected persons during the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Crum-Cianflone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated prospective data from a U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1985-2004 consisting of early diagnosed patients. Statistics included multivariate linear regression and longitudinal linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Of 1682 patients, 2% were underweight, 37% were overweight, and 9% were obese at HIV diagnosis. Multivariate predictors of a higher body mass index (BMI at diagnosis included more recent year of HIV diagnosis, older age, African American race, and earlier HIV stage (all p<0.05. The majority of patients (62% gained weight during HIV infection. Multivariate factors associated with a greater increase in BMI during HIV infection included more recent year of diagnosis, lower BMI at diagnosis, higher CD4 count, lower HIV RNA level, lack of AIDS diagnosis, and longer HIV duration (all p<0.05. Nucleoside agents were associated with less weight gain; other drug classes had no significant impact on weight change in the HAART era. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected patients are increasingly overweight/obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general population. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

  7. Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    SH Afrasiabian; K Hajibageri; V Esmaeil Nasab; N Esmaeil Nasab; SH Sayfi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: The risk of developing chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) is 5% in general population but can reach up to 20% in HIV patients. The response rate to HBV vaccine in HIV infected patients is 23.8-56 percent. The aim of this study was to evaluate response of HIV-infected patients to 20 µg dose of recombinant HBV vaccine. Materials & Methods: In this quasi experimental study, 51 subjects, sampled through census, were HIV patients who had HBsAg negative test in HIV/AIDS ...

  8. Peripheral neuropathy in primary HIV infection associates with systemic and central nervous system immune activation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, SXY; Ho, EL; Grill, M.; Lee, E.; Peterson, J.; Robertson, K; Fuchs, D.; Sinclair, E.; Price, RW; Spudich, S

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Background: Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a frequent complication of chronic HIV infection. We prospectively studied individuals with primary HIV infection (

  9. Multiple roles of the capsid protein in the early steps of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassati, Ariberto

    2012-12-01

    The early steps of HIV-1 infection starting after virus entry into cells up to integration of its genome into host chromosomes are poorly understood. From seminal work showing that HIV-1 and oncoretroviruses follow different steps in the early stages post-entry, significant advances have been made in recent years and an important role for the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein, the constituent of the viral core, has emerged. CA appears to orchestrate several events, such as virus uncoating, recognition by restriction factors and the innate immune system. It also plays a role in nuclear import and integration of HIV-1 and has become a novel target for antiretroviral drugs. Here we describe the different functions of CA and how they may be integrated into one or more coherent models that illuminate the early events in HIV-1 infection and their relations with the host cell. PMID:23041358

  10. Morphological aspects of liver CT in patients with HIV infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT examinations of the liver in HIV-infected patients show more frequent pathological findings. The extended spectrum of differential diagnosis and atypical manifestations of disorders in immunodeficient patients needs to be considered in the interpretation of CT scans. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in HIV-infected patients are demonstrated in the following. Besides the relatively common findings in HIV-infection such as hepato- or hepatosplenomegalia, lymphoma, and inflammatory changes of the bowel an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis, and local steatosis of the liver are discussed as the rare causes for suspect computertomographic findings in the live of HIV-infected patients. The examinations were obtained consecutively in 76 HIV-infected patients during abdominal CT staging. (orig.)

  11. Infected Cell Killing by HIV-1 Protease Promotes NF-κB Dependent HIV-1 Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Bren, Gary D.; Joe Whitman; Nathan Cummins; Brett Shepard; Rizza, Stacey A; Trushin, Sergey A.; Badley, Andrew D

    2008-01-01

    Acute HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells often results in apoptotic death of infected cells, yet it is unclear what evolutionary advantage this offers to HIV-1. Given the independent observations that acute T cell HIV-1 infection results in (1) NF-kappaB activation, (2) caspase 8 dependent apoptosis, and that (3) caspase 8 directly activates NF-kappaB, we questioned whether these three events might be interrelated. We first show that HIV-1 infected T cell apoptosis, NF-kappaB activation, and casp...

  12. Management of BU-HIV co-infection

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, D P; Ford, N.; Vitoria, M; Christinet, V; Comte, E; Calmy, A; Stienstra, Y; Eholie, S.; Asiedu, K

    2014-01-01

    Buruli Ulcer (BU)-HIV co-infection is an important emerging management challenge for BU disease. Limited by paucity of scientific studies, guidance for management of this co-infection has been lacking.

  13. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, William W.; Ming Bo Huang; Kateena Addae Konadu; Powell, Michael D.; Bond, Vincent C

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA) during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM) which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 Ba...

  14. Dengue in HIV infected patients:clinical profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is an important tropical viral infection. It can present with acute febrile illness with possible hemorrhagic complication. Since it is a common infection in the tropical world, concomitance with other diseases can be expected. An important consideration is the co-presentation of dengue with HIV infection. In this specific report, the authors summarize the clinical profiles of dengue patients with HIV infection. Based on the present study, it can be seen that clinical profiles of dengue in any group of HIV infection is not different.

  15. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini, E.; Turkova, A.; E Chiappini; Galli, L.; Martino, M; Thorne, C.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: HIV is the top and tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, with an estimated 8.7 million incident cases of tuberculosis and 2.5 million new HIV infections annually. The World Health Organization estimates that HIV prevalence among children with tuberculosis, in countries with moderate to high prevalence, ranges from 10 to 60%. The mechanisms promoting susceptibility of people with HIV to tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood,...

  16. Pregnancy care in two adolescents perinatally infected with HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Meloni, Alessandra; Tuveri, Milena; Floridia, Marco; Zucca, Francesca; Borghero, Grazia; Gariel, Donatella; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We describe the main issues encountered in pregnancy care in two perinatally infected adolescents with HIV. Despite the young maternal age, both mothers complied well with visits and treatment during pregnancy and delivered at week 38 through elective caesarean section. Both, however, missed the regular gynaecological and the routine HIV visits scheduled after pregnancy. Both infants following HIV exposure were confirmed HIV negative at the end of tests performed in the fi...

  17. Somatic Symptoms and the Association between Hepatitis C Infection and Depression in HIV-infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jeanie C.; Crane, Paul K; Ciechanowski, Paul S.; Harrington, Robert D; Kitahata, Mari M.; Crane, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of depression and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-infected patients have been contradictory and often not addressed key differences between HCV-infected and uninfected individuals including substance use. This cross-sectional observational study from the University of Washington HIV Cohort examined associations between HCV, symptoms, and depression in HIV-infected patients in routine clinical care. Patients completed instruments measuring depression, symptoms, and substance u...

  18. Bloodstream Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV patients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-23

    This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  19. Young women most vulnerable to HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    It is estimated that 70% of the 3000 women who are infected with HIV each day are 15-24 years old. This pattern of increased prevalence among young women has been noted since a 1986 report that AIDS cases in Zaire were equally divided among men and women, but that the women were an average of 10 years younger than the men, and cases in women peaked at age 20-29. Despite this information, the HIV research and program agenda has failed to address the gender issues that place young women at risk of infection. Societies that do not provide young women with information about reproductive anatomy and sex or with reproductive health services, that allow men to have multiple sex partners, and that condone condom use only for illicit intercourse, leave young girls and women at risk of forced and unprotected sexual intercourse. Studies have also shown that early marriage practices also increase the risk of women becoming infected (usually by their older and more "experienced" husbands). In some parts of Africa, older men seek out virgins in the belief that having sex with a virgin will cure them of sexually transmitted diseases. Poverty also drives women to barter sex for money or goods. In addition to these social and behavioral risk factors, young women appear to have a greater physiological susceptibility to infection than more mature women. Possible factors for this increased risk include the facts that, in younger women, the lining of the vagina is thinner, vaginal mucus may be less profuse, ovulation (which seems to have a protective effect against infection) is infrequent, and a transition zone of cells ringing the cervical opening is more exposed. Thus, biologic, social, and behavioral factors increase the vulnerability of young women. To protect young women, societies will have to change cultural and sexual norms, values, and practices. PMID:12288834

  20. The virus stops with me: HIV-infected Ugandans' motivations in preventing HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rachel; Lifshay, Julie; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lindkvist, Pille; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    Few Positive Prevention interventions have been implemented in Africa; however, greater attention is now being paid to interventions that include messages of personal responsibility or altruism that may motivate HIV-infected individuals towards HIV prevention behaviors in Africa. We conducted 47 in-depth interviews in 2004 with HIV-infected men and women purposefully sampled to represent a range of sexual activities among clients of an AIDS support organization in Uganda. Qualitative interviews were selected from a cross-sectional survey of 1092 HIV-infected men and women. Clients were interviewed about their concerns around sexual HIV transmission, feelings of responsibility and reasons for these feelings, as well as about the challenges and consequences of actions to prevent HIV transmission. The reasons they provided for their sense of prevention responsibility revolved around ethical and practical themes. Responsibility toward sexual partners was linked to the belief that conscious transmission of HIV equals murder, would cause physical and emotional harm, and would leave children orphaned. The primary reason specific to preventing HIV transmission to unborn children was the perception that they are 'innocent'. Most participants felt that HIV-infected individuals held a greater responsibility for preventing HIV transmission than did HIV-uninfected individuals. Respondents reported that their sense of responsibility lead them to reduce HIV transmission risk, encourage partner testing, disclose HIV test results, and assume an HIV/AIDS educator role. Challenges to HIV preventive behavior and altruistic intentions included: sexual desire; inconsistent condom use, especially in long term relationships; myths around condom use; fear of disclosure; gender-power dynamics; and social and financial pressure. Our finding that altruism played an important role in motivating preventive behaviors among HIV-infected persons in Uganda supports the inclusion of altruistic

  1. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich; Michail Borisovich Bryzgin; Elena Nikolaevna Efremova

    2016-01-01

    By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015). Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are ...

  2. Coping and perception of women with HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Renesto, Helana Maria Ferreira; Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Souza, Edvaldo; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze women’s perceptions and coping regarding the discovery of an HIV infection. METHODS A qualitative study in an HIV/AIDS Specialist Helpdesk in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, from January to September 2010, involving eight women living with asymptomatic HIV aged between 27 and 37 years, without criteria for diagnosis of AIDS infected through intercourse and monitored by the service for at least one year. Forms were used to characterize the clinical situation and semi-stru...

  3. Primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma revealing clinically unsuspected HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Abbade, Luciana P Fernandes; Guiotoku, Marcelo Massaki; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma more frequently diagnosed in immunosuppressed patients, mainly HIV-infected. Primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma is extremely rare, and in this patient it was the first clinical manifestation of unsuspected HIV-infection. PMID:27579749

  4. Varicella vaccination in HIV-1-infected children after immune reconstitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bekker; G.H.A. Westerlaken; H. Scherpbier; S. Alders; H. Zaaijer; D. van Baarle; T. Kuijper

    2006-01-01

    Background: HIV-1-infected children have an increased risk of severe chickenpox. However, vaccination is not recommended in severely immunocompromised children. Objective: Can the live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) Oka strain be safely and effectively given to HIV-1-infected children despi

  5. An Update on Cryptococcosis Among HIV-Infected Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Warkentien, Tyler; Nancy F Crum-Cianflone

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus remains an important opportunistic infection in HIV patients despite considerable declines in prevalence during the HAART era. This is particularly apparent in sub-Saharan Africa, where Cryptococcus continues to cause significant mortality and morbidity. This review discusses the microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of cryptococcal infections in HIV patients. Additionally, a detailed approach to the management of cryptococcosis is provided.

  6. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico;

    2010-01-01

    To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients.......To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients....

  7. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for the management of HIV infection during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Vivian Tamayo-Agrait

    2009-01-01

    Carmen D Zorrilla, Vivian Tamayo-AgraitDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, Maternal Infant Studies Center (CEMI), San Juan, Puerto RicoAbstract: Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of HIV-1 infection using both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Optimal prevention of the MTCT of HIV requires antiretroviral drugs (ARV) during pregnancy, during lab...

  8. Short Communication: Circulating Plasma HIV-1 Viral Protein R in Dual HIV-1/Tuberculosis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Toossi, Zahra; Liu, Shigou; Wu, Mianda; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Hirsch, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating free HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is found in up to one third of subjects with HIV-1 infection. Free Vpr presumably shares some of the immunopathogenic effects of cell-associated Vpr. Here we assessed Vpr in plasma and pleural fluid from HIV/tuberculosis (TB) dually infected subjects with pleural TB and from plasma of patients with pulmonary HIV/TB. Vpr was assessed by western blot analysis. In plasma from HIV/TB subjects with pulmonary TB free Vpr could be detected in 47%. Only on...

  9. Knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes in relation to HIV infection in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon D Brewer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In prior research, Africans who knew about blood-borne risks were modestly less likely to be HIV-infected than those who were not aware of such risks. Objectives/Methods: I examined the association between knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes and prevalent HIV infection with data from the 2009 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Survey. Results: Respondents displayed high awareness of blood exposures and vaginal sex as modes of HIV transmission. However, only about half of respondents were aware of anal sex as a way HIV can be transmitted. After adjustments for demographics and sexual behaviors, respondents who knew that HIV could spread by contact with infected blood or by sharing injection needles or razor blades were less likely to be infected than those who did not know about these risks. Respondents who knew about sexual risks were as, or more, likely to be HIV infected as those who did not know about sexual risks. Also, children of HIV-uninfected mothers were less likely to be infected if their mothers were aware of blood-borne HIV risks than if their mothers were unaware. Conclusion: HIV education campaigns in Mozambique and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa should include a focus on risks from blood exposures and anal sex.

  10. Hepatitis E virus infection in the HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, Jose D; Pisano, Maria Belen; Lotto, Martin; Re, Viviana

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a RNA virus that can cause hepatitis. In immunocompetent individuals, infection with HEV usually leads to asymptomatic seroconversion. However, in immunosuppressed patients, such as transplant recipients, HEV can develop into a chronic infection. Studies regarding the seroprevalence and clinical implications of HEV in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are conflicting. Levels of CD4 count in blood seem to be the most widely associated risk factor, while other factors such as meat consumption or proximity to animals are less clearly associated with HEV infection. Progression to chronicity, as well as extrahepatic manifestations of HEV seem rare in HIV, and the implications of HEV in liver disease progression are poorly understood in the HIV-infected. In this review we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical implications of HEV infection in individuals infected with HIV. PMID:27243210

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  12. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programmes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach with laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programmes in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioural and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Among 1063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes symptom. Clinical signs were found in 63% of women; and 30.8% had an aetiological diagnosis. Bacterial vaginosis (17.4%), vaginal candidiasis (10.6%) and trichomoniasis (10.5%) were the most common diagnoses. Using laboratory diagnoses as gold standard, sensitivity and positive predictive value of the syndromic diagnosis for vaginal discharge were 47.6% and 52.7%, respectively, indicating a substantial amount of overtreatment. A systematic physical examination increased by 9.3% the positive predictive value for genital ulcer disease. Women attending HIV care programmes in Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. PMID:25614522

  13. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL......-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included. IL-10 levels increased significantly in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis from a median of 12.8 pg/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 11.0-27.8] before...... infection to 46.7 pg/mL (IQR, 28.4-78.9) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.027) and decreased to 13.0 pg/mL (IQR, 6.2-19.4) after treatment of syphilis (P <0.001). TNF-alpha levels showed no significant change from before to during syphilis in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis (median 3.9 pg...

  14. Profile of HIV-Infected Hispanics with Pancytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Santiago-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancytopenia is seen in late HIV infection; it is associated with medical complications and with decreased survival. We determined the prevalence of pancytopenia at baseline in a cohort of HIV-positive Hispanics living in Puerto Rico, and compared their socio-demographic, immunological and clinical characteristics. A total of 1202 patients enrolled between 2000 and 2010 were included. They were grouped according to pancytopenia status, defined by having: platelets <150,000 μL, white cell count <4000 μL, and hemoglobin <12 g/dL (women or <13 g/dL (men. Differences were evaluated using Student’s t-test, Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier method. The prevalence of pancytopenia was 8.7%. Patients with pancytopenia had lower BMI and lower CD4 count, as well as higher HIV viral load and higher proportions of unemployment, clinical AIDS and antiretroviral treatment (ART use (p < 0.05. One-year mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with pancytopenia (18.1% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001. When stratifying for ART this association persisted for patients who did not receive ART (41.4% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001, but it was not seen in patients who received treatment (9.2% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.196. Pancytopenia was associated with elements of advanced stages of HIV. ART could reduce the mortality of HIV-patients with pancytopenia to levels comparable to patients without the disorders.

  15. Profile of HIV-Infected Hispanics with Pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodríguez, Eduardo J; Mayor, Angel M; Fernández-Santos, Diana M; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Pancytopenia is seen in late HIV infection; it is associated with medical complications and with decreased survival. We determined the prevalence of pancytopenia at baseline in a cohort of HIV-positive Hispanics living in Puerto Rico, and compared their socio-demographic, immunological and clinical characteristics. A total of 1202 patients enrolled between 2000 and 2010 were included. They were grouped according to pancytopenia status, defined by having: platelets <150,000 μL, white cell count <4000 μL, and hemoglobin <12 g/dL (women) or <13 g/dL (men). Differences were evaluated using Student's t-test, Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier method. The prevalence of pancytopenia was 8.7%. Patients with pancytopenia had lower BMI and lower CD4 count, as well as higher HIV viral load and higher proportions of unemployment, clinical AIDS and antiretroviral treatment (ART) use (p < 0.05). One-year mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with pancytopenia (18.1% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001). When stratifying for ART this association persisted for patients who did not receive ART (41.4% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001), but it was not seen in patients who received treatment (9.2% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.196). Pancytopenia was associated with elements of advanced stages of HIV. ART could reduce the mortality of HIV-patients with pancytopenia to levels comparable to patients without the disorders. PMID:26703689

  16. Anemia and iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Hadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a common clinical finding in HIV-infected patients and iron deficiency or redistribution may contribute to the development of low hemoglobin levels. Iron overload is associated with a poor prognosis in HIV and Hepatitis C virus infections. Iron redistribution may be caused by inflammation but possibly also by hepatitis C co-infection. We examined the prevalence of anemia and its relation to mortality in a cohort of HIV patients in a setting where injecting drug use (IDU is a main mode of HIV transmission, and measured serum ferritin and sTfR, in relation to anemia, inflammation, stage of HIV disease, ART and HCV infection. Methods Patient characteristics, ART history and iron parameters were recorded from adult HIV patients presenting between September 2007 and August 2009 in the referral hospital for West Java, Indonesia. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox's regression were used to assess factors affecting survival. Logistic regression was used to identity parameters associated with high ferritin concentrations. Results Anemia was found in 49.6% of 611 ART-naïve patients, with mild (Hb 10.5 - 12.99 g/dL for men; and 10.5 - 11.99 g/dL for women anemia in 62.0%, and moderate to severe anemia (Hb Conclusion HIV-associated anemia is common among HIV-infected patients in Indonesia and strongly related to mortality. High ferritin with low sTfR levels suggest that iron redistribution and low erythropoietic activity, rather than iron deficiency, contribute to anemia. Serum ferritin and sTfR should be used cautiously to assess iron status in patients with advanced HIV infection.

  17. Mental Health in Youth Infected with and Affected by HIV: The Role of Caregiver HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Bauermeister, José A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; McKay, Mary; Mellins, Claude A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of youth and caregiver HIV status, and other contextual and social regulation factors with youth mental health. Method Data were from two longitudinal studies of urban youth perinatally infected, affected, and unaffected by HIV (N = 545; 36% PHIV+ youth; 45.7% HIV+ caregivers). Youth mental health was measured using the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Depression Inventory, and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Results HIV+ youth reported ...

  18. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schadé Annemiek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60% are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study. DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for

  19. Densitometric disorders in children infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Marczyñska

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of densitometric disorders and deficiencies of vitamin D3 in children vertically HIV-infected, treated with cART. In 34 children vertically HIV-infected aged 10–16 years (mean 13 years, receiving cART≥5, bone densitometry and the titer of 25-OHD3 was done. We analyzed at the time of diagnosis of HIV infection and at the time of the study: age, clinical and immunological classification, the length, effectiveness of cART, the lowest immunological classification. 15/34 (44% children had abnormal dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry examination (DEXA of the lumbar aged-matched mean Z-score −2.1 (range −1.2 to −3.5, of which 8 also had abnormal DEXA whole spine aged-matched mean Z-score −1.6 (range −1.1 to−2.2. Level of 25-OHD3 was abnormal (<20 ng/ml in 29/34 (85%, in 7 of them the level was very low (<4.0 ng /ml. 4/5 children with normal values of 25-OHD3 parallel had correct densitometry; 1/5 with a normal value of 25-OHD3 had significant abnormalities of bone density, visible in radiographs of the hand. Clinical classification at diagnosis was: N/A in 17, B in 12, C in 5 and immunological classification: 1 in 11, 2 in 9, 3 in 13 cases. The lowest classification was AIDS in 9 children, 15 had moderate signs of infection, and 10 mild signs; deep immune deficiency occurred in 17 children, 15 had moderate and 2 have never had immunodeficiency. The regimens based on PI received 9 children, NNTRI −6, all 3 classes received 19. At the time of the study 31 children were successfully treated, 32 had no immunodeficiency, two had moderate deficiency. 32 children were qualified to N/A group, one was in the classification of B and one in C. All children unsuccessfully treated (3 had low levels of 25-OHD3. In a significant percentage of older children receiving antiretroviral treatment≥5 years, had abnormal results of densytometry examination. There was no correlation between age, duration of the c

  20. Relationship of vitamin D, HIV, HIV treatment and lipid levels in the Women’s Interagency HIV study (WIHS) of HIV-infected and un-infected women in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Janice B; Moore, Kelly L.; Yin, Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Dan; Islam, Talat; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M.

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between vitamin D, lipids, HIV infection, and HIV treatment (±ART) were investigated with Women’s Interagency HIV Study data (n=1758 middle-aged women) using multivariable regression. 63 % had vitamin D deficiency. Median 25-OH vitamin D was highest in HIV-infected +ART-treated women (17 ng/mL, p

  1. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Marya eGwadz; Cleland, Charles M.; Alexandra eKutnick; Noelle Regina Leonard; Amanda Spring Ritchie; Laura eLynch; Angela eBanfield; Talaya eMcCright-Gill; Montserrat edel Olmo; Belkis eMartinez

    2016-01-01

    Background. The CDC recommends persons at high-risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%), but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines individual/attitudinal-, social-, and ...

  2. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M.; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Lynch, Laura; Banfield, Angela; McCright-Gill, Talaya; Del Olmo, Montserrat; Martinez, Belkis

    2016-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends persons at high risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%) but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines i...

  3. Differences in Clinical Manifestations of Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection between HIV-1 Subtypes in African Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lemonovich, Tracy L.; Watkins, Richard R.; Morrison, Charles S.; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Musoke, Robert; Arts, Eric J; Nankya, Immaculate; Salata, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in clinical manifestations between women with various HIV-1 subtypes during acute (AI) and early (EI) HIV infection. In a longitudinal cohort study, clinical signs and symptoms among Uganda and Zimbabwe women with AI and EI were compared with HIV-negative controls; symptoms were assessed quarterly for 15 to 24 months. Early HIV infection was defined as the first visit during which a woman tested HIV antibody positive. Women who were HIV negative serologic...

  4. Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Sikhulile; Wilkinson, Eduan; Novitsky, Vladimir; Vandormael, Alain; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, Max; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for HIV prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal cohorts that follow HIV negative individuals over time are the current gold standard approach, but they are logistically challenging, time consuming and an expensive enterprise. Methods that utilize cross-sectional testing and biomarker information have become an affordable alternative to the longitudinal approach. These methods use well-characterized biological makers to differentiate between recent and established HIV infections. However, recent results have identified a number of limitations in serological based assays that are sensitive to the variability in immune responses modulated by HIV subtypes, viral load and antiretroviral therapy. Molecular methods that explore the dynamics between the timing of infection and viral evolution are now emerging as a promising approach. The combination of serological and molecular methods may provide a good solution to identify recent HIV infection in cross-sectional data. As part of this review, we present the advantages and limitations of serological and molecular based methods and their potential complementary role for the identification of HIV infection recency. PMID:26512688

  5. Enhanced clearance of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ching-Lan; Murakowski, Dariusz K; Bournazos, Stylianos; Schoofs, Till; Sarkar, Debolina; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A; Nogueira, Lilian; Golijanin, Jovana; Gazumyan, Anna; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Caskey, Marina; Chakraborty, Arup K; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-05-20

    Antiretroviral drugs and antibodies limit HIV-1 infection by interfering with the viral life cycle. In addition, antibodies also have the potential to guide host immune effector cells to kill HIV-1-infected cells. Examination of the kinetics of HIV-1 suppression in infected individuals by passively administered 3BNC117, a broadly neutralizing antibody, suggested that the effects of the antibody are not limited to free viral clearance and blocking new infection but also include acceleration of infected cell clearance. Consistent with these observations, we find that broadly neutralizing antibodies can target CD4(+) T cells infected with patient viruses and can decrease their in vivo half-lives by a mechanism that requires Fcγ receptor engagement in a humanized mouse model. The results indicate that passive immunotherapy can accelerate elimination of HIV-1-infected cells. PMID:27199430

  6. Progress and Prospects in Therapeutics against HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mandal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous advances have occurred in recent decades in the development of safe and effective medications for the treatment of viral diseases. Currently there are more than 20 HIV drugs approved for use in humans. Combined chemotherapy has been found useful for a number of viral infections comprising drugs with different mechanism of action. HIV treatment guidelines recommend the use of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NsRTIs plus a third antiretroviral drug for treatment-naive patients with AIDS that include non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs; eg, efavirenz, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (eg, darunavir, atazanavir, and integrase inhibitors (eg, raltegravir, dolutegravir. However emergence of drug resistant HIV variants and their dissemination impede proper treatment of AIDS. Preferred regimens as first-line treatment in patients with suboptimum adherence comprise drugs with improved potency, safety and infrequent selection for resistance-associated mutations. The present review stands for an update on facts and phenomena of present, past, and future use of antiretrovirals based upon the available documents in SCI and non-SCI journals.

  7. Quality of Life of HIV-Infected Persons in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Belak Kovačević, Sanja; Vurušić, Tomislav; Duvančić, Kristina; Maček, Maja

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine health-related quality of life among Croatian HIV infected individuals, and to assess the impact of socio-demographic and disease-related variables on health-related quality of life. This was a crosssectional study of 111 HIV-infected adults who received care at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb, Croatia. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for HIV brief version (WHOQOL-HIV BREF) was used to asses...

  8. Late diagnosis of HIV infection at two academic medical centers: 1994–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Jacques, M.; Walensky, R.P.; Aaronson, W.H.; Chang, Y.; Freedberg, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increased attention to the role of earlier HIV testing in the United States. Our objective was to determine if this has translated into changes in the proportion of inpatients with advanced disease at the time of initial HIV diagnosis. We identified inpatients discharged with a new diagnosis of HIV infection or AIDS between 1994 and 2004 at two academic medical centers. We examined trends in initial CD4 count at diagnosis over three time periods: 1994–1996...

  9. Anal cytological abnormalities and anal HPV infection in men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Palefsky, J. M.; Holly, E. A.; Ralston, M L; Arthur, S.P.; Hogeboom, C J; Darragh, T M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise risk factors for abnormal and cytology and anal human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in homosexual/bisexual men with advanced HIV related immunosuppression. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease. SETTING: The University of California San Francisco, AIDS Clinic. PATIENTS: 129 homosexual or bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered detailing tobacco, alcohol and recreational ...

  10. HIV and Bone Disease: A Perspective of the Role of microRNAs in Bone Biology upon HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Del Carpio-Cano, Fabiola E.; DeLa Cadena, Raul A.; Sawaya, Bassel E.

    2013-01-01

    Increased life expectancy and the need for long-term antiretroviral therapy have brought new challenges to the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures is increased in HIV-infected patients; thus optimal strategies for risk management and treatment in this group of patients need to be defined. Prevention of bone loss is an important component of HIV care as the HIV population grows older. Understanding the mechanisms by which HIV infection...

  11. Impaired production of cytokines is an independent predictor of mortality in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Gerstoft, Jan; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2003-01-01

    With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients.......With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients....

  12. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Humanized Mice Infected with HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Calderon, Veronica E.; Huante, Matthew B.; Sutjita, Putri; Vijayakumar, Sudhamathi; Lancaster, Katrina L.; Hunter, Robert L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Aronson, Judith; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Lisinicchia, Joshua G.; Valbuena, Gustavo; Endsley, Janice J.

    2016-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV increases the morbidity and mortality associated with tuberculosis due to multiple factors including a poorly understood microbial synergy. We developed a novel small animal model of co-infection in the humanized mouse to investigate how HIV infection disrupts pulmonary containment of Mtb. Following dual infection, HIV-infected cells were localized to sites of Mtb-driven inflammation and mycobacterial replication in the lung. Consistent with disease in human subjects, we observed increased mycobacterial burden, loss of granuloma structure, and increased progression of TB disease, due to HIV co-infection. Importantly, we observed an HIV-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine signature (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8), neutrophil accumulation, and greater lung pathology in the Mtb-co-infected lung. These results suggest that in the early stages of acute co-infection in the humanized mouse, infection with HIV exacerbates the pro-inflammatory response to pulmonary Mtb, leading to poorly formed granulomas, more severe lung pathology, and increased mycobacterial burden and dissemination. PMID:26908312

  13. Enteric parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts in Toto, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts. Parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals can reduce their quality of life and life span, especially those who are severely immunosuppressed with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count 0.05). Conclusions: Low CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients can lead to enteric infections. This information strengthens the importance of monitoring CD4 counts and intestinal parasites. Routine CD4 testing will greatly improve the prognosis of HIV positive patients. (author)

  14. Occult hepatitis B virus infection: A major concern in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, Amitis; Banifazl, Mohammad; Mohraz, Minoo; Rasoolinejad, Mehrnaz; Aghakhani, Arezoo

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected patients are at risk of acquiring viral hepatitis, due to common routes of transmission. As the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduced the frequency of opportunistic infections and improved survival, viral hepatitis emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected cases. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by presence of HBV infection without detectable hepatitis B surface ...

  15. Utility of Pooled HIV RNA RT-PCR Assay in Diagnosing Acute HIV Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张麒; 蒋岩; 刘全忠

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The P24 antigen test, HIV RNA PCR test,HIV isolation/culture and fourth-generation HIV uniform Ag/Ab assay are being utilized in diagnosing acute HIV infection in different labs. Many factors limit the use of screening for acute HIV in high-risk populations, in blood donors and during voluntary HIV testing, including, cost, technique, sensitivity and specificity. In this review we explore a new NAAT method which involves HIV RNA RT-PCR on pooled samples. This technique is able to screen for acute infections in a large testing volume and may he used as a screening method in high-risk populations and blood donors.

  16. The Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Saffar, Hana

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that the number of HIV infected children globally has increased from 1.6 million in 2001 to 3.3 million in 2012. The number of children below 15 years of age living with HIV has increased worldwide. Published data from recent studies confirmed dramatic survival benefit for infants started anti-retroviral therapy (ART) as early as possible after diagnosis of HI. Early confirmation of HIV diagnosis is required in order to identify infants who need immediate ART. WHO has designed recommendations to improve programs for both early diagnoses of HIV infection and considering ART whenever indicated? It is strongly recommended that HIV virologocal assays for diagnosis of HIV have sensitivity of at least 95% and ideally greater than 98% and specificity of 98% or more under standardized and validated conditions. Timing of virological testing is also important. Infants infected at or around delivery may take short time to have detectable virus. Therefore, sensitivity of virological tests is lower at birth. In utero HIV infection, HIV DNA or RNA can be detected within 48 h of birth and in infants with peripartum acquisition it needs one to two weeks. Finally it is emphasized that all laboratories performing HIV tests should follow available services provided by WHO or CDC for quality assurance programs. Both clinicians and staffs providing laboratory services need regular communications, well-defined SOPs and nationally validated algorithms for optimal use of laboratory tests. Every country should use assays that have been validated by national reference laboratory. PMID:27499768

  17. HIV infection of choroid plexus in AIDS and asymptomatic HIV-infected patients suggests that the choroid plexus may be a reservoir of productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petito, C K; Chen, H; Mastri, A R; Torres-Munoz, J; Roberts, B; Wood, C

    1999-12-01

    The choroid plexus (CPx) may be an important site of viral dissemination since monocytes and dendritic cells in its stroma are infected with HIV in AIDS patients and since the ratio of CPx to brain infection is more than 2 : 1. In order to see if CPx infection also develops in asymptomatic (ASY) HIV-infected patients, we examined archival formalin-fixed brain and CPx from 14 AIDS and seven ASY cases, using routine histology, immunohistochemistry for HIV gp41, and DNA extraction and gene amplification for HIV DNA. Eight of 14 AIDS (57%) had HIV-positive cells in the CPx and four (29%) had HIV encephalitis. Two of seven ASY cases (29%) had HIV-positive cells in the CPx but none had HIV encephalitis. Extracted DNA from brain, CPx and systemic organs of five ASY cases was amplified by nested PCR with or without Southern blotting for HIV env gene. It was positive in systemic organs in five cases; in CPx in four cases; and in brain in one case. This study shows that the CPx is a site of HIV infection in ASY patients and that the frequency of CPx infection is higher than seen in brain in both AIDS and ASY cases. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the CPx may be a site for hematogeneous spread and a reservoir for HIV infection during the period of clinical latency. PMID:10602407

  18. [HIV infection, gonorrhea and syphilis from Thailand to Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aavitsland, P; Nilsen, O

    1999-10-30

    Thailand, a popular tourist destination for Norwegians, is experiencing an increasing epidemic of HIV infection. We used the Norwegian surveillance system for communicable diseases to assess the connections between the Norwegian and Thai epidemics. Before 1999, 1,869 cases of HIV-infection had been reported in Norway. From 1993 to 1998, 1,334 cases of gonorrhoea and 62 cases of syphilis were reported. We studied cases with a Thai patient or source partner and cases acquired in Thailand. 56 (3%) of HIV-infection cases, 64 (5%) of gonorrhoea cases and two (3%) of syphilis cases were connected to Thailand. All the Norwegians who acquired HIV in Thailand were males, with a median age of 39. Eight of them were diagnosed in 1998 as compared to 16 during the previous ten-year period. 21 Thai women and seven males were diagnosed with HIV infection in Norway, eight in 1998 and 20 in the previous ten-year period. The Norwegian HIV epidemic is influenced by the Thai epidemic. Norwegian men are infected in Thailand during holidays. Thai women come with their Norwegian partner to Norway and later discover their HIV status. We recommend raising the awareness of the Thai epidemic among Norwegian tourists. Immigrants to Norway from highly endemic countries should be offered HIV counselling and testing. PMID:10592752

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phimpha Paboriboune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. METHODOLOGY: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3. Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%. Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively, were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively. The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent

  20. HIV Infection and TLR Signalling in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Crane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, liver disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-infected individuals, specifically, in the presence of viral hepatitis coinfection. HIV, a single stranded RNA virus, can bind to and activate both Toll-like receptor (TLR7 and TLR8 in circulating blood mononuclear cells, but little is known about the effect of HIV on TLRs expressed in the liver. HIV can directly infect cells of the liver and HIV-mediated depletion of CD4+ T-cells in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract results in increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS, both of which may impact on TLR signaling in the liver and subsequent liver disease progression. The potential direct and indirect effects of HIV on TLR signaling in the liver will be explored in this paper.

  1. The pattern of mucocutaneous disorders in HIVinfected children attending care and treatment centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massawe Augustine W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is associated with a wide range of mucocutaneous disorders some of which are useful in the clinical staging and prognosis of the syndrome. There is paucity of information regarding the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending paediatric Care and Treatment Centres (CTC in Dar es Salaam. Objective To determine the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Methods This was a cross sectional descriptive study involving public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Clinical information was obtained using a questionnaire. Dermatological examination was carried out in daylight. Investigations were taken as appropriate. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program version 10.0. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were utilized. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Three hundred and forty seven HIV infected children (52% males attending CTCs were recruited into the study. Mucocutaneous disorders were encountered in 85% of them. There was no gender difference in the prevalence of the infective mucocutaneous disorders but males had a higher prevalence of non-infective/inflammatory dermatoses (58% than females (42% (p = 0.02. Overall, mucocutaneous disorders (infective + non infective were more prevalent in advanced stages of HIV disease. Children with advanced HIV disease had a significantly increased frequency of fungal and viral infections (43% and 25% respectively than those with less advanced disease; 24% and 13% respectively (p = 0.01. Seventy four percent of the HIV-infected children with mucocutaneous disorders were already on ART. Conclusion Mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending Care and Treatment Centres are common and highly variable

  2. 9G4 autoreactivity is increased in HIV-infected patients and correlates with HIV broadly neutralizing serum activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Kobie

    Full Text Available The induction of a broadly neutralizing antibody (BNAb response against HIV-1 would be a desirable feature of a protective vaccine. Vaccine strategies thus far have failed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses; however a minority of HIV-infected patients do develop circulating BNAbs, from which several potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been isolated. The findings that several BNmAbs exhibit autoreactivity and that autoreactive serum antibodies are observed in some HIV patients have advanced the possibility that enforcement of self-tolerance may contribute to the rarity of BNAbs. To examine the possible breakdown of tolerance in HIV patients, we utilized the 9G4 anti-idiotype antibody system, enabling resolution of both autoreactive VH4-34 gene-expressing B cells and serum antibodies. Compared with healthy controls, HIV patients had significantly elevated 9G4+ serum IgG antibody concentrations and frequencies of 9G4+ B cells, a finding characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, both of which positively correlated with HIV viral load. Compared to the global 9G4-IgD--memory B cell population, the 9G4+IgD--memory fraction in HIV patients was dominated by isotype switched IgG+ B cells, but had a more prominent bias toward "IgM only" memory. HIV envelope reactivity was observed both in the 9G4+ serum antibody and 9G4+ B cell population. 9G4+ IgG serum antibody levels positively correlated (r = 0.403, p = 0.0019 with the serum HIV BNAbs. Interestingly, other serum autoantibodies commonly found in SLE (anti-dsDNA, ANA, anti-CL did not correlate with serum HIV BNAbs. 9G4-associated autoreactivity is preferentially expanded in chronic HIV infection as compared to other SLE autoreactivities. Therefore, the 9G4 system provides an effective tool to examine autoreactivity in HIV patients. Our results suggest that the development of HIV BNAbs is not merely a consequence of a general breakdown in

  3. Psychological characteristics of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Muryvanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: the study of individual psychological characteristics of HIV-infected people. Materials and methods: we used the hospital anxiety scale and depression HADS, depression scale Beck and Zung. The results of the study: According to the scale HADS subclinical forms of anxiety are more common in women (31,5±2,65% than men (12,5±1,48 %, and, at the age of 20-29 years. Clinically evident anxiety occurs more often in women (19±1,34% than men (14,5±2,1 % in the age – men – 20–29 years, while for women 20–24. Subclinical (18±1,34% and clinical (9±0,68% forms of depression have also been noted in the female population in the age 3,8±0,32% of men and 14,1±1,21% in women. On a scale of Beck expressed signs of depression found in 34,8±2,4% of men aged 25–29 years and 43±2,83% of women aged 20–24. Conclusion: 1. Our studies showed the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a significant number of the surveyed HIVinfected. 2. In the analysis of different age and sex groups of HIVinfected patients, found that anxiety and depression more likely in women in the age group 20-29 years. 3. The obtained results can be used to develop methods of prevention of mental disorders. 

  4. Novel Nanotechnology Strategies for the Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian Jun; Sun, Xiao Hui; Ma, Xue Ting; Guan, Jian Qing; Wang, Cun Xin

    2013-09-01

    It is a hard work to develop an hightly effective cure and prevention of HIV/AIDS. The widespread used of some therapy approaches such as highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) has improved life quality and span of infected individuals. However, some limitations of these approaches prevent them achieving further advancement. Recent research on drug delivery approaches indicates that engineered nanosystems may bring positive effect on the improvement of current antiretroviral therapy. Furthermore, the basic researches of nanotechnology- based systems which prevent HIV transmission have been started. Therefore, nanotechnology may become a potential approach in the field of HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention. This chapter reviews the latest advancement in the field of nanotechnology-based systems which improve the fields of HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention.

  5. Factors associated with presentation to care with advanced HIV disease in Brussels and Northern France: 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choisy Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to determine the frequency and determinants of presentation to care with advanced HIV disease in patients who discover their HIV diagnosis at this stage as well as those with delayed presentation to care after HIV diagnosis in earlier stages. Methods We collected data on 1,819 HIV-infected patients in Brussels (Belgium and Northern France from January 1997 to December 2007. "Advanced HIV disease" was defined as CD4 count 3 or clinically-defined AIDS at study inclusion and was stratified into two groups: (a late testing, defined as presentation to care with advanced HIV disease and HIV diagnosis ≤6 months before initiation of HIV care; and (b delayed presentation to care, defined as presentation to care with advanced HIV disease and HIV diagnosis >6 months before initiation of HIV care. We used multinomial logistic regression to determine the factors associated with delayed presentation to care and late testing. Results Of the 570 patients initiating care with advanced HIV disease, 475 (83.3% were tested late and 95 (16.7% had delayed presentation to care. Risk factors for delayed presentation to care were: age 30-50 years, injection drug use, and follow-up in Brussels. Risk factors for late testing were: sub-Saharan African origin, male gender, and older age. HIV transmission through heterosexual contact was associated with an increased risk of both delayed presentation to care and late testing. Patients who initiated HIV care in 2003-2007 were less likely to have been tested late or to have a delayed presentation to care than patients who initiated care before 2003. Conclusion A considerable proportion of HIV-infected patients present to care with advanced HIV disease. Late testing, rather than a delay in initiating care after earlier HIV testing, is the main determinant of presentation to care with advanced HIV disease. The factors associated with delay presentation to care differ from those associated

  6. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  7. Women and HIV infection: the makings of a midlife crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Nanette; Fan, Maria; Maslow, BatSheva; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2009-11-20

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral agents, women with HIV infection can expect to live longer than ever before. This increased survival has led to concerns about the long-term implications of HIV disease and its treatment. Women with HIV infection appear to lose ovarian function earlier in life than women without HIV infection. They also have evidence of reduced bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, many of these increases in risk factors are present even prior to the menopausal transition. All of these risks, present at midlife, augur poorly for future health and describe a substantially increased burden of disease likely to accrue to HIV-infected women as they enter older age groups. Further compounding the adversity faced by the HIV infected, the demographics of women most vulnerable to this disease include adverse social and economic influences, both of which worsen their long-term prognosis. For example, drug use and poverty are related to more severe menopausal symptoms and chronic stress is related to worse psychological and cardiovascular risk. An understanding of how menopause interacts with HIV infection is therefore most important to alert the clinician to perform surveillance for common health problems in postmenopausal women, and to address directly and appropriately symptomatology during the menopausal transition. PMID:19783389

  8. Male circumcision, HIV and sexually transmitted infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larke, Natasha

    Three randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. In this paper, we review the evidence that male circumcision protects against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and their female partners. Data from the clinical trials indicate that circumcision may be protective against genital ulcer disease, Herpes simplex type 2, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus infection in men. No evidence exists of a protective effect against Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea. There is weak evidence that circumcision has a direct protective effect on HIV infection in women, although there is likely to be an indirect benefit, since HIV prevalence is likely to be lower in circumcised male partners. Although there is little evidence from the trials of serious adverse events from the procedure and of behavioural risk compensation among circumcised men, essential operational research is being conducted to evaluate these key issues outside the trial setting as circumcision services are expanded. Following the publication of the clinical trial results in early 2007, the World Health Organization/UNAIDS has advised that promotion of male circumcision should be included as an additional HIV strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in areas of high HIV prevalence. As circumcision services are expanded in settings where resources are limited, non-physician providers including nurses will play an important role in the provision of services. PMID:20622758

  9. Compromiso renal en pacientes HIV+ Renal abnormalities in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marta Pernasetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Varias complicaciones nefrológicas pueden ocurrir durante la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV especialmente en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad o relacionadas con otras infecciones o drogas. Poco conocida es la prevalencia de alteraciones renales subclínicas de pacientes HIV+ surgidas como complicación o relacionadas a la infección y/o tratamiento. Realizamos un corte transversal de pacientes asintomáticos HIV+ referidos en forma consecutiva al consultorio de nefrología para la detección de alteraciones nefrológicas. Se estudiaron 52 pacientes adultos mediante exámenes de sangre y orina, ultrasonido y biopsia renal. Edad media 39.9 ± 10.6 años, 88% varones, tiempo de diagnóstico de la infección: 53.2 ± 41.2 (2-127 meses. El 71% tenían síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (HIV-sida y el 77% recibían con antirretrovirales. La carga viral al momento del estudio fue 7043 ± 3322 copias y el recuento de CD4+ 484 ± 39 cel/mm³. El 30.7% presentó alteraciones del sedimento urinario: albuminuria: 16.6%, hematuria microscópica: 11.5%, hipercalciuria: 10.8% y cristaluria 6%. La media del filtrado glomerular fue 102.2 ± 22.9 ml/min (rango: 34-149. El 41% presentó anormalidades que corresponderían a enfermedad renal crónica (estadios 1 a 3. Los pacientes con alteraciones tenían mayor edad, con duración más prolongada de la infección. Las anomalías renales no se asociaron con mayor prevalencia de HIV-sida. Dos pacientes fueron biopsiados, con hallazgos de nefritis túbulo-intersticial crónica con cristales y glomerulonefritis por IgA. No hubo hallazgos de nefropatía por HIV. El amplio espectro y la alta prevalencia de anormalidades nefrológicas subclínicas encontradas sugieren que los pacientes asintomáticos HIV+ deberían realizar evaluaciones nefrológicas de rutina.Several renal complications may occur during HIV infection, especially in advanced stages related to HIV, to other infectious

  10. The physical and psychological effects of HIV infection and its treatment on perinatally HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C Vreeman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. Methods: We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+ infection and its treatment in the era of HAART, including major chronic comorbidities. Results and discussion: Perinatally infected children face concerning levels of treatment failure and drug resistance, which may hamper their long-term treatment and result in more significant comorbidities. Physical complications from PHIV+ infection and treatment potentially affect all major organ systems. Although treatment with antiretroviral (ARV therapy has reduced incidence of severe neurocognitive diseases like HIV encephalopathy, perinatally infected children may experience less severe neurocognitive complications related to HIV disease and ARV neurotoxicity. Major metabolic complications include dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, complications that are associated with both HIV infection and several ARV agents and may significantly affect cardiovascular disease risk with age. Bone abnormalities, particularly amongst children treated with tenofovir, are a concern for perinatally infected children who may be at higher risk for bone fractures and osteoporosis. In many studies, rates of anaemia are significantly higher for HIV-infected children. Renal failure is a significant complication and cause of death amongst perinatally infected children, while new data on sexual and reproductive health suggest that sexually transmitted infections and birth complications may be additional concerns for perinatally infected children in adolescence. Finally, perinatally infected children may face psychological

  11. Combination effect on HIV infection in vitro of soluble CD4 and HIV-neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Sørensen, A M; Olofsson, S; Osinaga, E; Roseto, A

    In combination with HIV gp120 V3-loop antibody, two carbohydrate specific neutralizing antibodies (83D4 and 2G12) had a synergistic neutralizing effect on HIV infection. However, sCD4 and an antibody which blocks gp 120/CD4 binding (1B1) both displayed antagonism.......In combination with HIV gp120 V3-loop antibody, two carbohydrate specific neutralizing antibodies (83D4 and 2G12) had a synergistic neutralizing effect on HIV infection. However, sCD4 and an antibody which blocks gp 120/CD4 binding (1B1) both displayed antagonism....

  12. Clinical value of determination HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Musatov; Yakovlev, A. A.; S. G. Andreeva; M. V. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To analyze the concentration of HIV RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and to evaluate its significance in the pathology of the central nervous system among HIV infected persons.Materials: We examined 36 patients with HIV infection with signs of pathology of the central nervous system. All patients was done completed a standard investigation of cerebrospinal fluid, cytological examination and detection viral load of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum.Results. A different of opportunist...

  13. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Marcotte, Thomas L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age- and...... education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced...... increases, and in one of these structures-the nucleus accumbens-there appeared to be a larger effect in younger methamphetamine abusers. Neurocognitive impairment was associated with decreased cortical volumes in HIV-positive participants but with increased cortical volumes in methamphetamine...

  14. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Ulrik Bak; Bauer, J; Poulsen, S;

    1999-01-01

    Denmark is an area of low incidence of HIV and tuberculosis (TB). The number of newly reported cases of HIV has been stable during the 1990s, whereas the number of TB cases has doubled in Denmark in the past decade, mainly due to immigration. However, among native Danes the incidence of TB has...... increased in the younger age groups, indicating more newly infected persons. This study was performed in order to assess the impact of the HIV epidemic and immigration on TB incidence among native Danes. The study was also designed to reveal transmission patterns of TB among HIV-positive patients. Data from...... HIV-TB co-infected patients identified in the national registers of TB and AIDS from 1992-95 were collected retrospectively from medical records. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of TB isolates from co-infected patients were compared with all patterns registered in the...

  15. Factors associated with late diagnosis of HIV infection and missed opportunities for earlier testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Alejandra; Verdejo, José; de Miguel, Rosa; Gómez, Ana; Sanz, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Late diagnosis (LD) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a significant problem that increases disease burden both for patients and for the public health system. Guidelines have been updated in order to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis, introducing "indicator condition-guided HIV testing". In this study, we analysed the frequency of LD and associated risk factors. We retrospectively identified those cases that could be considered missed opportunities for an earlier diagnosis. All patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection who attended Hospital La Princesa, Madrid (Spain) between 2007 and 2014 were analysed. We collected epidemiological, clinical and immunological data. We also reviewed electronic medical records from the year before the HIV diagnosis to search for medical consultations due to clinical indicators. HIV infection was diagnosed in 354 patients. The median CD4 count at presentation was 352 cells/mm(3). Overall, 158 patients (50%) met the definition of LD, and 97 (30.7%) the diagnosis of advanced disease. LD was associated with older age and was more frequent amongst immigrants. Heterosexual relations and injection drug use were more likely to be the reasons for LD than relations between men who have sex with men. During the year preceding the diagnosis, 46.6% of the patients had sought medical advice owing to the presence of clinical indicators that should have led to HIV testing. Of those, 24 cases (14.5%) were classified as missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis because testing was not performed. According to these results, all health workers should pursue early HIV diagnosis through the proper implementation of HIV testing guidelines. Such an approach would prove directly beneficial to the patient and indirectly beneficial to the general population through the reduction in the risk of transmission. PMID:27144427

  16. Latent and Active Tuberculosis Infection Increase Immune Activation in Individuals Co-Infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuri A. Sullivan

    2015-04-01

    Significance: Latent tuberculosis, which affects an estimated 1/3 of the world's population, has long been thought to be a relatively benign, quiescent state of M. tuberculosis infection. While HIV co-infection is known to exacerbate M. tuberculosis infection and increase the risk of developing active TB, little is known about the potential effect of latent TB infection on HIV disease. This study shows that HIV-infected individuals with both active and latent TB have elevated levels of inflammation and immune activation, biomarkers of HIV disease progression and elevated risk of mortality. These results suggest that, in the context of HIV, latent TB infection may be associated with increased risk of progression to AIDS and mortality.

  17. HIV infection in India: Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Lakhashe; Madhuri Thakar; Sheela Godbole; Srikanth Tripathy; Ramesh Paranjape

    2008-11-01

    The year 1986 saw first case of HIV infection as well as first report of AIDS case in India. Since then the epidemic has spread throughout the country. In the recent years there is evidence of epidemic being stabilized with decrease in new infections reported from some parts of the country. The absolute number of HIV infections in the country is expected to be close to 2.5 million and National AIDS Control Programme, phase III is geared to contain the epidemic. HIV viruses circulating in India predominantly belong to HIV-1 subtype C. However, there have been occasional reports of HIV-1 subtype A and B. Matter of concern is reports of A/C and B/C mosaic viruses that are being reported from different parts of the country. The data on HIV drug resistance from India is rather limited. Most of the studies have shown that the virus strains from drug naïve patients do not show significant level of drug resistance mutations. The few immunological studies in Indian patients show that the Indian HIV infected patients show both HIV-specific CTL responses as well as neutralizing antibody response. Mapping of CTL epitopes showed that while Indian patients identify same regions of Gag antigen as recognized by South African subtype C infected patients, some regions are uniquely recognized by Indian patients. There are very few studies on host genetic factors in India in context with HIV infection. However there are evidences reported of association of host genetic factors such as HLA types and haplotypes and HIV disease.

  18. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Guthrie

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. METHODS: HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. RESULTS: Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 can superinfect HIV-2-infected cells: pseudotype virions produced with expanded cellular host range.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Guern, M; Levy, J A

    1992-01-01

    In studies on viral interference, cloned T-cell lines chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 or HIV-2 were inoculated with several strains of these two AIDS retrovirus subtypes. HIV-2UC1-infected cells, which still express the CD4 receptor, could be superinfected with a variety of HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains. This event was accompanied by cytopathic effects in the cells and production of pseudotype virions with an expanded cellular host range. HIV-1- or HIV-2-infected...

  20. Drug resistance mutation of HIV-1 in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion

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    Xin-li LU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods  Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results  Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion  The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.

  1. HIV infection is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, A Sinan; Smith, Peter R; Gomez, Victor; Bergman, Michael; Homel, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The reported incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has ranged from 0.25 to 0.96% in clinical studies, but up to 17% at autopsy. A preliminary analysis at our hospital suggested that the frequency of VTE among HIV-positive individuals might be higher than previously reported. To further evaluate this issue, we performed a retrospective study of patients with a diagnosis of VTE and/or HIV infection discharged from our hospital between July 1, 1998 and June 30, 1999. A total of 13,496 patients were discharged during the year of the study. There were 244 patients with VTE and 362 who were HIV-positive. Ten of the 244 patients with VTE were HIV-positive (4.1%). The frequency of VTE among HIV-positive individuals was 10/362 (2.8%) compared to 234/13134 (1.8%) in the non-HIV-positive group, but the difference is not statistically significant. However, in patients under age 50, the frequencies were significantly different: 10/302 (3.31%) versus 35/6594 (0.53%), respectively (p < 0.0001). The frequency of VTE in HIV-positive patients less than 50 years old (3.31%) was greater than in HIV-positive patients over 50 years of age (0/60), but the difference did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, in the non-HIV-positive group, VTE was significantly more frequent in those 50 and older compared to younger patients (3.04% versus 0.53%, p = 0.0001). Statistical analysis indicated that the direction of association between age and diagnosis of VTE differed for HIV-positive patients versus non-HIV-positive patients. Our results suggest that HIV-positive patients under age 50 are at increased risk for VTE compared with non-HIV-positive individuals. PMID:12055028

  2. The role of enacted stigma in parental HIV disclosure among HIV-infected parents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies have delineated that HIV-infected parents face numerous challenges in disclosing their HIV infection to the children ("parental HIV disclosure"), and practices of parental HIV disclosure vary with individual characteristics, family contexts, and social environment. Using cross-sectional data from 1254 HIV-infected parents who had children aged 5-16 years in southwest China, the current study examined the association of parental HIV disclosure with mental health and medication adherence among parents and explored the possible effect of enacted stigma on such association. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents who had experienced disclosure to children reported higher level enacted stigma, worse mental health conditions, and poorer medication adherence. Enacted stigma partially mediated the associations between disclosure and both mental health and medication adherence after controlling basic background characteristics. Our findings highlight the importance of providing appropriate disclosure-related training and counseling service among HIV-infected parents. In a social setting where HIV-related stigma is still persistent, disclosure intervention should address and reduce stigma and discrimination in the practice of parental HIV disclosure. PMID:26616123

  3. Global human genetics of HIV-1 infection and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuo Fu ZHU; Tie Jian FENG; Xin XIAO; Hui WANG; Bo Ping ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in human genes can influence the risk for HIV-1 infection and disease progression, although the reported effects of these alleles have been inconsistent. This review highlights the recent discoveries on global and Chinese genetic polymorphisms and their association with HIV-1 transmission and disease progression.

  4. Confidentiality and Public Policy Regarding Children with HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between law and policy, examining significant gains in establishing legal precedents for protecting the educational rights of children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in confronting HIV-related discrimination. The article looks at legal principles of confidentiality, disclosure, negligence and potential…

  5. SOCIO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HIV INFECTED VICTIMS OF VINDHYA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Hamendra Kumar Verma; Devendra N. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    In the research report we have studied the relationships between socio-economic factors and HIV prevalence in Rewa and Mauganj of Rewa district of Vindhya region of Madhya Pradesh using district level data and also analyzed the drivers of the epidemic and found out what socio-economic and other factors make people susceptible to HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection.

  6. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia; Butterworth, Anthony E; van Dam, Govert J; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Stunted development and reduced fecundity of Schistosoma parasites in immunodeficient mice and the impaired ability of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans to excrete schistosome eggs have been described. This study explores the effect that HIV-1-associated immunodeficiency has ...

  7. HIV-1 RNA quantification in CRF02_AG HIV-1 infection: too easy to make mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarelli, Paola; Taramasso, Lucia; Di Biagio, Antonio; Sticchi, Laura; Nigro, Nicola; Barresi, Renata; Viscoli, Claudio; Bruzzone, Bianca

    2016-04-01

    The number of patients newly infected by HIV-1 non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) is increasing worldwide, including in the western countries. We report on a primary HIV-1 infection in a Caucasian patient. A routine quantitative assay (Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 2.0, BioMérieux SA) showed 6,700 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. A combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) consistent with low baseline HIV-1 RNA was started. Few days later, the analysis performed with REGA HIV-1 Subtyping Tool - Version 3.0 attributed the HIV-1 sequence to the CRF02_AG recombinant form. Therefore, a second real-time PCR assay was performed, using the Versant HIV-1 RNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR) (Siemens HealthCare Diagnostics) which revealed a HIV-1 RNA of 230,000 copies/ml. Consequently, the ongoing cART was potentiated. This case suggests that the wide genetic variability of HIV-1 subtypes may affect the capability of the commonly used assays to detect and accurately quantify HIV-1 RNA in non-B subtypes and CRFs. In presence of CRFs different commercial HIV-1 RNA tests should be performed to find the most reliable for viral load quantification at the diagnosis, because it influences the choice of cART, and during the follow-up. Indeed, international guidelines for HIV-1 infection management suggest to monitor patient' HIV-RNA with the same assay over the course of treatment. As different commercial tests can be performed in the same laboratory with considerable difficulty, the laboratory should select an assay that is suitable not only for the more prevalent strain, but also for less frequent ones that, nevertheless, can occur. Then, knowing and investigating the spread of non-B strains has essential clinical and laboratory implications. PMID:27196556

  8. T-lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk HIV-uninfected adolescents - Retention of naive T lymphocytes in HIV-infected adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, SD; Rudy, B; Muenz, L; Starr, SE; Campbell, DE; Wilson, C; Holland, C; Crowley-Nowick, P; Vermund, SH

    2000-01-01

    Background: The capacity of the immune system of adolescents to generate and repopulate naive and memory cell populations under conditions of normal homeostasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown. Objective: To assess lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk

  9. Risk Factors for Anal HPV Infection and Anal Precancer in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Fetterman, Barbara; Tokugawa, Diane; Lorey, Thomas S.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Luhn, Patricia; Gage, Julia C.; Darragh, Teresa M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a large proportion of anal cancers. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HPV infection and anal cancer compared with HIV-negative men. We evaluated risk factors for HPV infection and anal precancer in a population of HIV-infected MSM.

  10. Interleukin-27 is differentially associated with HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell counts in therapy-naive HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai He

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27, a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well characterized. In this study, 155 antiretroviral therapy-naïve Chinese were recruited. Among them 80 were HIV- and HCV-negative healthy controls, 45 were HIV-mono-infected and 30 were HIV/HCV-co-infected. Plasma level HIV, HCV, IL-27 and CD4+ number were counted and their correlation, regression relationships were explored. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 differs in treatment-naïve groups with HIV mono-infections and HIV/HCV co-infections, thereby providing critical information to be considered when caring and treating those with HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.

  11. Is metabolic syndrome associated to HIV infection per se? Results from the HERMES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Paolo; De Socio, Giuseppe L V; Marconi, Patrizia; Franzetti, Marzia; Martinelli, Canio; Vichi, Francesca; Penco, Giovanni; Madeddu, Giordano; Orofino, Giancarlo; Valsecchi, Laura; Vitiello, Paola; Menzaghi, Barbara; Magni, Carlo; Ricci, Elena

    2010-03-01

    HERMES is a prospective study, including all treatment-naïve patients attending scheduled visits at hospitals in the CISAI group in 2007. The present cross-sectional analysis aims to assess the baseline prevalence and characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in a population of HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients. MS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) definitions. A total of 292 subjects were enrolled, median age was 37 years, 75% of them were males. The prevalence of MS was 12.3%. The most frequent trio of abnormalities that led to the diagnosis of MS was high blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL. Univariate analysis showed that MS was associated with the following variables: age, education, physical activity, advanced HIV disease (CDC stage C or HIV-RNA >100,000 copies + CD4 <100 cells/mm(3)). Higher educational levels remained protectively associated with MS in multivariate analysis. A higher risk of MS was also associated with advanced HIV disease. Actually, treatment-naïve HIV-positive patients in an advanced stage of the disease have a higher prevalence of abnormal levels of triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and blood glucose than those at a less advanced stage. These findings of the HERMES study suggest, therefore, that HIV infection per se is associated to MS. PMID:20163341

  12. Postpartum Sterilization Choices Made by HIV-Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen S. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994 compared to before implementation.

  13. [HIV infection and parenteral virus hepatitis in the Krasnodar territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, F I; Lebedev, V V; Red'ko, A N

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of the morbidity dynamics of HIV infection, hepatitis B and C in the Krasnodar territory for 1996-2003 is presented. The tendency of strengthening direct correlation between age-dependent rates in these groups of diseases has been established. The correlation coefficient (rxy) is at present +0.851 (HIV infection-virus hepatitis B) and +0.892 (HIV infection-virus hepatitis C). The highest levels of primary morbidity are registered in persons aged 20-39 years. The established epidemiological parallels between HIV infection and parenteral hepatitis require the development of the unified strategy of the prophylaxis of these diseases on the federal and regional levels. PMID:16028521

  14. The challenges of success: adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne M Mofenson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations, limitations in pharmacokinetic and safety data of drugs in children, and the development of extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care must now focus on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high resource countries provides important lessons about how the epidemic will change with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children in low resource countries. This series of papers will focus on issues related to management of perinatally infected youth and young adults.

  15. The diagnosis of HIV-associated central nervous system opportunistic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONG Qi-ming

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS are very common and severe complications of advanced immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection, which are included in the diagnostic criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining conditions according to 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS among Adolescents and Adults published by USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. The etiologic microorganisms of CNS opportunistic infections include virus, bacteria, fungus, mycobacterium and parasite. The clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory examinations of these diseases are different from that of patients with non-immunodeficiency. Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, worsening conditions or new infections may occur. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of such disorders are critical. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS in HIV-1 infected patients in the initiating antiretroviral therapy results from restored immunity to specific infectious or non-infectious antigens. This study reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis of some common CNS disorders in HIV-1 infected patients. Physicians caring for such patients must be aware of the new diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options of these diseases.

  16. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015. Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are being destroyed. In fact, being HIV-infected is an example of an acute event (V.V. Pokrovsky, 1993. The ability to overcome the life crisis and effectiveness of using adaptation and compensatory mechanisms to fight the disease depend on the level of adaptation to the fact of being infected and resistance to stress. The aim of the current study was to determine social and psychological features of HIV-infected individuals and assess their influence on the stress resistance and adaptation abilities of HIV+ patients. We observed men and women aged 21-30 who had been HIV+ for 1-5 years. Investigation methods included the following diagnostic tools: The Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form C, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (conducted by Spielberger, adapted for use in Russia by Hanin, The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (The Holmes-Rahe Stress Inventory, The Social and Psychological Adaptation Questionnaire (by C. Rogers and R. Diamond, methods of mathematical statistics. As a result of the study, we have developed comparative factor profiles of individual psychological features of HIV-infected individuals that show their dependence on the social environment and form certain behavioral patterns. We have revealed significant difference in state and trait anxiety between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals. Self-blame, inadequate self-esteem and level of aspiration indicate low cognitive assessment of the condition by the patients

  17. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  18. The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS infection is a nearly universal feature of untreated systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment. Results After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91 CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral therapy and correlated abundances of identified proteins a within and between subjects, b with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and c with "external" CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA, immune activation (neopterin and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL. We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's ≤ -0.3 and ≥0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting

  19. The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Spudich, Serena S.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Liegler, Teri; Zetterberg, Henrik; Camp, David G.; Price, Richard W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-03-20

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a constant feature of systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment. After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT) tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91 CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral and correlated abundances of identified proteins (a) within and between subjects, (b) with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and (c) with 'external' CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA), immune activation (neopterin) and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL). We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD) peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's) {le}0.3 and {ge}0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations) and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting the identified proteins, including one with

  20. Acute pancreatitis: Manifestation of acute HIV infection in an adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We des...

  1. Analysis of Michigan Medicaid costs to treat HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, D J; Hogan, A. J.; Bouknight, R R; Solomon, C T

    1989-01-01

    To obtain better understanding of the nature and cost of health care related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, medical payment records were analyzed for 204 men, women, and children older than 60 months who had indications of HIV infection. The records were those of Michigan Medicaid, the General Assistance Medical Program, and the Resident County Hospitalization Program, with service dates on or after January 1, 1984, and which were processed by November 30, 1987. Patient paym...

  2. The vulnerability of Brazilian female prisoners to HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strazza L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and syphilis and the odds ratio (OR was calculated for variables related to HIV positivity on the basis of a questionnaire. The overall prevalence data were: 13.9% for HIV (37 of 267, 22.8% for syphilis (66 of 290, and 16.2% for HCV (47 of 290. Sexual partnership variables were significantly related to HIV infection. These included HIV-positive partners (OR = 7.36, P = 0.0001, casual partners (OR = 8.96, P = 0.009, injectable drug user partners (OR = 4.7, P = 0.0001, and history of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 2.07, P = 0.05. In addition, a relationship was detected between HIV infection and drug use (OR = 2.48, P = 0.04 and injectable drug use (OR = 4.2, P = 0.002. Even women with only one partner presented a significant OR for HIV infection (OR = 2.57, P = 0.009, reflecting their vulnerability due to their trust in their partner, who did not use a condom. Although the use of injectable substances is associated with HIV infection, our results point to sexual behavior as the most important component of HIV transmission in the female prisoner population.

  3. The Impact of HIV Co-Infection on the Genomic Response to Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huson, Michaëla A M; Scicluna, Brendon P; van Vught, Lonneke A; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Cremer, Olaf L; Bonten, Marc J M; Schultz, Marcus J; Franitza, Marek; Toliat, Mohammad R; Nürnberg, Peter; Grobusch, Martin P; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    HIV patients have an increased risk to develop sepsis and HIV infection affects several components of the immune system involved in sepsis pathogenesis. We hypothesized that HIV infection might aggrevate the aberrant immune response during sepsis, so we aimed to determine the impact of HIV infection

  4. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  5. Alternative HIV testing methods among populations at high risk for HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Greensides, Dawn R.; Berkelman, Ruth; Lansky, Amy; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of awareness and use of alternative HIV tests (home collection kit, oral mucosal transudate collection kit, and rapid tests) among people at high risk for HIV infection. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an anonymous, cross-sectional interview study--the HIV Testing Survey (HITS)--conducted in seven states from September 2000 to February 2001. Three high-risk populations were recruited: men who have sex with men, injection...

  6. True story about HIV: theory of viral sequestration and reserve infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barasa S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simon Situma BarasaKenya Polytechnic University College, Nairobi, KenyaAbstract: Radical cure of infectious disease lies in the principle that the contagion is eliminated and its propagation within the body is stopped. By understanding the true mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, effective cure is possible. Vertical research in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has produced much advanced data about its nature without discovering a true cure, implying that the infective concept may have been missed. Overall, current interventions have had a significant impact on the pandemic, but they definitely have not achieved a cure. Given that modern research has already provided almost all significant data on HIV/AIDS, this inevitably means that understanding of the HIV and AIDS mechanism in the human body and population is less than sufficient. This paper advances a new concept using the available scientific data in an attempt to open a new frontier in HIV research.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, viral sequestration

  7. Cerebrovascular disease in children with HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Charles K; Eley, Brian; Wieselthaler, Nicky; Ndondo, Alvin; Wilmshurst, Jo M

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 3.2 million children worldwide have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in prolonged survival, leading to an increase in complications previously recognized in adults. Children with HIV infection have increased risk of cerebrovascular disease from multiple aetiologies including HIV-associated vasculopathy, opportunistic vasculitis, cardioembolism or coagulopathy, all of which may be secondary to the infection. Prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected children is underestimated because of limited neuroimaging in low and middle income countries, silent events without overt motor manifestations, and mislabeling as HIV encephalopathy for non-motor manifestations such as behavioural and cognitive difficulties. No management guidelines for cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected children exist but common practices target risk factors for stroke in low and middle income countries. Where capacity permits, screening for opportunistic infections, vasculitis, coagulopathy and cardioembolism is important. Optimising virological suppression, correction of anaemia, control of seizures and aspirin prophylaxis are management priorities. Neurosurgical interventions may have a role. PMID:26890389

  8. [Secrecy in children with HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, M; Lefebvre Des Noëttes, A; Taboulet, P; Lemerle, S

    1999-10-01

    The secrecy surrounding the disease of parents and children infected with HIV leads to psychic and affective isolation and difficulties of communication within the family. Psychological management may possibly help to resolve the problem of secrecy between parents and children. We analyzed the organization and dynamics of the secret surrounding children contaminated by their mothers. The analysis was prospective and was based on semi-directive interviews and drawings. We followed up, over a period of two years, ten children (mean age: 4 years, range: 4 months to 12 years) with different ethnic and socio economic backgrounds. In each family, the child was the target of the secret, the pediatrician the guardian, and the mother (or her substitute) the keeper. The organization of the secret around the other potential guardians varied from one family to another. Two modes of intra-family communication were observed: the secret (reserved for the youngest children) and the tacit. One child suffered from a disorder related to the secret, the others had depressive and reactional symptoms. At the end of the study, the manner of approaching, and especially dealing with, the question of the secret had changed appreciably in each family: disclosure to the family circle (three cases), passage of the child from the secret to the tacit (two cases), and easier questioning of the pediatrician in all of the cases. Nonetheless, in no case had the secret been completely lifted for the child. Four children asked to continue psychological management. The changes in the dynamics of the secret and the appeasement observed in the families suggest that psychotherapeutic aid should be offered to families where a child has been contaminated with HIV by the mother. PMID:10544788

  9. Incidence and Risk Factors for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-infected and non-HIV infected Individuals Before and After the Introduction of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Larsen, Mette Vang; Ladelund, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is an important cause of morbidity among HIV-infected individuals. We described incidence and risk factors for IPD in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. METHODS:  Nationwide population-based cohort study of HIV-infected adults treated at all...

  10. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Safarcherati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond

  11. Laboratory markers associated with progression of HIV infection

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    Gupta V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with HIV may develop to AIDS at different rates in different individuals, with a spectrum varying from rapid progression to long term non-progression. The variable course of HIV-1 infection causes emotional trauma for the infected person and complicates the design and interpretation of therapeutic trials because of unrecognized differences in prognosis. Thus it is essential to have tests which can accurately assess the stage of infection in an individual, as well as predict its course and monitor its progression. These laboratory tests are very valuable during the period of clinical latency and subsequently supplement various clinical parameters.

  12. Recent advances in RNAi-based strategies for therapy and prevention of HIV-1/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Manjunath N; Wu, Haoquan; Shankar, Premlata

    2016-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) provides a powerful tool to silence specific gene expression and has been widely used to suppress host factors such as CCR5 and/or viral genes involved in HIV-1 replication. Newer nuclease-based gene-editing technologies, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, also provide powerful tools to ablate specific genes. Because of differences in co-receptor usage and the high mutability of the HIV-1 genome, a combination of host factors and viral genes needs to be suppressed for effective prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. Whereas the continued presence of small interfering/short hairpin RNA (si/shRNA) mediators is needed for RNAi to be effective, the continued expression of nucleases in the gene-editing systems is undesirable. Thus, RNAi provides the only practical way for expression of multiple silencers in infected and uninfected cells, which is needed for effective prevention/treatment of infection. There have been several advances in the RNAi field in terms of si/shRNA design, targeted delivery to HIV-1 susceptible cells, and testing for efficacy in preclinical humanized mouse models. Here, we comprehensively review the latest advances in RNAi technology towards prevention and treatment of HIV-1. PMID:27013255

  13. Clinical epidemiology of bocavirus, rhinovirus, two polyomaviruses and four coronaviruses in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C Nunes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in molecular diagnostics have implicated newly-discovered respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human bocavirus (hBoV, human rhinovirus (hRV, polyomavirus-WU (WUPyV and -KI (KIPyV and human coronaviruses (CoV-OC43, -NL63, -HKU1 and -229E among children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI. METHODS: Multiplex real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was undertaken on archived nasopharyngeal aspirates from HIV-infected and -uninfected children (<2 years age hospitalized for LRTI, who had been previously investigated for respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza I-III, adenovirus and influenza A/B. RESULTS: At least one of these viruses were identified in 274 (53.0% of 517 and in 509 (54.0% of 943 LRTI-episodes in HIV-infected and -uninfected children, respectively. Human rhinovirus was the most prevalent in HIV-infected (31.7% and -uninfected children (32.0%, followed by CoV-OC43 (12.2% and hBoV (9.5% in HIV-infected; and by hBoV (13.3% and WUPyV (11.9% in HIV-uninfected children. Polyomavirus-KI (8.9% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.002 and CoV-OC43 (12.2% vs. 3.6%; p<0.001 were more prevalent in HIV-infected than -uninfected children. Combined with previously-tested viruses, respiratory viruses were identified in 60.9% of HIV-infected and 78.3% of HIV-uninfected children. The newly tested viruses were detected at high frequency in association with other respiratory viruses, including previously-investigated viruses (22.8% in HIV-infected and 28.5% in HIV-uninfected children. CONCLUSIONS: We established that combined with previously-investigated viruses, at least one respiratory virus was identified in the majority of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children hospitalized for LRTI. The high frequency of viral co-infections illustrates the complexities in attributing causality to specific viruses

  14. Case series of syphilis and HIV co-infections

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wahab, Asrul; Rahman, M. M.; Mohammad, Marlyn; Hussin, Salasawati

    2013-01-01

    Syphilis and HIV co-infection are indeed dangerous combinations. The present communication describes three different cases of syphilis and HIV co-infection in young men. The first case is a 25-year-old medical graduate with a primary and secondary syphilis lesions at time of presentation. The second case is a 24-year-old government officer with right eye posterior uveitis where the serology tests for syphilis were reactive. His HIV tests were also positive. The final case is a 25-year-old hom...

  15. Is phototherapy safe for HIV-infected individuals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a high prevalence of UV radiation-responsive skin diseases including psoriasis, pruitus, eosinophillic folliculitis and eczemas. On the other hand, UV has been shown to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses and to induce activation and replication of HIV. These developments have prompted clinicians and investigators to question whether phototherapy is safe for HIV-infected individuals. We have reviewed these issues and hereby provide a summary and critique of relevant laboratory and clinical evidence. (Author)

  16. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for the management of HIV infection during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen D Zorrilla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Carmen D Zorrilla, Vivian Tamayo-AgraitDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, Maternal Infant Studies Center (CEMI, San Juan, Puerto RicoAbstract: Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of HIV-1 infection using both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Optimal prevention of the MTCT of HIV requires antiretroviral drugs (ARV during pregnancy, during labor, and to the infant. ARVs reduce viral replication, lowering maternal plasma viral load and thus the likelihood of MTCT. Postexposure prophylaxis of ARV agents in newborns protect against infection following potential exposure to maternal HIV during birth. In general, the choice of an ARV for treatment of HIV-infected women during pregnancy is complicated by the need to consider the effectiveness of the therapy for the maternal disease as well as the teratogenic or teratotoxic potential of these drugs. Clinicians managing HIV in pregnancy need to discuss the potential risks and benefits of available therapy options so that mothers can make informed decisions in choosing the best treatment regimen for themselves and for their children.Keywords: HIV, pregnancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, antiretroviral agents

  17. Myocardial infarction among Danish HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the contribution from smoking and potentiating effects of HIV are controversial. METHODS: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study, we...... identified 3251 HIV-infected individuals and 13 004 population controls matched on age and gender. Data on MI were obtained from the National Hospital Registry and the National Registry of Causes of Death. We calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) for risk of MI and population......-attributable fractions (PAF) of MI associated with smoking. RESULTS: In never smokers, HIV was not associated with an increased risk of MI (aIRR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], .41-2.54). In previous and current smokers, HIV was associated with a substantially increased risk of MI (aIRR, 1.78; 95% CI, .75-4.24 and...

  18. HIV virology and pathogenetic mechanisms of infection: a brief overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Fanales-Belasio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on HIV virology and pathogenesis address the complex mechanisms that result in the HIV infection of the cell and destruction of the immune system. These studies are focused on both the structure and the replication characteristics of HIV and on the interaction of the virus with the host. Continuous updating of knowledge on structure, variability and replication of HIV, as well as the characteristics of the host immune response, are essential to refine virological and immunological mechanisms associated with the viral infection and allow us to identify key molecules in the virus life cycle that can be important for the design of new diagnostic assays and specific antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this article we review the characteristics of molecular structure, replication and pathogenesis of HIV, with a particular focus on those aspects that are important for the design of diagnostic assays.

  19. N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Lu, Wuxun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Wu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The internal N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of eukaryotic nuclear RNA controls post-transcriptional gene expression, which is regulated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and m6A-binding proteins (readers) in cells. The YTH domain family proteins (YTHDF1–3) bind to m6A-modified cellular RNAs and affect RNA metabolism and processing. Here, we show that YTHDF1–3 proteins recognize m6A-modified HIV-1 RNA and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell lines and primary CD4+ T-cells. We further mapped the YTHDF1–3 binding sites in HIV-1 RNA from infected cells. We found that the overexpression of YTHDF proteins in cells inhibited HIV-1 infection mainly by decreasing HIV-1 reverse transcription, while knockdown of YTHDF1–3 in cells had the opposite effects. Moreover, silencing the m6A writers decreased HIV-1 Gag protein expression in virus-producing cells, while silencing the m6A erasers increased Gag expression. Our findings suggest an important role of m6A modification of HIV-1 RNA in viral infection and HIV-1 protein synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15528.001 PMID:27371828

  20. Innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Carsten S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood. Whichever intricate molecular mechanisms are at play between HIV and the host, it is evident that the organism is incapable of restricting and eradicating the invading pathogen. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are raised, but they appear to be insufficient or too late to eliminate the virus. Moreover, the picture is complicated by the fact that the very same cells and responses aimed at eliminating the virus seem to play deleterious roles by driving ongoing immune activation and progressive immunodeficiency. Whereas much knowledge exists on the role of adaptive immunity during HIV infection, it has only recently been appreciated that the innate immune response also plays an important part in HIV pathogenesis. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection based on studies in cell culture, non-human primates, and HIV-infected individuals, and discuss the implications for the understanding of HIV immunopathogenesis.

  1. Mortality attributable to smoking among HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Afzal, Shoaib; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking was 61.5% among HIV patients and 34.2% among controls.Conclusions. In a setting where HIV care is well organized and antiretroviral therapy is free of charge, HIV-infected smokers lose more life-years to smoking than to HIV. The excess mortality......Background. We assessed mortality attributable to smoking among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Methods. We estimated mortality rates (MRs), mortality rate ratios (MRRs), life expectancies, life-years lost, and population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking and with...... of smokers is tripled and the population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking is doubled among HIV patients compared to the background population....

  2. HIV INFECTION STAGE, ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY SCHEME AND PATIENT IMMUNE STATUS INFLUENCE ON HIV/TB CO-INFECTION OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mordyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective research of 381 clinical records is conducted to study HIV infection influence on stationary stage of tuberculosis treatment outcome in HIV-TB co-infected patients. All cases were divided depending on a hospitalization outcome on favorable and adverse. At most of patients tuberculosis of respiratory organs met. Immunological researches were conducted, the stage of HIV infection was registered and the issue of purpose of anti-retroviral therapy was resolved. Besides, as indirect signs of an immunodeficiency at the patients with a combination of tuberculosis and HIV infection who were on hospitalization the indicators received when carrying out clinical laboratory trials were analyzed: absolute and relative quantity of lymphocytes according to the general blood test, the contents the globulin fractions and circulating immune complexes concentration according to the clinical chemistry blood test. At an assessment of results in both groups of research more than at a half of patients existence of HIV infection at late stages that speaks about late identification and neglect of an immunodeficiency was revealed. At patients with tuberculosis of lungs in combination with HIV infection at a failure statistically significant decrease in an immunoregulatory index is revealed. It is interesting that the level of CD4 lymphocytes and a stage of HIV infection had no impact on the co-infection’s outcome. However, existence of virus loa ding more than 100 000 copies/ml reduced probability favorable an outcome of treatment of tuberculosis at the patient with HIV infection. Timely purpose of anti-retroviral therapy at patients with co-infection increased chances of treatment of tuberculosis at patients with an immunodeficiency. Frequency of adverse side effect of antiviral therapy met equally often at patients in both groups. Thus, patients at any stages of HIV infection with any forms of tuberculosis, including generalized, had a

  3. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  4. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  5. Correlates of Prevalent Disability Among HIV-Infected Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo Francisco; Tamez-Rivera, Oscar; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Cuellar-Rodríguez, Jennifer; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Amieva, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    The growing elderly population of HIV-infected patients is leading to a significant epidemiological transition and HIV infection has been proposed as a premature and accelerated aging model rending the individual more susceptible to premature disability. However, the determinants of disability among this emergent population are still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the correlates of prevalent disability in adults ≥50 years with HIV infection. A cross-sectional study of 184 HIV-infected adults receiving ambulatory care in an HIV clinic of a tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital in Mexico City was conducted. Disability for instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (ADL) was established. Sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, current CD4(+) cell count, and HIV viral load (VL) were tested as potential determinants of disability. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of both types of disability. The mean age was 59.3 years. All participants were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Of participants 17.9% had disability for IADL and 26.1% for ADL. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that being older; having a lower CD4(+) cell count, and having a detectable HIV VL were independently associated with both types of disability. In addition, educational level was also independently associated with ADL disability. Age, educational level, low CD4(+) cell count, and detectable HIV VL were independently associated with disability. Whether effective and timely antiretroviral therapy will reduce the risk of disability in HIV-infected elderly patients needs to be evaluated. PMID:26559405

  6. Differential effects of sex in a West African cohort of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Esbjörnsson, Joakim;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported conflicting effects of sex on HIV-1 infection. We describe differences in baseline characteristics and assess the impact of sex on HIV progression among patients at a clinic with many HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. METHODS: This study utilised...... visit until initiation of ART, death or loss to follow-up using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: A total of 5694 patients were included in the study, 3702 women (65%) and 1992 men (35%). Women were more likely than men to be infected with HIV-2 (19% vs. 15%, P < 0.01) or dually infected with HIV...

  7. Absolute leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: evidence of accelerated cell senescence in HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C Y Liu

    Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART has extended the longevity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals. However, this has resulted in greater awareness of age-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Accelerated cellular senescence may be responsible, but its magnitude as measured by leukocyte telomere length is unknown and its relationship to HIV-associated COPD has not yet been established. We measured absolute telomere length (aTL in peripheral leukocytes from 231 HIV-infected adults. Comparisons were made to 691 HIV-uninfected individuals from a population-based sample. Subject quartiles of aTL were assessed for relationships with measures of HIV disease severity, airflow obstruction, and emphysema severity on computed tomographic (CT imaging. Multivariable regression models identified factors associated with shortened aTL. Compared to HIV-uninfected subjects, the mean aTL in HIV-infected patients was markedly shorter by 27 kbp/genome (p<0.001; however, the slopes of aTL vs. age were not different (p=0.469. Patients with longer known durations of HIV infection (p=0.019 and lower nadir CD4 cell counts (p=0.023 had shorter aTL. Shorter aTL were also associated with older age (p=0.026, smoking (p=0.005, reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.030, and worse CT emphysema severity score (p=0.049. HIV-infected subjects demonstrate advanced cellular aging, yet in a cART-treated cohort, the relationship between aTL and age appears no different from that of HIV-uninfected subjects.

  8. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène C F Côté

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging. METHODS: In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+ children (n = 94, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART perinatally (n = 177, and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(- control children (n = 104 aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a all subjects, b HIV(+/HEU children only, and c HIV(+ children only. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+, HEU and HIV(- children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.

  9. Management of Pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia in HIV infected patients: current options, challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose G Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Castro1, Maya Morrison-Bryant21Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA; 2Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: The discovery of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV was led by the merge of clustered cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP in otherwise healthy people in the early 80’s.1,2 In the face of sophisticated treatment now available for HIV infection, life expectancy approaches normal limits. It has dramatically changed the natural course of HIV from a nearly fatal infection to a chronic disease.3–5 However, PCP still remains a relatively common presentation of uncontrolled HIV. Despite the knowledge and advances gained in the prevention and management of PCP infection, it continues to have high morbidity and mortality rates. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ remains as the recommended first-line treatment. Alternatives include pentamidine, dapsone plus trimethoprim, clindamycin administered with primaquine, and atovaquone. For optimal management, clinicians need to be familiar with the advantages and disadvantages of the available drugs. The parameters used to classify severity of infection are also important, as it is well known that the adjunctive use of steroids in moderate to severe cases have been shown to significantly improve outcome. Evolving management practices, such as the successful institution of early antiretroviral therapy, may further enhance overall survival rates.Keywords: HIV, Pneumocystis Jirovecii, PCP, TMP-SMZ

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection and pleocytosis: Relation to systemic infection and antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petropoulos Christos J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1 progression of systemic infection, 2 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, 3 antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 4 neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL. CSF HIV viral loads (VLs correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression. Longer-term responses indicate that CSF infection generally responds well to ART, even in the face of systemic virological failure due to drug resistance. We present simple models to explain the differing relationships of CSF to plasma HIV in these settings.

  11. Cryptosporidiosis Among HIV-infected Patients with Diarrhea in Edo State, Midwesten Nigeria

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    Akinbo, F. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among HIV infected and HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea in Edo State, Nigeria, as well as the effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count on the prevalence of cryptosporidial infection among the HIV patients. Stool samples were collected from 300 patients consisting of 200 HIV-infected and 100 HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea. Blood samples were collected from the HIV-infected patients. The stool samples were processed to detect Cryptosporidium species using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, as well as other intestinal parasites using saline and iodine preparations. The blood samples were used to determine CD4+ lymphocyte count. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was higher in HIV-infected patients compared with their HIV non-infected counterparts (39% vs 24% respectively, p=0.0097. Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed only among HIV-infected patients and was the only parasite whose prevalence was significantly different between HIV-infected and HIV non-infected patients. CD4+ lymphocyte count of <200 cells/µL among HIV-infected was a risk factor for acquiring cryptosporidial infection (OR=18.776, 95% CI=6.299, 55.964. A cryptosporidial infection prevalence of 18% among HIV-infected patients was observed and CD4+ count of <200 cells/µL was a risk factor for acquiring the disease. Routine examination of diarrhogenic stools of HIVinfected patients for cryptosporidiosis is advocated.

  12. Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels

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    Sanson-Le-Pors Marie-Jose

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e, and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts.

  13. HIV-TB co-infection in children: associated factors and access to HIV services in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, O. J.; Adejumo, O. A.; Gidado, M.; Abdur-Razzaq, H. A.; Jaiyesimi, E. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) are the leading causes of death from infectious disease worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that the prevalence of HIV among children with TB in moderate to high prevalence countries ranges between 10% and 60%. This study aimed to determine the access to HIV services of HIV-TB co-infected children.

  14. Major depletion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in HIV-2 infection, an attenuated form of HIV disease.

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    Rita Cavaleiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC provide an important link between innate and acquired immunity, mediating their action mainly through IFN-alpha production. pDC suppress HIV-1 replication, but there is increasing evidence suggesting they may also contribute to the increased levels of cell apoptosis and pan-immune activation associated with disease progression. Although having the same clinical spectrum, HIV-2 infection is characterized by a strikingly lower viremia and a much slower rate of CD4 decline and AIDS progression than HIV-1, irrespective of disease stage. We report here a similar marked reduction in circulating pDC levels in untreated HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in association with CD4 depletion and T cell activation, in spite of the undetectable viremia found in the majority of HIV-2 patients. Moreover, the same overexpression of CD86 and PD-L1 on circulating pDC was found in both infections irrespective of disease stage or viremia status. Our observation that pDC depletion occurs in HIV-2 infected patients with undetectable viremia indicates that mechanisms other than direct viral infection determine the pDC depletion during persistent infections. However, viremia was associated with an impairment of IFN-alpha production on a per pDC basis upon TLR9 stimulation. These data support the possibility that diminished function in vitro may relate to prior activation by HIV virions in vivo, in agreement with our finding of higher expression levels of the IFN-alpha inducible gene, MxA, in HIV-1 than in HIV-2 individuals. Importantly, serum IFN-alpha levels were not elevated in HIV-2 infected individuals. In conclusion, our data in this unique natural model of "attenuated" HIV immunodeficiency contribute to the understanding of pDC biology in HIV/AIDS pathogenesis, showing that in the absence of detectable viremia a major depletion of circulating pDC in association with a relatively preserved IFN-alpha production does occur.

  15. Development of Human Dendritic Cells and their Role in HIV Infection: Antiviral Immunity vs HIV Transmission

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    YasukoTsunetsugu-Yokota

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although dendritc cells (DC represent a small cell population in the body, they have been recognized as professional antigen presenting cells and key players of both innate and acquired immunity. The recent expansion of basic knowledge concerning differentiation and function of various DC subsets will greatly help to understand the nature of protective immunity required in designing AIDS vaccines. However, HIV not only targets CD4+ T cells but also myeloid cells, including macrophages and DC. When HIV infects DC, its replication is highly restricted in DC. Nevertheless, even a low level of HIV production is sufficient to enhance HIV replication in activated CD4+ T cells, through antigen presentation activity by HIV-infected DC. Considering how antiviral immunity is initiated and memory response is maintained, such efficient DC-T cell transmission of HIV should play an important role in the disturbed immune responses associated with HIV infection. Recently, accessory proteins encoded by HIV have been shown to interact with various proteins in DC, and thereby affect DC-T cell transmission. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about DC biology and discuss what needs to be known in order to successfully manipulate DC for the development of an effective AIDS vaccine in the future.

  16. Care of HIV-infected patients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhen CAO; Hong Zhou LU

    2005-01-01

    Compared with high infection areas of the world, the total HIV infection rate in China is relatively low. Nonetheless,because of China's vast territory and large population, the potential infection risk must be taken seriously. In the next few years, needle sharing among injection drug users will remain the most common route of transmission for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Unprotected sex is gradually becoming a major route of transmission. China began to implement HAART in 1999 according to international standards. Prior to 2003, there were only about 150 HIV/AIDS patients were treated with HAART in some clinical trials and about 100 HIV/AIDS patients were treated by private sources.Results of those treatments are the scientific basis for development of the therapeutic strategies in China. In March of 2003, the Chinese government initiated China CARES program. In November of 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health announced a national policy of free ARV treatment to all HIV+ Chinese citizens who were in poverty and required ARV therapy. There are total of 19,456 HIV/AIDS patients received free ARV drugs to date in 159 regions and 441 towns.Current challenges are how to follow-up and evaluate those patients in the clinical settings. The longer the therapy is postponed, the more side effects and the higher probability of drug resistance are going to occur. It remains unclear,therefore, when HAART regimen should be started in the HIV/AIDS population in China.

  17. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients with...... chronic HIV/HCV and syphilis co-infection were identified by their treating physicians from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2013. Stored plasma samples obtained before, during, and after syphilis infection were analysed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10). RESULTS: Undetectable HCV RNA at the time of early latent syphilis infection was observed in 2 patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. After treatment of the syphilis infection, HCV RNA levels increased again in patient 1, whereas...

  18. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Durvasula, Ramani S; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall...

  19. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A.; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of pu...

  20. Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: consequences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2007-01-01

    -infected individual to be 39 years. The prospect of a near-normal life expectancy has implications for the HIV-infected persons as well as for the handling of the disease in the healthcare system. The patients can now on a long-term perspective plan their professional career, join a pension plan and start a family...

  1. Nocardia osteomyelitis in the setting of previously unknown HIV infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of primary Nocardia osteomyelitis in the setting of HIV infection. The clinical and radiographic manifestations of musculoskeletal nocardiosis are nonspecific and resemble those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To our knowledge no other cases of Nocardia osteomyelitis have been reported in the radiology literature. (orig.)

  2. A Discrete Model for HIV Infection with Distributed Delay

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    Brahim EL Boukari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a consistent discretization of a continuous model of HIV infection, with distributed time delays to express the lag between the times when the virus enters a cell and when the cell becomes infected. The global stability of the steady states of the model is determined and numerical simulations are presented to illustrate our theoretical results.

  3. Assesment of mineral metabolism in patients with HIV-infection, chronic hepatitis с and co-infection HIV/ chronic hepatitis С

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    Yurko Е.М.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Objective: Evaluate the indicators of mineral metabolism in HIV-infected patients, patients with chronic hepatitis С and co-infection HIV/HCV. Material and Methods: The content of microelements (zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, iron (Fe in serum was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The study involved 99 patients: with chronic hepatitis С — 32 patients, with HIV infection — 34 and co-infection of HIV/HCV — 33 patients. Results: Microelements and metal-dependent proteins metabolic disorders as a reduction of the zinc, haptoglobin contents, and an increase of copper, iron, and ceruloplasmin contents were identified in patients with chronic hepatitis С In HIV-infected patients and patients with co-infection HIV/HCV were identified reducing zinc, copper, iron, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin. in patients with co-infection HIV/HCV compared HIV-infected patients lower zinc, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin contents (p<0,001 were detected. In patients with co-infected HIV/HCV, as compared with a group of chronic hepatitis С were set lower values of all parameters (p<0,001. Conclusion: Integrated assessment of the degree of deviation from the control of the trace element content and activity metal-dependent enzymes showed that its highest significance was typical for patients with co-infected HIV/HCV, which is higher than that of HIV-infected patients in the 1,2-fold and 2,2-fold in patients with chronic hepatitis С

  4. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Mooij

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  5. Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV

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    Sinead Delany-Moretlwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of a significant burden of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and associated disease in men. High rates of HPV infection have been observed in men from sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is high. HIV infection increases HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence and is strongly associated with the development of anogenital warts and anal, penile and head and neck cancers in men. Despite increasing access to antiretroviral therapy, there appears to be little benefit in preventing the development of these cancers in HIV-positive men, making prevention of infection a priority. New prevention options that are being introduced in many African countries include male circumcision and HPV vaccination. However, more data are needed on the burden of HPV disease in men before boys are included in HPV vaccination programmes.

  6. Penicillium keratitis in a HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anutarapongpan, Orapin; Thanathanee, Onsiri; Suwan-Apichon, Olan

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old HIV-positive man presented with symptoms of redness, blurred vision and foreign body sensation in his right eye for 3 months. The slit lamp examination revealed deep stromal infiltration with a feathery margin in an otherwise minimal anterior chamber reaction. A corneal scraping was negative. Confocal microscopy demonstrated an abnormal large hyper-reflective oval shape in the corneal stroma. Corneal infiltration did not show improvement after topical, intrastromal and intracameral antifungal treatment. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed to eradicate the infection. Corneal button culture and histopathological results confirmed the diagnosis of Penicillium marneffei keratitis. No recurrent infection occurred after corneal transplantation. This appears to be the first report of P. marneffei keratitis in an HIV-infected patient. Although it is an uncommon condition, it should be one of the differential diagnoses in an HIV-infected patient presenting with keratitis. PMID:27535731

  7. Recall of intestinal helminthiasis by HIV-infected South Africans and avoidance of possible misinterpretation of egg excretion in worm/HIV co-infection analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Lize

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascariasis and HIV/AIDS are often co-endemic under conditions of poverty in South Africa; and discordant immune responses to the respective infections could theoretically be affecting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in various ways. It is well-known that sensitisation to helminthic antigens can aggravate or ameliorate several non-helminthic diseases and impair immunisation against cholera, tetanus and tuberculosis. The human genotype can influence immune responses to Ascaris strongly. With these factors in mind, we have started to document the extent of long-term exposure to Ascaris and other helminths in a community where HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent. In more advanced studies, objectives are to analyse relevant immunological variables (e.g. cytokine activity and immunoglobulin levels. We postulate that when Ascaris is hyperendemic, analysis of possible consequences of co-infection by HIV cannot be based primarily on excretion vs non-excretion of eggs. Methods Recall of worms seen in faeces was documented in relation to the age of adult volunteers who were either seropositive (n = 170 or seronegative (n = 65 for HIV. Reasons for HIV testing, deworming treatments used or not used, date and place of birth, and duration of residence in Cape Town, were recorded. Confidence intervals were calculated both for group percentages and the inter-group differences, and were used to make statistical comparisons. Results In both groups, more than 70% of participants were aware of having passed worms, often both when a child and as an adult. Most of the descriptions fitted Ascaris. Evidence for significantly prolonged exposure to helminthic infection in HIV-positives was supported by more recall of deworming treatment in this group (p Conclusion There was a long-term history of ascariasis (and probably other helminthic infections in both of the groups that were studied. In women in the same community, and in children living where housing and

  8. The rationale for third trimester testing of vertical HIV transmission in neonates with CMV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Vinzenz; Feiterna-Sperling, Cornelia; Sarpong, Akosua; Garten, Lars; Cremer, Malte; von Weizsäcker, Katharina; Bührer, Christoph; Dame, Christof

    2016-08-01

    We report on a late-preterm neonate with severe congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, refractory to antiviral therapy with ganciclovir. Subsequent immune diagnostics led to the finding of HIV infection at day 69, even though the mother tested negative for HIV in early pregnancy. Thus, in congenital CMV infection, HIV testing should be performed to elucidate maternal HIV seroconversion during late pregnancy. Our case strongly supports third trimester screening of HIV infection acquired during pregnancy, yet recommended only for women with traditional risk factors for HIV or living in an area of high HIV prevalence. PMID:26830786

  9. Relationship between HIV protease inhibitors and QTc interval duration in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Charbit, Beny; Rosier, Arnaud; Bollens, Diane; Boccara, Franck; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; Koubaa, Afef; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Funck-Brentano, Christian

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: QTc interval prolongation and torsades de pointes have been reported in HIV-infected patients. Protease inhibitors (PIs) are suspected to contribute to this adverse reaction. However, many factors can prolong QTc interval. We examined factors influencing QTc duration in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Unselected HIV-infected patients (n = 978) were enrolled in this prospective, single-centre cross-sectional study. Variables related to infection and treatments were collected. A digital e...

  10. The spectrum of liver diseases in HIV infected individuals at an HIV treatment clinic in Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ocama, P.; Katwere, M.; Piloya, T.; Feld, J.; Opio, K. C.; Kambugu, A.; Katabira, E; D. Thomas; Colebunders, R; Ronald, A

    2008-01-01

    Background: Liver diseases are common in patients with HIV due to viral hepatitis B and C co-infections, opportunistic infections or malignancies, antiretroviral drugs and drugs for opportunistic infections. Objective: To describe the spectrum of liver diseases in HIV-infected patients attending an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Method: Consecutive patients presenting with jaundice, right upper quadrant pain with fever or malaise, ascites and/or tender hepatomegaly were recruited and ...

  11. Protein methylation is required to maintain optimal HIV-1 infectivity

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    Piller Sabine C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Protein methylation is recognized as a major protein modification pathway regulating diverse cellular events such as protein trafficking, transcription, and signal transduction. More recently, protein arginine methyltransferase activity has been shown to regulate HIV-1 transcription via Tat. In this study, adenosine periodate (AdOx was used to globally inhibit protein methyltransferase activity so that the effect of protein methylation on HIV-1 infectivity could be assessed. Results: Two cell culture models were used: HIV-1-infected CEM T-cells and HEK293T cells transfected with a proviral DNA plasmid. In both models, AdOx treatment of cells increased the levels of virion in culture supernatant. However, these viruses had increased levels of unprocessed or partially processed Gag-Pol, significantly increased diameter, and displayed reduced infectivity in a MAGI X4 assay. AdOx reduced infectivity equally in both dividing and non-dividing cells. However, infectivity was further reduced if Vpr was deleted suggesting virion proteins, other than Vpr, were affected by protein methylation. Endogenous reverse transcription was not inhibited in AdOx-treated HIV-1, and infectivity could be restored by pseudotyping HIV with VSV-G envelope protein. These experiments suggest that AdOx affects an early event between receptor binding and uncoating, but not reverse transcription. Conclusion: Overall, we have shown for the first time that protein methylation contributes towards maximal virus infectivity. Furthermore, our results also indicate that protein methylation regulates HIV-1 infectivity in a complex manner most likely involving the methylation of multiple viral or cellular proteins and/or multiple steps of replication.

  12. COURSE FEATURES EPIDEMIC PROCESS HIV INFECTION IN KHARKIV REGION

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    Nikolaeva LG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the context of the transformation of the spheres of human living epidemic HIV-infection continues. According to the intensity of the epidemic process of HIV-infection, Ukraine takes one of the first places among the European countries. The epidemic process of the infection is concentrated mainly on the high-risk groups, and there is uneven prevalence. Besides in most cases this distribution can not be explained by the social and economic characteristics of certain territories. Kharkiv region belongs to the territory of Ukraine with the lowest prevalence level of HIV-infection. Though in terms of the social and economic crisis due to hostilities in the east of the country, which the region borders, the epidemic situation may significantly become worse. Work objective: to study the peculiarities of the course of the epidemic process of HIV-infection for the period from 1987 till 2015 in Kharkiv region that will improve the epidemiological surveillance of the infection and develop appropriate preventive measures in modern conditions. Material & methods. The studies were conducted in Kharkiv region, which is a big industrial and administrative center. The city of Kharkiv is located at the crossroads of drug trafficking from Asia and Russia. The reportings and analytics of the Kharkiv regional center for prevention and control of AIDS and the Ministry of Health of Ukraine for the period of 1987 – 2015 were used in the research. The analysis of incidence of HIV prevalence, structure of transmission routes and sex-age groups were carried out using descriptive and evaluative and analytical ways of epidemiological research method. Results & discussion. During 1987 – 2015 in Kharkiv region there were officially registered 7868 cases of HIV-infection what was equal to 4.0 % of the registered cases in Ukraine. Since 1996 a marked upward tendency of the incidence of HIV infection in Kharkiv region (growth rate – +7.0 %, and on the

  13. Small alveolar macrophages are infected preferentially by HIV and exhibit impaired phagocytic function

    OpenAIRE

    Jambo, K C; Banda, D H; Kankwatira, A M; Sukumar, N.; Allain, T J; Heyderman, R. S.; Russell, D. G.; Mwandumba, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-infected persons are at higher risk of lower respiratory tract infections than HIV-1-uninfected individuals. This suggests strongly that HIV-infected persons have specific impairment of pulmonary immune responses, but current understanding of how HIV alters pulmonary immunity is incomplete. Alveolar macrophages (AMs), comprising small and large macrophages, are major effectors of innate immunity in the lung. We postulated that HIV-1 impairs pulmonary innate immunity through impairment o...

  14. Trends in HIV infection in the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hua-Feng; Zhou, Hai-Zhou; Jiang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Xuan; Guan, Xiu-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Background Major hospitals in most Chinese cities have the capability to perform HIV testing. However, it is not a routine test for all patients and, as a result, many patients are not aware of their HIV status. To understand the rate of HIV infection and the factors associated with infection, we tested serum to determine HIV status and analyzed factors associated with HIV infection. Methods We collected blood samples from 348,151 patients who visited the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin M...

  15. [Vaccination of children born from HIV-infected mothers against Haemophilus influenzae type b infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinov, M P; Pakhomov, D V; Snegova, N F; Nikitina, T N; Zinkina, T N

    2008-01-01

    Course of postvaccinal period after injection of vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b administered simultaneously with vaccines of Russian national immunization schedule was studied in children born from HIV-infected mothers. Good tolerability of the vaccine administered concomitantly with diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis and inactivated polio vaccines (Imovax Polio), which is comparable with tolerability in healthy children, was demonstrated. Prevaccination titers of antibodies and their dynamics during immunization process were described. Increase of levels of antibodies was detected both in the group of children with perinatal contact with HIV infection and in the group of HIV-infected children. PMID:18822498

  16. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. PMID:25331221

  17. Governmental policies on HIV infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie SHEN; Dong Bao YU

    2005-01-01

    This article is a general review of the evolvement of HIV/AIDS-related public policies in China since 1980's. It tracks the important laws, regulations and other governmental documents in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention mainly at central level.

  18. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2010-01-01

    leucocytes-SCID reconstituted mice. In addition, a prospective nonrandomized trial of HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation indicated significantly better control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication among patients taking RAPA monotherapy. Taken together, the...

  19. Triple trouble : tuberculosis, HIV infection and malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettow, Monique Hendrika Elizabeth van

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis has emerged as the second commonest cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, after HIV/AIDS, killing nearly 2 million people each year. Most cases occur in less-developed countries. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the greatest single risk factor for the development of

  20. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    , including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population...

  1. Stroke in a patient with tuberculous meningitis and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bruna Pasticci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently. This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of neurologic symptoms. At the same time, miliary lung TB caused by multi-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed. Anti-TB therapy consisting of a combination of four drugs was administered. The patient improved and was discharged five weeks later. In conclusion, TBM and multiple underling pathologies including HIV infection, as well as other risk factors can lead to a greater risk of stroke. Moreover, drug interactions and their side effects add levels of complexity. TBM must be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV infected patients with stroke and TBM treatment needs be started as soon as possible before the onset of vasculopathy.

  2. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients. METHODS:: Cross-sectional multicenter survey of EuroSIDA clinics during 2008. RESULTS:: Prevalence of ESRD was 0.5%. Of 122...... patients with ESRD 96 were on dialysis and 26 had received a RT. Median age was 47 years, 73% were males and 43% were black. Median duration of HIV infection was 11 years. Thirty-three percent had prior AIDS; 91% were receiving antiretrovirals; and 88% had undetectable viral load. Median CD4T-cell count...... was 341 cells per cubic millimetre; 20.5% had hepatitis C coinfection. Most frequent causes of ESRD were HIV-associated nephropathy (46%) and other glomerulonephritis (28%). Hemodialysis (93%) was the most common dialysis modality; 34% of patients were on the RT waiting list. A poor HIV control...

  3. Prevention and treatment of surgical site infection in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.

  4. HIV testing practices as reported by HIV-infected patients in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblonde, Jessika; Hamers, Françoise F; Callens, Steven; Lucas, Raquel; Barros, Henrique; Rüütel, Kristi; Hemminki, Elina; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-04-01

    HIV testing constitutes an important strategy to control the HIV epidemic, which therefore merits an observation of HIV testing practices to help improve testing effectiveness. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey among recently diagnosed (≤ 3 years) HIV-infected patients was conducted in Belgium, Estonia, Finland and Portugal. Participants were questioned about reasons for HIV testing, testing place and testing conditions. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Out of 1460 eligible participants, 629 (43%) were included. Forty-one per cent were diagnosed late and 55% had never undergone a previous HIV test with perceived low risk being the primary reason for not having been tested earlier. Heterogeneity in HIV testing practices was observed across countries. Overall, tests were most frequently conducted in primary care (38%) and specialised clinics (21%), primarily on the initiative of the health care provider (65%). Sixty-one per cent were tested with informed consent, 31% received pretest counselling, 78% received post-test counselling, 71% were involved in partner notification and 92% were in care three months after diagnosis. The results showed that HIV testing is done in a variety of settings suggesting that multiple pathways to HIV testing are provided. HIV testing practice is being normalised, with less focus on pretest counselling, yet with emphasis on post-test follow-up. Major barriers to testing are centred on the denial of risk. Efforts are needed to concurrently promote public awareness about HIV risk and benefits of HIV testing and train clinicians to be more proactive in offering HIV testing. PMID:24090396

  5. HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Losada Marcos; Orsega Susan; Metcalf Julia A; Hirschfeld Steven; Imamichi Hiromi; Tazi Loubna; Posada David; Lane H Clifford; Crandall Keith A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Replicate experiments are often difficult to find in evolutionary biology, as this field is inherently an historical science. However, viruses, bacteria and phages provide opportunities to study evolution in both natural and experimental contexts, due to their accelerated rates of evolution and short generation times. Here we investigate HIV-1 evolution by using a natural model represented by monozygotic twins infected synchronically at birth with an HIV-1 population from ...

  6. Protein methylation is required to maintain optimal HIV-1 infectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Piller Sabine C; Warrilow David; Apolloni Ann; Bodetti Tracey J; Hitchen Eleanor M; Willemsen Nicole M; Harrich David

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background: Protein methylation is recognized as a major protein modification pathway regulating diverse cellular events such as protein trafficking, transcription, and signal transduction. More recently, protein arginine methyltransferase activity has been shown to regulate HIV-1 transcription via Tat. In this study, adenosine periodate (AdOx) was used to globally inhibit protein methyltransferase activity so that the effect of protein methylation on HIV-1 infectivity could be asses...

  7. Impact of HIV infection and alcohol on cognition: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Selnes, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Ola A SelnesDepartment of Neurology, Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Both alcohol and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) can affect the structure and function of the central nervous system. What they have in common is that the white matter of the brain is principally affected, and the direct neuronal injury does not appear to be a consequence of either HIV infection or alcohol use. There is evidence that the cognitiv...

  8. Psychosocial aspects of HIV infection: I Love You (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Meštrović, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Since the discovery of HIV and AIDS, considerable progress has been made in understanding biology of the virus and disease, and also in developing effective treatments. Never the less, this infection still has very profound effects on psychological, social, and economic level. Some important examples of stigma and psychosocial aspects of the disease are depicted in this movie. Common bias where HIV is associated exclusively with the gay community and deviant behaviour is emph...

  9. Syphilis serology and HIV infection in Harare, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Gwanzura, L; A. Latif; Bassett, M.; Machekano, R; Katzenstein, D A; Mason, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of serological tests in detecting syphilis in a factory worker cohort and examine the impact of concurrent HIV infection on serological tests for syphilis. METHOD: Reactions to non-treponemal and treponemal antigens were tested using sera from a cohort of 3401 factory workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. The participants consented to regular testing for syphilis, by VDRL, and HIV using two ELISAs. All sera from men who were VDRL positive, and a random sam...

  10. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This “shock” approach is then followed by “kill” of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  11. Human Herpesviruses as Copathogens of HIV Infection, Their Role in HIV Transmission, and Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawwar, Arshi; Singh, Sarman

    2016-01-01

    Of eight human herpesviruses (HHVs), often, only herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) find mention in medical literature as both of these viruses are commonly associated with genital lesions and oral ulcers, commonly known as cold sores. However, role of human herpesviruses as copathogens and in aggravation and in the transmission of other human diseases, especially the Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has only very recently been recognized. Therefore, screening and treating subclinical HHV infections may offer slowing of HIV infection, disease progression, and its transmission. Beside HSV-1 and HSV-2, HHV-3 a causative agent of herpes zoster remained one of the first manifestations of HIV disease before the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HHV-5 also known as human Cytomegalovirus infection remains a significant risk factor for HIV-associated mortality and morbidity even in HAART era. It is proposed that Cytomegalovirus viremia could be a better predictor of HIV disease progression than CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. The role of HHV-4 or Epstein-Burr virus and HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 is still being investigated in HIV disease progression. This review provides insight into the current understanding about these 8 HHVs, their co-pathogenesis, and role in HIV/AIDS disease progression. The review also covers recent literature in favor and against administering anti-HHV treatment along with HAART for slower AIDS progression and interrupted sexual transmission. PMID:27013807

  12. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study the demographic variables; spectrum of opportunist ic infections and its correlation with CD4 count in HIV patients. SETTING AND DESIGN : The study was conducted on 200 HIV patients either admitted to Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital or attending ART Center, Sh y am Shah Medical College, Rewa (M.P from Januar y 2013 to October 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A detailed history was recorded with emphasis on personal history, high risk behavior, history of migration, mode of transmission of infection and complete thorough clinical examination was done. Data analysis was done by calculating P value using Chi Square test. RESULTS : Out of 200 HIV patients, most of them (88% belonged to the age group 20 - 49 years, 66% were males and 34% were females. 45% were illiterates, 62% were from low socioeconomic class. Majority of patients were married (79% and 72.2% had seropositive spouse. Unprotected sexual route was the most common (85% mode of transmission; among which heterosexual route was the only mode of transmission. 59.4% of males contracted infection through unprotect ed sex with either commercial sex workers (44.8% or multiple sex partners (14.6%. 61% of patients had history of emigration. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection (51%, followed by oral candidiasis 30% and chronic diarrhea (9%.Pulmon ary Tuberculosis was the most common form of Tuberculosis (64.7%, followed by tubercular lymphadenopathy (15.7%. CONCLUSION : HIV/AIDS has no vaccine or cure, so prevention is the only

  13. HBV and neurological impairment in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Manolescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV can affect CNS in early stages of disease and determine neurological impairment. HBV DNA was found in CSF of HIV co-infected patients, but little is known about the neurotropic character of this virus. Here we assessed the degree of association between HBV infection and neurological impairment in a large cohort of long-term survivors, HIV-infected patients that experienced multiple therapeutic schemes over time. Methods: A total of 462 HIV-1-infected patients were retrospectively followed up for 10 years for HBV infection and neurological impairment. The patients were tested for immune (flow cytometry and virological parameters of HIV infection (Roche Amplicor, version 1.5/ COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test and for HBV infection markers (HBsAg, anti HBc: Murex Biotech ELISA tests. Many of these patients have experienced between one and six regimens such as: 2 NRTIs, 3 NRTIs, 2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI, 1 NRTI+1 NNRTI+1 PI, 2 NRTIs+2 PIs. Results: After 10 years 29.87% of the patients presented neurological impairment. Out of them 56.52% were HBV-infected. The prevalence of HIV encephalopathy (HE in our studied cohort was 22.7% and 50.4% of these patients were HBV-infected. The median HIV diagnosis age was 7 and the median age of HE diagnosis was 10. In order to establish a possible correlation between HBV infection and HE we first reviewed and excluded the main risk factors associated with HE at the moment of diagnosis: low weight, anemia, constitutional symptoms, low CD4+count, high plasma HIV-RNA load. No patient was infected with HCV. The groups of patients that presented HE and HBsAg and HE without HBsAg were balanced regarding sex, number of deceased patients, number of class C3 patients, but the patients in first group presented lower CD4 values at HE diagnosis vs patients from second group 2: 44.5 vs 95 cells/µL, p=0.3; lower nadir CD4 count: 38 vs 51 cell/µL, p=0.1; and slightly higher HIV viral load: 5.2 vs 5 log10 copies

  14. Tubuloreticular inclusions in skin biopsies from patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Horn, T; Junge, Jette;

    1989-01-01

    Skin biopsies obtained from apparently normal skin from 15 HIV infected patients and 6 anti-HIV negative patients were examined by electron microscopy. Tubuloreticular inclusions (TRI) were detected within the cytoplasm of capillary endothelial cells in 5/5 AIDS patients and in 2/5 patients with...... AIDS related conditions. Biopsies from 5 asymptomatic HIV positive patients and the 6 control subjects were without ultrastructural alterations. The occurrence of TRI was related to low numbers of CD 4+ lymphocytes. 5/7 patients with TRI had elevated serum interferon activity, and in all of the...

  15. The vulnerability of Brazilian female prisoners to HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    L. Strazza; Azevedo, R. S.; H.B. Carvalho; E Massad

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated for variables related to HIV posit...

  16. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to ...

  17. Heterosexually Acquired HIV Infection in a Chinese Population in Malaysia-HIV/AIDS control policy recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京

    2001-01-01

    @@ Introduction HIV infection and AIDS has emerged as a major public health problem all over the world. In the1980s,the infection was first found to be transmitted through homosexual activity and blood product transfusion. Now it is spreading among heterosexuals and injection drug users, and can be transmitted from mothers to infants.

  18. [Incidence and etiology of psychotic disorders in HIV infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederecker, M; Naber, D; Riedel, R; Perro, C; Goebel, F D

    1995-05-01

    There are numerous case reports on psychoses in AIDS patients and, although more seldom, also in HIV-positive patients in early stages of infection; however, systematic investigations on the frequency, e.g., relevant for the indication of an HIV test in psychiatric patients, are missing. For this study, 1046 HIV-positive patients were examined regarding psychoses. A total of 301 patients (28.8%) were HIV-positive but asymptomatic, and 380 patients (36.2%) had the lymphadenopathy syndrome. One hundred thirty-two patients (12.6%) suffered from an AIDS-related complex and 233 patients (22.3%) from AIDS. Of these 1046 patients, only 9 (0.9%) suffered from psychoses. One patient with a paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome was asymptomatic; one in the lymphadenopathy syndrome was manic. The other 7 patients were all in late stages of the infection. A causal relationship between HIV infection and psychosis and probable in only 3 patients. These data do not indicate a markedly elevated prevalence of psychosis in HIV-positive or AIDS patients. PMID:7609818

  19. HIV/TB Co-infection in Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebele F Ugochukwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The burden of childhood disease is not as well documented as that of adult disease, partly because of the difficulty of confirming the diagnosis. In Africa children have been estimated to account for 20-40% of TB case load. Children infected with M. tuberculosis have a high risk of progression to disease, the younger children being at highest risk. Infected children represent a reservoir of future adult disease. The incidence of childhood TB has increased in developing countries. This resurgence is partly attributed to the coexisting burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease, which is most pronounced in Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria ranking third highest prevalence. The pattern of childhood HIV and TB infection mirror these epidemics in the adult population. The number of children co-infected with HIV and TB is rising, and so is the incidence of congenital and neonatal TB. In addition the emergence of multi-drug resistance TB and extensively drug-resistant TB has occurred within the context of a high prevalence of HIV and TB. The diagnosis of TB has always been difficult in children and is compounded by HIV co-infection. The clinical symptoms in both diseases are similar, and the radiological changes may be non-specific. Treatment of both conditions in children is a challenge due to drug interactions and problems with adherence. There are few stable syrup formulations of antituberculous and antiretroviral drugs in children, and hence division of tablets gives rise to unpredictable dosing and emergence of resistance. To reduce the morbidity and mortality of TB and HIV, existing childhood TB programs must be strengthened, and antiretroviral drug therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs scaled up. HIV prevalence in the adult population must also be reduced. An increased emphasis on childhood TB, with early diagnosis and treatment, must be a

  20. Sulforaphane Inhibits HIV Infection of Macrophages through Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Andrea Kinga Marias; Sharifi, Hamayun J; Jellinger, Robert M; Cristofano, Paul; Shi, Binshan; de Noronha, Carlos M C

    2016-04-01

    Marburg virus, the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Dengue virus all activate, and benefit from, expression of the transcription regulator nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The impact of Nrf2 activation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been tested. Sulforaphane (SFN), produced in cruciferous vegetables after mechanical damage, mobilizes Nrf2 to potently reprogram cellular gene expression. Here we show for the first time that SFN blocks HIV infection in primary macrophages but not in primary T cells. Similarly SFN blocks infection in PMA-differentiated promonocytic cell lines, but not in other cell lines tested. siRNA-mediated depletion of Nrf2 boosted HIV infectivity in primary macrophages and reduced the anti-viral effects of SFN treatment. This supports a model in which anti-viral activity is mediated through Nrf2 after it is mobilized by SFN. We further found that, like the type I interferon-induced cellular anti-viral proteins SAMHD1 and MX2, SFN treatment blocks infection after entry, but before formation of 2-LTR circles. Interestingly however, neither SAMHD1 nor MX2 were upregulated. This shows for the first time that Nrf2 action can potently block HIV infection and highlights a novel way to trigger this inhibition. PMID:27093399

  1. Late presentation of HIV infection: a consensus definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antinori, A; Coenen, T; Costagiola, D;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Across Europe, almost a third of individuals infected with HIV do not enter health care until late in the course of their infection. Surveillance to identify the extent to which late presentation occurs remains inadequate across Europe and is further complicated by the lack of a common...... able to implement this definition (either on its own or alongside their own preferred definition) when reporting surveillance or research data relating to late presentation of HIV infection.......Objectives Across Europe, almost a third of individuals infected with HIV do not enter health care until late in the course of their infection. Surveillance to identify the extent to which late presentation occurs remains inadequate across Europe and is further complicated by the lack of a common...... clinical definition of late presentation. The objective of this article is to present a consensus definition of late presentation of HIV infection. Methods Over the past year, two initiatives have moved towards a harmonized definition. In spring 2009, they joined efforts to identify a common definition of...

  2. AIDS impact special issue 2015: interpersonal factors associated with HIV partner disclosure among HIV-infected people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2016-03-01

    HIV partner disclosure may facilitate social support, improve psychological well-being among HIV-infected individuals, and promote HIV testing and HIV prevention among their sexual partners. A growing literature emphasizes the critical role of interpersonal factors may play in decision-making and practice regarding HIV partner disclosure. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies that investigate how interpersonal factors may be associated with HIV partner disclosure. Using cross-sectional data collected from 791 HIV-infected people in Guangxi China, we examined the associations between these two interpersonal factors (quality of relationship with partner and family communication) and HIV partner disclosure. Descriptive analysis, t-test analysis, and gender stratified GLM analysis were conducted. We find that disclosing HIV status to partners was significantly related to better quality of relationship with partners and open and effective family communication. Gender and partner HIV status might moderate the associations between interpersonal factors and HIV partner disclosure. Our findings suggest the importance of considering relationship quality and enhancing open and comfortable family communication in HIV disclosure interventions. Gender difference and partner HIV status should be also considered in HIV disclosure intervention to address the diverse needs of HIV-infected people. PMID:26899370

  3. Predictors of impaired HDL function in HIV-1 infected compared to uninfected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Objective: HDL function rather than absolute level may be a more accurate indicator for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but it is unclear what drives HDL dysfunction in HIV-1 infection. The objective of this study is to identify factors that may contribute to HDL dysfunction in chronic HIV-1 infection. Design: Retrospective study of HIV-1 infected males with low overall CVD risk and healthy males with no known CVD risk matched by race to the HIV-1 infected participants. Methods: We related para...

  4. AMYLOID BETA ACCUMULATION IN HIV-1-INFECTED BRAIN: THE ROLE OF THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER

    OpenAIRE

    András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    In recent years we face an increase in the aging of the HIV-1-infected population, which is not only due to effective antiretroviral therapy but also to new infections among older people. Even with the use of the antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders represent an increasing problem as the HIV-1-infected population ages. Increased amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition is characteristic of HIV-1-infected brains, and it has been hypothesized that brain vascular dysfunction contr...

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of enterobacteriaceae isolated from HIV-infected patients in Kinshasa

    OpenAIRE

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Wambale, José Mulwahali; Takaisi-Kikuni, Ntondo za Balega

    2014-01-01

    Introduction People infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are susceptible to develop severe bacterial infections. We set out to determine the frequency and the sensitivity to antibiotics of enterobaceriaceae isolated from urine and feces of HIV-infected persons. Methods Urine and feces samples were collected from HIV-infected patients of the Centre de Traitement Ambulatoire de Kabinda (CTA/Kabinda, Kinshasa) and analyzed at the Reference National Laboratory for HIV/AIDS and Sexually ...

  6. Increased longevity in HIV: caring for older HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The demographics of the HIV-infected population in the United States have shifted in a way that few would have predicted 30 years ago when the tide of sick and dying patients largely consisted of young men. Effective ART has allowed those infected to live long, productive lives and to grow old with their disease. With the increase in life expectancy afforded by HIV treatment, the cause of death among HIV-infected individuals is far more likely to be from an HIV-associated non-AIDS condition. Nonetheless, HIV seems to accelerate the aging process, and care providers involved in the treatment of older patients with HIV need to be aware that their patients are at increased risk of developing various common disorders, compared to uninfected same-age patients. Clinicians need to remain vigilant to the possibility of a new diagnosis of HIV among their older patients. Awareness of current or distant risk, frank discussions of sexual practices, and willingness to offer routine testing are crucial to making this diagnosis, with the recognition that longevity for patients with HIV is directly linked to how soon they enter care. HIV infection adds another challenge to the management of older patients; geriatricians and HIV specialists need to coordinate their efforts to provide patients with comprehensive multidisciplinary care. Older patients with HIV also have social and psychological needs that extend beyond the medical office. Maintaining independence, acknowledging limitations, reducing risk of adverse events such as falls or medication errors, and supporting self-acceptance and awareness are only a few of the many areas where care providers outside the medical office can be important for patients' ongoing well-being. Accessing family support, community outreach, church affiliation, or other outpatient support networks can be useful for patients. The remarkable change in prognosis brought about by effective ART in the mid-1990s has meant that HIV is now, for many, a

  7. HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Losada Marcos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicate experiments are often difficult to find in evolutionary biology, as this field is inherently an historical science. However, viruses, bacteria and phages provide opportunities to study evolution in both natural and experimental contexts, due to their accelerated rates of evolution and short generation times. Here we investigate HIV-1 evolution by using a natural model represented by monozygotic twins infected synchronically at birth with an HIV-1 population from a shared blood transfusion source. We explore the evolutionary processes and population dynamics that shape viral diversity of HIV in these monozygotic twins. Results Despite the identical host genetic backdrop of monozygotic twins and the identical source and timing of the HIV-1 inoculation, the resulting HIV populations differed in genetic diversity, growth rate, recombination rate, and selection pressure between the two infected twins. Conclusions Our study shows that the outcome of evolution is strikingly different between these two "replicates" of viral evolution. Given the identical starting points at infection, our results support the impact of random epigenetic selection in early infection dynamics. Our data also emphasize the need for a better understanding of the impact of host-virus interactions in viral evolution.

  8. Cobalamin binding proteins in patients with HIV infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P-Cobalamins have been reported to be decreased in patients with HIV infection. Because of this, we found it of interest to examine both cobalamin-saturated binding proteins (holo-transcobalamin, holo-TC and holo-haptocorrin, holo-HC) and cobalamin unsaturated binding proteins (apo-transcobalamin, apo-TC and apo-haptocorrin, apo-HC). The results are given as range and (median). Eighteen male HIV-infected patients with plasma cobalamins below 200 pmol/l were studied. We found low concentrations of holo-TC (37-88(47.5)pmol/l) and holo-HC (64-184(135.3)pmol/l). The concentration of apo-TC and apo-HC was increased (480-1730(1025)pmol/l; 70-800(235)pmol/l). It is concluded that, in HIV-infected patients, low plasma cobalamin does not reflect a low concentration of transcobalamin or haptocorrin. In 20 HIV-infected patients and 31 patients with malignant haematological diseases, the TC isopeptide patterns were determined. In the HIV group, an increased frequency of TC isopeptide X was found and the overall distribution of TC isopeptides was significantly different from the reference population (p<0.05). There was no difference between the group of patients with malignant haematological diseases and the reference group. (au)

  9. Skeletal muscle cellular metabolism in older HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmeyer, Heidi K; Ryan, Alice S; Hafer-Macko, Charlene; Oursler, KrisAnn K

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to low aerobic capacity. We previously reported 40% lower aerobic capacity in HIV-infected men compared to noninfected age-matched men. The objective of this study was to compare skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities in HIV-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (55 ± 1 years of age, n = 10 African American men) with age-matched controls (55 ± 1 years of age, n = 8 Caucasian men), and determine their relationship with aerobic capacity. Activity assays for mitochondrial function including enzymes involved in fatty acid activation and oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation, were performed in homogenates prepared from vastus lateralis muscle. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cardiolipin, and oxidized cardiolipin were also measured. β-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) (38%) and citrate synthase (77%) activities were significantly lower, and H2O2 (1.4-fold) and oxidized cardiolipin (1.8-fold) were significantly higher in HIV-infected men. VO2peak (mL/kg FFM/min) was 33% lower in HIV-infected men and was directly related to β-HAD and citrate synthase activity and inversely related to H2O2 and oxidized cardiolipin. Older HIV-infected men have reduced oxidative enzyme activity and increased oxidative stress compared to age-matched controls. Further research is crucial to determine whether an increase in aerobic capacity by exercise training will be sufficient to restore mitochondrial function in older HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27166139

  10. Antiretrovirals to Prevent HIV Infection: Pre- and Postexposure Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, Cynthia L.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2008-01-01

    More than 3 million people are now receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide. Currently, the indications for ART depend primarily on CD4 count, blood viral burden, and clinical signs and symptoms suggesting advanced HIV disease. However, interest is increasing in ART’s preventive potential. Postexposure prophylaxis following both occupational and nonoccupational exposure to HIV is the standard-of-care in many settings. Observational and ecologic studies suggest that ART administered to...

  11. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  12. Possible biochemical impact of malaria infection in subjects with HIV co-infection in Anambra state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Onyenekwe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The present study was designed to determine possible contributory impact of malaria infection on some biochemical markers in subjects with HIV co-infection in order to know if they are adverse or protective.Methods: Participants were recruited at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria and grouped into: (i Malaria and HIV co-infection group (n = 45; and (ii HIV infected group without concurrent malaria infection (n = 57. Standard laboratory methods were used for the HIV and Plasmodium falciparum antigen screening, malaria parasite density, CD4+ T-cell count, packed cell volume, white blood cell count, serum iron and albumin concentrations.Results: The results showed that serum iron and albumin were significantly reduced and raised respectively in ‘Malaria–HIV co-infection group’ compared with ‘HIV infection group’ (p <0.05 and p <0.05. A positive association was observed between age and serum iron concentration in malaria and HIV co-infected group (r = 0.580; p <0.05 while negative associations were observed between PCV and serum iron (r = – 0.388; p <0.05 and between CD4+ T-cells and serum iron concentration (r = – 0.362; p<0.05 in malaria and HIV co-infected group. The CD4+ T-cell count, WBC count, PCV were not significantly different between the Malaria-HIV co-infection group and HIV infection group.Interpretation & conclusion: In the present study serum iron and albumin concentrations were the most sensitive indicators that showed the contributory impact of malaria infection on biochemical index in HIV co-infected subjects. The findings suggest that at the defined stage of HIV infection in the present study, malaria co-infection may moderate the impact of HIV infection on iron metabolism and hepatic synthesis of albumin.

  13. In vitro separation and expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals without activation of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells...... from a total of 14 patients were enriched from a mean percentage of CD4 cells in PBMC of 18% to 91% CD4 cells in the enriched cell fraction. Furthermore, we found that this separation did not lead to an increase in viral load. The MACS performed equally well on cells from HIV-positive patients and HIV...... expression and no loss of polyclonality. Only in two of six cultures were we able to detect HIV-antigen production,and using an LTR-PCR and an RT assay, we did not find activation of the HIV infection during the culture period. Thus, the method described separates and expands CD4 cells from HIV...

  14. In vitro separation and expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals without activation of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells...... from a total of 14 patients were enriched from a mean percentage of CD4 cells in PBMC of 18% to 91% CD4 cells in the enriched cell fraction. Furthermore, we found that this separation did not lead to an increase in viral load. The MACS performed equally well on cells from HIV-positive patients and HIV...... expression and no loss of polyclonality. Only in two of six cultures were we able to detect HIV-antigen production, and using an LTR-PCR and an RT assay, we did not find activation of the HIV infection during the culture period. Thus, the method described separates and expands CD4 cells from HIV...

  15. Immune pathogenesis of pediatric HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemessen, Caroline T.; Kuhn, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Vertical exposure to HIV occurs at a time when functional capacity of the infant’s immune system is attenuated through immaturity. Immune response capability is rooted in host genetic makeup, and the broad and fine specificity of innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively, shape the outcomes of HIV encounter in some instances and imprint viral changes through selective immune pressure in others. Findings from recent studies have profound implications for understanding immune pathogene...

  16. Fertility among HIV-infected Indian women Indian women : the biological effect and its implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Janssen, Fanny; Hutter, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In India, nearly one million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV. This study sought to examine the biological effect of HIV on the fertility of HIV-infected Indian women. This is relevant for the provision of pregnancy-related counselling and care to the infected women, and for estimatin

  17. Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Ahlström, Magnus G; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ≥ 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older,...

  18. DMPD: Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18178131 Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? Herbein G, Khan... KA. Trends Immunol. 2008 Feb;29(2):61-7. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven diseas...e? PubmedID 18178131 Title Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease

  19. Strategies for addressing restorative challenges in HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnur, Juliana Pires; Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Castro, Gloria Fernanda; Maia, Lucianne Cople; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    The complete caries removal of deep/extensive dentin carious lesions with conventional procedures (high- and low-speed bur) may increase the risk of pulp exposure. In children with systemic diseases, such as HIV-infected children, the dental treatment proposed for the primary dentition with pulp involvement is tooth extraction once endodontic therapies cannot be guaranteed successfully. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe 3 cases of alternative techniques for caries removal in extensive and/or deep dentin carious lesions in the primary dentition of HIV-infected children: (1) atraumatic restorative treatment (ART); (2) Carisolv; and (3) Papacarie. PMID:18505652

  20. Quality of HIV Care and Mortality Rates in HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Korthuis, PT; McGinnis, KA; Kraemer, KL; Gordon, AJ; Skanderson, M; Justice, AC; Crystal, S; Goetz, MB; Gibert, CL; Rimland, D.; Fiellin, LE; Gaither, JR; Wang, K; Asch, SM; McInnes, DK

    2016-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act encourages healthcare systems to track quality-of-care measures; little is known about their impact on mortality rates. The objective of this study was to assess associations between HIV quality of care and mortality rates.A longitudinal survival analysis of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study included 3038 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients enrolled between June 2002 and July 2008. The independent variable was receipt of ≥80% of 9 ...

  1. Comparison of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Admission to Hospital in HIV-and Non-HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Touchie, Claire; Marrie, Thomas J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with that in hospitalized non-HIV-infected patients by assessing presenting characteristics, etiology and outcomes.DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.SETTING: A tertiary care centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia.POPULATION STUDIED: Thirty-two HIV-infected patients requiring hospitalization for treatment of CAP were identified from September 1991 to October 1993 and compared ...

  2. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of HIV-2 infection is likely to affect the patient care in areas where HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, newly...... diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes in Guinea-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6......% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive patients were younger than HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients, but no difference in sex was observed. Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 had a lower baseline CD4 cell count than HIV-2 seropositive...

  3. Systemic Cytokine and Interferon Responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV Mono and Co-Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ghare, Smita; Barve, Shirish; Young, Mary; Plankey, Michael; Bordon, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV+/HCV+), HCV mono-infected (HIV−/HCV+), HIV mono-infected (HIV+/HCV−) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV−/HCV−) who had en...

  4. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these “functional” pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit.

  5. Prevalence of parasitemia and associated immunodeficiency among HIV-malaria co-infected adult patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline E Omoti; Chiedozie K Ojide; Patrick V Lofor; Emeka Eze; Joy C Eze

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the malaria parasitemia,CD4+ cell counts and some haematological indices amongHIV-malaria co-infected adult patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).Methods:A total of342 adultHIV positive subjects were recruited at the consultant outpatientHIV/AIDS clinic,University ofBeninTeachingHospital,BeninCity,Nigeria between June2011 toNovember2011.Blood samples were taken for malaria parasite count,CD4+ cell count and other haematological counts.Results:Out of the342 adultHIV positive subjects a total of254 patients (74.3%) were found to have malaria parasitemia.The incidence of malaria parasitemia increased with advancing clinical stage ofHIV infection and this was statistically significant (P=0.002).There was no statistical significance when gender was compared with the HIV-malaria status (P>0.05).Of the254 co-infected patients,134 (52.8%) had high parasitemia (>1.25×109/L).Sixty patients were found to be hyperparasitemic (>2.5 parasites/L).There was a significant association betweenCD4+ cell count and having significant parasitemia (P 0.05).Conclusions:The prevalence of parasitemia is high among theHIV/AIDS infected patients.

  6. Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus...... suppression were identified. All-cause MRRs were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.2) and 1.8 (1.1-2.8) for HIV-infected patients and population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. MRRs for smoking and alcohol-related deaths were 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.9) for HIV......-infected patients and 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) for population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. CONCLUSION: With free and equal access to healthcare, low educational attainment might increase risk of HIV infection among heterosexual individuals, but was not...

  7. Evaluating Safer Conception Options for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples (HIV-Infected Female/HIV-Uninfected Male: A Closer Look at Vaginal Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeoma Mmeje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2-mediated inhibition of HIV type 1: a new approach to gene therapy of HIV-infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, S K; Gallo, R C

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2, the second AIDS-associated human retrovirus, differs from HIV-1 in its natural history, infectivity, and pathogenicity, as well as in details of its genomic structure and molecular behavior. We report here that HIV-2 inhibits the replication of HIV-1 at the molecular level. This inhibition was selective, dose-dependent, and nonreciprocal. The closely related simian immunodeficiency provirus also inhibited HIV-1. The selectivity of inhibition was show...

  9. A Decline in New HIV Infections in South Africa: Estimating HIV Incidence from Three National HIV Surveys in 2002, 2005 and 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Rehle, Thomas M.; Timothy B Hallett; Olive Shisana; Victoria Pillay-van Wyk; Khangelani Zuma; Henri Carrara; Sean Jooste

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three national HIV household surveys were conducted in South Africa, in 2002, 2005 and 2008. A novelty of the 2008 survey was the addition of serological testing to ascertain antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a validated mathematical method to estimate the rate of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) in South Africa using nationally representative HIV prevalence data collected in 2002, 2005 and 2008. The observed HIV prevalence levels in 200...

  10. The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Martin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic HCV co-infection is present in up to one third of HIV-positive patients in Europe. In recent years, apart from the traditional transmission route of intravenous drug abuse, outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infections, mainly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, have contributed to the overall disease burden. Because the natural course of HCV infection is substantially accelerated in HIV-co-infection, end-stage liver disease has become the most frequent cause of non-AIDS related death in this population. Therefore every HIV/HCV co-infected patient should be evaluated for possible anti-HCV therapy with the goal of reaching a sustained virological response and thus cure of hepatitis C infection. The standard of care for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV-infected remains a pegylated interferon in combination with weight-adapted ribavirin. HAART should not be withheld from HCV co-infected patients due to concerns of drug related hepatotoxicity and in patients with reduced CD4-cell counts HAART should be started first. Under pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy drug to drug interactions and cumulated toxicity between nucleoside analogues and anti-HCV therapy may be observed and concomitant didanosine use is contraindicated and zidovudine and stavudine should be avoided if possible. The development of new drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C represents a promising perspective also for HIV positive patients. However, these substances will probably reach clinical routine for HIV patients later than HCV monoinfected patients. Therefore at present waiting for new drugs is not an alternative to a modern pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy.

  11. Flail arm-like syndrome associated with HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years′ duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ′flail arm-like syndrome.′ The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen.

  12. Flail arm–like syndrome associated with HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, A.; Desai, Anita; Mahato, Simendra Kumar

    2009-01-01

    During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years' duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ‘flail arm–like syndrome.’ The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen. PMID:20142861

  13. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  14. Correlation between Demographics, Clinical and Risk Factor for HIV infection with HIV/TB coinfected in Amertha Clinic Kerti Praja Foundation Denpasar

    OpenAIRE

    Yuneti Octavianus Nyoko

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: HIV infection increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB), as TB infection increases the progression of HIV. In Bali, HIV/TB coinfected patients have increased from 26% in 2012 to 30% in 2013. Study on factors related with the occurrence of HIV/TB coinfection is limited in Indonesia. This study aims to determine the correlation between demographics, clinical and risk factor for HIV infected with HIV/TB coinfected in Amertha Clinic Kerti Praja Foundation Bali.Met...

  15. Tuberculous abdominal abscess in an HIV-infected man: Neither infection previously diagnosed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yao Kao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man had a 1-week history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain; the initial impression was that he had diverticulitis of the ascending colon with an intra-abdominal abscess. Signs of peritonitis mandated an immediate right hemicolectomy. The unusual location of the abscess and the patient’s unusual postoperative course suggested that he might also have a systemic disease. Testing for HIV infection was positive. After 2 weeks in hospital, he was treated as an outpatient for both tuberculosis and HIV with a favourable outcome. In Taiwan a pre-operative HIV test is not performed routinely, and the HIV seroprevalence in surgical patient populations is unknown. Surgeons should keep the possibility of HIV infection in mind in a patient with an unusual clinical course.

  16. HIV protease inhibitors in gut barrier dysfunction and liver injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xudong; Li, Yunzhou; Peng, Kesong; Zhou, Huiping

    2014-01-01

    The development of HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PIs) has been one of the most significant advances of the past two decades in controlling HIV infection. HIV PIs have been used successfully in highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which is currently the most effective treatment available. Incorporation of HIV PIs in HAART causes profound and sustained suppression of viral replication, significantly reduces the morbidity and mortality of HIV infection, and prolongs th...

  17. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this...... infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...

  18. Direct Evidence of Lower Viral Replication Rates In Vivo in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Infection than in HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    MacNeil, Adam; Sarr, A. D.; Sankalé, J.-L.; Meloni, S.; Mboup, S.; Kanki, Phyllis Jean

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is less pathogenic than HIV-1, with a lower rate of disease progression. Similarly, plasma viral loads are lower in HIV-2 infection, suggesting that HIV-2 replication is restricted in vivo in comparison to that of HIV-1. However, to date, in vivo studies characterizing replication intermediates in the viral life cycle of HIV-2 have been limited. In order to test the hypothesis that HIV-2 has a lower replication rate in vivo t...

  19. Smart nanoparticles as targeting platforms for HIV infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Rishi Rajat; More, Prachi; Banerjee, Rinti

    2015-04-01

    While Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are reducing in incidence with the advent of Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART), there remain a number of challenges including the existence of reservoirs, drug resistance and anatomical barriers to antiretroviral therapy. To overcome these, smart nanoparticles with stimuli responsive release are proposed for delivery of anti-retroviral agents. The paper highlights the strategic similarities between the design of smart antiretroviral nanocarriers and those optimized for cancer chemotherapy. This includes the development of nanoparticles capable of passive and active targeting as well as those that are responsive to various internal and external triggers. For antiretroviral therapy, the relevant triggers for stimuli responsive release of drugs include semen, enzymes, endosomal escape, temperature and magnetic field. Deriving from the experience of cancer chemotherapy, additional potential triggers are light and ultrasound which remain hitherto unexplored in HIV therapy. In addition, the roles of nanomicrobicides (nanogels) and virus mimetic nanoparticles are discussed from the point of view of prevention of HIV transmission. The challenges associated with translation of smart nanoparticles for HIV infections to realize the Millennium Development Goal of combating HIV infections are discussed.

  20. Coping With Stress Strategies in HIV-infected Iranian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehdari, Tahereh; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Abbasian, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. Results showed that participants used two categories of strategies (emotion-based coping and problem-based coping) to cope with stress. Emotion-based coping had two sub-themes: adaptive and maladaptive. The problem-based coping category had three sub-themes: participation in education sessions, adherence to medication, and efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Explanations of different strategies available to HIV-infected patients to cope with stress may help develop tailored interventions to improve the psychological conditions of people living with HIV. PMID:25769759

  1. Fertility intentions among HIV-infected, sero-concordant Kenyan couples in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari; Harrington, Elizabeth; Kwena, Zachary; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig R.; Grossma, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Research in sub-Saharan Africa has shown significant diversity in how HIV influences infected couples’ fertility intentions. Supporting HIV-infected, sero-concordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa to make informed choices about their fertility options has not received sufficient attention. In-depth interviews were conducted among 23 HIV-positive, sero-concordant married couples in Kenya, to better understand how HIV impacted fertility intentions. HIV compelled many to reconsider fertility plan...

  2. Role of darunavir in the management of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Monica Lascar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available R Monica Lascar, Paul BennThe Mortimer Market Centre, Camden PCT, London WC1E 6JBAbstract: There is an ongoing need for potent antiretroviral therapies to deal with the increasing pool of treatment-experienced patients with multiple drug resistance. The last few years have seen the arrival of 2 new and very potent protease inhibitors – darunavir and tipranavir – alongside 2 whole new classes of anti-HIV agents – the integrase inhibitors and chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonists. This review focuses on the role of darunavir in managing HIV infection, with an emphasis on darunavir’s exceptional resistance profile and related clinical effectiveness, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and toxicity data. Darunavir in combination with the pharmacokinetic booster ritonavir has proved to be very effective in the treatment of highly treatmentexperienced HIV patients with multiple drug resistance. The favorable tolerability and toxicity profile alongside the drug’s high genetic barrier to the development of resistance prompted approval of darunavir for HIV-treatment naïve patients. Furthermore, the paradigm of treating HIV with a combination of anti-HIV agents is currently being challenged by ongoing darunavir monotherapy trials and these preliminary data will be discussed.Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, darunavir

  3. Clinical course of primary HIV infection: consequences for subsequent course of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lindhardt, B O; Jensen, B L;

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the impact of the clinical course of the primary HIV infection on the subsequent course of the infection. DESIGN--Prospective documenting of seroconversion, follow up at six month intervals, and analysis of disease progression by life tables. PATIENTS--86 Men in whom...... who had no symptoms or mild illness (75% v 42% and 55% v 14%, respectively). CONCLUSION--The course of primary infection may determine the subsequent course of the infection....

  4. Elevated osteoprotegerin is associated with abnormal ankle brachial indices in patients infected with HIV: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang James J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients infected with HIV have an increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis. Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin, an inflammatory cytokine receptor, have been associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular disease (including peripheral arterial disease, or PAD, acute coronary syndrome, and cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to determine whether PAD is prevalent in an HIV-infected population, and to identify an association with HIV-specific and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, as well as levels of osteoprotegerin. Methods One hundred and two patients infected with HIV were recruited in a cross-sectional study. To identify the prevalence of PAD, ankle-brachial indices (ABIs were measured. Four standard ABI categories were utilized: ≤ 0.90 (definite PAD; 0.91-0.99 (borderline; 1.00-1.30 (normal; and >1.30 (high. Medical history and laboratory measurements were obtained to determine possible risk factors associated with PAD in HIV-infected patients. Results The prevalence of PAD (ABI ≤ 0.90 in a young HIV-infected population (mean age: 48 years was 11%. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including advanced age and previous cardiovascular history, as well as elevated C-reactive protein levels, were associated with PAD. Compared with patients with normal ABIs, patients with high ABIs had significantly elevated levels of osteoprotegerin [1428.9 (713.1 pg/ml vs. 3088.6 (3565.9 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.03]. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of PAD in young HIV-infected patients. A number of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and increased osteoprotegerin concentrations are associated with abnormal ABIs. Thus, early screening and aggressive medical management for PAD may be warranted in HIV-infected patients.

  5. Ankle-brachial index in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martos Francisco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prognosis for patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has improved with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Evidence over recent years suggests that the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing in HIV patients. The ankle-brachial index (ABI is a cheap and easy test that has been validated in the general population. Abnormal ABI values are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. To date, six series of ABI values in persons with HIV have been published, but none was a prospective study. No agreement exists concerning the risk factors for an abnormal ABI, though its prevalence is clearly higher in these patients than in the general population. Whether this higher prevalence of an abnormal ABI is associated with a higher incidence of vascular events remains to be determined.

  6. HPV in HIV-Infected Women: Implications for Primary Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NathalieDauphinMckenzie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence that HIV-infected women might have a different HPV type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention.Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with CIN 3/ CIS of the cervix in Miami, Florida. Method: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the UM-JMH colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare™ HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples.Results: Eight high risk HPV (HR-HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45% followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%. No samples contained HPV-18Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55% contain non -16 and -18 high risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed carcinoma in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention.

  7. The epidemiology of HIV seropositive malaria infected pregnant women in Akure Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajibade Kwashie Ako-Nai; Blessing I Ebhodaghe; Patrick O. Osho; Ebun A Adejuyigbe; Folasade M Adeyemi; Adeniran A. Ikuomola; KASSIM, OLAKUNLE O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV increases the risks of malaria in pregnant women, while maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load also facilitates perinatal transmission to neonates. Malaria and HIV coinfection has been shown to exacerbate adverse pregnancy complications. Our study was designed to determine the HIV prevalence of pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in Akure in southwestern Nigeria, investigate the relationship between dual HIV and malaria infection and HIV viral load and CD4+ T...

  8. Hyperproinsulinaemia in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hales, CN;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether the insulin precursors, intact (IP) and 32-33 split proinsulin (SP), which are elevated in states of insulin resistance and predict type 2 diabetes, would be elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy (LIPO.......01), but did not differ between study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Proinsulin appeared to be increased in HIV-lipodystrophy, but no more than caused by the increased ISR. Nevertheless, the inverse correlations between SP/insulin ratio versus Si(RD) and incremental total proinsulin/insulin ratio versus DI may argue......). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three normoglycaemic HIV-infected patients [18 LIPO and 18 without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) receiving antiretroviral drugs, and seven patients naïve to antiretroviral drugs (NAIVE)] were examined. Insulin precursors were measured during fasting, during an intravenous glucose...

  9. Cytokine therapies in HIV-1 infection: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Sarah L; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2003-06-01

    Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-related deaths have declined dramatically in the developed world. However, HAART is neither able to eradicate the virus nor are its immunomodulatory effects sufficient to effect complete control of the virus. In addition, the long-term use of HAART is complicated by drug-related toxicities and compliance issues, both of which impact upon the development of viral resistance. The failure of structured treatment interruption strategies in those with chronic HIV-infection combined with the above limitations, has prompted renewed interest in immunotherapy. Cytokines and therapeutic vaccination have been proposed as HAART-adjunctive and HAART-sparing treatments in HIV-infection, and the current and future role of cytokine therapy in this disease will be the subject of this review. PMID:15482104

  10. Recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in a splenectomised HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesne Gilles

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of human disease, especially in pre-school children and elderly people, as well as in special risk groups such as asplenic, antibody deficient patients, or presenting disruption of natural barriers. The occurrence of pneumococcal disease has increased with the onset of the HIV epidemic and the emergence of drug-resistance. Case presentation We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient who experienced three episodes of recurrent pneumococcal meningitis over a 4-year period, despite chemoprophylaxis and capsular vaccination. Conclusions Efficacy of anti-pneumococcal chemoprophylaxis and vaccination in HIV-infected patients are discussed in the light of this particular case.

  11. Clinical value of determination HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Musatov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the concentration of HIV RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and to evaluate its significance in the pathology of the central nervous system among HIV infected persons.Materials: We examined 36 patients with HIV infection with signs of pathology of the central nervous system. All patients was done completed a standard investigation of cerebrospinal fluid, cytological examination and detection viral load of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum.Results. A different of opportunistic and HIV-related disease was diagnosed in 29 patients. The most frequent pathology of the nervous system (12 cases is a diffuse HIV-associated brain damage occurring in 7 patients in the form of aseptic non purulent meningitis and in 5 patients in the form of encephalitis. The average value of the absolute and relative count of CD4-lymphocytes in patients amounted 147,0 cells/μl (40,0; 408,75 and 10.0% (4,00; 18,50. Pathological changes in cellular composition and protein concentration of cerebrospinal fluid detected in 19 cases. Replication of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid are detected in 31 of 32 patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy, including 17 patients with normal values of cerebrospinal fluid. The average HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid was 15 133,0 copies/ml (2501,0; 30624,0 or 4,18 (3,35; 4,48 lg HIV RNA, average HIV viral load in serum – 62 784,0 copies/ml (6027,5; 173869,0 or 4,80 4,80 (3,7; 5,2 lg HIV RNA. The concentration of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid was significantly lower than in serum (4,18 and 4,80 lg HIV RNA, p=0.027. 4 patients with severe, multietiology damage of the central nervous system viral, microbial and fungal etiology, there was an inverse relationship between the concentration of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and in serum, the concentrations of HIV was higher in the cerebrospinal fluid.Conclusion: Among the majority of HIV-infected patients with signs of the central

  12. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya eGwadz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The CDC recommends persons at high-risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%, but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines individual/attitudinal-, social-, and structural-level factors associated with past-year HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV. Methods. Participants were African American/Black and Hispanic heterosexual adults (N=2307 residing in an urban area with both high poverty and HIV prevalence rates. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS in 2012-2015 and completed a computerized structured assessment battery covering background factors, multi-level putative facilitators of HIV testing, and HIV testing history. Separate logistic regression analysis for males and females identified factors associated with past-year HIV testing.Results. Participants were mostly male (58%, African American/Black (75%, and 39 years old on average (SD = 12.06 years. Lifetime homelessness (54% and incarceration (62% were common. Half reported past-year HIV testing (50% and 37% engaged in regular, annual HIV testing. Facilitators of HIV testing common to both genders included sexually transmitted infection (STI testing or STI diagnosis, peer norms supporting HIV testing, and HIV testing access. Among women, access to general medical care and extreme poverty further predicted HIV testing, while recent drug use reduced the odds of past-year HIV testing. Among men, past-year HIV testing was also associated with lifetime incarceration and substance use treatment.Conclusions. The present study identified gaps in rates of HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV, and both common and

  13. Lues maligna in an HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passoni Luiz Fernando Cabral

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report such a case of malignant syphilis in a 42-year-old HIV-infected man, co-infected with hepatitis B virus, who presented neurolues and the classical skin lesions of lues maligna. The serum VDRL titer, which was 1:64 at presentation, increased to 1:2,048 three months after successful therapy with penicillin, decreasing 15 months later to 1:8.

  14. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Gemeda; Apers Ludwig; Hailmichael Yohannes; Tesfaye Markos; Deribew Amare; Duchateau Luc; Colebunders Robert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face intervie...

  15. Risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Gerstoft, Jan; Afzal, Shoaib; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relative impact of immune deficiency and lifestyle-related factors on risk of cancer in the HIV-infected population is controversial. We aimed to estimate the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with smoking, being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency. METHODS: In.......7-2.1). The PAFs of cancer associated with smoking and with being HIV-infected were 27 and 49%, respectively. For cancers not strongly related to smoking or viral infections, the PAFs associated with being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency were 0%. CONCLUSION: The risk of cancer is increased in HIV...

  16. Noninvasive micromanipulation of live HIV-1 infected cells via laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Live mammalian cells from various tissues of origin can be aseptically and noninvasively micromanipulated via lasers of different regimes. Laser-driven techniques are therefore paving a path toward the advancement of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) investigations. Studies aimed at the interaction of laser light, nanomaterials, and biological materials can also lead to an understanding of a wealth of disease conditions and result in photonics-based therapies and diagnostic tools. Thus, in our research, both continuous wave and pulsed lasers operated at varying wavelengths are employed, as they possess special properties that allow classical biomedical applications. This paper discusses photo-translocation of antiretroviral drugs into HIV-1 permissive cells and preliminary results of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in HIV-1 infected cells

  17. Noninvasive micromanipulation of live HIV-1 infected cells via laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mthunzi, Patience [National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2015-12-31

    Live mammalian cells from various tissues of origin can be aseptically and noninvasively micromanipulated via lasers of different regimes. Laser-driven techniques are therefore paving a path toward the advancement of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) investigations. Studies aimed at the interaction of laser light, nanomaterials, and biological materials can also lead to an understanding of a wealth of disease conditions and result in photonics-based therapies and diagnostic tools. Thus, in our research, both continuous wave and pulsed lasers operated at varying wavelengths are employed, as they possess special properties that allow classical biomedical applications. This paper discusses photo-translocation of antiretroviral drugs into HIV-1 permissive cells and preliminary results of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in HIV-1 infected cells.

  18. Noninvasive micromanipulation of live HIV-1 infected cells via laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthunzi, Patience

    2015-12-01

    Live mammalian cells from various tissues of origin can be aseptically and noninvasively micromanipulated via lasers of different regimes. Laser-driven techniques are therefore paving a path toward the advancement of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) investigations. Studies aimed at the interaction of laser light, nanomaterials, and biological materials can also lead to an understanding of a wealth of disease conditions and result in photonics-based therapies and diagnostic tools. Thus, in our research, both continuous wave and pulsed lasers operated at varying wavelengths are employed, as they possess special properties that allow classical biomedical applications. This paper discusses photo-translocation of antiretroviral drugs into HIV-1 permissive cells and preliminary results of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in HIV-1 infected cells.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Early Versus Standard Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Serena P; Bang, Heejung; Severe, Patrice; Jean Juste, Marc Antoine; Ambroise, Alex; Edwards, Alison; Hippolyte, Jessica; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; McGreevy, Jolion; Riviere, Cynthia; Marcelin, Serge; Secours, Rode; Warren D. Johnson; Pape, Jean W; Schackman, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since 1981, and about 33 million people (most of them living in low- and middle-income countries) are now infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. HIV destroys immune system cells (including CD4 cells, a type of lymphocyte), leaving infected individuals susceptible to other infections. Early in the AIDS epidemic, most HIV-infected people died within 10 years of infection. Then, in 1996, highly active antiretroviral ...

  20. The Achilles Heel of the Trojan Horse Model of HIV-1 trans-Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Marielle Cavrois; Jason Neidleman; Greene, Warner C.

    2008-01-01

    To ensure their survival, microbial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to subvert host immune defenses. The human retrovirus HIV-1 has been proposed to hijack the natural endocytic function of dendritic cells (DCs) to infect interacting CD4 T cells in a process termed trans-infection. Although DCs can be directly infected by certain strains of HIV-1, productive infection of DCs is not required during trans-infection; instead, DCs capture and internalize infectious HIV-1 virions in vesi...

  1. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm3 had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV

  2. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, P. [Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, D.B. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Bandeira, F. [Serviço de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lacerda, H.R. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Chaves, H. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Albuquerque, M.F.P.M. [Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães,FIOCRUZ, Recife, PE (Brazil); Montarroyos, U.R. [Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Ximenes, R.A.A. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-13

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count <200 cells/mm{sup 3} had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  3. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Monteiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261 and a comparison group (N = 82 of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France. The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm³ had a higher PWV (P = 0.01. There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  4. HIV-2 Genetic Evolution in Patients with Advanced Disease Is Faster than That in Matched HIV-1 Patients▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Helena; Borrego, Pedro; Wallstrom, Timothy C.; Mild, Mattias; Marcelino, José Maria; Barroso, Helena; Taveira, Nuno; Leitner, Thomas; Albert, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the evolutionary rates of HIV-2 and HIV-1. Two HIV-2 data sets from patients with advanced disease were compared to matched HIV-1 data sets. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of HIV-2 was significantly higher than the estimated rate of HIV-1, both in the gp125 and in the V3 region of the env gene. In addition, the rate of synonymous substitutions in gp125 was significantly higher for HIV-2 than for HIV-1, possibly indicating a shorter generation time or higher mutation rate of HIV-2. Thus, the lower virulence of HIV-2 does not appear to translate into a lower rate of evolution. PMID:20463072

  5. Thirty Years with HIV Infection-Nonprogression Is Still Puzzling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of the HIV epidemic, it was observed that a minority of the infected patients did not progress to AIDS or death and maintained stable CD4+ cell counts. As the technique for measuring viral load became available it was evident that some of these nonprogressors in addition to pres...

  6. Adherence to Tobacco Dependence Treatment Among HIV-Infected Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Kristine K; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K; Diaz, Philip; Koletar, Susan L; Reynolds, Nancy R

    2016-03-01

    High prevalence of tobacco use and low success in quitting remain significant problems for reducing disease burden among HIV-infected persons. This study's purpose was to examine participant responsiveness and tobacco dependence treatment adherence and their influences on tobacco abstinence among HIV-infected patients. This non-randomized study included HIV-infected smokers 18 years of age or older, who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day, and had an interest in quitting smoking in the next 30 days. HIV-infected smokers (n = 247) received a 12-week tobacco dependence treatment intervention that included pharmacotherapy and telephone counseling. Younger age and non-White race were associated with lower adherence to pharmacotherapy. Younger age, non-White race, and increased monthly binge drinking were associated with lower adherence to telephone counseling. High participant responsiveness was associated with adherence to pharmacotherapy, counseling, and abstinence. Development and testing of interventions to improve adherence to evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment is warranted. PMID:25855045

  7. Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Siberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood.

  8. HIV and parasitic co-infections in tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, N.; Magnussen, Pascal; Mugomela, A.;

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania, to determine the burden of HIV and parasitic co-infections among patients who were confirmed or suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Of the 655 patients investigated, 532 (81.2%) had been confirmed as PTB cases, by microscopy ...

  9. Coccidioides Thyroiditis in an HIV-Infected Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Jinno, Sadao; Chang, Shelley; Jacobs, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of Coccidioides thyroiditis in an HIV-infected patient with a history of recent Coccidioides pneumonia but with negative Coccidioides serology determined by enzyme immunoassay at presentation. Diagnosis of Coccidioides thyroiditis was made based on histopathologic examination and culture of thyroid abscess material obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  10. Mycobacterium avium complex enteritis in HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ishikane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The gastrointestinal (GI tract appears to be a common port of entry for MAC infection in patients with AIDS. Early recognition of GI MAC infection by endoscopy in HIV-infected patients and initiation of anti-MAC therapy and ART may reduce morbidity and mortality.

  11. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...

  12. Cerebral toxoplasmosis mimicking subacute meningitis in HIV-infected patients; a cohort study from Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rizal Ganiem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-associated subacute meningitis is mostly caused by tuberculosis or cryptococcosis, but often no etiology can be established. In the absence of CT or MRI of the brain, toxoplasmosis is generally not considered as part of the differential diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed cerebrospinal fluid real time PCR and serological testing for Toxoplasma gondii in archived samples from a well-characterized cohort of 64 HIV-infected patients presenting with subacute meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. Neuroradiology was only available for 6 patients. At time of presentation, patients mostly had newly diagnosed and advanced HIV infection (median CD4 count 22 cells/mL, with only 17.2% taking ART, and 9.4% PJP-prophylaxis. CSF PCR for T. Gondii was positive in 21 patients (32.8%. Circulating toxoplasma IgG was present in 77.2% of patients tested, including all in whom the PCR of CSF was positive for T. Gondii. Clinically, in the absence of neuroradiology, toxoplasmosis was difficult to distinguish from tuberculosis or cryptococcal meningitis, although CSF abnormalities were less pronounced. Mortality among patients with a positive CSF T. Gondii PCR was 81%, 2.16-fold higher (95% CI 1.04-4.47 compared to those with a negative PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected subacute meningitis in settings where neuroradiology is not available.

  13. Mode of Delivery among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Philadelphia, 2005-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Dana R.; Momplaisir, Florence M.; Adams, Joëlla W.; Yehia, Baligh R.; Anderson, Emily A.; Alleyne, Gregg; Brady, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current guidelines call for HIV-infected women to deliver via scheduled Caesarean when the maternal HIV viral load (VL) is >1,000 copies/ml. We describe the mode of delivery among HIV-infected women and evaluate adherence to relevant recommendations. Study Design We performed a population-based surveillance analysis of HIV-infected pregnant women in Philadelphia from 2005 to 2013, comparing mode of delivery (vaginal, scheduled Caesarean, or emergent Caesarean) by VL during pregnancy...

  14. Regulatory T Cells Prevent Liver Fibrosis During HIV Type 1 Infection in a Humanized Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nunoya, Jun-ichi; Washburn, Michael L.; Kovalev, Grigoriy I; Su, Lishan

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease is associated with aberrant immune activation, and coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) exacerbates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of HIV-1 infection or host immune modulation in liver pathogenesis is not clearly defined. Here, we report that regulatory T (Treg) cells prevent liver immunopathogenesis during HIV-1 infection in a humanized mouse model. In the absence of Treg cells, HIV-1 infection induced liver fibros...

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients: The Role of Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Korthuis, P. Todd; ZEPHYRIN, Laurie C.; Fleishman, John A.; Saha, Somnath; Josephs, Joshua S.; McGrath, Moriah M.; Hellinger, James; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2008-01-01

    HIV infection and substance use disorders are chronic diseases with complex contributions to health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 951 HIV-infected adults receiving care at 14 HIV Research Network sites in 2003 to estimate associations between HRQOL and specific substance use among HIV-infected patients. HRQOL was assessed by multi-item measures of physical and role functioning, general health, pain, energy, positive affect, anxiety, and depression. ...

  16. Pain and sensory function in HIV-infection : with and without antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Claes

    2000-01-01

    Pain is a common symptom throughout the course of HIV-1 infection, with a prevalence ranging between 30-80%, varying with study methodology and patient selection. Neurogenic pain may appear as a consequence of distal predominantly sensory neuropathy (DSP), a common HIV-1 related neurological complication of late HIV-1 infection, usually during the AIDS-stage of the disease. This study set out to analyse pain and sensory function in HIV-1 infected patients with and without hi...

  17. Association of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Abnormal Anal Cytology among HIV-Infected MSM in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yu; Li, Xiangwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Qian, Han-Zhu; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Feng; Gao, Cong; Li, Mufei; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background In the recent years, dramatic increases in HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been observed in China. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection related anal cancer is more common among HIV-infected MSM as compared to the general population. However, HPV infection and anal cytology has been rarely studied in HIV-infected MSM in China. Methods HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China were invited to participate in this study between January and April 2011. Anal swabs we...

  18. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegbaru Belete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.

  19. Periodontal status of HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy compared to HIV-therapy naive patients: a case control study

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    Fricke Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although severe oral opportunistic infections decreased with the implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, periodontitis is still a commonly described problem in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The objective of the present investigation was to determine possible differences in periodontal parameters between antiretroviral treated and untreated patients. Methods The study population comprised 80 patients infected with HIV divided into two groups. The first group was receiving antiretroviral therapy while the second group was therapy naive. The following parameters were examined: probing pocket depth, gingival recession, clinical attachment level, papilla bleeding score, periodontal screening index and the index for decayed, missed and filled teeth. A questionnaire concerning oral hygiene, dental care and smoking habits was filled out by the patients. Results There were no significant differences regarding the periodontal parameters between the groups except in the clinical marker for inflammation, the papilla bleeding score, which was twice as high (P Conclusion There is no indication for advanced periodontal damage in HIV-infected versus non-infected patients in comparable age groups. Due to their immunodeficiency, HIV-infected patients should be monitored closely to prevent irreversible periodontal damage. Periodontal monitoring and early therapy is recommended independent of an indication for highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  20. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddon J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Jo Seddon1, Sanjay Bhagani21Department of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Department of Infection and Immunity, Royal Free Hospital NHS Trust, London, UKAbstract: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART has entirely changed the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and dramatically reduced the rates of opportunistic infections (OI. However, OI continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both developed countries, where presentation with advanced HIV infection is common, and also in developing countries where ART is less widely available. Evidence to direct OI guidelines is partly limited by the fact that many large-scale studies date from the pre-ART era and more recent studies are sometimes poorly powered due to the falling rates of OI. Treatment of OI is now known to be as much about antimicrobials as about immune reconstitution with ART, and recent studies help guide the timing of initiation of ART in different infections. OI have also become complicated by the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome phenomenon which may occur once successful immune recovery begins. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been one of the most important antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of OI and remains paramount. It has a broad spectrum of activity against Pneumocystis jiroveci, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections and has an important role to play in preventing life-threatening OI. New advances in treating OI are coming from a variety of quarters: in cytomegalovirus eye disease, the use of oral rather than intravenous drugs is changing the face of therapy; in cryptococcal meningitis, improved drug formulations and combination therapy is improving clearance rates and reducing drug toxicities; and in gut disease, the possibility of rapid immune restitution with ART is replacing the need for antimicrobials against cryptosporidia and microsporidia.Keywords: HIV

  1. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole;

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this...... infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...... CD4 and that post binding events may be common to the infection of lymphocytes. Anti HIV-1 sera showed neutralizing activity against heterologous and even autologous escape virus. This finding, together with the observation that monocytes and M phi s are infected in vivo, suggests that protection...

  2. Interactions between HIV infection and leprosy: a paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustianowski, Andrew P; Lawn, Stephen D; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2006-06-01

    Early in the HIV epidemic it was feared that the disease would undermine leprosy control, as has occurred with tuberculosis. It was predicted that patients with leprosy and HIV coinfection would have an increased risk of lepromatous disease and a faster clinical evolution, and that the leprosy would be more difficult to treat. None of these concerns have materialised and the interaction between HIV and Mycobacterium leprae seems to be far more subtle than that between HIV and tuberculosis. We review the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological data relating to leprosy/HIV coinfection. The published epidemiological data are limited in quality but show neither an increased HIV prevalence among leprosy cases nor an alteration in clinical spectrum of leprosy among coinfected patients. Some data suggest that immune-mediated reactions that complicate leprosy occur at a higher frequency in coinfected patients. Leprosy has now been reported presenting as immune reconstitution disease among patients commencing highly active antiretroviral treatment. Histopathological observations reveal a normal spectrum of appearances in biopsies of leprosy lesions from coinfected patients, even among those with advanced immunodeficiency. These observations suggest that cell-mediated immune responses to M leprae are preserved at the site of disease despite evidence that these responses are abrogated systemically, by contrast with tuberculosis, in which the host granulomatous response is impaired by HIV coinfection. We speculate that this paradox may relate to differences between the activation state and rates of cell turnover within leprosy and tuberculosis granulomas that differentially affect the susceptibility of the granulomas to HIV. The interactions between leprosy and HIV have been little studied and further research on the clinical, pathological, and management aspects of this coinfection is warranted. PMID:16728321

  3. Natural History of Anal vs Oral HPV Infection in HIV-Infected Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Beachler, Daniel C.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Xiao, Wiehong; Gillison, Maura L.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals are at greater risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated anal than oropharyngeal cancers. The prevalence of anal vs oral HPV infections is higher in this population, but whether this is explained by higher incidence or persistence is unknown.

  4. Current topics in HIV pathogenesis, part 2: Inflammation drives a Warburg-like effect on the metabolism of HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aounallah, Mouna; Dagenais-Lussier, Xavier; El-Far, Mohamed; Mehraj, Vikram; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Routy, Jean-Pierre; van Grevenynghe, Julien

    2016-04-01

    HIV-1 infection leads to a depletion of CD4 T-cells associated with a persistent immune inflammation and changes in cellular metabolism. Most effort of managing HIV infection with combination of antiretroviral therapies (ART) has been focused on CD4 T-cell recovery, while control of persistent immune inflammation and metabolism were relatively underappreciated in the past. Recent discoveries on the interplay between innate immunity, inflammation (especially the inflammasome) and metabolic changes in the context of cancer and autoimmunity provide an emerging field for chronic viral infections including HIV-1. In a previous review, we described the deregulated metabolism contributing to immune dysfunctions such as alteration of memory T-cell responses, mucosal protection, and dendritic cell-related antigen presentation. Here, we summarize the latest knowledge on the detrimental influence of long-lasting inflammation and inflammasome activation induced by HIV-1, gut dysbiosis, and bacterial translocation, on metabolism during the course of viral infection. We also report on the inability of ART to fully counteract inflammation, resulting in partial metabolic improvement and leading to an insufficient decrease in the risk of non-AIDS events. Further advances in our understanding of the relationship between inflammation, altered metabolism, and long-term ART is warranted. Additionally, there is a critical need for developing new strategies to regulate the pro-inflammatory signals to enhance cellular metabolism and immune functions in order to improve the quality of life of individuals living with HIV-1. PMID:26851985

  5. Osteonecrosis en pacientes infectados por HIV Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo G. Bottaro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Según la literatura, la osteonecrosis tiene una mayor incidencia en los pacientes infectados con HIV que en la población general. Ello sería resultado de la confluencia de factores de riesgo clásicos y de otros propios de esta población o más prevalentes en ella, como el tratamiento con inhibidores de proteasa, la dislipemia producto de su consumo, la presencia de anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos, la hipercoagulabilidad, la restauración inmune y las vasculitis. Presentamos una serie de 13 pacientes infectados con HIV con osteonecrosis. El motivo de consulta fue dolor en grandes articulaciones. Cuatro eran alcoholistas, 8 tabaquistas y 9 tenían dislipemia. Once habían recibido esteroides en algún momento de la vida aunque sólo uno estaba recibiéndolos al momento del inicio del dolor. En 2 se detectaron anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos. Doce tenían sida y recibían tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia (11 con inhibidores de proteasa. Ellos lograron una adecuada recuperación inmunológica. Consideramos necesario incluir la osteonecrosis como diagnóstico diferencial de artralgia persistente en pacientes infectados con HIV e investigar infección por HIV en todo paciente con osteonecrosis sin claros factores predisponentes.Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is chiefly characterized by death of bone caused by vascular compromise. The true incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known and the pathogenesis remains undefined. Hypothetical risk factors peculiar to HIV-infected individuals that might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis include the introduction of protease inhibitors and resulting hyperlipidemia, the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum leading to a hypercoagulable state, immune recovery and vasculitis. Hereby we present a series of 13 HIV-infected patients with osteonecrosis. The most common symptom upon presentation was arthralgia. The majority

  6. Understanding HIV infection for the design of a therapeutic vaccine. Part I: Epidemiology and pathogenesis of HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.L. de; Vulto, A.G.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Gruters, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection leads to a gradual loss CD4+ T lymphocytes comprising immune competence and progression to AIDS. Effective treatment with combined antiretroviral drugs (cART) decreases viral load below detectable levels but is not able to eliminate the virus from the body. The success of cART is frust

  7. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Hoshi

    Full Text Available HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years, adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055 HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047 in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed.

  8. Persistent productive infection of human glial cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and by infectious molecular clones of HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhurst, S; Sakai, K.; de Bresser, J.; Stevenson, M.; Evinger-Hodges, M J; Volsky, D J

    1987-01-01

    The nature of the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cells of astrocytic origin was studied in vitro with cultured glial cells and intact HIV or infectious molecular clones of the virus. Infection of glial cells with intact HIV was characterized by low-level expression of viral transcripts as detected by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization (less than 10 copies of HIV RNA per cell), transient virus replication, absence of viral antigens detectable by immun...

  9. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years), adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed. PMID:26862764

  10. [Role of line immunoassay in the diagnosis of early HIV infection: a diagnostic case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylar, Muhammed; Altuğlu, Imre; Sertöz, Rüçhan; Gökengin, Deniz

    2013-07-01

    Combined p24 antigen-HIV antibody fourth-generation assays that identify most of the early HIV infections have been used extensively worldwide for several years. This poses challenges for the traditional algorithm of line immunoassay (LIA) confirmation. LIA tests are useful methods with their high specificity and their ability to differentiate HIV-1 from HIV-2, but they are reactive days after the fourth generation enzyme immunoassays. With acute HIV infection, high levels of infectious virus are detectable in serum and genital secretions. The rate of transmission during acute HIV infection is higher than the established HIV infection, for this reason, new HIV testing strategies need to focus on sensitivity, especially for this highly contagious phase immediately after infection. Serum sample of a patient sent to Ege University Hospital Clinical Virology Laboratory was repeatedly reactive with low signal/cutoff ratios with two different commercial fourth generation enzyme immunoassays (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo Reagent Kit, Abbott, Germany and Vidas HIV Duo Quick, Biomerieux, France). The sample was non-reactive with the LIA (INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score, Innogenetics, Belgium) and HIV RNA (RealTime HIV-I Amplification Reagent Kit, Abbott, USA) result was positive (4.1 x 10(5) copies/ml). With the presentation of this case, the role of LIA in the diagnosis of early HIV infection and its place in test algorithms were questioned. PMID:23971936

  11. Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Afrasiabian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The risk of developing chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV is 5% in general population but can reach up to 20% in HIV patients. The response rate to HBV vaccine in HIV infected patients is 23.8-56 percent. The aim of this study was to evaluate response of HIV-infected patients to 20 µg dose of recombinant HBV vaccine. Materials & Methods: In this quasi experimental study, 51 subjects, sampled through census, were HIV patients who had HBsAg negative test in HIV/AIDS counseling and care center. Patients were vaccinated with 20 µg of recombinant HBV vaccine, IM at intervals of 0, 1 and 6 months. Response to the vaccine was checked 2 months after the last injection. Data were analyzed with SPSS software, using descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests. Results: The mean age of the patients was 33.68±8.37 years. Two patients were female (3.9% and 49 patients were male (96.1%. Mean of hepatitis B antibody level was 47.55±71.58 mIU/ml. The levels of antibody in different patients were as follow: 31 patients (60.8% 10 mIU/ml. There was no significant correlation between antibody levels and CD4+ cell count (correlation coefficient = -0.191. Conclusion: Response to hepatitis B vaccination is low in HIV infected patients. Conventional dose of HBV vaccine is not enough to get protective immunity. Therefore, two-fold dose of vaccine dose, repeat of conventional dose or increasing of interval administration of hepatitis B vaccine should be considered in future studies.

  12. Genotyping and virological characteristics of hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected individuals in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhlid Yousif

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In HBV/HIV co-infected Sudanese patients, the ratio of genotype A to non-A was higher than that in mono-infected patients. The genotype E intra-group divergence in HBV/HIV co-infected individuals was significantly higher than that in HBV mono-infected patients.

  13. Challenges and opportunities for HIV prevention and care: insights from focus groups of HIV-infected African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; McManus, Patricia; Addison, Reverend Jim; Morgan, Sarah; Millon-Underwood, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Given the inordinate burden of HIV illness borne by African American men, investigations of HIV prevention and care in this population are urgently needed. In this qualitative study, a sample of 20 HIV-infected African American men participated in two focus groups in which they exchanged experiences and ideas about living with HIV. They shared details about how they were personally impacted by HIV, and together they constructed a perspective on the larger societal context in which the HIV infection rate among African American men continues unabated. The men focused on growing complacency about HIV/AIDS in the United States, underfunding of supports and services, stigmas operative in African American communities, and differential care based on race, gender, and diagnosis. They saw opportunity in personal strategies that help individual men infected with HIV to take a more empowered stance to deal with the disease and improve their health but looked for changes undertaken by African Americans at the community level to make a real difference in the epidemic. Their vision included enhanced support for HIV prevention and care from influential community institutions like Black churches, more open dialogue about drugs and sexual behavior, and capacity-building for families whose members are HIV-infected or at risk for HIV. PMID:16849084

  14. Non-infective pulmonary disease in HIV-positive children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)

  15. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.

  16. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DYNAMICS OF HIV INFECTION WITHOUT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogban G. I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the mathematical and numerical modeling of the immune system of the course of HIV infection without treatment. Presently a significant number of scientific papers are devoted to the study of this problem. However, HIV infection is highly volatile and there is no effective drug, in that HIV has the ability to mutate and reproduce itself in the presence of chemical substances that are meant to inhibit or destroy it. The mathematical models used in this paper are conceptual and exploratory in nature. The proposed mathematical model allow us to obtain a complete description of the dynamics of HIV infection, and also an understanding of the progression to AIDS. Thus, the results of the numerical solution of differential equations in this work show that: the disease develops, and at low concentration of the virus, a certain level of stability does not depend on the initial concentration of infestation. In the absence of treatment, for interesting competition between virus and the loss of virus caused by immune response should be strictly greater than the rate of multiplication of the virus in the blood; the reproduction rate of the uninfected cells should be stricly greater than the mortality rate of the uninfected cells

  17. Non-infective pulmonary disease in HIV-positive children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; George, Reena; Plessis, Jaco du; Hayes, Murray; Mapukata, Ayanda [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)

  18. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF HIV, TB AND THEIR CO-INFECTION STATUS ANALYSIS IN RAJASTHAN STATE IN THE YEAR 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamija Jas; Mittal,, M.; Bhatheja; Sharma; Garg; Akash; Maheshwari

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sparse published data are available in indexed journals regarding burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in Tuberculosis (TB) cases in Rajasthan. OBJECTIVE: HIV infection is a global pandemic which may trigger the occurrence of opportunistic infections, Tuberculosis (TB) being very common. There is strong association between HIV, TB co-infection and a high mortality among HIV-infected TB patients. Therefore this study is undertaken to evaluate status of HIV, TB and...

  19. Outcome and reinfection after Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in individuals with and without HIV-1 infection: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Stammler Jaliff, Bianca; Dahl-Knudsen, Jenny; Petersen, Andreas; Skov, Robert; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Individuals infected with HIV-1 are at an increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rate and risk of reinfection associated with SAB in HIV-1-infected individuals compared to individuals without HIV-1 infection. Setting University hospital treating a third of the estimated 5000 individuals with HIV infection in Denmark. Participants HIV-1-infected (n=82) and sex-matched and age-matched uninfected (n=163) individual...

  20. Hyperproinsulinaemia in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hales, CN;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether the insulin precursors, intact (IP) and 32-33 split proinsulin (SP), which are elevated in states of insulin resistance and predict type 2 diabetes, would be elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy (LIPO.......01), but did not differ between study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Proinsulin appeared to be increased in HIV-lipodystrophy, but no more than caused by the increased ISR. Nevertheless, the inverse correlations between SP/insulin ratio versus Si(RD) and incremental total proinsulin/insulin ratio versus DI may argue...

  1. Knowledge about aids/HIV infection among female college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDs infection among female college students of Lahore. Results: Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7 % students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast-feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high-risk groups. Only 33.2% student perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. Conclusion: The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths like getting HIV/AIDS through nose/ear piercing, its relation to Islam, and use of second hand clothing need to be clarified. (author)

  2. Food Insecurity-A Risk Factor for HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sheri D Weiser; Leiter, Karen; Bangsberg, David R.; Lisa M Butler; Percy-de Korte, Fiona; Hlanze, Zakhe; Phaladze, Nthabiseng; Iacopino, Vincent; Heisler, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. For people in sub-Saharan Africa, insufficient food for their daily needs and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS) are inextricably linked and major causes of illness and death. By reducing the number of healthy adults in the region, HIV/AIDS has decreased food production so fewer people have secure access to sufficient food for a healthy life—many are subject to “food insecurity.” Because g...

  3. Interactive effects of cocaine on HIV infection: implication in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder and neuroAIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal, Santosh; Chitti, Sai V. P.; Madhavan P N Nair; Saxena, Shailendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial epidemiological studies suggest that not only, being one of the reasons for the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but drug abuse also serves its role in determining the disease progression and severity among the HIV infected population. This article focuses on the drug cocaine, and its role in facilitating entry of HIV into the CNS and mechanisms of development of neurologic complications in infected individuals. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive central nerv...

  4. Interactive Effects of Cocaine on HIV Infection: Implication in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder and NeuroAIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh eDahal; Sai V.P. eChitti; Madhavan P.N. eNair; Shailendra K eSaxena

    2015-01-01

    Substantial epidemiological studies suggest that not only, being one of the reasons for the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but drug abuse also serves its role in determining the disease progression and severity among the HIV infected population. This article focuses on the drug cocaine, and its role in facilitating entry of HIV into the CNS and mechanisms of development of neurologic complications in infected individuals. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive central nerv...

  5. Impact of Adherence Counseling Dose on Antiretroviral Adherence and HIV Viral Load among HIV-Infected Methadone Maintained Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Heo, Moonseong; Berg, Karina M.; Li, Xuan; Litwin, Alain H.; Nahvi, Shadi; Arnsten, Julia H.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence counseling can improve antiretroviral adherence and related health outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. However, little is known about how much counseling is necessary to achieve clinically significant effects. We investigated antiretroviral adherence and HIV viral load relative to the number of hours of adherence counseling received by 60 HIV-infected drug users participating in a trial of directly observed antiretroviral therapy delivered in methadone clinics. Our adherence couns...

  6. Discrimination against HIV-infected people and the spread of HIV: some evidence from France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Peretti-Watel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA suffer from stigma and discrimination. There is an ongoing debate, however, about whether stigma, fear and discrimination actually fuel the persisting spread of HIV, or slow it down by reducing contacts between the whole population and high-risk minorities. To contribute to this debate, we analysed the relationship between perceived discrimination and unsafe sex in a large sample of French PLWHAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2003, we conducted a national cross-sectional survey among a random sample of HIV-infected patients. The analysis was restricted to sexually active respondents (N = 2,136. Unsafe sex was defined as sexual intercourse without a condom with a seronegative/unknown serostatus partner during the prior 12 months. Separate analyses were performed for each transmission group (injecting drug use (IDU, homosexual contact, heterosexual contact. Overall, 24% of respondents reported experiences of discrimination in their close social environment (relatives, friends and colleagues and 18% reported unsafe sex during the previous 12 months. Both prevalences were higher in the IDU group (32% for perceived discrimination, 23% for unsafe sex. In multivariate analyses, experience of discrimination in the close social environment was associated with an increase in unsafe sex for both PLWHAs infected through IDU and heterosexual contact (OR = 1.65 and 1.80 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study clearly confirms a relationship between discrimination and unsafe sex among PLWHAs infected through either IDU or heterosexual contact. This relationship was especially strong in the heterosexual group that has become the main vector of HIV transmission in France, and who is the more likely of sexual mixing with the general population. These results seriously question the hypothesis that HIV-stigma has no effect or could even reduce the infection spread of HIV.

  7. Understanding HIV infection for the design of a therapeutic vaccine. Part II: Vaccination strategies for HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.L. de; Vulto, A.G.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Gruters, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection leads to a gradual loss CD4+ T lymphocytes comprising immune competence and progression to AIDS. Effective treatment with combined antiretroviral drugs (cART) decreases viral load below detectable levels but is not able to eliminate the virus from the body. The success of cART is frust

  8. Temporal Dynamics of CD8+ T Cell Effector Responses during Primary HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Korey R.; Makedonas, George; Buggert, Marcus; Eller, Michael A.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Li, Chris K.; Eller, Leigh Anne; Rono, Kathleen; Maganga, Lucas; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Kibuuka, Hannah; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Slifka, Mark K.; Haynes, Barton F.; Bernard, Nicole F.; Robb, Merlin L.; Betts, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The loss of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell cytolytic function is a primary factor underlying progressive HIV infection, but whether HIV-specific CD8+ T cells initially possess cytolytic effector capacity, and when and why this may be lost during infection, is unclear. Here, we assessed CD8+ T cell functional evolution from primary to chronic HIV infection. We observed a profound expansion of perforin+ CD8+ T cells immediately following HIV infection that quickly waned after acute viremia resolution. Selective expression of the effector-associated transcription factors T-bet and eomesodermin in cytokine-producing HIV-specific CD8+ T cells differentiated HIV-specific from bulk memory CD8+ T cell effector expansion. As infection progressed expression of perforin was maintained in HIV-specific CD8+ T cells with high levels of T-bet, but not necessarily in the population of T-betLo HIV-specific CD8+ T cells that expand as infection progresses. Together, these data demonstrate that while HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in acute HIV infection initially possess cytolytic potential, progressive transcriptional dysregulation leads to the reduced CD8+ T cell perforin expression characteristic of chronic HIV infection. PMID:27486665

  9. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C;

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found ...

  10. Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among HIV-Infected Gambians on Antiretroviral Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, Kevin; Togun, Toyin; Klis, Sandor; Menten, Joris; Colebunders, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mood disorders are more frequent among people with HIV infection than among non-HIV-infected individuals of the same age, socioeconomic status, and HIV risks. They have been associated with worse adherence and clinical outcomes, yet remain underdiagnosed and undertreated in sub-Saharan Africa. We ex

  11. Complement-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Sørensen, A M; Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    We investigated if complement-mediated enhancement of HIV infection occurs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In 7 experiments, we evaluated the effect of human complement on HIVIIIB infection in vitro. We measured HIV antigen production on day 4 and found that pre-incubation of HIV with...

  12. MRSA Infections in HIV-Infected People Are Associated with Decreased MRSA-Specific Th1 Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utay, Netanya S; Roque, Annelys; Timmer, J Katherina; Morcock, David R; DeLeage, Claire; Somasunderam, Anoma; Weintrob, Amy C; Agan, Brian K; Estes, Jacob D; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Douek, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    People with HIV infection are at increased risk for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Lower CD4 T-cell counts, higher peak HIV RNA levels and epidemiological factors may be associated with increased risk but no specific immune defect has been identified. We aimed to determine the immunologic perturbations that predispose HIV-infected people to MRSA SSTIs. Participants with or without HIV infection and with MRSA SSTI, MRSA colonization or negative for MRSA were enrolled. Peripheral blood and skin biopsies from study participants were collected. Flow cytometry, flow cytometry with microscopy, multiplex assays of cell culture supernatants and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the nature of the immune defect predisposing HIV-infected people to MRSA infections. We found deficient MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses in HIV-infected people with MRSA SSTIs compared to MRSA-colonized participants and HIV-uninfected participants with MRSA SSTIs. These IFNγ+ CD4 T cells were less polyfunctional in HIV-infected participants with SSTIs compared to those without SSTIs. However, IFNγ responses to cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium antigens and MRSA-specific IL-17 responses by CD4 T cells were intact. Upon stimulation with MRSA, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected participants produced less IL-12 and IL-15, key drivers of IFNγ production. There were no defects in CD8 T-cell responses, monocyte responses, opsonization, or phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Accumulation of CD3 T cells, CD4 T cells, IL-17+ cells, myeloperoxidase+ neutrophils and macrophage/myeloid cells to the skin lesions were similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants based on immunohistochemistry. Together, these results indicate that MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses are essential for the control of initial and recurrent MRSA infections in HIV-infected people. PMID

  13. Helminthic Infections Rates and Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J.; Mutimura, Eugene; Osuwat, Lawrence Obado; Janssen, Saskia; Grobusch, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Background Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Methodology and principle findings Pregn...

  14. Helminthic Infections Rates and Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Emil Ivan; Nigel J Crowther; Eugene Mutimura; Lawrence Obado Osuwat; Saskia Janssen; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Pre...

  15. Complexities of Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in the Context of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S X; Armstrong, Ajs; Neff, C P; Shaffer, M; Lozupone, C A; Palmer, B E

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an altered gut microbiome that is not consistently restored with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Interpretation of the specific microbiome changes observed during HIV infection is complicated by factors like population, sample type, and ART-each of which may have dramatic effects on gut bacteria. Understanding how these factors shape the microbiome during HIV infection (which we refer to as the HIV-associated microbiome) is critical for defining its role in HIV disease, and for developing therapies that restore gut health during infection. PMID:26940481

  16. Tuberculosis and HIV infection among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects in a predominantly pastoralist area, Northeast Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: TB-HIV co-infection is one of the biggest public health challenges in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there is a wealth of information on TB-HIV co-infection among settled populations in Africa and elsewhere, to our knowledge, there are no published reports on TB-HIV co-infection from pastoral communities. In this study, we report the prevalence of TB, HIV and TB-HIV co-infection among pulmonary TB suspects in the Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. Design: In a cross-sectional study...

  17. HIV-1 infection, but not syphilis or HBV infection, is a strong risk factor for anorectal condyloma in Asian population: A prospective colonoscopy screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishijima

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: HIV-1 infection, but not syphilis or HBV infection, was identified as a strong risk for anorectal condyloma. Anal HPV 16/18 was highly prevalent in patients with HIV-1 infection, especially in those with condyloma.

  18. [Coping and perception of women with HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renesto, Helana Maria Ferreira; Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Souza, Edvaldo; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze women's perceptions and coping regarding the discovery of an HIV infection. METHODS A qualitative study in an HIV/AIDS Specialist Helpdesk in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, from January to September 2010, involving eight women living with asymptomatic HIV aged between 27 and 37 years, without criteria for diagnosis of AIDS infected through intercourse and monitored by the service for at least one year. Forms were used to characterize the clinical situation and semi-structured interviews to understand perceptions and feelings related to personal trajectory after diagnosis and different ways of facing the diagnosis in family and social life. Content analysis was performed as suggested by Bardin. RESULTS The thematic category that emerged was stigma and discrimination. The women had life trajectories marked by stigma, which was perceived as discrimination after the diagnosis and in the experiences of everyday life. The revelation of the infection was perceived as limiting to a normal life, leading to the need to conceal the diagnosis. The discriminatory attitudes of some health care professionals, non-specialist in HIV/AIDS, had a negative impact on future experiences in other health services. Besides the effects of institutional stigma, the perception of women was that the service did not include dedicated space for the expression of other needs beyond the disease, which could help in fighting the infection. CONCLUSIONS Living with HIV was strongly linked to stigma. The results show the importance of strengthening educational approaches and emotional support at the time of diagnosis in order to facilitate coping with the condition of seropositivity. PMID:24789635

  19. APRI and FIB-4 scores are not associated with neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Libertone

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic liver disease leads to neurocognitive impairment (NCI and more advanced liver fibrosis is associated with greater deficits. Further, cognitive performances do not differ significantly among patients affected by diverse types of chronic liver diseases. Thus, it would be useful to have a clinical tool associated with early cognitive change applicable to the HIV-infected population with high HCV prevalence. Aim of the analysis was to assess the association between NCI and aspartate aminotransferase-platelet ratio index (APRI or Fibrosis-4, which are non-invasive scores used to assess liver fibrosis. Materials and Methods: Single-centre, retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of cART-treated HIV-infected patients undergoing neuropsychological assessment (NPA by a set of 14 standardized and comprehensive tests on five different domains: concentration and speed of mental processing; mental flexibility; memory, fine motor functioning; visual-spatial and constructional abilities. NPA obtained from the same patient were included, if collected while receiving different cART. Patients were classified as having NCI, if they scored >1 SD below the normative mean in at least two tests, or below >2 SD in one test. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND were classified according to Frascati's criteria, controlling for confounding comorbidities. Univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression models were carried out. Results: A total of 556 HIV-infected cART-treated patients from 2006 to 2013 were included: male 78%; IVDUs 14%; CDC stage C 31%; median CD4 nadir 200/mm3; median current CD4 501/mm3; undetectable HIV-RNA in 368 (67%; and HCV-positivity in 150 (29%. Frequency among score levels was for FIB-4: min-1.44=404 (73%, 1.45–3.25=118 (21%, 3.26-max=28 (5%; for APRI: min-0.5=414 (75%, 0.5–1.5=112 (20%, 1.5-max=24 (4%. Median FIB-4 and APRI were 0.98 and 0.27 in HIV+/HCV- and 1.40 and 0.50 in HIV+/HCV+ individuals

  20. Anti-HIV-1 activity of flavonoid myricetin on HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Pasetto

    Full Text Available HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic, H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic, and the dual tropic (X4R5 HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research.

  1. Recent advances on anti-HIV vaginal delivery systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimisiaris, Sophia G; Mourtas, Spyridon

    2015-09-15

    A review of the recent outcomes regarding technologies to prevent vaginal transmission of HIV, mainly by using antiretroviral (ARV) drugs formulated as microbicides. An introduction about the HIV transmission mechanisms by the vaginal route is included, together with the recent challenges faced for development of successful microbicide products. The outcomes of clinical evaluations are mentioned, and the different formulation strategies studied to-date, with the requirements, advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each dosage-form type, are presented. Finally, the recent attempts to apply various types of nanotechnologies in order to develop advanced microbicide-products and overcome existing limitations, are discussed. PMID:25858666

  2. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Wang, Xue; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s) for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death. PMID:27144577

  3. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Devadas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death.

  4. High rate of missed HIV infections in individuals with indeterminate or negative HIV western blots based on current HIV testing algorithm in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Kong, Wen-Hua; Tang, Li; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Xu, Jun; Schilling, Robert F; Cai, Thomas; Zhou, Wang

    2016-08-01

    It remains unclear if China's current HIV antibody testing algorithm misses a substantial number of HIV infected individuals. Of 196 specimens with indeterminate or negative results on HIV western blot (WB) retrospectively examined by HIV-1 nucleic acid test (NAT), 67.57% (75/111) of indeterminate WB samples, and 16.47% (14/85) of negative WB samples were identified as NAT positive. HIV-1 loads in negative WB samples were significantly higher than those in indeterminate WB samples. Notably, 86.67% (13/15) of samples with negative WB and double positive immunoassay results were NAT positive. The rate of HIV-1 infections missed by China's current HIV testing algorithm is unacceptably high. Thus, China should consider using NAT or integrating fourth generation ELISA into current only antibodies-based HIV confirmation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1462-1466, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856240

  5. HIV/AIDS in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

  6. Comparison of Heterologous Neutralizing Antibody Responses of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)- and HIV-2-Infected Senegalese Patients: Distinct Patterns of Breadth and Magnitude Distinguish HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Shaun; Sarr, A. D.; MacNeil, A; Thakore-Meloni, S.; Gueye-Ndiaye, A.; Traore, I.; Dia, M. C.; Mboup, S.; Kanki, Phyllis Jean

    2007-01-01

    Neutralizing antibody responses against heterologous isolates in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 infections were compared, and their relationships with established clinical markers of progression were examined. Neutralizing responses against 7 heterologous primary isolates and 1 laboratory strain were compared between 32 untreated HIV-1-infected subjects and 35 untreated HIV-2-infected subjects using a pseudotyped reporter virus assay. The breadth of the neutralizing res...

  7. [Pathogenesis of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndromes associated with HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín; Rodríguez-Vidigal, Francisco F; Domingo, Pere

    2006-09-30

    Lipodystrophy, and the metabolic alterations (dislipemia, insulin-resistance) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is a multifactorial syndrome due to the interaction of host related factors (cellular immune status, diet, gene mutations), viral factors (cytokine synthesis, polyunsaturated fatty acid or PUFA depletion), and pharmacological effects (mitochondrial DNA-polymerase inhibition, lipolysis inhibition, adiponectin synthesis reduction). HIV probably modifies the adipocyte differentiation and the lipid metabolism. This retroviral effect is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor) and the participation of other factors (drugs, diet), all in the context of a particular host genetic setting. The adipocyte (and several cellular receptors, fatty acids, membrane proteins, and cytokines) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lipodystrophy. PMID:17040633

  8. CROI 2015: Complications of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlir, Diane V; Currier, Judith S

    2015-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, renal and bone disease, and malignancies are an ongoing concern during the course of treated HIV disease. Research in this area continues to focus on the epidemiology and risk factors associated with these conditions, identifying the contributions of HIV-related immunopathology to specific and collective end-organ diseases, and evaluating interventions to prevent or reduce the morbidity associated with these conditions. Infectious complications of HIV, such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal disease, also continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality; diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these is an area of focus. The 2015 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections provided new insights into all of these areas. PMID:25965312

  9. Evaluation of Sequence Ambiguities of the HIV-1 pol gene as a Method to Identify Recent HIV-1 Infection in Transmitted Drug Resistance Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Emmi; Shao, Wei; Bontell, Irene; Cham, Fatim; Cuong, Do Duy; Wondwossen, Amogne; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian; Sönnerborg, Anders; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Maldarelli, Frank; Jordan, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of recent HIV infection within populations is a public health priority for accurate estimation of HIV incidence rates and transmitted drug resistance. Determining HIV incidence rates by prospective follow-up of HIV-uninfected individuals is challenging and serological assays have important limitations. HIV diversity within an infected host increases with duration of infection. In this analysis, we explore a simple bioinformatics approach to assess viral diversity by determining...

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the gene interactions to activate the HIV replication and faster disease progression in a co-infected host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep S Toor

    Full Text Available Understanding of the chronic immune activation, breakdown of immune defense and synergistic effect between HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb may provide essential information regarding key factors involved in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. In this study, we aimed to highlight a few of the immunological events that may influence and accelerate the progression of HIV disease in the presence of co-infecting Mtb. A cross-sectional study was performed on cohorts, including anti-tubercular therapy (ATT naïve active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients, antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve HIV-1 infected individuals at different stages of disease, ATT and ART naïve HIV-PTB co-infected individuals and healthy controls. A significantly higher T-regulatory cell (Treg frequency coupled with the high FoxP3 expression in the CD4 T-cells indicated an immunosuppressive environment in the advance stage of HIV-1 infection. This is further substantiated by high HO-1 expression favoring TB co-infection. Functionally, this change in Treg frequency in HIV-1 infected individuals correlated well with suppression of T-cell proliferation. Mtb infection seems to facilitate the expansion of the Treg pool along with increased expression of FoxP3, specifically the variant-1, as evident from the data in HIV-1 co-infected as well as in patients with only PTB. A significantly lower expression of HO-1 in co-infected individuals compared to patients with only HIV-infection having comparable CD4 count correlated well with increased expression of CCR5 and CxCR4 as well as NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, which collectively may contribute to enhanced viral replication and increased cell death, hence faster disease progression in co-infected individuals.

  11. Understanding HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: An Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiene, Susan M.; Fisher, William A.; Shuper, Paul A.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Christie, Sarah; Macdonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    The current study applied the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (J. D. Fisher & Fisher, 1992; W. A. Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa’s generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV tr...

  12. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by persons with HIV infection in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebunders, R; Dreezen, C; Florence, E; Pelgrom, Y; Schrooten, W

    2003-10-01

    Between June 1996-September 1997 and December 1998-December 1999, two surveys using an anonymous questionnaire were carried out in Europe among persons living with HIV infection. The questionnaire included questions on use of antiretrovirals, complementary or alternative medicines. Vitamins/minerals were taken by 528 (58%) of the 1996-97 participants, compared to 326 (63%) of the 1998-99 participants (P =0.06). Homeopathy was taken by respectively 176 (21%) and 55 (14%) (P =0.003) participants and herbal products respectively by 213 (25%) and 77 (20%) (P =0.06). In multiple regression analysis a longer time since HIV diagnosis, having a higher education level and having a lower CD(+) lymphocyte count were associated with the use of homeopathy. A longer time since HIV diagnosis and a more advanced stage of the disease were associated with the use of herbal products. The study shows that despite the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy many people with HIV infection still take complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:14596770

  13. Frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 in hiv infected patients in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Nilesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by HIV-1. Another virus type, HIV-2, is found mainly in West African countries. We hypothesized that population migration and mobility in Africa may have facilitated the introduction and spreading of HIV-2 in Mozambique. The presence of HIV-2 has important implications for diagnosis and choice of treatment of HIV infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and its genotype in Maputo, Mozambique. HIV-infected individuals (N = 1,200 were consecutively enrolled and screened for IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp41 and HIV-2 gp36 using peptide-based enzyme immunoassays (pepEIA. Specimens showing reactivity on the HIV-2 pepEIA were further tested using the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay and HIV-2 PCR targeting RT and PR genes. Subtype analysis of HIV-2 was based on the protease gene. After screening with HIV-2 pepEIA 1,168 were non-reactive and 32 were reactive to HIV-2 gp36 peptide. Of this total, 30 specimens were simultaneously reactive to gp41 and gp36 pepEIA while two samples reacted solely to gp36 peptide. Only three specimens containing antibodies against gp36 and gp105 on the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay were found to be positive by PCR to HIV-2 subtype A. The proportion of HIV-2 in Maputo City was 0.25% (90%CI 0.01-0.49. The HIV epidemic in Southern Mozambique is driven by HIV-1, with HIV-2 also circulating at a marginal rate. Surveillance program need to improve HIV-2 diagnosis and consider periodical survey aiming to monitor HIV-2 prevalence in the country.

  14. Impact of HIV infection on treatment outcome of tuberculosis in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Karo, Basel; Krause, Gérard; Hollo, Vahur; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Castell, Stefanie; Hamouda, Osamah; Haas, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The effect of HIV on tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes has not been well established. We aimed to assess the impact of HIV infection on TB treatment outcomes by using data from notifiable disease surveillance in Europe.

  15. HTLV-1 and HIV-1 co-infection: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Isache

    2016-01-01

    HTLV and HIV share the same routes of transmission and the same tropism for T-lymphocytes. Co-infection occurs probably more frequently than we are aware, since testing for HTLV is not routinely performed in outpatient HIV clinics.

  16. High levels of T lymphocyte activation in Leishmania-HIV-1 co-infected individuals despite low HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinsztejn Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant infections may influence HIV progression by causing chronic activation leading to decline in T-cell function. In the Americas, visceral (AVL and tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL have emerged as important opportunistic infections in HIV-AIDS patients and both of those diseases have been implicated as potentially important co-factors in disease progression. We investigated whether leishmaniasis increases lymphocyte activation in HIV-1 co-infected patients. This might contribute to impaired cellular immune function. Methods To address this issue we analyzed CD4+ T absolute counts and the proportion of CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients that recovered after anti-leishmanial therapy. Results We found that, despite clinical remission of leishmaniasis, AVL co-infected patients presented a more severe immunossupression as suggested by CD4+ T cell counts under 200 cells/mm3, differing from ATL/HIV-AIDS cases that tends to show higher lymphocytes levels (over 350 cells/mm3. Furthermore, five out of nine, AVL/HIV-AIDS presented low CD4+ T cell counts in spite of low or undetectable viral load. Expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher in AVL or ATL/HIV-AIDS cases compared to HIV/AIDS patients without leishmaniasis or healthy subjects. Conclusions Leishmania infection can increase the degree of immune system activation in individuals concomitantly infected with HIV. In addition, AVL/HIV-AIDS patients can present low CD4+ T cell counts and higher proportion of activated T lymphocytes even when HIV viral load is suppressed under HAART. This fact can cause a misinterpretation of these laboratorial markers in co-infected patients.

  17. The association of adiposity with kidney function decline among HIV-infected adults: Findings from the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Changes in HIV Infection (FRAM) study

    OpenAIRE

    Malkina, A; Scherzer, R.; Shlipak, MG; Bacchetti, P; Tien, PC; Grunfeld, C; Kosmiski, L; Peralta, CA

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 British HIV Association. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of adiposity with longitudinal kidney function change in 544 HIV-infected persons in the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection (FRAM) cohort over 5 years of follow-up. Methods: The regional distribution of muscle and adipose tissue was quantified by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and total adiponectin and leptin levels were measured in serum. Kidney fun...

  18. Role of HIV in Amyloid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Mario; Ances, Beau M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection has changed from an acute devastating disease to a more chronic illness due to combination anti-retroviral treatment (cART). In the cART era, the life expectancy of HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals has increased. More HIV+ individuals are aging with current projections suggesting that 50% of HIV+ individuals will be over 50 years old by 2015. With advancing age, HIV+ individuals may be at increased risk of developing other potential neurodegenerative disorders [especially Alzheim...

  19. Hepatitis B virus infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi and transmission to infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasela, Charles S.; Kourtis, Athena P.; Wall, Patrick; Drobeniuc, Jan; King, Caroline C.; Thai, Hong; Teshale, Eyasu H.; Hosseinipour, Mina; Ellington, Sascha; Codd, Mary B.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Knight, Rod; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Kamili, Saleem; Hoffman, Irving; Kayira, Dumbani; Mumba, Noel; Kamwendo, Deborah D.; Martinson, Francis; Powderly, William; Teo, Chong-Gee; van der Horst, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The extent of HBV infection to infants of HBV/HIV-coinfected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of HBV infection among antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi and examine HBV transmission to their infants. Methods Plasma from 2048 HIV-infected, Malawian women and their infants were tested for markers of HBV infection. Study participants were provided standard-of-care health services, which included administration of pentavalent vaccine to infants at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Results One-hundred and three women (5%) were HBsAg-positive; 70 of these HBsAg-positive women were also HBV-DNA-positive. Sixteen women (0.8%) were HBV-DNA-positive but HBsAg-negative. Five of 51 infants (9.8%) born to HBsAg-positive and/or HBV-DNA-positive women were HBV-DNA-positive by 48 weeks of age. HBV DNA concentrations of two infants of mothers who received extended lamivudine-containing anti-HIV prophylaxis were <4 log10 IU/ml compared to ≥8 log10 IU/ml in three infants of mothers who did not. Conclusions HBV DNA was detected in nearly 10% of infants born to HBV/HIV-coinfected women. Antenatal testing for HIV and HBV, if instituted, can facilitate implementation of prophylactic measures against infant infection by both viruses. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of the European Association for the Study of the Liver. PMID:24211737

  20. SIV infection of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin: a suitable model for HIV infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Bao, Rong; Haigwood, Nancy L; Persidsky, Yuri; Ho, Wen-zhe

    2013-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (RM) has been widely used as a well-established nonhuman primate (NHP) model for HIV/AIDS research. However, there have been a growing number of studies using Chinese RM to evaluate immunopathogenesis of SIV infection. In this paper, we have for the first time reviewed and discussed the major publications related to SIV or SHIV infection of Chinese RM in the past decades. We have compared the differences in the pathogenesis of SIV infection between Chinese RM and Indian RM with regard to viral infection, immunological response, and host genetic background. Given AIDS is a disease that affects humans of diverse origins, it is of importance to study animals with different geographical background. Therefore, to examine and compare results obtained from RM models of Indian and Chinese origins should lead to further validation and improvement of these animal models for HIV/AIDS research. PMID:23947613

  1. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Latini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is responsible for 85% of anal cancers. Recently, anal cancer incidence has been increasing, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM. Cytology may be a useful tool for the detection of anal precancerous lesions. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM. Materials and Methods: MSM ≥18-year-old attending an STI clinic in Rome (Italy were enrolled. Anal cytologic samples were collected in PreservCyt (Hologic using a Dacron swab. The Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics was used for the detection and genotyping of 37 mucosal HPV types. Liquid-based cytological slides were obtained using a ThinPrep2000 processor (Hologic. The morphology of the anal pap-test was classified following the Bethesda 2001 guidelines. Results: We enrolled 180 HIV-infected (median age 41 years, IQR 33–47 and 438 HIV-uninfected MSM (median age 32 years, IQR: 27–39. Most of the individuals were Caucasian (92.2% and 97.0%, respectively. HPV prevalence, both overall (93.3% vs 72.4%, p<.001 and by high-risk (HR HPV types (80.5% vs 56.0%, p<.001, was significantly higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected individuals. HPV-multiple infections were evidenced in 48.2% of the HIV-uninfected and 76.1% of the HIV-infected MSM (p<.001. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype in both groups (23.3% in HIV-positive and 17.6% in HIV-negative MSM. HPV6 and 84 were the most frequent low-risk types in both cohorts. Anal cytologic abnormalities were found in a significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected MSM (46.1% vs 27.9%, p<.001. H-SILs (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were exclusively observed among the HIV-infected individuals, although at a low prevalence (1.2%. Conclusions: A high prevalence of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities was evidenced in both populations. Nonetheless, HIV-infected MSM showed a

  2. Counselling challenges in haemophilia and HIV infection/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittadaki, J

    1996-01-01

    The advent of AIDS has had such a deep-reaching effect on the international haemophilia community that one can make a reasonable distinction between a pre-AIDS and a post-AIDS era in haemophilia management. In the context of counselling, however, talking about a 'before' and an 'after' in haemophilia does not (and, in our opinion, should not) necessarily imply a separation of the past from the present. Dealing with the psycho-social implications of haemophilia and HIV infection does not mean focusing exclusively on HIV-generated problems at the expense of haemophilia-related issues. Since the HIV crisis, counselling has posed the multiple challenge of: (a) assessing and alleviating the more immediate emotional effects of HIV infection; (b) paying due attention to the underlying influence of haemophilia on reaction, defence and coping; (c) formulating a flexible approach that is based on close cooperation with the medical staff and effective interpersonal communication with the counsellees.* In practice, the flexibility and effectiveness of the counselling model are promoted by means of: (a) ongoing counselling, (b) multiple counselling sites (i.e. the Haemophilia Centre and other appropriate locations), (c) interdisciplinary team-work, (d) respect for individual/ ethnic values, (e) maintenance of exo-empathy (i.e. neutrality), and (f) transfer of coping skills. The above framework can help maximize the effectiveness of counselling sessions through a personalized rapport of mutual trust and confidence between the counselling team and the counsellees. PMID:27213898

  3. Acute HIV infection with rapid progression to AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Oliveira Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.

  4. Modified Kigali Combined Staging Predicts Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Adults in Lusaka, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Philip J.; Zulu, Isaac; Kancheya, Nzali G.; Lakhi, Shabir; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Kim, Dhong-Jin; Brill, Ilene; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the utility of the modified Kigali combined (MKC) staging system for predicting survival in HIV-infected Zambian adults in a prospective, longitudinal, open cohort. From 1995 to 2004, HIV-discordant couples (one HIV-infected partner and one HIV-negative partner) were recruited from couples' voluntary counseling and testing centers in Lusaka, Zambia and followed at 3-month intervals. MKC stage, which incorporates clinical stage with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), hematocrit,...

  5. CORRELATION BETWEEN CLINICAL PROFILE, CD 4 COUNT AND TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT IN HIV INFECTED PERSONS

    OpenAIRE

    Keshava; Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: HIV infection can be monitored by laboratory and clinical markers of disease progression. In the absence of CD 4 count , the use of Total Lymphocyte Count has been advocated to predict CD 4 count and to stage HIV disease. This study was undertaken to show whether the TLC accurately predicts a low CD 4 count in HIV infected persons and its clinical correlation. METHODOLOGY: The data for the study was collected from HIV positive inpatien...

  6. Cerebrovascular risk factors and brain microstructural abnormalities on diffusion tensor images in HIV-infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamoto, BK; Jahanshad, N.; McMurtray, A; Kallianpur, KJ; Chow, DC; Valcour, VG; Paul, RH; Marotz, L; Thompson, PM; Shikuma, CM

    2012-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antire-troviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebro-vascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infec...

  7. WU Polyomavirus in Patients Infected with HIV or Hepatitis C Virus, Connecticut, USA, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Michael A.; Weibel, Carla; Ferguson, David; Landry, Marie L.; Kahn, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) was detected in 10 (8.3%) of 121 HIV-positive plasma specimens, 0 (0%) of 120 HIV-negative serum specimens, and 2 (2.5%) of 79 hepatitis C virus (HCV)–positive serum specimens. KI polyomavirus was not detected in HIV-positive plasma or HCV-positive serum specimens. HIV-infected persons may be susceptible to systemic WUPyV infection.

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection among Street Boys in Kisumu, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ariella Goldblatt; Zachary Kwena; Maureen Lahiff; Kawango Agot; Alexandra Minnis; Ndola Prata; Jessica Lin; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Auerswald, Colette L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya. Methods We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13–21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual beha...

  9. Neurobehavioral effects of HIV-1 infection in China and the United States: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Cysique, Lucette A.; Jin, Hua; Franklin, Donald R.; Morgan, Erin E.; Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Wu, Zunyou; Taylor, Michael J.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Letendre, Scott; Ake, Christopher; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in China has been increasing exponentially, yet there have been no studies of the neurobehavioral effects of HIV infection in that country. Most neuroAIDS research has been conducted in Western countries using Western neuropsychological (NP) methods, and it is unclear whether these testing methods are appropriate for use in China. Twenty-eight HIV seropositive (HIV+) and twenty-three HIV seronegative (HIV−) individuals with comparable gender, age, and education distributions ...

  10. Heavy alcohol consumption in individuals with HIV infection: Effects on neuropsychological performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rothlind, Johannes C.; GREENFIELD, TANYA M.; BRUCE, ANNE V.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Flenniken, Derek L.; LINDGREN, JOSELYN A.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use have been reported in HIV+ individuals compared to the general population. Both heavy alcohol use and HIV infection are associated with increased risk of neuropsychological (NP) impairment. We examined effects of heavy active alcohol use and HIV on NP functioning in a large sample of community-residing HIV+ individuals and HIV− controls. The four main study groups included 72 HIV− light/non-drinkers, 70 HIV− heavy drinkers (>100 drinks per month), 70 HIV+ light/non...

  11. HIV-negative Men-who-Have-Sex-with-Men who Bareback are Concerned about HIV Infection: Implications for HIV Risk Reduction Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ventuneac, Ana; Remien, Robert H.; Dolezal, Curtis; Ford, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of barebacking (intentional unprotected anal intercourse in situations where there is risk of HIV infection) among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been partially attributed to a decrease in HIV-related concerns due to improved anti-retroviral treatment. It is important to understand the level of concern these men have regarding HIV infection because it can affect their interest in risk reduction behaviors as well as their possible engagement in risk reduction interventions. ...

  12. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines for Treating HIV Infections and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of TCHM on patients with HIV infection and AIDS, we reviewed eleven randomized placebo-controlled trials involving 998 patients. Due to the limited number of RCTs for included trials and the small sample size of each study, we are not able to draw firm conclusions concerning TCHM therapy in treating patients with HIV infection and AIDS. However, some high-quality clinical studies do exist. Studies of diarrhea and oral candidiasis, which are challenging symptoms of AIDS, were demonstrated to have positive effects. Study of peripheral leukocytes, which are a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, suggested that an integrated treatment approach may be of benefit. The overall methodological quality of the trials was adequate; however, randomization methods should be clearly described and fully reported in these trials according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT.

  13. Neuroradiological findings in perinatally HIV-infected children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neuroradiological studies (CT, MRI, angiography) in 21 children with perinatal HIV infection were reviewed retrospectively. No patient showed an intracranial mass lesion; after intravenous contrast medium application there was no case with disturbed blood-brain barrier. Common non-specific findings were atrophy and delayed myelination. In 7 cases atrophy was combined with multifocal nearly symmetric white matter lesions, which characteristically spared the U-fibres. Further findings included an intramedullary ring-shaped structure in the cervical cord, an AIDS-associated vasculopathy and symmetric calcifications in the basal ganglia. The spectrum of neuroradiological findings in paediatric AIDS patients differs from that in adults. Knowledge of these age-specific findings is important because the number of HIV-infected children is rising. (orig.)

  14. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, D; Lévy, Y; Losso, M H;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Used in combination with antiretroviral therapy, subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 raises CD4+ cell counts more than does antiretroviral therapy alone. The clinical implication of these increases is not known. METHODS: We conducted two trials: the Subcutaneous Recombinant, Human...... Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT). In each, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had CD4+ cell counts of either...... 50 to 299 per cubic millimeter (SILCAAT) or 300 or more per cubic millimeter (ESPRIT) were randomly assigned to receive interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy or antiretroviral therapy alone. The interleukin-2 regimen consisted of cycles of 5 consecutive days each, administered at 8-week intervals...

  15. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Matos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  16. Characterization of Antiviral Activity of Benzamide Derivative AH0109 against HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liyu; Ao, Zhujun; Jayappa, Kallesh Danappa; Kobinger, Gary; Liu, ShuiPing; Wu, Guojun; Wainberg, Mark A.; Yao, Xiaojian

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 infection, anti-HIV-1 strategies play a major role in disease control. However, the rapid emergence of drug resistance against all currently used anti-HIV-1 molecules necessitates the development of new antiviral molecules and/or strategies against HIV-1 infection. In this study, we have identified a benzamide derivative named AH0109 that exhibits potent anti-HIV-1 activity at an 50% effective concentration of 0.7 μM in HIV-1-susceptible CD...

  17. Epidemiology of Malignant Tumors among HIV-infected Population in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS population is known has higher risk of many malignant tumors, but cancer spectrum among HIV/AIDS population in China has not been reported, and risk factors of Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) among HIV-infected Chinese population remains unknown. This dissertation study describes the spectrum of malignancies among HIV/AIDS population in China, 2008-2011, and explores associated factors of KS both in the national HIV/AIDS cohort and in a hospital-based case-control study among HIV-infected Uyghur...

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  19. Cotrimoxazole-induced hypoglycemia in an HIV-infected patient

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Christine A.; Constance L Chik; Taylor, Geoffrey D

    2001-01-01

    A case of cotrimoxazole-induced hypoglycemia is described in a male patient infected with HIV. Ten days after initiating high dose cotrimoxazole for suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the patient developed neuroglycopenic symptoms and diaphoresis. Blood glucose levels were repeatedly low, with elevated insulin and C-peptide levels despite multiple intravenous bolus doses and infusions of dextrose. Hypoglycemia resolved after approximately 36 h of treatment with dextrose and discontinua...

  20. Oral Manifestations in HIV/AIDS-Infected Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha; Kutesa, Annet; Muwazi, Louis; Okullo, Isaac; Kasangaki, Arabat; Kekitinwa, Addy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess factors influencing the distribution of oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS-infected children attending the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic in Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comprising 237 children (males/females: 113/124) aged 1 to 12 years. The parents/guardians were interviewed to obtain demographic information, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and health seeking behaviours as well as any medications taken. The children were...