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Sample records for advanced hematological neoplasia

  1. A phase I clinical trial of the histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat in patients with advanced hematological neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Peter; Hansen, Mads; Knudsen, Lene M;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the safety, dose-limiting toxicity and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the novel hydroxamate histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat (PXD101) in patients with advanced hematological neoplasms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sequential dose-escalating cohorts of three to six patients...

  2. Advances in hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNicola, Dennis B

    2011-05-01

    The complete blood count is one of the basic building blocks of the minimum database in veterinary medicine. Over the past 20 years, there has been a tremendous advancement in the technology of hematology analyzers and their availability to the general practitioner. There are 4 basic methodologies that can be used to generate data for a complete blood count: manual methods, quantitative buffy coat analysis, automated impedance analysis, and flow cytometric analysis. This article will review the principles of these methodologies, discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages, and describe some of the hematology analyzers that are available for the in-house veterinary laboratory.

  3. A Metastatic Ovarian Angiosarcoma Mimicking Hematologic Neoplasia at Diagnosis

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    Rafael Dezen Gaiolla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are rare aggressive neoplasms of vascular endothelial origin with a high metastatic rate and poor prognosis. Involvement of the bone marrow by the angiosarcoma is exceedingly uncommon, and there have only been a few cases reported in the literature to date. Clinical manifestations and common laboratory findings of bone marrow involvement can mimic other more common bone marrow-replacing neoplasias such as lymphomas and acute leukemia. A definitive diagnosis is difficult to make from cytologic material, probably due to an associated bone marrow fibrosis, and requires bone marrow trephine biopsy with an immunohistochemical profile. Here we had the opportunity to study a case of metastatic angiosarcoma with positive cytologic findings and an unusual presentation that challenged its primary diagnosis.

  4. A Metastatic Ovarian Angiosarcoma Mimicking Hematologic Neoplasia at Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiolla, Rafael Dezen; Duarte, Ívison Xavier; Bacchi, Carlos Eduardo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare aggressive neoplasms of vascular endothelial origin with a high metastatic rate and poor prognosis. Involvement of the bone marrow by the angiosarcoma is exceedingly uncommon, and there have only been a few cases reported in the literature to date. Clinical manifestations and common laboratory findings of bone marrow involvement can mimic other more common bone marrow-replacing neoplasias such as lymphomas and acute leukemia. A definitive diagnosis is difficult to make from cytologic material, probably due to an associated bone marrow fibrosis, and requires bone marrow trephine biopsy with an immunohistochemical profile. Here we had the opportunity to study a case of metastatic angiosarcoma with positive cytologic findings and an unusual presentation that challenged its primary diagnosis. PMID:24847252

  5. Advances and prospect of hematology

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    Jian-min WANG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade,promising progress has been made in hematology by domestic and oversea researchers,such as the biological features of hematopoietic stem cells,underlying mechanism involving epigenetics of hematological disease and the intervention measures thereof,molecular diagnosis and targeted therapy,optimization of therapeutic protocol for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation,selection of alternative donors,and prevention and treatment of complications post transplantation.Development of hematology in the future will focus on the following fields.Chromosome translocation and gene mutation are key diagnostic criteria in the new version of WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.And the detections of these aberrant alterations make tailored therapy and follow-up of therapeutic effects possible.And more attention should be placed on the translational research of stem cell and niche,as well the pathogenesis of hematopoietic diseases including aberrant histone acetylation,DNA methylation and expression of abnormal micro RNA,which will promote the further understanding of the pathogenesis of hematopoietic diseases and made targeted therapy as well as personalized medicine possible.In addition,the prevention and treatment of complications of stem cell transplantation are made through the optimization of conditioning regimen,the combination of different drugs as well as cellular immunization,which should greatly improve the effects of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation,and bring benefits to the patients and can be utilized in the medical rescue in military events.

  6. Cateteres venosos totalmente implantáveis em pacientes com neoplasia hematológica e não hematológica Totally implantable venous catheters in patients with hematological and non hematological neoplasias

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    Antonio Nocchi Kalil

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar se a presença de neoplasia hematológica acarreta maior risco de complicações para inserção de cateteres totalmente implantáveis e se há diferença de tempo cirúrgico quando o procedimento é realizado por punção ou dissecção venosa. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 68 pacientes com neoplasia internados no Hospital Santa Rita de Porto Alegre entre fevereiro de 1998 e dezembro de 1999, os quais necessitavam de acesso venoso central para tratamento quimioterápico, sendo 48 do sexo feminino e com idade média de 55,6 anos. Desses, 31 apresentavam neoplasia hematológica. RESULTADOS: Complicações pós-operatórias ocorreram em 13 pacientes (19%, sendo elas: obstrução do sistema (7%, hematoma (6% e infecção (6%, não havendo diferença quanto ao tipo de neoplasia (p = 0,56. Foram realizadas dissecção e punção venosa em 30 e 38 pacientes, respectivamente, sem diferença em relação ao tempo de implantação do cateter (p = 0,42. CONCLUSÃO: Neoplasias hematológicas não aumentaram o risco de complicações quando do uso de cateteres totalmente implantáveis no presente estudo, além disso, ambas as técnicas cirúrgicas - dissecção ou punção - são exeqüíveis, haja visto o tempo cirúrgico semelhante entre elas, desde que sejam respeitados o valor sérico mínimo de plaquetas (50.000/mL e a técnica cirúrgica apropriada, com hemostasia rigorosa e curativo compressivo.BACKGROUND: We analyse whether hematological tumors increase the risk of complications of totally implantable catheters and if there are differences regarding procedure time when it is perfomed through venous dissection or venous puncture. METHODS: We studied 68 patients with neoplasia in Hospital Santa Rita from Porto Alegre, between February 1998 and December 1999, who had required central venous access for chemotherapy. Forty-eight patients were female and the mean age was 55.6 years. Thirty-one patients had hematological tumors. RESULTS

  7. Risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia according to age and gender.

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    Frank T Kolligs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading causes of cancer related morbidity and death. Despite the fact that the mean age at diagnosis of CRC is lower in men, screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood test (FOBT is initiated at same age in both genders. The prevalence of the common CRC precursor lesion, advanced adenoma, is well documented only in the screening population. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of advanced adenoma at ages below screening age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from a census of 625,918 outpatient colonoscopies performed in adults in Bavaria between 2006 and 2008. A logistic regression model to determine gender- and age-specific risk of advanced neoplasia was developed. Advanced neoplasia was found in 16,740 women (4.6% and 22,684 men (8.6%. Male sex was associated with an overall increased risk of advanced neoplasia (odds ratio 1.95; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.91 to 2.00. At any age and in any indication group, more colonoscopies were needed in women than in men to detect advanced adenoma or cancer. At age 75 14.8 (95% CI, 14.4-15.2 screening, 18.2 (95% CI, 17.7-18.7 diagnostic, and 7.9 (95% CI, 7.6-8.2 colonoscopies to follow up on a positive FOBT (FOBT colonoscopies were needed to find advanced adenoma in women. At age 50 39.0 (95% CI, 38.0-40.0 diagnostic, and 16.3 (95% CI, 15.7-16.9 FOBT colonoscopies were needed. Comparable numbers were reached 20 and 10 years earlier in men than in women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: At any age and independent of the indication for colonoscopy, men are at higher risk of having advanced neoplasia diagnosed upon colonoscopy than women. This suggests that starting screening earlier in life in men than in women might result in a relevant increase in the detection of asymptomatic preneoplastic and neoplastic colonic lesions.

  8. Tratamiento de las neoplasias hematológicas en el embarazo Treatment of hematologic neoplasms during pregnancy

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    Norma E Tartas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La neoplasia hematológica más frecuente en la mujer gestante es el linfoma de Hodgkin. Con menor frecuencia se han comunicado leucemias agudas o linfomas no Hodgkin (LNH. En los últimos años se han introducido nuevos fármacos que han cambiado el pronóstico de neoplasias como la leucemia promielocítica aguda, los linfomas no Hodgkin y la leucemia mieloide crónica. Se presenta aquí información actualizada sobre drogas y tratamientos, desarrollo de nuevos fármacos, mecanismo de acción, aplicación clínica, experiencias y resultados del tratamiento, efectos secundarios y teratogénicos, a fin de orientar a hematólogos, oncólogos y pediatras. El equipo médico debe ofrecer el tratamiento más eficaz disponible para alcanzar la curación o remisión de la enfermedad, e informar acerca de sus posibles riesgos para la madre y el feto, así como los derivados por la demora de su aplicación.The most common hematological malignancy in pregnant patients is Hodgkin's lymphoma, but other diseases such as chronic and acute leukemia or non Hodgkin's lymphoma have also been reported. In the last decade, new drugs have changed the prognostic of acute promyelocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and non Hodgkin's lymphoma. Herein we present updated information on drugs and treatments, new developments, mechanism of action, clinical application, experience on treatment outcomes, adverse effects and teratogenesis, with the objective of orienting hematologists, oncologists and pediatricians. The medical team should offer the most efficient treatment available in order to achieve cure or remission of the disease, and also inform on possible risks for the mother and the fetus, as well as those derived from the delay in treatment application.

  9. Multiple endocrine neoplasias: advances and challenges for the future.

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    Alevizaki, M; Stratakis, C A

    2009-07-01

    Several important advances have been made over the last 2 years, since the last international workshop on multiple endocrine neoplasias (MENs) that was held in Marseilles, France (MEN2006). The series of articles that are included in this issue summarize the most important of these advances as they were presented in Delphi, Greece, during the 11th International Workshop on MENs, September 25-27, 2008 (MEN2008). This editorial summarizes some of these advances: the identification of the AIP, and the PDE11A and PDE8B genes by genome-wide association (GWA) studies as predisposing genes for pituitary and adrenal tumours, respectively, the discovery of p27 mutations in a new form of MEN similar to MEN type 1 (MEN 1) that is now known as MEN 4, the molecular investigations of Carney triad (CT), a disorder that associates paragangliomas (PGLs), gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GISTs), and pulmonary chondromas (PCH) with pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical adenomas and other lesions, and the molecular elucidation of the association of GISTs with paragangliomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome) that is now known to be because of SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD mutations. Molecular investigations in Carney complex (another MEN also described by Dr. Carney, who during the meeting, along with Dr. Charles E. ('Gene') Jackson was honoured for his life-long and many contributions to the field) have also revealed the role of cyclic AMP signalling in tumorigenesis. As our knowledge of the molecular causes of MENs increases, the challenge is to translate these discoveries in better treatments for our patients. Indeed, new advances in the preventive diagnosis and molecular treatment of MEN 1 and MEN 2, respectively, continued unabated, and an update on this front was also presented at MEN2008 and is included in this issue.

  10. Adenomas in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Advanced Neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, F.D. van; Mooiweer, E.; Have, M. van der; Belderbos, T.D.; Kate, F.J. ten; Offerhaus, G.J.; Schipper, M.E.; Dijkstra, G.; Pierik, M.; Stokkers, P.C.; Ponsioen, C.; Jong, D.J. de; Hommes, D.W.; Bodegraven, A.A. van; Siersema, P.D.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Oldenburg, B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: It is still unclear whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with adenomas have a higher risk of developing high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or colorectal cancer (CRC) than non-IBD patients with sporadic adenomas. We compared the risk of advanced neoplasia (AN, defined as HGD or CRC)

  11. Adenomas in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Advanced Neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, Fiona D. M.; Mooiweer, Erik; van der Have, Mike; Belderbos, Tim D. G.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Schipper, Marguerite E. I.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Pierik, Marieke; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Ponsioen, Cyriel; de Jong, Dirk J.; Hommes, Daniel W.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; Siersema, Peter D.; van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is still unclear whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with adenomas have a higher risk of developing high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or colorectal cancer (CRC) than non-IBD patients with sporadic adenomas. We compared the risk of advanced neoplasia (AN, defined as HGD or CRC)

  12. Tratamiento de las neoplasias hematológicas en el embarazo Treatment of hematologic neoplasms during pregnancy

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    Norma E Tartas; María C Foncuberta; Julio C. Sánchez Avalos

    2007-01-01

    La neoplasia hematológica más frecuente en la mujer gestante es el linfoma de Hodgkin. Con menor frecuencia se han comunicado leucemias agudas o linfomas no Hodgkin (LNH). En los últimos años se han introducido nuevos fármacos que han cambiado el pronóstico de neoplasias como la leucemia promielocítica aguda, los linfomas no Hodgkin y la leucemia mieloide crónica. Se presenta aquí información actualizada sobre drogas y tratamientos, desarrollo de nuevos fármacos, mecanismo de acción, aplicaci...

  13. Advanced endoscopic imaging in gastric neoplasia and preneoplasia

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    Lee, Jonathan W J; Lim, Lee Guan; Yeoh, Khay Guan

    2017-01-01

    Conventional white light endoscopy remains the current standard in routine clinical practice for early detection of gastric cancer. However, it may not accurately diagnose preneoplastic gastric lesions. The technological advancements in the field of endoscopic imaging for gastric lesions are fast growing. This article reviews currently available advanced endoscopic imaging modalities, in particular chromoendoscopy, narrow band imaging and confocal laser endomicroscopy, and their corresponding evidence shown to improve diagnosis of preneoplastic gastric lesions. Raman spectrometry and polarimetry are also introduced as promising emerging technologies. PMID:28176895

  14. Efeito bifidogênico do frutooligossacarídeo na microbiota intestinal de pacientes com neoplasia hematológica Bifidogenic effect of fructooligosaccharides in the intestinal flora of patients with hematological neoplasia

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    Telma Búrigo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito bifidogênico do frutooligossacarídeo nos pacientes com neoplasias hematológicas submetidos a quimioterapia. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo clínico randomizado duplo cego, desenvolvido na Unidade de Transplante de Medula Óssea do Centro de Pesquisas Oncológicas de Florianópolis, o qual envolve 25 pacientes divididos em 2 grupos que receberam, por 15 dias, 12g de frutooligossacarídeo (n=14 ou placebo (maltodextrina (n=11. Foram avaliados a quantidade de bifidobactérias e os valores de pH fecal antes e após a suplementação. RESULTADOS: Observou-se na população estudada o predomínio do sexo masculino (72% e a idade média de 34 anos. O grupo suplementado apresentou um aumento significante na quantidade de bifidobactérias (pOBJECTIVE: To verify the bifidogenic effect of fructooligosaccharides in patients with hematological neoplasia submitted to chemotherapy. METHODS: This is a clinical, randomized, double-blind study done in the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit of the Oncology Research Center of Florianopolis. It involved 25 patients divided into 2 groups who received 12g of fructooligosaccharides (n=14 for 15 days or placebo (maltodextrin (n=11. The amount of bifidobacteria and the values of fecal pH before and after supplementation were investigated. RESULTS: Most of the studied population was male (72% and the mean age was 34 years. The group that received supplementation presented a significant increase in the amount of bifidobacteria (p<0.05 and fecal pH remained unchanged in both groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation increased the amount of bifidobacteria, interfering in the composition of the intestinal flora, but fecal pH was not affected.

  15. Long-term outcomes among older patients following nonmyeloablative conditioning and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for advanced hematologic malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorror, Mohamed L; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Storer, Barry E;

    2011-01-01

    A minimally toxic nonmyeloablative regimen was developed for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to treat patients with advanced hematologic malignancies who are older or have comorbid conditions.......A minimally toxic nonmyeloablative regimen was developed for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to treat patients with advanced hematologic malignancies who are older or have comorbid conditions....

  16. Ação do prebiótico sobre as proteínas de fase aguda de pacientes com neoplasia hematológica Action of prebiotics on proteins in the acute phase of hematologic neoplasia

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    Telma Búrigo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os pacientes com neoplasias hematológicas são submetidos a tratamento quimioterápico que induz uma intensa alteração na integridade da mucosa intestinal, favorecendo um aumento da sua morbi-mortalidade. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na Unidade de Transplante de Medula Óssea do Centro de Pesquisas Oncológicas em Florianópolis - SC e teve como objetivo estudar a ação do prebiótico na resposta de proteína da fase aguda de pacientes com neoplasias hematológicas submetidos à quimioterapia. Foi realizado um estudo clínico randomizado duplo cego envolvendo 25 pacientes divididos em dois grupos que receberam por 15 dias: 12g de FOS (n=14 ou placebo (maltodextrina (n=11. Todas as variáveis foram determinadas antes e após a suplementação. Foram avaliados os níveis séricos das proteínas de fase aguda negativas (albumina e pré-albumina e a proteína de fase aguda positiva, proteína C reativa (PCR. Verificaram-se a presença de diarréia e de constipação, bem como a quantidade de bifidobactérias e valores de pH fecal. A redução dos níveis séricos de proteínas de fase aguda negativas (albumina e pré-albumina comprovam o intenso catabolismo protéico, priorizando a síntese de proteína de fase aguda positiva (PCR. O grupo suplementado apresentou um aumento significante na quantidade de bifidobactérias e o pH fecal não foi alterado em ambos os grupos. Os níveis séricos de PCR foram estatisticamente superiores no grupo controle, indicando a ocorrência de processos inflamatórios e maior demanda metabólica, sugerindo que a quantidade de bifidobactérias pode ter favorecido a redução deste quadro no grupo suplementado, confirmado pela correlação negativa entre estas variáveis.Patients with hematologic neoplasias are submitted to chemotherapeutic treatment that induces intense alterations in the integrity of the intestinal mucous membrane, favoring an increase in the morbimortality rate. The current work was

  17. Advances in haploidentical stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Juan; Sanz, Jaime; Sanz, Guillermo F; Sanz, Miguel A

    2016-08-01

    One of the most important advances in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the use of alternative donors and cell sources, such as haploidentical transplants (haplo-HSCT) from family donors. Several approaches have been developed to overcome the challenging bidirectional alloreactivity. We discuss these approaches, including ex vivo T-cell-depleted grafts with megadose of CD34(+) cells, not requiring immunosuppression after allogeneic transplantation for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and other strategies using unmanipulated T-cell-replete grafts with intensive immunosuppression or post-transplantation cyclophosphamide to minimize the GVHD. We also address the role of other strategies developed in the context of the haplo-HSCT platforms, such as ex vivo selective depletion of alloreactive donor T-cell subpopulations, infusion of antigen-specific T-cells against several pathogens, and infusion of regulatory T-cells, among other experimental approaches. Finally, some considerations about the selection of the most suitable donor, when more than one family member is available, are also addressed.

  18. Hematologic emergencies

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    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  19. Risk of Advanced Neoplasia in First-Degree Relatives with Colorectal Cancer: A Large Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

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    Quintero, Enrique; Gargallo, Carla; Lanas, Angel; Bujanda, Luis; Gimeno-García, Antonio Z.; Hernández-Guerra, Manuel; Nicolás-Pérez, David; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; Morillas, Juan Diego; Balaguer, Francesc; Muriel, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background First-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with colorectal cancer have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer than the general population. For this reason, screening guidelines recommend colonoscopy every 5 or 10 y, starting at the age of 40, depending on whether colorectal cancer in the index-case is diagnosed at <60 or ≥60 y, respectively. However, studies on the risk of neoplastic lesions are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of advanced neoplasia (three or more non-advanced adenomas, advanced adenoma, or invasive cancer) in FDR of patients with colorectal cancer compared to average-risk individuals (i.e., asymptomatic adults 50 to 69 y of age with no family history of colorectal cancer). Methods and Findings This cross-sectional analysis includes data from 8,498 individuals undergoing their first lifetime screening colonoscopy between 2006 and 2012 at six Spanish tertiary hospitals. Of these individuals, 3,015 were defined as asymptomatic FDR of patients with colorectal cancer (“familial-risk group”) and 3,038 as asymptomatic with average-risk for colorectal cancer (“average-risk group”). The familial-risk group was stratified as one FDR, with one family member diagnosed with colorectal cancer at ≥60 y (n = 1,884) or at <60 y (n = 831), and as two FDR, with two family members diagnosed with colorectal cancer at any age (n = 300). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used for between-group comparisons after adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, and center). Compared with the average-risk group, advanced neoplasia was significantly more prevalent in individuals having two FDR with colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–2.66, p < 0.001), but not in those having one FDR with colorectal cancer diagnosed at ≥60 y (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.83–1.27, p = 0.77) and <60 y (OR 1.19; 95% CI 0.90–1.58, p = 0.20). After the age of 50 y, men developed advanced

  20. Advances in cellular technology in the hematology field:What have we learned so far?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo Torres de Souza; Claudinéia Pereira Maranduba; Camila Maurmann de Souza; Danielle Luciana Aurora Soares do Amaral; Francisco Carlos da Guia; Rafaella de Souza Salom?o Zanette; Joao Vitor Paes Rettore; Natana Chaves Rabelo; Lucas Mendes Nascimento; Icaro Franca Navarro Pinto,; Julia Boechat Farani; Abrahao Elias Hallack Neto; Fernando de Sa Silva; Carlos Magno da Costa Maranduba; Angelo Atalla

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in the hematology field, bloodtransfusion-related iatrogenesis is still a major issueto be considered during such procedures due to bloodantigenic incompatibility. This places pluripotent stemcells as a possible ally in the production of more suitableblood products. The present review article aims toprovide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-theartconcerning the differentiation of both embryonic stemcells and induced pluripotent stem cells to hematopoieticcell lines. Here, we review the most recently publishedprotocols to achieve the production of blood cells forfuture application in hemotherapy, cancer therapy andbasic research.

  1. Advanced targeted, cell and gene therapy approaches for pediatric hematological malignancies: results and future perspectives

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    Chiara Francesca Magnani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the survival of pediatric patients affected by hematological malignancies being improved in the last 20 years by chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, a significant amount of patients still relapses. Treatment intensification is limited by toxic side effects and is constrained by the plateau of efficacy, while the pipeline of new chemotherapeutic drugs is running short. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are essential and researchers around the world are testing in clinical trials immune and gene therapy approaches as second-line treatments. The aim of this review is to give a glance at these novel promising strategies of advanced medicine in the field of pediatric leukemias. Results from clinical protocols using new targeted smart drugs, immunotherapy and gene therapy are summarized, and important considerations regarding the combination of these novel approaches with standard treatments to promote safe and long-term cure are discussed.

  2. Advances in haplo-identical stem cell transplantation in adults with high-risk hematological malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; J; Ricci; Jeffrey; A; Medin; Ronan; S; Foley

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is a life-saving procedure for adults and children that have high-risk or relapsed hematological malignancies. Incremental advances in the procedure, as well as expanded sources of donor hematopoietic cell grafts have significantly improved overall rates of success. Yet, the outcomes for patients for whom suitable donors cannot be found remain a significant limitation. These patients may benefit from a hematopoietic cell transplant wherein a relative donor is fully haplotype mismatched. Previously this procedure was limited by graft rejection, lethal graft-versus-host disease, and increased treatmentrelated toxicity. Recent approaches in haplo-identical transplantation have demonstrated significantly improved outcomes. Based on years of incremental preclinical research into this unique form of bone marrow transplant, a range of approaches have now been studied in patients in relatively large phase Ⅱ trials that will be summarized in this review.

  3. Recent advances in the development of Aurora kinases inhibitors in hematological malignancies

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    Choudary, Iqra; Barr, Paul M.; Friedberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, since the discovery of Drosophila mutants in 1995, much effort has been made to understand Aurora kinase biology. Three mammalian subtypes have been identified thus far which include the Aurora A, B and C kinases. These regulatory proteins specifically work at the cytoskeleton and chromosomal structures between the kinetochores and have vital functions in the early phases of the mitotic cell cycle. Today, there are multiple phase I and phase II clinical trials as well as numerous preclinical studies taking place looking at Aurora kinase inhibitors in both hematologic and solid malignancies. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of Aurora kinase inhibitors in hematological malignancy and discusses their therapeutic potential. PMID:26622997

  4. Advanced Targeted, Cell and Gene-Therapy Approaches for Pediatric Hematological Malignancies: Results and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Francesca Magnani; Sarah eTettamanti; Francesca eMaltese; Nice eTurazzi; Andrea eBiondi; Ettore eBiagi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the survival of pediatric patients affected by hematological malignancies being improved in the last 20 years by chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a significant amount of patients still relapses. Treatment intensification is limited by toxic side effects and is constrained by the plateau of efficacy, while the pipeline of new chemotherapeutic drugs is running short. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are essential and researchers around the world ar...

  5. Hematology Glossary

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    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  6. Advances in conditioning regimens for older adults undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation to treat hematologic malignancies.

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    William, Basem M; de Lima, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with hematological malignancies. These diseases, however, have their peak incidence in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Historically, elderly patients have been considered unsuitable candidates for SCT because of high treatment-related mortality (TRM). Over the past 15 years, the use of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens before SCT has allowed patients in the sixth and seventh decades of life to be routinely transplanted. Despite major differences among transplant centers in the intensity and composition of the conditioning regimen and immunosuppression, choice of graft source, postgraft immunomodulation, and supportive care, there has been a dramatic decrease in TRM, allowing safer delivery of SCT. Major obstacles to SCT in elderly patients include donor availability, graft-versus-host disease, delayed immune recovery, multiple comorbidities, and chemo refractoriness. Here we review the current results of SCT in elderly patients, focusing on the role of RIC, and using myeloid diseases as the model for discussion.

  7. Colonoscopic yield of colorectal neoplasia in daily clinical practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochim S Terhaar sive Droste; Mike E Craanen; Rene WM van der Hulst; Joep F Bartelsman; Dick P Bezemer; Kim R Cappendijk; Gerrit A Meijer; Linde M Morsink; Pleun Snel; Hans ARE Tuynman; Roy LJ van Wanrooy; Eric IC Wesdorp; Chris JJ Mulder

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence and location of advanced neoplasia in patients undergoing colonoscopy,and to compare the yield per indication.METHODS: In a multicenter colonoscopy survey (n = 18 hospitals) in the Amsterdam area (Northern Holland),data of all colonoscopies performed during a three month period in 2005 were analyzed. The location and the histological features of all colonic neoplasia were recorded. The prevalence and the distribution of advanced colorectal neoplasia and differences in yield between indication clusters were evaluated. Advanced neoplasm was defined as adenoma > 10 mm in size,with > 25% villous features or with high-grade dysplasia or cancer.RESULTS: A total of 4623 eligible patients underwent a total colonoscopy. The prevalence of advanced neoplasia was 13%, with 281 (6%) adenocarcinomas and 342 (7%) advanced adenomas. Sixty-seven percent and 33% of advanced neoplasia were located in the distal and proximal colon, respectively. Of all patients with right-sided advanced neoplasia (n = 228), 51%had a normal distal colon, whereas 27% had a synchronous distal adenoma. Ten percent of all colonoscopies were performed in asymptomatic patients, 7% of whom had advanced neoplasia. In the respective procedure indication clusters, the prevalence of rightsided advanced neoplasia ranged from 11%-57%.CONCLUSION: One out of every 7-8 colonoscopies yielded an advanced colorectal neoplasm. Colonoscopy is warranted for the evaluation of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.

  8. Advances in the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of Barrett’s neoplasia [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergus J.Q. Chedgy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrett’s oesophagus is a well-recognised precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is continuing to rise in the Western world with dismal survival rates. In recent years, efforts have been made to diagnose Barrett’s earlier and improve surveillance techniques in order to pick up cancerous changes earlier. Recent advances in endoscopic therapy for early Barrett’s cancers have shifted the paradigm away from oesophagectomy and have yielded excellent results.

  9. Systems hematology: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Seth Joel; Kimmel, Marek; Leonard, Joshua N

    2014-01-01

    Hematologists have traditionally studied blood and its components by simplifying it into its components and functions. A variety of new techniques have generated large and complex datasets. Coupled to an appreciation of blood as a dynamic system, a new approach in systems hematology is needed. Systems hematology embraces the multi-scale complexity with a combination of mathematical, engineering, and computational tools for constructing and validating models of biological phenomena. The validity of mathematical modeling in hematopoiesis was established early by the pioneering work of Till and McCulloch. This volume seeks to introduce to the various scientists and physicians to the multi-faceted field of hematology by highlighting recent works in systems biology. Deterministic, stochastic, statistical, and network-based models have been used to better understand a range of topics in hematopoiesis, including blood cell production, the periodicity of cyclical neutropenia, stem cell production in response to cytokine administration, and the emergence of drug resistance. Future advances require technological improvements in computing power, imaging, and proteomics as well as greater collaboration between experimentalists and modelers. Altogether, systems hematology will improve our understanding of normal and abnormal hematopoiesis, better define stem cells and their daughter cells, and potentially lead to more effective therapies.

  10. Avian hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Avian veterinarians often rely heavily on the results of various diagnostic tests, including hematology results. As such, cellular identification and evaluation of the cellular response are invaluable tools that help veterinarians understand the health or condition of their patient, as well as to monitor severity and clinical progression of disease and response to treatment. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly understand how to identify and evaluate changes in the avian erythron and leukon, as well as to interpret normal and abnormal results.

  11. Neoplasia avançada de esôfago: diagnóstico ainda muito tardio Advanced esophageal cancer: still a delayed diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Prata Thuler

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A neoplasia de esôfago está entre as 10 mais incidentes no Brasil. O diagnóstico é geralmente tardio e a sobrevida média é de 4 a 6 meses, independente da terapêutica. O alívio da disfagia e a melhora da qualidade de vida são os objetivos principais da terapêutica paliativa. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida e a paliação da disfagia obtida com diferentes tipos de tratamento oferecidos aos pacientes com neoplasia avançada de esôfago. PACIENTES E MÉTODO: Avaliação prospectiva de 38 pacientes com neoplasia avançada de esôfago, com disfagia, sem possibilidade de tratamento curativo, entre setembro de 2001 a junho de 2005. Os pacientes foram alocados aleatoriamente, de acordo com a disponibilidade da terapia ou preferência do paciente ou do médico responsável, sendo 14 tratados com colocação de prótese (9 metálicas auto-expansíveis, 4 plásticas e 1 plástica auto-expansível, 4 com cirurgia paliativa, 8 com gastrostomia (7 cirúrgicas e 1 endoscópica e 12 com sonda nasoenteral. RESULTADOS: Houve melhora do índice médio de disfagia em 30 dias em todos os grupos, exceto no da gastrostomia. A colocação da prótese de esôfago melhorou a disfagia de forma estatisticamente significante em relação às outras terapias paliativas. A qualidade de vida avaliada pela mediana do índice de Karnofsky não apresentou melhora em nenhum grupo de pacientes. O número de internações necessárias não foi diferente entre os grupos. A duração média das internações foi maior no grupo de tratamento cirúrgico (42 dias, embora sem diferença significativa. Não houve diferença na sobrevida média dos pacientes, independente do tipo de tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: A paliação ideal para todos os casos não existe. O método deve ser individualizado para cada paciente. O tratamento cirúrgico paliativo é o mais oneroso, devido ao prolongado tempo médio de internação desses pacientes. Infelizmente, o diagnóstico de

  12. Anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Pablo A; Boutros, Marylise; Berho, Mariana

    2013-12-01

    Diagnosis, follow up, and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia are complex and not standardized. This may be partly caused by poor communication of biopsy and cytology findings between pathologists and clinicians as a result of a disparate and confusing terminology used to classify these lesions. This article focuses on general aspects of epidemiology and on clarifying the current terminology of intraepithelial squamous neoplasia, its relationship with human papilloma virus infection, and the current methods that exist to diagnose and treat this condition.

  13. Detection of colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Christensen, Ib J; Rasmussen, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Serological biomarkers may be an option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study assessed 8 cancer-associated protein biomarkers in plasma from subjects undergoing first time ever colonoscopy due to symptoms attributable to colorectal neoplasia. Plasma AFP, CA19-9, CEA, hs...

  14. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia%阴道上皮内瘤变诊治的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琦; 洪颖

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) represents a rare and asymptomatic pre-neoplastic lesion of the lower genital tract squamous cells carcinoma .Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and VAIN are caused by prevalence and distribution of human papillomavirus infection.Due to widely use of vaginal cytology and HPV test , the cases of VAIN is increasing .Surgery is considered as the most effective treatment at present .It is essential to have long-term and standard follow-up for the cases to reduce the reocurrence and improve survival rate.%阴道上皮内瘤变是少见的女性生殖道鳞状细胞癌癌前病变。与宫颈上皮内瘤变相同,阴道上皮内瘤变的主要病因是高危型人乳头瘤病毒的持续性感染所致。随着阴道细胞学检查及人乳头瘤病毒检测的广泛开展应用,诊断病例呈逐年上升趋势。目前认为手术治疗是疗效最好的方法。对阴道上皮内瘤变的患者进行定期规范的随访是降低复发率和提高生存率的必要条件。

  15. Neoplasia vaginal intraepitelial

    OpenAIRE

    Baquedano M.,Laura; Lamarca B,Marta; José G,Yasmina; Rubio C,Patricia; Ruiz C,Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Actualizar los conocimientos disponibles sobre la neoplasia vaginal intraepitelial (VAIN) especialmente en el diagnóstico y tratamiento. Métodos: Revisión de la literatura en Pubmed de los últimos 20 años, especialmente de los publicados desde 2005 hasta la actualidad y considerando sobre todo los ensayos clínicos aleatorizados. Resultados: Su prevalencia real es desconocida, aunque es una patología rara generalmente en mujeres posmenopaúsicas. Su fisiopatología es similar a la neop...

  16. Fluorescence detection of esophageal neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, E.; Vladimirov, B.; Avramov, L.

    2008-06-01

    White-light endoscopy is well-established and wide used modality. However, despite the many technological advances that have been occurred, conventional endoscopy is suboptimal and usually detects advanced stage lesions. The limitations of standard endoscopy initiate development of spectroscopic techniques, additional to standard endoscopic equipment. One of the most sensitive approaches is fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal mucosa for neoplasia detection. In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20 mg/kg weight. Excitation source has max of emission at 405 nm and light is delivered by the standard light guide of the endoscopic equipment. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to reabsorption of blood. The lack of fluorescence peaks in the red spectral area for normal mucosa is an indication for selective accumulation of 5-ALA/PpIX only in abnormal sites Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  17. Utilidad de citometria de flujo en el diagnóstico y seguimiento de neoplasias hematopoyéticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Saavedra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de la citometría de flujo en hematología clínica y en particular en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias es uno de los campos más fascinantes del desarrollo del laboratorio en las últimas dos décadas.

  18. Breakthroughs in hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Jäger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hematology is a comprehensive discipline covering all oncological and non-oncological aspects of diseases of the blood or related organs. Hematological researchers have been pivotal in the progress which has been made in molecular diagnostics, targeted therapies, and hence personalized medicine. Besides the rapid scientific and clinical developments political and strategic issues have to be addressed: Education of medical personnel needs harmonization throughout Europe; patients all over Europe should have equal access to treatment, and further scientific progress has to be secured through funding on a national, European and international level despite economic restraints. The European Hematology Association (EHA pursues these issues with and for all European hematologists and patients.

  19. Diagnostic hematology of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A

    2011-03-01

    The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described.

  20. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  1. DC-based immunotherapy for hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitawaki, Toshio

    2014-02-01

    Great advances have been made in the treatment of hematological malignancies, but achieving a definitive cure remains an elusive goal for the majority of patients. Antigen-specific tumor immunotherapy has the potential to improve clinical outcome in patients with such diseases by eradicating chemotherapy-resistant tumor cell clones without damaging normal tissues. Dendritic cells (DCs) serve as an essential link between the innate and the adaptive immune systems, acting as key controllers of antigen-specific T cell responses. Molecular identification of tumor-specific antigens recognized by T lymphocytes and technical advances in ex vivo generation of human DCs has enabled us to develop DC-based tumor immunotherapies (also called "DC vaccines"). To date, a large number of clinical trials of DC vaccines have been conducted for a variety of tumors, including hematological malignancies. Overall, these trials have demonstrated that DC vaccines have excellent safety profiles, moderate immunological activity, and mild clinical efficacy. To establish a role for DC vaccines in the treatment of hematological malignancies, we need both to define patient populations that can obtain clinical benefit from DC vaccines and to develop combination therapies that augment clinical efficacy of DC vaccines. In this review, I will describe current status of DC-based immunotherapy for hematological malignancies, and discuss future perspectives in this field.

  2. Hematological dosimetry. Dosimetrie hematologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluery-Herard, A. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (FR). Direction des Sciences du Vivant)

    1991-01-01

    The principles of hematological dosimetry after acute or protracted whole-body irradiation are reviewed. In both cases, over-exposure is never homogeneous and the clinical consequences, viz medullary aplasia, are directly associated with the mean absorbed dose and the seriousness and location of the overexposure. The main hematological data required to assess the seriousness of exposure are the following: repeated blood analysis, blood precursor cultures, as indicators of whole-body exposure; bone marrow puncture, medullary precursor cultures and medullary scintigraphy as indicators of the importance of a local over-exposure and capacity for spontaneous repair. These paraclinical investigations, which are essential for diagnosis and dosimetry, are also used for surveillance and for the main therapeutic issues.

  3. Hematologic malignancies during preg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam K. Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignancy is the second most common cause of mortality in the reproductive period and it complicates up to one out of every 1000 pregnancies. When cancer is diagnosed during pregnancy, the management approach must take into consideration both the mother and her fetus. Hematologic cancers diagnosed in pregnancy are not common, resulting in paucity of randomized controlled trials. Diagnosis of such malignancies may be missed or delayed, as their symptoms are similar to those encountered during normal pregnancy. Also, many imaging studies may be hazardous during pregnancy. Management of these malignancies during pregnancy induces many treatment-related risks for mother and baby and should consider patient’s preferences for pregnancy continuation. In this article, hematologic malignancies diagnosed in pregnant patients including acute leukemias, chronic myeloid leukemia, lymphomas, multiple myeloma and myeloproliferative neoplasms, will be reviewed, including diagnostic and management strategies and their impact on the pregnant patient and the developing fetus.

  4. PROSTATIC INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA: HISTOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Gorbunova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors determined the detection rates of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN in 2317 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PC; and those of chronic prostatitis and fibrosis in patients with PIN, BPH, or PC. There was no difference in median age between the groups. PC was found to be more concurrent with PIN 2 than with BPH. The severer inflammation or fibrosis is, more likely there is a concomitance with PIN 2 or PC. There is evidence for the theory of inflammation is a factor of carcinogenesis. Prostatic fibrosis may also initiate carcinogenesis.

  5. PROSTATIC INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA: HISTOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Gorbunova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors determined the detection rates of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN in 2317 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PC; and those of chronic prostatitis and fibrosis in patients with PIN, BPH, or PC. There was no difference in median age between the groups. PC was found to be more concurrent with PIN 2 than with BPH. The severer inflammation or fibrosis is, more likely there is a concomitance with PIN 2 or PC. There is evidence for the theory of inflammation is a factor of carcinogenesis. Prostatic fibrosis may also initiate carcinogenesis.

  6. Intercostal schwannoma simulating pulmonary Neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    RESUMO – Schwannoma é uma neoplasia mesenquimal, usualmente solitária, encontrada no mediastino, retroperitônio ou pelve, sendo rara sua apresentação na parede torácica. OBJETIVO. Relatar o caso de um paciente masculino, tabagista, com um nódulo pulmonar direito com características de malignidade, detectado em radiografia de tórax de rotina, cujo diagnóstico anatomopatológico foi de schwannoma benigno de nervo intercostal. MÉTODOS. Revisaram-se os dados referentes ao quadro clínico, exames la...

  7. Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Raimondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the role of tumor microenvironment in the progression of hematological malignancies has been widely recognized. Recent studies have focused on how cancer cells communicate within the microenvironment. Among several factors (cytokines, growth factors, and ECM molecules, a key role has been attributed to extracellular vesicles (EV, released from different cell types. EV (microvesicles and exosomes may affect stroma remodeling, host cell functions, and tumor angiogenesis by inducing gene expression modulation in target cells, thus promoting cancer progression and metastasis. Microvesicles and exosomes can be recovered from the blood and other body fluids of cancer patients and contain and deliver genetic and proteomic contents that reflect the cell of origin, thus constituting a source of new predictive biomarkers involved in cancer development and serving as possible targets for therapies. Moreover, due to their specific cell-tropism and bioavailability, EV can be considered natural vehicles suitable for drug delivery. Here we will discuss the recent advances in the field of EV as actors in hematological cancer progression, pointing out the role of these vesicles in the tumor-host interplay and in their use as biomarkers for hematological malignancies.

  8. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  9. The prevalence and characteristics of colorectal neoplasia in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renehan, A G; Bhaskar, P; Painter, J E; O'Dwyer, S T; Haboubi, N; Varma, J; Ball, S G; Shalet, S M

    2000-09-01

    An increased prevalence of colorectal neoplasia has been reported in acromegalic patients, and recommendations have been made for early colonoscopic screening and regular surveillance. This assumption, however, is frequently drawn from studies using selected control populations. To clarify colonoscopic management in these patients, we undertook a 2-center prospective screening colonoscopy study in 122 acromegalics (age range, 25-82 yr). In the absence of ideal age-matched controls, we calculated prevalence rates of occult adenocarcinomas and adenomas in the general population using cumulative data in the published literature from 8 autopsy studies (model 1, n = 3,559) and 4 screening colonoscopy studies (model 2, n= 810), applying linear regression models. Of the 115 patients with complete examinations, adenocarcinomas were discovered in 3 (2.6%), and at least 1 adenoma was found in 11, giving an overall prevalence of neoplasia of 12% (14 of 115). Prevalence rates for age bands 30-40, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+ yr were 0%, 8%, 12%, 20%, and 21%, respectively. Compared with the 2 control models, the prevalence of occult colorectal cancer was not significantly increased (acromegalics vs. models 1 and 2, 2.6% vs. 2.3% and 0.9%), nor was there an increase in the prevalence of adenomas in any age band. Pathological characteristics showed some differences, in that adenomas in acromegalics tended to be right sided (68% vs. 57% and 56%), larger (for > or =10 mm, 27% vs. 13% and 9%), and of advanced histology (for tubulovillous, 27% vs. 4% and 22%). No associations were found between the presence of colonic neoplasia and the duration of disease, total GH exposure, cure status, and serum insulin-like growth factor I. This study has failed to demonstrate an increased prevalence of neoplasia in acromegalic patients compared with the expected prevalence in the general population and questions the need for an aggressive colonoscopic screening policy.

  10. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: achievements and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Machens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental advances in medical technology, such as the development of sensitive hormonal assays for routine clinical care, are the drivers of medical progress. This principle is exemplified by the creation of the concept of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, encompassing medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism, which did not emerge before the early 1960s. This review sets out to highlight key achievements, such as joint biochemical and DNA-based screening of individuals at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, before casting a spotlight on current challenges which include: (i ill-defined upper limits of calcitonin assays for infants and young children, rendering it difficult to implement the biochemical part of the integrated DNA-based/biochemical concept; (ii our increasingly mobile society in which different service providers are caring for one individual at various stages in the disease process. With familial relationships disintegrating as a result of geographic dispersion, information about the history of the origin family may become sketchy or just unavailable. This is when DNA-based gene tests come into play, confirming or excluding an individual's genetic predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 even before there is any biochemical or clinical evidence of the disease. However, the unrivaled molecular genetic progress in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 does not come without a price. Screening may uncover unknown gene sequence variants representing either harmless polymorphisms or pathogenic mutations. In this setting, functional characterization of mutant cells in vitro may generate helpful ancillary evidence with regard to the pathogenicity of gene variants in comparison with established mutations.

  11. Radiology of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, S.D. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Lim, A.K. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Seckl, M.J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Blunt, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mitchell, A.W. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: amitchell@hhnt.org

    2006-04-15

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) encompasses a broad spectrum of placental lesions from the pre-malignant hydatidiform mole (complete and partial) through to the malignant invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and rare placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT). Ultrasound remains the radiological investigation of choice for initial diagnosis, and it can also predict invasive and recurrent disease. Magnetic resonance imaging is of invaluable use in assessing extra-uterine tumour spread, tumour vascularity, and overall staging. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography undoubtedly have a role in recurrent and metastatic disease, while angiography has a place in disease and complication management. This review will describe the relevant pathophysiology and natural history of GTN, and the use of imaging techniques in the diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  12. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  13. CRYOTHERAPY IN CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naina Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotherapy is a time proven ablative method of treating lower grades of cervical dysplasia. It  is done using compressed CO2 or N2O refrigerant with the aim of creating an ice ball with a depth of freeze denoted by a peripheral margin of 4-5 mm of frost. It is performed using a double freeze or single freeze technique. Currently the double freeze technique of cryotherapy is an accepted treatment for mild and focal moderate dysplasia of the uterine cervix. The success of cryotherapy is determined by five factors : patient anatomy, pathology, equipment, technique and physician skill. Here we have a brief review of cryotherapy as an effective modality in treatment of lower grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias.

  14. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cervical Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rungoe, Christine; Simonsen, Jacob; Riis, Lene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We examined the risk of cervical neoplasia (dysplasia or cancer) in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). We also calculated the reverse, the risk for diagnosis with cervical neoplasia before development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We...... with IBD were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) of cervical neoplasia before diagnosis of IBD were calculated by using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Women with CD underwent cervical cancer screening as often as women in the general population (IRR, 0...

  15. Cross-sectional imaging of gastric neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargunani, R. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rikin@doctors.org.uk; Maclachlan, J. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Kaniyur, S. [Lister Hospital, East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Power, N. [Barts and The London NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Pereira, S.P. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Malhotra, A. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The detection of gastric neoplasia has traditionally been limited to barium examination and direct visualization at endoscopy. The rapid development of techniques such as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has resulted in more accurate diagnosis and staging of gastric neoplasia. In this review we describe the normal anatomy of the stomach with multi-modality illustrations and review the imaging manifestations of gastric neoplasia, including adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine and gastro-intestinal stromal tumours. We also describe the optimal techniques for up-to-date and accurate gastric imaging, outlining the role of MDCT and EUS.

  16. Computational Biomechanics of Human Red Blood Cells in Hematological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Li, He; Chang, Hung-Yu; Lykotrafitis, George; Em Karniadakis, George

    2017-02-01

    We review recent advances in multiscale modeling of the biomechanical characteristics of red blood cells (RBCs) in hematological diseases, and their relevance to the structure and dynamics of defective RBCs. We highlight examples of successful simulations of blood disorders including malaria and other hereditary disorders, such as sickle-cell anemia, spherocytosis, and elliptocytosis.

  17. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Ropio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies.

  18. Non‐operative breast pathology: lobular neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Lobular neoplasia is a relatively uncommon lesion, which is frequently diagnosed in biopsy specimens taken for other reasons. Although the histological features of this lesion are well known, its biological significance as a “risk indicator” or “breast cancer precursor” has been a matter of debate. This review provides an update on recent clinicopathological and molecular data on lobular neoplasia and how these have changed the way these lesions are perceived and, most importantly, managed. F...

  19. In the sandbox: palliative care and hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Thomas W

    2014-02-01

    Palliative care specialists have had little involvement in the care of patients with hematologic malignancies. The reasons for this are not clear, because these patients certainly face a significant symptom burden, and many hematologic malignancies are either incurable or carry poor prognoses. For example, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients over age 60 has a 5-year survival of less than 10%, akin to pancreatic cancer. Although most oncologists would agree with involving palliative care specialists in the case of advanced pancreatic cancer, few seem to consider this in the context of AML. Why should AML be any different?

  20. Schwannoma intercostal simulando neoplasia pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma é uma neoplasia mesenquimal, usualmente solitária, encontrada no mediastino, retroperitônio ou pelve, sendo rara sua apresentação na parede torácica. OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de um paciente masculino, tabagista, com um nódulo pulmonar direito com características de malignidade, detectado em radiografia de tórax de rotina, cujo diagnóstico anatomopatológico foi de schwannoma benigno de nervo intercostal. MÉTODOS: Revisaram-se os dados referentes ao quadro clínico, exames laboratoriais e de imagem (radiografia e tomografia computadorizada de tórax do caso em estudo, assim como os exames anatomopatológico e imuno-histoquímico do espécime cirúrgico. RESULTADOS: O paciente foi submetido à toracotomia direita diagnóstica com ressecção da tumoração. O exame anatomopatológico convencional mostrou células tumorais de aspecto fusiforme, dispostas em paliçada, formando os corpos de Verocay, compatível com schwannoma intercostal. A imuno-histoquímica foi positiva para proteína S-100, vimentina e enolase, e negativa para neurofilamentos. CONCLUSÃO: O diagnóstico definitivo de schwannoma só é possível por meio da análise histopatológica e imuno-histoquímica da lesão. Seu aspecto celular, associado à atividade mitótica e a áreas de pleomorfismo, pode levar ao diagnóstico incorreto de malignidade. A imuno-histoquímica, por meio da proteína S-100, é útil na caracterização da benignidade da lesão, já que não é detectada nas lesões malignas. Os schwannomas de parede torácica podem simular neoplasias pulmonares na radiografia e tomografia computadorizada de tórax.

  1. Adoptive therapy with CAR redirected T cells for hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Yang, Zhi; Shen, Junjie; Shan, Juanjuan; Qian, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The survival of patients with hematological malignancies has been significantly improved due to the development of new therapeutic agents. However, relapse remains a major matter for concern. Recently, T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) were reported to show unprecedented responses in a range of hematological malignancies. The persistence of the CAR-T cell can last for years and tends toward long-term antitumor memory by which relapses can be effectively prevented. The primary side effects that appear in most clinical trials are cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. However, these symptoms can be treated and reversed. In this review, we describe CAR structure and function and summarize recent advances in CAR-T cell therapy in hematological malignancies.

  2. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness...... diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs...... across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments...

  3. Fractal analysis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Fabrizii

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer. These neoplastic lesions are traditionally subdivided into three categories CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, using microscopical criteria. The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. METHODS: Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN. A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. RESULTS: Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of 87.1%. Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia. CONCLUSION: Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  4. 42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation). 493.941 Section 493.941 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF....941 Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation). (a) Program content and frequency...

  5. Optical molecular imaging for detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadhi Thekkek; Sharmila Anandasabapathy; Rebecca Richards-Kortum

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus can be used to probe a wide range of optical properties that are altered with neoplastic progression.This review summarizes relevant changes in optical properties as well as imaging approaches that measures those changes.Wide-field imaging approaches include narrow-band imaging that measures changes in light scattering and absorption,and autofluorescence imaging that measure changes in endogenous fluorophores.High-resolution imaging approaches include optical coherence tomography,endocytoscopy,confocal microendoscopy,and high-resolution microendoscopy.These technologies,some coupled with an appropriate contrast agent,can measure differences in glandular morphology,nuclear morphology,or vascular alterations associated with neoplasia.Advances in targeted contrast agents are further discussed.Studies that have explored these technologies are highlighted;as are the advantages and limitations of each.

  6. Hematological disorders and pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Rajamma; Huang, Jing; Wu, Joseph M; Fallon, John T; Gewitz, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a serious disorder with a high morbidity and mortality rate, is known to occur in a number of unrelated systemic diseases. Several hematological disorders such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia and myeloproliferative diseases develop PH which worsens the prognosis. Associated oxidant injury and vascular inflammation cause endothelial damage and dysfunction. Pulmonary vascular endothelial damage/dysfunction is an early event in PH resulting in the loss of vascular reactivity, activation of proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways leading to vascular remodeling, elevated pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy and premature death. Hemolysis observed in hematological disorders leads to free hemoglobin which rapidly scavenges nitric oxide (NO), limiting its bioavailability, and leading to endothelial dysfunction. In addition, hemolysis releases arginase into the circulation which converts L-arginine to ornithine, thus bypassing NO production. Furthermore, treatments for hematological disorders such as immunosuppressive therapy, splenectomy, bone marrow transplantation, and radiation have been shown to contribute to the development of PH. Recent studies have shown deregulated iron homeostasis in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Several studies have reported low iron levels in patients with idiopathic PAH, and iron deficiency is an important risk factor. This article reviews PH associated with hematological disorders and its mechanism; and iron homeostasis and its relevance to PH. PMID:28070238

  7. Multiple endocrine neoplasia: the Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René E. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN types 1 and 2 are genetic diseases that are inherited as autosomal traits. The major clinical manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 include the so-called "3 P's": parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatic tumors, including gastroenteroneuroendocrine tumors. Genetic testing can be performed on patients and the potential carriers of the menin gene mutation, but the genotype-phenotype correlation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is less straightforward than multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Most likely, the main advantage of genetic testing in MEN1 is to exclude from further studies those who are negative for the genetic mutation if they belong to a family with a known history of MEN1. In Chile, we started with rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene genetic testing (MEN2 15 years ago. We carried out a prophylactic total thyroidectomy to prevent medullary thyroid carcinoma in a three-year-old girl who presented with microscopic medullary thyroid carcinoma. More than 90% of the individuals who tested positive using a genetic test achieved a biochemical cure compared with only 27% of patients who receive a clinical diagnosis. Mutations are mainly located in exon 11; the most common is C634W, rather than C634R. Hypertensive crisis was the cause of death in three patients, and extensive distant metastases occurred in nine (including two patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B of 14 patients. Earlier recognition of medullary thyroid carcinoma and the other features of the disease, especially pheochromocytoma, will improve the survival rate of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  8. Neurocutaneous spectrum of multiple endocrine neoplasia-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I or Wermer syndrome is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, enteropancreatic endocrine tumor, and a pituitary pathology. A 35-year-old male presented with visual field defects, hyperprolactinemia, and hypogonadism. He also had multiple infraumbilical skin-colored nodules. A syndromal association of Wermer syndrome was derived using the dermal, pituitary, parathyroid, and gastrointestinal hormonal manifestations of the tumor. The radiological and histological findings of lesion which underwent biopsy are discussed. The presence of collagenomas, lipomas, and hypopigmented macules in a patient with neuroendocrine symptoms should raise the suspicion of an underlying multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of human papilloma virus in conjunctival neoplasias: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Seema

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The extent of association of human papilloma virus (HPV in human conjunctival neoplasias has been debated in studies originating from different parts of the world, but no substantial evidence has been generated on Indian subjects. This prompted us to carry out a retrospective study on conjunctival neoplasias diagnosed over the past 12 years. Materials and Methods: Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 65 specimens of ocular neoplasias and 30 normal controls diagnosed between 1991 and 2002 at a tertiary eye care hospital, was undertaken. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were reviewed for confirming histopathological diagnosis, presence of koilocytosis and changes related to actinic keratosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was done using HPV-specific monoclonal antibodies. Clinicopathological correlation and the association of HPV antigen with the histopathological features were performed. Results: Out of the 65 cases analyzed, 35 were papillomas and 30 were ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSN. The mean age was 48 years with a male preponderance. Histologically, koilocytosis was observed in 17.1% of papillomas and 36.6% of OSSN. Actinic keratosis was present in 33% of OSSN. Immunohistochemically 17.1% conjunctival papillomas stained positive for HPV antigen, all cases of OSSN were negative for HPV. There was no correlation between koilocytosis or actinic keratosis and the detection of HPV antigen. Conclusions: The association between HPV and conjunctival neoplasias is variable in different geographical areas and also depends on the methods of detection used. This study warrants the need for applying more advanced techniques at a molecular level to determine the possible etiology of HPV in conjunctival neoplasias among Asian-Indians.

  10. Synchronous high-risk melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-03

    Large population-based studies have shown a significant association between melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia, particularly non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), that is independent of any treatment received for the initial tumour. This study examines the presentation, diagnosis, treatment and progress of three patients who developed advanced melanoma concurrently with a lymphoid neoplasm (one NHL, two CLLs), in order to illustrate their association, discuss common aetiological factors and examine possible therapeutic options. As it is the melanoma rather than the lymphoid neoplasm that represents the bigger threat to overall survival, initial treatment should be targeted towards this cancer. However, because of the interplay between the diseases and the possible side-effects of the various treatments, the choice of adjuvant therapy requires careful consideration. Immunosuppression associated with chemotherapy may permit a more aggressive course for the melanoma, while locoregional radiotherapy is contraindicated following lymph node dissections. As immunotherapy is of benefit in the treatment of melanoma and has also been recently shown to be effective in the management of lymphoid neoplasia, we instituted interferon-alpha as adjuvant therapy for these patients, thereby utilizing a single agent to treat the dual pathologies. The three patients have now been followed-up for 6 months without evidence of disease recurrence or progression.

  11. Pregnancy outcomes after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILA TREMENTOSA GARCIA

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction The successful development of chemotherapy enabled a fertilitysparing treatment for patients with trophoblastic neoplasia. After disease remission, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy becomes a great concern for these women. Objective To analyze existing studies in the literature that describe the reproductive outcomes of patients with trophoblastic neoplasia treated with chemotherapy. Method Systematic review was performed searching for articles on Medline/ Pubmed, Lilacs and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “gestational trophoblastic disease” and “pregnancy outcome”. Results A total of 18 articles were included. No evidence of decreased fertility after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia was observed. The abortion rates in patients who conceived within 6 months after chemotherapy was higher compared to those who waited longer. Some studies showed increased rates of stillbirth and repeat hydatidiform moles. Only one work showed increased congenital abnormalities. Conclusion The pregnancies conceived after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia should be followed with clinical surveillance due to higher rates of some pregnancy complications. However, studies in the literature provide reassuring data about reproductive outcomes of these patients.

  12. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV+ men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated several aspects of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM). This condition has gained clinical interest because of the impressive increase of the anal cancer incidence in HIV+ MSM since the introduction of combination antiretroviral

  13. XYY male and hematologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, N; Shigeta, C; Kamada, N

    1996-09-01

    Two cases of XYY male with refractory anemia with excess of blasts are reported, and previous reported XYY males with hematologic malignancy are reviewed. Altogether 26 cases were collected for analysis: acute myeloid leukemia (10), acute lymphocytic leukemia (seven), acute leukemia (two), chronic myelocytic leukemia (three), myelodysplastic syndrome (three), and essential thrombocythemia (one). The age at the time of diagnosis ranged in age from 7.5 to 81 years. In three of six XYY/XY mosaicism cases, XYY clone was associated with malignancy. However, in two cases XYY clone was not involved. The evidence presented here suggests that the event of an XYY male with hematologic malignancy is incidental rather than a genetic etiology.

  14. Uterine cervical neoplasia prevention in Parque Indigena do Xingu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, N M de Góis; Pereira, E R; Schaper, M; Tso, F K; de Freitas, V G; Ribalta, J C L

    2009-01-01

    Results of preventive health measures, diagnosis and treatment applied to Parque Indigena do Xingu native women were studied. Thirty-seven cases of uterine cervical intraepithelial lesions and invasive neoplasias were treated in the local villages without referral to an advanced medical center. LEEPs were carried out in 32 women, three cold knife conizations, one vaginal hysterectomy and one Wertheim Meigs procedure. Results of 53.1% of LEEP surgical procedures did not have margin involvement by the lesions. Bleeding complications were seen in 15.6%. Regular follow-up with two or three cytologic and colposcopic tests in 32 women was carried out. All cases were negative for lesions. Five women were not followed-up due mainly to logistical reasons. Health endeavors adopted in the period 2005-2007 brought about a significant reduction of precursor lesions in this native aboriginal population without screening resources.

  15. Anterior Segment Imaging in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally S. Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in anterior segment imaging have transformed the way ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is diagnosed and monitored. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM has been reported to be useful primarily in the assessment of intraocular invasion and metastasis. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM shows enlarged and irregular nuclei with hyperreflective cells in OSSN lesions and this has been found to correlate with histopathology findings. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT demonstrates thickened hyperreflective epithelium with an abrupt transition between abnormal and normal epithelium in OSSN lesions and this has also been shown to mimic histopathology findings. Although there are limitations to each of these imaging modalities, they can be useful adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of OSSN and could greatly assist the clinician in the management of OSSN patients. Nevertheless, anterior segment imaging has not replaced histopathology’s role as the gold standard in confirming diagnosis.

  16. Current Chemotherapeutic Management of Patients with Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaa May

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN describes a heterogeneous group of interrelated lesions that arise from abnormal proliferation of placental trophoblasts. GTN lesions are histologically distinct, malignant lesions that include invasive hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT. GTN tumors are generally highly responsive to chemotherapy. Early stage GTN disease is often cured with single-agent chemotherapy. In contrast, advanced stage disease requires multiagent combination chemotherapeutic regimens to achieve a cure. Various adjuvant surgical procedures can be helpful to treat women with GTN. Patients require careful followup after completing treatment and recurrent disease should be aggressively managed. Women with a history of GTN are at increased risk of subsequent GTN, hence future pregnancies require careful monitoring to ensure normal gestational development. This article will review the workup, management and followup of women with all stages of GTN as well as with recurrent disease.

  17. Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Piecha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism may occur as a part of an inherited syndrome in a combination with pancreatic endocrine tumours and/or pituitary adenoma, which is classified as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1. This syndrome is caused by a germline mutation in MEN-1 gene encoding a tumour-suppressor protein, menin. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1, which usually appears in the second decade of life as an asymptomatic hypercalcemia and progresses through the next decades. The most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is bone demineralisation and recurrent kidney stones rarely followed by chronic kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to present the pathomechanism, screening procedures, diagnosis, and management of primary hyperparathyroidism in the MEN-1 syndrome. It also summarises the recent advances in the pharmacological therapy with a new group of drugs—calcimimetics.

  18. Coexistence of prostate neoplasia in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy due to vesical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of bladder carcinoma infiltrating the prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy due to bladder cancer, as well as to assess if the characteristics of the bladder neoplasia influence the prostatic involvement by this neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 60 male patients, who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy between July 1997 and December 2003. Mean age was 66.7 years (40 and 93 years. The product of radical cystoprostatectomies was checked for involvement of urethra and prostate parenchyma by the primary neoplasia, and for the presence of associated prostate adenocarcinoma. Bladder neoplasia characteristics, such as localization, size, multifocality, association with in situ carcinoma and histological grade, were studied in order to assess the possibility of using such characteristics as predictive factors of prostate infiltration by bladder urothelial carcinoma. RESULTS: We observed the presence of 20% of patients with bladder carcinoma infiltrating the prostatic urethra, 23.3% of patients with infiltration of the prostate parenchyma and 28.3% of patients with associate prostate adenocarcinoma, resulting in a total of 55% of patients with prostatic involvement (infiltrative bladder carcinoma and/or adenocarcinoma. We also observed a statistically significant correlation between tumor location in the trigone, the presence of in situ carcinoma and the histological grade of the bladder tumor with prostatic infiltration by the vesical neoplasia. CONCLUSION: The coexistence of prostatic neoplasia in patients operated for bladder neoplasia was frequent in our sample (55%. We observed that the prostatic infiltration by bladder tumors occurs more frequently with tumors located in the trigone, with associated in situ carcinoma and with high histological grade. There was no correlation between neoplastic infiltration of prostate and multifocality

  19. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  20. End of life care in hematology: still a challenging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niscola, Pasquale; Tendas, Andrea; Scaramucci, Laura; Giovannini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The majority of patients with hematological malignancies (HM) may experience troublesome symptoms and complicating clinical syndromes throughout all phases of disease. Therefore, among the current concepts concerning the comprehensive management of hematological patients, palliative care should exert a more ever expanding role, in particular in the advanced phases of disease, as there are special clinical needs (such as blood transfusions and anti-infective treatments), presented by this peculiar category of cancer patients. However, reported experiences on advanced HM patients claimed a too intensive level of medical care during the last week of life for which the needs of future and collaborative researches in order to set a proper allocation of medical resources and the optimal end-of-life care in the hematologic setting are highly awaited. Indeed, the most important aspect of caring for these suffering patients is to ameliorate or restore their quality of life (QoL) though a highly humanized approach, whereas technological and pharmacological measures should be limited enough to control the symptoms burden and the several kinds of sufferance that may complicate the final phase of disease course.

  1. Neoplasia no sítio da colostomia de paciente com megacólon chagásico: relato de caso Neoplasia at the site of the colostomy of patient with chagasic megacolon: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Agostini Braga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A neoplasia no sítio da colostomia associada ao megacólon chagásico é uma entidade rara. Os autores relatam caso de um paciente com lesão avançada, o qual foi submetido a tratamento cirúrgico e discutem aspectos relacionados a esta afecção.Neoplasia at the site of the colostomy associated with chagasic megacolon is a rare clinical event. Here, the authors report the case of a patient with advanced lesion, who had to undergo surgical treatment, and discuss aspects related to this disease.

  2. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : a consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology rese

  3. The Advances of Cytokeratins and P16INK4a in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer%细胞角蛋白与P16INK4a在宫颈癌前病变及宫颈癌中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘微

    2012-01-01

    The cervical cancer is one of the common gynecologic malignant tumors,and in recent years the amount of the young patients has obviously risen. The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)is closely related to cervical invasive carcinoma as a group of precancerous lesions,which is also an important stage in the cervical cancer progression. The proceeding from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)to cervical cancer is a long period,so the effective diagnosis and treatments of CIN are the best way to prevent the cervical cancer. Some studies claimed that CK17 was a marker of the cervical stem cells and reflected the phenomena from immature to mature of cervical cell metaplasia. The expression level of CK8 and CK17 is related to the degree of CIN and cervical cancer. Analysis the expression level of CK8,CK17 can be as a predictor for the high-risk cases.The P16INK4a 's abnormal methrlation is related to the the clinical stages and pathological classification of cervical cancer. In terminal and high malignant degree's tissues,its activities is obviously enhanced. This review will discuss the advances of cytokeratins and P16INK4a in the cervical cancer and CIN in terms of occurrence and development.%宫颈癌是常见的妇科恶性肿瘤之一,且近年来年轻患者有明显上升的趋势.子宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)是与子宫颈浸润癌密切相关的一组癌前病变,也是宫颈癌防治的重要阶段.从宫颈癌前病变发展成宫颈癌是一个较长时间的过程,有效的诊断和治疗CIN是预防宫颈癌的最佳途径.有研究认为,细胞角蛋白17(CK17)是宫颈干细胞的标记物,反映了一种细胞化生由不成熟向成熟转化的现象.CK8、CK17表达水平与宫颈上皮内瘤样病变程度及宫颈癌有关,分析CK8、CK17表达水平可作为预测宫颈癌高危患者的指标.P16INK4a异常甲基化与宫颈癌的临床分期及病理分级有关,在晚期及恶性程度较高的组织中,其活性明显增强

  4. Discussing and managing hematologic germ line variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Wendy; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2016-11-24

    With the introduction of genomic technologies, more hereditary cancer syndromes with hematologic malignancies are being described. Up to 10% of hematologic malignancies in children and adults may be the result of an underlying inherited genetic risk. Managing these patients with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including familial leukemia, remains a clinical challenge because there is little information about these relatively rare disorders. This article covers some of the issues related to the diagnosis and interpretation of variants associated with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including the importance of an accurate family history in interpreting genetic variants associated with disease. The challenges of screening other family members and offering the most appropriate early malignancy detection is also discussed. We now have a good opportunity to better define hereditary cancer syndromes with associated hematologic malignancies and contribute to clinically effective guidelines.

  5. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, R.; Rossing, M.; Henao, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge. To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid...... a mechanism for cancer progression, which is why we exploited the results in order to generate a molecular classifier that could identify 95% of all carcinomas. Validation employing public domain and cross-platform data demonstrated that the signature was robust and could diagnose follicular nodules...... and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC. Endocrine-Related Cancer (2010) 17 691-708...

  6. Chemoresistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cp, Sudha; M, Sahana

    2014-07-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a disease of women in reproductive age. It is one of the most chemotherapy responsive and highly curable cancer. It is diagnosed when there is clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and/or hormonal evidence of persistent or relapsed gestational trophoblastic disease. In most instances, it is cured by surgical evacuation of the uterus. If persistent, it is treated with chemotherapy which provides response in >90% of the cases. In the unresponsive persistent cases and if the women has completed her child bearing, hysterectomy is generally recommended. Here, we report a rare case of chemoresistant GTN which was confirmed to be placental-site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) on biopsy.

  7. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  8. 血液肿瘤个体化用药及相关遗传药物基因组学研究进展%Advances in personalized medicine of hematologic neoplasms and related pharmacogenetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红星; 周枫叶; 张阳

    2016-01-01

    血液肿瘤治疗药物的使用存在显著的个体差异。一些药物代谢酶、转运体和作用受体相关基因的遗传多态性显著影响药物的药代动力学(PK)和药效动力学(PD),是药物基因组学研究的重要内容。根据患者的遗传基因多态性预测药物不良反应、最佳初始剂量,并结合治疗药物浓度监测(TDM)来调整用药剂量,可以帮助实现更精准的用药、提高疗效并减少不良反应。文章就近年来的相关研究进展进行介绍,并提出“个体化用药指纹图”的概念。%The efficacy of hematological tumor drugs has shown inter-patient variability. Pharmacogenomics focuses on gene polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters and therapeutic targets and its impact on pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD). Initial dose and adverse reaction can be predicted based on inherited gene polymorphisms, and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) also helps to adjust drug dosage in the course of treatment. Thus can achieve rational drug use and personalized medicine, and improve the efficacy and reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions. This article will introduce the relevant research progress in recent years, and the concept of personalized medication fingerprints is proposed.

  9. Profile of hematological abnormalities of Indian HIV infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Aman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Methods Two hundred HIV infected individual were screened for hematological abnormalities from March 2007–March 2008. Absolute CD4 cell count analysis was carried out by flowcytometry. Depending on the results of the primary screening further investigations were performed, like iron studies, hemolytic work up, PNH work up and bone marrow evaluation. Other investigations included coagulation profile, urine analysis, blood culture (bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, serology for Epstein Barr virus (EBV, Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Hepatitis B and C, and Parvo B19 infection. Results The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 65.5% (131/200 patients. Iron deficiency anemia was seen in 49.2% (/200 cases while anemia of chronic disease occurred in 50.7% (/200 cases. Bone marrow evaluation was carried out in 14 patients out of which staging marrow was performed in 2 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL and did not show any bone marrow infiltration. In remaining12 cases bone marrow was done for evaluation of pancytopenia. Among patients with pancytopenia 50% (6/12 showed granulomas (4 were positive for AFB, 2 were positive for fungal cryptococci, 25% (3/12 showed hemophagocytosis. There was a strong negative correlation between anemia and CD4 counts in this study. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 7% (14/200 cases and had no significant correlation with CD4 counts. No patient had absolute neutrophil count (ANC Conclusion Anemia in HIV patients can be a good clinical indicator to predict and access the underlying immune status. Patients should be investigated for hematological manifestations and appropriate steps should be taken to identify and treat the reversible factors.

  10. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, acromegaly, and colorectal neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, M; Cats, A; Maliakkal, BJ; Kinzie, JL; Maliakkal, R; Dullaart, RPF; Luk, GD

    1997-01-01

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) and acromegaly are two hypersecretory states in which colorectal neoplasia has been described, but the incidence in the former condition may not be increased. We describe four patients with colorectal neoplasia associated with the ZES and review other published cases

  11. Neoplasia célula T/natural killer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gargantilla Madera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las neoplasias de células NK son poco frecuentes y de difícil diagnóstico. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con una neoplasia de célula NK que debutó como linfocitosis relativa asintomática.

  12. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  13. Inmunoterapia activa en el tratamiento de neoplasias hematológicas Active immunotherapy in the treatment of haematological neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Inogés

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La continua búsqueda de abordajes terapéuticos que mejoren los tratamientos convencionales de las enfermedades neoplásicas junto con el mejor conocimiento del sistema inmunitario ha llevado en los últimos años al desarrollo de la inmunoterapia. Básicamente se pueden distinguir dos formas de inmunoterapia: la inmunoterapia pasiva, que consiste en la transferencia de anticuerpos o células previamente generados in vitro que se dirigen contra el tumor, y la inmunoterapia activa, que pretende activar in vivo el sistema inmunitario e inducirlo a elaborar una respuesta específica contra los antígenos tumorales. Las neoplasias hematológicas, concretamente algunos linfomas B, expresan en su membrana una inmunoglobulina que se considera un verdadero antígeno específico de tumor; por eso estas enfermedades se han convertido en la diana ideal de los tratamientos de inmunoterapia. Las alternativas son muchas, desde las vacunas proteicas que ya han demostrado beneficios clínicos, hasta las de segunda generación, que aprovechan las nuevas técnicas de biología molecular para aumentar la eficacia de las vacunas y conseguir su producción de forma más rápida y menos costosa, pero con las que todavía no hay resultados clínicos definitivos.The continuous search for therapeutic approaches that improve the conventional treatments of neoplasms, together with an improved understanding of the immune system, has led in recent years to the development of Immunotherapy. Basically, a distinction can be made between two forms of immunotherapy: passive immunotherapy, which consists in the transfer of antibodies or cells previously generated in vitro that are directed against the tumour, and active immunotherapy, which attempts to activate in vivo the immune system and induce it to elaborate a specific response against the tumor antibodies. Hematological neoplasms, specifically some B lymphomas, express in their membrane an immunoglobulin that is considered

  14. The Importance Of Integrating Results Of Several Techniques In The Diagnosis Of Hematological Diseases [a Importância Da Integração De Dados Do Diagnóstico Das Hemopatias

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand- Metze, Irene

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of hematologic diseases has traditionally been based on features of peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) cytology. Histologic examination of the BM has been used for the staging of neoplasias when aspiration is not possible due to fibrosis. Cytology permits a better evaluation of cell morphology and a quantitative analysis of the different BM lineages. Histology shows the BM structure, topology of cells and the microenvironment, besides identifying pathologic structures such as...

  15. Epistaxis in Visceral Leishmaniasis with Hematological Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Sigdel, B.; Bhandary, S.; Rijal, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study the prevalence of epistaxis in visceral leismaniasis and its correlation with hematological profile. Methods. Out of 80 diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 19 patients with epistaxis were included in the study. Diagnosis was made by Rk-39 from peripheral smear and LD bodies from bone marrow. Before starting anti-kala-azar treatment, nasal examination findings and hematological profile were noted. Study Design. Prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study. Result...

  16. Oral microflora in children with hematologic malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Vecherkovskaya; G. V. Tets; B. V. Afanasiev; V. V. Tets

    2015-01-01

    The goal was a comprehensive study of oral microflora in healthy children and those with hematologic malignancies, based on the analysis of mixed microbial biofilms composition, isolation and identification of new previously unknown microorganisms. The material was obtained in children with hematological diseases in remission, 2–10 years aged, and for the control group from St. Petersburg schoolchildren and in kindergartens. We used microbiological, biochemical and molecular genetic methods, ...

  17. Interactive Hematology and Digital Learning Online

    OpenAIRE

    Rønning, Morten

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2001, the University of Oslo decided to prioritize the usage of digital learning systems, and offered funds for their development. We decided to use the opportunity to create a web-based, interactive learning system (1), covering basic physiological and clinical hematology. During initial development, the project was expanded to a general Content-Management System (2) for creating web-based information sites, while maintaining focus on hematology. Method The system was d...

  18. Oncolytic Virotherapy for Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma (MM, and the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs primarily affect adults and are difficult to treat. For high-risk disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT can be used. However, in the setting of autologous HCT, relapse due to contamination of the autograft with cancer cells remains a major challenge. Ex vivo manipulations of the autograft to purge cancer cells using chemotherapies and toxins have been attempted. Because these past strategies lack specificity for malignant cells and often impair the normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, prior efforts to ex vivo purge autografts have resulted in prolonged cytopenias and graft failure. The ideal ex vivo purging agent would selectively target the contaminating cancer cells while spare normal stem and progenitor cells and would be applied quickly without toxicities to the recipient. One agent which meets these criteria is oncolytic viruses. This paper details experimental progress with reovirus, myxoma virus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, coxsackievirus, and vaccinia virus as well as requirements for translation of these results to the clinic.

  19. Hematologic responses to hypobaric hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, E. C.; Adams, J. D.; Williams, W. T.; Duncan, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the effects of hypoxia, activity, and G forces on human hematopoiesis in an attempt to elucidate these phenomena more precisely. Eight subjects were exposed to an atmosphere of 100% O2 at 258 mm Hg for 30 days, and thereafter immediately exposed to transverse G forces, simulating the Gemini flights' reentry profile. All subjects displayed a significant continuous decline in red cell mass during the exposure period, as measured by the carbon monoxide-dilution method. The Cr51 method also indicated a decline in red blood corpuscle mass. The decrease in red cell mass was due to suppression of erythropoiesis and to hemolysis. After exposure to hyperoxia, all subjects exhibited elevated plasma hemoglobin levels, decreased reticulocyte counts, and decreased red cell survivals. CO production rates and urine erythropoietin levels were unchanged. Two hours after termination of exposure to hyperoxia, all subjects exhibited increased reticulocyte counts which were sustained for longer than two weeks. The progressive decrease in red cell mass was promptly arrested on return to ground level atmospheres. Within 116 days after exposure to hyperoxia, the hematologic parameters of all eight subjects had returned to control levels.

  20. Targeting hedgehog in hematologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, David A; Copland, Mhairi

    2012-03-08

    The Hedgehog pathway is a critical mediator of embryonic patterning and organ development, including hematopoiesis. It influences stem cell fate, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis in responsive tissues. In adult organisms, hedgehog pathway activity is required for aspects of tissue maintenance and regeneration; however, there is increasing awareness that abnormal hedgehog signaling is associated with malignancy. Hedgehog signaling is critical for early hematopoietic development, but there is controversy over its role in normal hematopoiesis in adult organisms where it may be dispensable. Conversely, hedgehog signaling appears to be an important survival and proliferation signal for a spectrum of hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, hedgehog signaling may be critical for the maintenance and expansion of leukemic stem cells and therefore provides a possible mechanism to selectively target these primitive cell subpopulations, which are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Indeed, phase 1 clinical trials of hedgehog pathway inhibitors are currently underway to test this hypothesis in myeloid leukemias. This review covers: (1) the hedgehog pathway and its role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis, (2) the recent development of clinical grade small molecule inhibitors of the pathway, and (3) the potential utility of hedgehog pathway inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in hemato-oncology.

  1. The Danish National Chronic Myeloid Neoplasia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Marie; Ibfelt, Else Helene; Stauffer Larsen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The Danish National Chronic Myeloid Neoplasia Registry (DCMR) is a population-based clinical quality database, introduced to evaluate diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic myeloid malignancies. The aim is to monitor the clinical quality at the national, regional, and hospital...... of follow-up. The forms include variables that describe clinical/paraclinical assessments, treatment, disease progression, and survival - disease-specific variables - as well as variables that are identical for all chronic myeloid malignancies. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: By the end of 2014, the DCMR contained data...... on 2,690 patients with an inclusion rate of ∼500 patients each year. Since the registry was established, annual reports have shown consistently high national coverage and data completeness, ≥90% and ≥88%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The DCMR is a national database used for monitoring the quality...

  2. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; Leite, Marieli F. M.; Trujillo, Jose R.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors, especially in Gynecology. The photodynamic reaction is based on the production of reactive oxygen species after the activation of a photosensitizer. Advantages of the PDT in comparison to the surgical resection are: ambulatory treatment and tissue recovery highly satisfactory, through a non-invasive procedure. The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I and II presents potential indications for PDT. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PDT for the diagnostics and treatment of CIN I and II. The equipment and the photosensitizer are produced in Brazil with a representative low cost. It is possible to visualize the fluorescence of the cervix and to treat the lesions, without side effects. The proposed clinical protocol shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  3. In vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by multimodal colposcopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenqi; Qu, Yingjie; Pei, Jiaojiao; Xiao, Linlin; Zhang, Shiwu; Chang, Shufang; Smith, Zachary J.; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in developing countries. Colposcopy plays an important role in early screening and detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In this paper, we developed a multimodal colposcopy system that combines multispectral reflectance, autofluorescence, and RGB imaging for in vivo detection of CIN, which is capable of dynamically recording multimodal data of the same region of interest (ROI). We studied the optical properties of cervical tissue to determine multi-wavelengths for different imaging modalities. Advanced algorithms based on the second derivative spectrum and the fluorescence intensity were developed to differentiate cervical tissue into two categories: squamous normal (SN) and high grade (HG) dysplasia. In the results, the kinetics of cervical reflectance and autofluorescence characteristics pre and post acetic acid application were observed and analyzed, and the image segmentation revealed good consistency with the gold standard of histopathology. Our pilot study demonstrated the clinical potential of this multimodal colposcopic system for in vivo detection of cervical cancer.

  4. The european hematology association roadmap for european hematology research: A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Engert (Andreas); C.L. Balduini (Carlo); A. Brand (Anneke); B. Coiffier (B.); C. Cordonnier (Charlotte); H. Döhner (Hartmut); De Wit, T.D. (Thom Duyvené); Eichinger, S. (Sabine); W.E. Fibbe (Willem); Green, T. (Tony); De Haas, F. (Fleur); A. Iolascon (Achille); T. Jaffredo (Thierry); Rodeghiero, F. (Francesco); Sall Es, G. (Gilles); J.J. Schuringa; J.-L. André (Jean-Luc); I. André-Schmutz (Isabelle); A. Bacigalupo; P-Y. Bochud (Pierre-Yves); M.L. den Boer (Monique); C. Bonini (Chiara); C. Camaschella (Clara); A. Cant (Andrew); M.D. Cappellini (Maria); M. Cazzola; Celso, C.L. (Cristina Lo); M.A. Dimopoulos (Meletios); Douay, L. (Luc); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); H. Einsele (Hermann); A.J.M. Ferreri (Andrés J.M.); De Franceschi, L. (Lucia); Gaulard, P. (Philippe); B. Göttgens (Berthold); A. Greinacher (Andreas); P. Gresele (Paolo); J. Gribben (John); De Haan, G. (Gerald); Hansen, J.-B. (John-Bjarne); A. Hochhaus (Andreas); Kadir, R. (Rezan); S.V. Kaveri (Srini); Kouskoff, V. (Valerie); Kühne, T. (Thomas); Kyrle, P. (Paul); P. Ljungman; Maschmeyer, G. (Georg); S. Mendez-Ferrer (S.); Milsom, M. (Michael); Mummery, C. (Christine); G.J. Ossenkoppele (Gert); A. Pecci (Alessandro); F. Peyvandi (Flora); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak); P.H. Reitsma; J.M. Ribera (Josep Maria); Risitano, A. (Antonio); Rivella, S. (Stefano); W. Ruf (Wolfram); Schroeder, T. (Timm); Scully, M. (Marie); G. Socie (Gerard); F.J.T. Staal (Frank); S. Stanworth (Simon); Stauder, R. (Reinhard); S. Stilgenbauer (S.); Tamary, H. (Hannah); K. Theilgaard-Mönch (K.); Thein, S.L. (Swee Lay); H. Tilly (Herve); M. Trneny (Marek); Vainchenker, W. (William); A.M. Vannucchi (Alessandro); Viscoli, C. (Claudio); Vrielink, H. (Hans); Zaaijer, H. (Hans); Zanella, A. (Alberto); Zolla, L. (Lello); J.J. Zwaginga (Jaap); Martinez, P.A. (Patricia Aguilar); E. van den Akker (Eric); Allard, S. (Shubha); N.P. Anagnou (Nicholas); Andolfo, I. (Immacolata); Andrau, J.-C. (Jean-Christophe); Angelucci, E. (Emanuele); D.J. Anstee (David J.); Aurer, I. (Igor); H. Avet-Loiseau (Hervé); Y. Aydinok (Yesim); Bakchoul, T. (Tamam); Balduini, A. (Alessandra); Barcellini, W. (Wilma); Baruch, D. (Dominique); Baruchel, A. (André); J. Bayry (Jagadeesh); Bento, C. (Celeste); A. van den Berg (Anemone); Bernardi, R. (Rosa); Bianchi, P. (Paola); A. Bigas (Anna); A. Biondi (Andrea); Bohonek, M. (Milos); Bonnet, D. (Dominique); Borchmann, P. (Peter); Borregaard, N. (Niels); Brækkan, S. (Sigrid); M.R.M. Van Den Brink (Marcel R. M.); Brodin, E. (Ellen); L. Bullinger (Lars); C. Buske (Christian); Butzeck, B. (Barbara); J. Cammenga (Jörg); G. Campo (Gianluca); I. Carbone; Cervantes, F. (Francisco); S. Cesaro; P. Charbord (Pierre); F.H.J. Claas (Frans); Cohen, H. (Hannah); Conard, J. (Jacqueline); Coppo, P. (Paul); Vives Corron, J.-L. (Joan-Lluis); Da Costa, L. (Lydie); Davi, F. (Frederic); H.R. Delwel (Ruud); Dianzani, I. (Irma); Domanović, D. (Dragoslav); Donnelly, P. (Peter); Drnovšek, T.D. (Tadeja Dovč); M. Dreyling (Martin); Du, M.-Q. (Ming-Qing); Dufour, C. (Carlo); C. Durand (Charles); Efremov, D. (Dimitar); A. Eleftheriou (Androulla); Elion, J. (Jacques); M. Emonts (Marieke); M. Engelhardt (Monika); Ezine, S. (Sophie); J.H.F. Falkenburg (Frederik); Favier, R. (Remi); M. Federico (M.); P. Fenaux (Pierre); J. Fitzgibbon (Jude); Flygare, J. (Johan); R. Foà; L. Forrester (Lesley); Galacteros, F. (Frederic); Garagiola, I. (Isabella); C. Gardiner (Chris); Garraud, O. (Olivier); Van Geet, C. (Christel); H. Geiger (Hartmut); J. Geissler (Jan); U. Germing (Ulrich); Ghevaert, C. (Cedric); D. Girelli (Domenico); Godeau, B. (Bertrand); Gökbuget, N. (Nicola); H. Goldschmidt (Hartmut); A.C. Goodeve; T. Graf (Thomas); Graziadei, G. (Giovanna); Griesshammer, M. (Martin); Gruel, Y. (Yves); F. Guilhot (François); Von Gunten, S. (Stephan); I.C. Gyssens (Inge); J.P. Halter (Joerg P.); C.N. Harrison (Claire N.); C.L. Harteveld (Cornelis); Hellström-Lindberg, E. (Eva); Hermine, O. (Olivier); Higgs, D. (Douglas); Hillmen, P. (Peter); Hirsch, H. (Hans); Hoskin, P. (Peter); G. Huls (Gerwin); Inati, A. (Adlette); Johnson, P. (Peter); Kattamis, A. (Antonis); Kiefel, V. (Volker); M. Kleanthous (Marina); Klump, H. (Hannes); Krause, D. (Daniela); Hovinga, J.K. (Johanna Kremer); Lacaud, G. (Georges); Lacroix-Desmazes, S. (Sébastien); Landman-Parker, J. (Judith); Legouill, S. (Steven); Lenz, G. (Georg); M. Von Lilienfeld-Toal (Marie); M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); Lopez-Guillermo, A. (Armando); Lopriore, E. (Enrico); Lozano, M. (Miguel); E. Macintyre; M. Makris (M.); Mannhalter, C. (Christine); J.H.A. Martens (Joost); S. Mathas (Stephan); Matzdorff, A. (Axel); A. Medvinsky (Alexander); Menendez, P. (Pablo); G. Migliaccio (Giovanni); Miharada, K. (Kenichi); Mikulska, M. (Malgorzata); V. Minard (Véronique); Montalbán, C. (Carlos); De Montalembert, M. (Mariane); E. Montserrat (Emili); P.-E. Morange (P.); Mountford, J. (Joanne); Muckenthaler, M. (Martina); C. Müller-Tidow (Carsten); Mumford, A. (Andrew); B. Nadel (Bertrand); Navarro, J.-T. (Jose-Tomas); El Nemer, W. (Wassim); Noizat-Pirenne, F. (France); O’Mahony, B. (Brian); J. Oldenburg (Johannes); Olsson, M. (Martin); R.A. Oostendorp (Robert); A. Palumbo (Antonio); F. Passamonti (Francesco); R. Patient (Roger); De Latour, R.P. (Regis Peffault); F. Pflumio (Françoise); Pierelli, L. (Luca); Piga, A. (Antonio); Pollard, D. (Debra); M.H.G.P. Raaijmakers (Marc H.G.P.); J. Radford (John); Rambach, R. (Ralf); Koneti Rao, A.; Raslova, H. (Hana); Rebulla, P. (Paolo); Rees, D. (David); V. Ribrag (Vincent); A.W. Rijneveld (Anita); Rinalducci, S. (Sara); T. Robak (Tadeusz); Roberts, I. (Irene); Rodrigues, C. (Charlene); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); Rosenwald, A. (Andreas); Rule, S. (Simon); R. Russo (Roberta); Saglio, G. (Guiseppe); Sanchez, M. (Mayka); Scharf, R.E. (Rüdiger E.); Schlenke, P. (Peter); Semple, J. (John); J. Sierra (Jorge); So-Osman, C. (Cynthia); Soria, J.M. (José Manuel); K. Stamatopoulos (K.); Stegmayr, B. (Bernd); H. Stunnenberg (Henk); D.W. Swinkels (Dorine); Barata, J.P.T. (João Pedro Taborda); T. Taghon (Tom); Taher, A. (Ali); E. Terpos (Evangelos); Thachil, J. (Jecko); Tissot, J.D. (Jean Daniel); I.P. Touw (Ivo); Toye, A. (Ash); Trappe, R. (Ralf); Traverse-Glehen, A. (Alexandra); Unal, S. (Sule); S. Vaulont (Sophie); V. Viprakasit (Vip); Vitolo, U. (Umberto); R. van Wijk (Richard); Wójtowicz, A. (Agnieszka); S. Zeerleder (Sacha); B. Zieger (Barbara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hem

  5. Isotype-specific inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway in hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo JJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jorge J Castillo,1 Meera Iyengar,2 Benjamin Kuritzky,2 Kenneth D Bishop2 1Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, 2Division of Hematology and Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: In the last decade, the advent of biological targeted therapies has revolutionized the management of several types of cancer, especially in the realm of hematologic malignancies. One of these pathways, and the center of this review, is the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K pathway. The PI3K pathway seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis and survival advantage in hematologic malignancies, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. The objectives of the present review, hence, are to describe the current knowledge on the PI3K pathway and its isoforms, and to summarize preclinical and clinical studies using PI3K inhibitors, focusing on the advances made in hematologic malignancies. Keywords: phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway, inhibitors, leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma

  6. Inmunología tumoral y neoplasias del sistema inmune

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Fernández, María Luz de la; Sempere Ortells, José Miguel; Marco de la Calle, Francisco Manuel; Vázquez Araujo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Inmunología tumoral: vigilancia inmunológica, antígenos tumorales, respuesta inmune antitumoral, escape tumoral. Inmunología y diagnóstico. Inmunoterapia. Neoplasias del sistema inmune: leucemias y linfomas.

  7. Oral microflora in children with hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Vecherkovskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal was a comprehensive study of oral microflora in healthy children and those with hematologic malignancies, based on the analysis of mixed microbial biofilms composition, isolation and identification of new previously unknown microorganisms. The material was obtained in children with hematological diseases in remission, 2–10 years aged, and for the control group from St. Petersburg schoolchildren and in kindergartens. We used microbiological, biochemical and molecular genetic methods, including electron microscopy, proteomic analysis, sequencing and complete genome annotation. Microorganisms of 23 genera isolated as pure cultures and identified by biochemical activity from mixed microbial biofilm derived from saliva of healthy and sick children. In microflora of children with hematologic malignancies a previously unknown type of streptococci with a large number of antibiotic resistance genes was revealed. Differences in oral microbiota composition of healthy children and children with hematological diseases in remission were revealed. The microbiota of children with hematologic malignancies contains more genes controlling antibiotic resistance. Also, it was observed previously unknown bacterium of the genus Streptococcus.

  8. Molecular biological factors in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Ponomareva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made a complex analysis of the molecular biological factors associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. They have revealed that infection by oncogenic human papillomavirus types is associated with suppressed apoptosis and enhanced cellular proliferative activity, which can be effectively used in the diagnosis and prediction of cervical neoplasias to optimize management tac- tics and to improve the results of treatment.

  9. HEMATOLOGIC FINDINGS IN OPERATING ROOM STAFFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H SOLTANI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Long term exposure to trace amounts of anesthetic vapors and gases may produce hematologic and hepatic disorders in human. Since operating room (OR staffs are exposed to these agents, we decided to study their hematopoietic and hepatic systems in comparison with ordinary ward staffs. Methods. Seventy staffs from OR were compared with a matched similar number of ward staffs about their hematologic and hepatic laboratory findings in a historical cohort study. Findings. Mean of leukocyte and platelet counts were significantly lower in OR staffs, but in normal range. Mean of monocyte count was significantly higher in OR staffs. No significant differences were found between two groups for other hepatic and hematologic tests. Fatigue and headache were reported in OR staffs more than others. Conclusion. These findings may warn a risk to OR staffs but, it is not clear and requires further controlled studies.

  10. Effect of electroconvulsive therapy on hematological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, S; Chadda, R K; Rusia, U; Jain, N

    2001-11-30

    Although a complete blood count is part of the evaluation before the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), there are no known hematological contraindications for the procedure. A preliminary study was done on 31 randomly selected psychiatric patients (chronic schizophrenia, n=10; acute depression, n=8; acute mania, n=6; acute psychosis, n=6; delusional disorder, n=1) receiving ECT to study its hematological effects. Blood samples were drawn just before and 0, 1 and 2 h after ECT. Hemoglobin (Hb%), total and differential leukocyte count (TLC and DLC), red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelet count were measured on a fully automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex K-1000). Significant changes were found in TLC, percentage of polymorphs and lymphocytes, and Hb%. Changes in other parameters were not statistically significant. More such studies are needed to substantiate these observations and to understand the mechanism and implication of these effects.

  11. Identification of Anti-tumor Cells Carrying Natural Killer (NK Cell Antigens in Patients With Hematological Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Krzywinska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells, a cytotoxic lymphocyte lineage, are able to kill tumor cells in vitro and in mouse models. However, whether these cells display an anti-tumor activity in cancer patients has not been demonstrated. Here we have addressed this issue in patients with several hematological cancers. We found a population of highly activated CD56dimCD16+ NK cells that have recently degranulated, evidence of killing activity, and it is absent in healthy donors. A high percentage of these cells expressed natural killer cell p46-related protein (NKp46, natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D and killer inhibitory receptors (KIRs and a low percentage expressed NKG2A and CD94. They are also characterized by a high metabolic activity and active proliferation. Notably, we found that activated NK cells from hematological cancer patients have non-NK tumor cell antigens on their surface, evidence of trogocytosis during tumor cell killing. Finally, we found that these activated NK cells are distinguished by their CD45RA+RO+ phenotype, as opposed to non-activated cells in patients or in healthy donors displaying a CD45RA+RO− phenotype similar to naïve T cells. In summary, we show that CD45RA+RO+ cells, which resemble a unique NK population, have recognized tumor cells and degranulate in patients with hematological neoplasias.

  12. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients.

  13. Clinical application of magnification endoscopy and narrow-band imaging in the upper gastrointestinal tract: new imaging techniques for detecting and characterizing gastrointestinal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kenshi; Takaki, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Iwashita, Akinori; Anagnostopoulos, George K; Kaye, Philip; Ragunath, Krish

    2008-07-01

    This article introduces one of the most advanced endoscopy imaging techniques, magnification endoscopy with narrow-band imaging. This technique can clearly visualize the microvascular (MV) architecture and microsurface (MS) structure. The application of this technique is quite useful for characterizing the mucosal neoplasia in the hypopharynx, oropharynx, esophagus, and stomach. The key characteristic findings for early carcinomatous lesions are an irregular MV pattern or irregular MS pattern as visualized by this technique. Such a diagnostic system could be applied to the early detection of mucosal neoplasia throughout the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Anal intraepitelial neoplasia: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garazi Elorza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal intraepitelial neoplasia (AIN constitutes a major health problem in certain risk groups, such as patients with immunosuppression of varied origin, males who have sexual relations with other males, and females with a previous history of vaginal or cervical abnormalities in cytology. Its relationship with the human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been well documented; however, many of the factors involved in the progression and regression of the viral infection to dysplasia and anal carcinoma are unknown. AIN can be diagnosed through cytology of the anal canal or biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy. However, the need for these techniques in high-risk groups remains controversial. Treatment depends on the risk factors and given the high morbidity and high recurrence rates the utility of the different local treatments is still a subject of debate. Surgical biopsy is justified only in the case of progression suggesting lesions. The role of the vaccination in high-risk patients as primary prevention has been debated by different groups. However, there is no general consensus on its use or on the need for screening this population.

  15. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: Areview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. Anumber of risk-stratification strategies as well as screeningtechniques have been suggested, and currently littleconsensus exists among national societies. Much ofthe current clinical rationale for the prevention of analcancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervicalcancer and the successful use of routine screening toidentify cervical cancer and its precursors early in thedisease process. It is thought that such a strategy ofidentifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reducethe incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalenceof anal cancer in the general population prevents theuse of routine screening. However, routine screeningof selected populations has been shown to be a morepromising strategy. Potential screening modalities includedigital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, humanpapilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy.Additional research associating high-grade dysplasiatreatment with anal cancer prevention as well as directcomparisons of screening regimens is necessary todevelop further anal cancer screening recommendations.

  16. Histologic classification of penile intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Elsa F; Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-05-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and their corresponding precancerous lesions can be classified in 2 major groups: human papillomavirus (HPV) related and HPV unrelated. In the former (warty and basaloid SCC), there is a predominance of undifferentiated basaloid cells. In the latter (eg, usual, papillary, and verrucous SCC), the predominant cell is larger with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Based on these morphologic features, a new term, "penile intraepithelial neoplasia" (PeIN), was proposed. PeIN was further subclassified into differentiated and undifferentiated, with the latter being subdivided into basaloid, warty, and warty-basaloid subtypes. Macroscopically, PeIN subtypes are indistinguishable. Microscopically, differentiated PeIN is characterized by acanthosis, parakeratosis, enlarged keratinocytes with abundant "pink" cytoplasm (abnormal maturation), and hyperchromatic cells in the basal layer. In basaloid PeIN the epithelium is replaced by a monotonous population of uniform, small, round, and basophilic cells. Warty PeIN is characterized by a spiky surface, prominent atypical parakeratosis, and pleomorphic koilocytosis. Warty-basaloid PeIN show features of both warty and basaloid PeIN. There is a significant association of subtypes of PeIN with specific variants of invasive SCCs. This is a simple and reproducible nomenclature for penile precancerous lesions based on cell type and differentiation. It takes into account the similarities between vulvar and penile pathology and the hypothesis of a bimodal pathway of penile cancer progression.

  17. Fertility considerations in young women with hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadoul, Pascale; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    The need for practice guidelines for fertility preservation in young women with hematological malignancies has been increased. To develop recommendations, publications relevant to fertility preservation and hematological cancers were identified through a PubMed database search and reviewed...

  18. Bacteremia and candidemia in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, D; Skinhøj, P; Bangsborg, Jette Marie;

    1988-01-01

    171 episodes of bacteremia and candidemia in 142 patients were recorded during the period 1981-1985 in patients with hematological malignancies. Overall mortality, within 1 week of onset of bacteremia, was 20%. Increased mortality was found in patients with poor disease-prognosis (39%), with gran...

  19. Hematological outcome in neonatal alloimmune hemolytic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, Mirjam Eva Aafke

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on several aspects related to the hematological outcome of infants with hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) due to red blood cell alloimmunization, including pathogenesis and management of the disease. The presence of leukocytopenie and thrombocytopenia support the

  20. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: A review of diagnosis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph R; Siekas, Lacey L; Kaz, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a premalignant lesion of the anal mucosa that is a precursor to anal cancer. Although anal cancer is relatively uncommon, rates of this malignancy are steadily rising in the United States, and among certain high risk populations the incidence of anal cancer may exceed that of colon cancer. Risk factors for AIN and anal cancer consist of clinical factors and behaviors that are associated with the acquisition and persistence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. The strongest HPV-associated risk factors are HIV infection, receptive anal intercourse, and high risk sexual behavior. A history of HPV-mediated genital cancer, which suggests infection with an oncogenic HPV strain, is another risk factor for AIN/anal cancer. Because progression of AIN to anal cancer is known to occur in some individuals over several years, screening for AIN and early anal cancer, as well as treatment of advanced AIN lesions, is reasonable in certain high-risk populations. Although randomized controlled trials evaluating screening and treatment outcomes are lacking, experts support routine screening for AIN in high risk populations. Screening is performed using anal cytological exams, similar to those performed in cervical cancer screening programs, along with direct tissue evaluation and biopsy via high resolution anoscopy. AIN can be treated using topical therapies such as imiquimod, 5-flurouracil, and trichloroacetic acid, as well as ablative therapies such as electrocautery and laser therapy. Reductions in AIN and anal cancer rates have been shown in studies where high-risk populations were vaccinated against the oncogenic strains of HPV. Currently, the CDC recommends both high-risk and average-risk populations be vaccinated against HPV infection using the quadrivalent or nonavalent vaccines. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with AIN and the role of HPV vaccination, particularly in high risk populations. PMID:28255426

  1. [Heredity in renal and prostatic neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayer Galetti, T; D'Arrigo, L; De Zorzi, L; Patarnello, T

    1997-09-01

    There is an ever growing report of data supporting the evidence that accumulated genetic changes underlie the development of neoplasia. The paradigma of this multistep process is colon cancer were cancer onset is associated, over decades, with at least seven genetic events. The number of genetic alterations increases moving from adenomatous lesions to colon cancer and, although the genetic alterations occur according to a preferred sequence, the total accumulation of changes rather than their sequential order is responsible of tumor biological behavior. It is noteworthy that, at least for this neoplasia, carcinogenesis appears to arise as a result of the mutational activation of oncogenes coupled with the mutational inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. In some cases mutant suppressor genes appear to exert a phenotypic effect even when present in the heterozygous state thus been non "recessive" at the cellular level. The general features of this model may apply also to renal cell cancer (RCC) and prostate cancer (CaP). Extensive literature exists on the cytogenetic and molecular findings in RCC. Only 2% of RCC are familiar, but molecular genetic studies of these cancers have provided important informations on RCC pathogenesis. As with other cancers, familiar RCC is characterized by an early age of onset and frequent multicentricity. A pathological classification useful in studying these patients subdivide renal cancers in papillary (pRCC) and non papillary (RCC) neoplasms. The most common cause of inherited RCC is the Von Hippel Lindau disease (VHL) a dominantly inherited multisystem disorder characterized by retinal and cerebellar hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas, pancreatic cysts and RCC. Over 70% of these patients will develop an RCC by their sixth decade. In 1993 the isolation of the tumor suppressor gene in VHL disease at the level of chromosome 3p25-p26 have lead to a better understanding of RCC. Most missense mutations are associated with high risk of

  2. Telomerase activity in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑珍; 孙建衡; 张伟; 金顺钱; 王洪平; 金玉生; 曲萍; 刘毅; 李茉

    2004-01-01

    Background It was reported that telomerase expression is closely associated with cellular immortality and cancer. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between telomerase expression and the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer, the possible use of telomerase as a marker of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) progression or regression, and the natural history of CIN. Methods Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay was used to measure telomerase activity in cervical scrapings and biopsy samples obtained from 105 cases affected with various cervical conditions, including chronic cervicitis (n=20), CIN (n=64, 16 cases of CIN Ⅰ , 20 cases of CIN Ⅱ, and 28 cases of CIN Ⅲ ), and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (n =21 ).Results In exfoliated cell samples, telomerase activity was detected in 5 of 20 (25. 0% ) cases of cervicitis, 10 of 16 (62.5%) cases of CIN Ⅰ , 11 of 20 (55.0%) cases of CIN Ⅱ, 23 of 28 (82.1%) cases of CIN Ⅲ, and 13 of 21 (61.9%) cases of carcinoma. In cervical biopsy samples, telomerase activity was detected in 6 of 20 (30. 0%) cases of cervicitis, 8 of 16 (50. 0%) cases of CIN Ⅰ , 9 of 20 (45.0%) cases of (CIN Ⅱ, 27 of 28 (96. 4%) cases of CIN Ⅲ, and 20 of 21 (95. 2%) cases of carcinoma. Telomerase activation was significantly higher in CIN samples than in cervicitis samples. Telomerase activity was detected at similar frequency in samples from cervical scrapings and cervical biopsies.Conclusion These results seem to suggest that telomerase expression may be associated with carcinogenesis of the cervix. TRAP assay of cervical scraping samples could be used to monitor and predict the development of CIN in clinical practice.

  3. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-05-20

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process.

  4. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-05-31

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process.

  5. DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellows CF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Gagliardi1, Monica Goswami1, Roberto Passera2, Charles F Bellows11Department of Surgery and Pathology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Division of Nuclear Medicine Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni Battista, Turin, ItalyIntroduction: Microtubule-associated doublecortin and CaM kinase-like-1 (DCLK1 is a novel candidate marker for intestinal stem cells. The aim of our study was to assess DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal carcinogenesis and its correlation with prognosis.Methods: DCLK1 immunostaining was performed in colorectal tissue from 71 patients, including 18 adenomatous polyps, 40 primary adenocarcinomas, and 14 metastatic lesions. Each case was evaluated by a combined scoring method based on the intensity of staining (score 0–3 and the percentage of tissue staining positive (score 0–3. Immunoexpression for DCLK1 was considered as positive when the combined score was 2–6 and negative with a score of 0–1.Results: Overall, 14/18 (78% of polyps, 30/40 (75% of primary adenocarcinomas, and 7/14 (50% of distant metastases were positive for DCLK1. In adenomatous polyps and primary cancer there was no association between DCLK1 staining score and tumor pathology. However, after curative colorectal cancer resection, patients whose tumor had a high (≥5 combined staining score had increased cancer-specific mortality compared to patients with low (0–4 staining score (hazard ratio 5.89; 95% confidence interval: 1.22–28.47; P = 0.027.Conclusion: We found that DCLK1 is frequently expressed in colorectal neoplasia and may be associated with poor prognosis. Further studies are necessary to validate the use of DCLK1 as a prognostic marker.Keywords: DCLK1, DCAMKL-1, gastrointestinal stem cell, cancer stem cell, adenomatous polyps, liver metastasis, immunohistochemistry

  6. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  7. Miles Technicon H.2 automated hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Automated hematology analyzers are used in all large hospitals and most commercial laboratories, as well as in most smaller hospitals and laboratories, to perform complete blood counts (including white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts; hemoglobin concentration; and RBC indices) and white blood cell differential counts. Our objectives in this study are to provide user guidance for selecting, purchasing, and using an automated hematology analyzer, as well as to present an overview of the technology used in an automated five-part differential unit. Specifications for additional automated units are available in ECRI's Clinical Laboratory Product Comparison System. We evaluated the Miles Technicon H.2 unit and rated it Acceptable. The information in this Single Product Evaluation is also useful for purchasing other models; our criteria will guide users in assessing components, and our findings and discussions on some aspects of automated hematology testing are common to many available systems. We caution readers not to base purchasing decisions on our rating of the Miles unit alone, but on a thorough understanding of the issues surrounding automated hematology analyzers, which can be gained only by reading this report in its entirety. The willingness of manufacturers to cooperate in our studies and the knowledge they gain through participating lead to the development of better products. Readers should refer to the Guidance Section, "Selecting and Purchasing an Automated Hematology Analyzer," where we discuss factors such as standardization, training, human factors, manufacturer support, patient population, and special features that the laboratory must consider before obtaining any automated unit; we also provide an in-depth review of cost issues, including life-cycle cost analyses, acquisition methods and costs of hardware and supplies, and we describe the Hemacost and Hemexmpt cost worksheets for use with our PresValu and PSV Manager CAHDModel software

  8. Elective cesarean hysterectomy for treatment of cervical neoplasia. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M S; Roberts, W S; Fiorica, J V; Angel, J L; Finan, M A; Cavanagh, D

    1993-03-01

    From January 1, 1979, to March 31, 1991, 37 patients underwent elective cesarean hysterectomy for early cervical neoplasia. Thirty-four patients had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and three patients had stage IA-1 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Twenty-eight were primary cesarean sections; nine had obstetric indications. The mean operative time was 128 minutes; mean estimated blood loss was 1,400 mL. One patient experienced an intraoperative hemorrhage (3,500 mL). There were no other recognized intraoperative complications. Four significant postoperative complications included a vaginal cuff abscess, a wound dehiscence and pelvic abscess, one patient with febrile morbidity and an ileus and ligation with partial transection of a ureter. Patients were discharged on a mean of postoperative day 5.7. Although significant complications occurred, we believe that the noncompliant nature of our patient population justifies elective cesarean hysterectomy for treatment of cervical neoplasia.

  9. Long-term adherence to follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel Svennekjær; Lynge, Elsebeth; Søgaard-Andersen, Erik;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure adherence to annual follow-up among women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based, register study. SETTING: Denmark, 1996-2007. POPULATION: All women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with conization. METHODS: Treate...

  10. Neoplasia intraepitelial vulvar: um problema atual Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a current problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Fonseca-Moutinho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A neoplasia intraepitelial da vulva (VIN é uma denominação que foi introduzida incialmente pela International Society for Study of Vulvo-vaginal Diseases (ISSVD e reconhecida posteriormente pela International Society of Gynaecological Pathology (ISGYP e Organização Mundial da Saúde. É uma entidade patológica a que correspondem as VIN de tipo usual (verrucoso, basalióide e misto e as VIN de tipo diferenciado. A incidência das lesões de VIN tem aumentado progressivamente, principalmente em mulheres jovens. A infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV de alto risco, pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, o tabagismo e a neoplasia intraepitelial do colo do útero, da vagina e região anal são factores de risco estabelecidos para as VIN. Não existem sintomas e sinais característicos das VIN, mas a doença se traduz sempre por lesões clinicamente identificáveis. A biópsia com o auxílio do colposcópio permite o diagnóstico. O tratamento da doença está sempre justificado pelo elevado risco de progressão para cancro invasivo. A excisão alargada das lesões ou a sua destruição com laser CO2 têm sido os métodos mais populares de tratamento. Independentemente do método terapêutico utilizado, as taxas de recidiva são elevadas, pelo que está aconselhada a vigilância apertada das doentes após tratamento. A terapêutica tópica com imiquimod se afigura promissora no tratamento das VIN. As vacinas profiláticas contra os tipos de HPV de alto risco prometem se tornar armas poderosas na prevenção primária da doença.Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN is a pathological denomination coined by the International Society for Study of Vulvo-vaginal Diseases (ISSVD and adopted by the International Society of Gynaecological Pathology (ISGYP and by the World Health Organization. VIN is a heterogeneous pathological entity with a usual type (warty, basaloid and mixed and a differentiated type. The incidence of the disease is

  11. Epithelial neoplasia in Drosophila entails switch to primitive cell states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sumbul J; Bajpai, Anjali; Alam, Mohammad Atif; Gupta, Ram P; Harsh, Sneh; Pandey, Ravi K; Goel-Bhattacharya, Surbhi; Nigam, Aditi; Mishra, Arati; Sinha, Pradip

    2013-06-11

    Only select cell types in an organ display neoplasia when targeted oncogenically. How developmental lineage hierarchies of these cells prefigure their neoplastic propensities is not yet well-understood. Here we show that neoplastic Drosophila epithelial cells reverse their developmental commitments and switch to primitive cell states. In a context of alleviated tissue surveillance, for example, loss of Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) tumor suppressor in the wing primordium induced epithelial neoplasia in its Homothorax (Hth)-expressing proximal domain. Transcriptional profile of proximally transformed mosaic wing epithelium and functional tests revealed tumor cooperation by multiple signaling pathways. In contrast, lgl(-) clones in the Vestigial (Vg)-expressing distal wing epithelium were eliminated by cell death. Distal lgl(-) clones, however, could transform when both tissue surveillance and cell death were compromised genetically and, alternatively, when the transcription cofactor of Hippo signaling pathway, Yorkie (Yki), was activated, or when Ras/EGFR signaling was up-regulated. Furthermore, transforming distal lgl(-) clones displayed loss of Vg, suggesting reversal of their terminal cell fate commitment. In contrast, reinforcing a distal (wing) cell fate commitment in lgl(-) clones by gaining Vg arrested their neoplasia and induced cell death. We also show that neoplasia in both distal and proximal lgl(-) clones could progress in the absence of Hth, revealing Hth-independent wing epithelial neoplasia. Likewise, neoplasia in the eye primordium resulted in loss of Elav, a retinal cell marker; these, however, switched to an Hth-dependent primitive cell state. These results suggest a general characteristic of "cells-of-origin" in epithelial cancers, namely their propensity for switch to primitive cell states.

  12. Interpretation of erythrocyte histograms obtained from automated hematology analyzers in hematologic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maleki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presently, the graphical data of blood cells (histograms and cytograms or/ scattergrams that they are usually available in all modern automated hematology analyzers are an integral a part of automated complete blood count (CBC. To find incorrect results from automated hematology analyzer and establish the samples that require additional analysis, Laboratory employees will use those data for quality control of obtaining results, to assist identification of complex and troublesome cases. Methods: During this descriptive analytic study, in addition to erythrocyte graphs from variety of patients, referring from March 2013 to Feb 2014 to our clinical laboratory, Zagros Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, are given, the papers published in relevant literature as well as available published manuals of automatic blood cell counters were used. articles related to the key words of erythrocyte graphs and relevant literature as well as available published manuals of automatic blood cell counters were searched from valid databases such as Springer Link, google scholar, Pubmed and Sciencedirect. Then, the articles related to erythrogram, erythrocyte histogram and hematology analyzer graphs are involved in diagnosis of hematological disorder were searched and selected for this study. Results: Histograms and different automated CBC parameter become abnormal in various pathologic conditions, and can present important clues for diagnosis and treatment of hematologic and non-hematologic disorders. In several instances, these histograms have characteristic appearances in an exceedingly wide range of pathological conditions. In some hematologic disorders like iron deficiency or megaloblastic anemia, a sequential histogram can clearly show the progressive treatment and management. Conclusion: These graphical data are often accompanied by other automated CBC parameter and microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears (PBS, and can help in monitoring and

  13. Clinical case: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Lipatenkova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1, Wermer syndrome – group o а heterogeneous inherited deseases, caused by hyperlasia or neoplasia of several endocrine glands. The phenotype of MEN1 is broad, and over 20 different combinations of endocrine and non-endocrine metabolic manifestations have been described. This case demonstrates multiple formations of endocrine organs, starting non-classical with macroprolactonoma resistant to dopamine agonists therapy, other endocrine disorders developed gradually eventually: hyperparathyreoidism and hypoglycemia caused by pancreas lesions, produced proinsulin in high levels.

  14. Learning discriminative classification models for grading anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainz Philipp

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grading intraepithelial neoplasia is crucial to derive an accurate estimate of pre-cancerous stages and is currently performed by pathologists assessing histopathological images. Inter- and intra-observer variability can significantly be reduced, when reliable, quantitative image analysis is introduced into diagnostic processes. On a challenging dataset, we evaluated the potential of learning a classifier to grade anal intraepitelial neoplasia. Support vector machines were trained on images represented by fractal and statistical features. We show that pursuing a learning-based grading strategy yields highly reliable results. Compared to existing methods, the proposed method outperformed them by a significant margin.

  15. Neoplasias de Cavidad nasal y senos paranasales en caninos

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Torres; Sandra Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Las neoplasias de cavidad nasal y senos paranasales en caninos son de escasa presentación; llegan tan sóloal 1.5% de los quistes diagnosticados en esta especie.Con referencia al total de tumores del tracto respiratorio representan entre el 60 y el 80%. Son más comunes en caninos de nariz larga, no existe predilección por género; por el comportamiento, las neoplasias que se desarrollanen la cavidad nasal y senos paranasales son benignas y malignas, siendo estas últimas las más frecuentes. Teni...

  16. Blood at 70: its roots in the history of hematology and its birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Barry S

    2015-12-10

    This year we celebrate Blood's 70th year of publication. Created from the partnership of the book publisher Henry M. Stratton and the prominent hematologist Dr William Dameshek of Tufts School of Medicine, Blood has published many papers describing major advances in the science and clinical practice of hematology. Blood's founding antedated that of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) by more than 11 years and Stratton and Dameshek helped galvanize support for the creation of ASH. In this review, I place the birth of Blood in the context of the history of hematology before 1946, emphasizing the American experience from which it emerged, and focusing on research conducted during World War II. I also provide a few milestones along Blood's 70 years of publication, including: the growth in Blood's publications, the evolution of its appearance, the countries of submission of Blood papers, current subscriptions to Blood, and the evolution of topics reported in Blood's papers. The latter provides a snapshot of the evolution of hematology as a scientific and clinical discipline and the introduction of new technology to study blood and bone marrow. Detailed descriptions of the landmark discoveries reported in Blood will appear in later papers celebrating Blood's birthday authored by past Editors-in-Chief.

  17. Association of human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression with human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M J; Stanley, M W; Cruikshank, S; Carson, L

    1989-02-01

    Human papillomavirus infection plays an important causal role in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. The rate of infection with human papillomavirus as well as the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma are increased in immunosuppressed patients. We report a possible association between infection with human immunodeficiency virus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with human papillomavirus infection.

  18. Epistaxis in visceral leishmaniasis with hematological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, B; Bhandary, S; Rijal, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study the prevalence of epistaxis in visceral leismaniasis and its correlation with hematological profile. Methods. Out of 80 diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 19 patients with epistaxis were included in the study. Diagnosis was made by Rk-39 from peripheral smear and LD bodies from bone marrow. Before starting anti-kala-azar treatment, nasal examination findings and hematological profile were noted. Study Design. Prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study. Results. Epistaxis was found in the age group of 7-66 years. Epistaxis was observed in 19 (23.8%) cases. One patient died because of epistaxis and neck hematoma. Conclusion. Epistaxis is a common ENT finding in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis like our case.

  19. Epistaxis in Visceral Leishmaniasis with Hematological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sigdel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the prevalence of epistaxis in visceral leismaniasis and its correlation with hematological profile. Methods. Out of 80 diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 19 patients with epistaxis were included in the study. Diagnosis was made by Rk-39 from peripheral smear and LD bodies from bone marrow. Before starting anti-kala-azar treatment, nasal examination findings and hematological profile were noted. Study Design. Prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study. Results. Epistaxis was found in the age group of 7–66 years. Epistaxis was observed in 19 (23.8% cases. One patient died because of epistaxis and neck hematoma. Conclusion. Epistaxis is a common ENT finding in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis like our case.

  20. Hematological parameters in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Nisihara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are few studies that investigated whether Down syndrome (DS interferes with references values for complete blood counts (CBC test in children with the syndrome. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the results of CBC performed in children with DS. Patients and methods: Data from CBC of DS children were included; at the time of examination they were aged between 2 and 10 years and had no clinical signs and/or symptoms of infectious disease. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total number of erythrocytes (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb concentration, hematological indices, platelet count, and total number of leucocytes. Additionally, we compared the collected parameters according to gender and age of the children studied. Results: A total of 203 CBC (100 girls and 103 boys were evaluated. In general, no significant differences were observed in studied parameters between the values found in samples of DS children and the values described in the literature as a reference for children in this age group. No difference in the prevalence of anemia was observed in relation to gender (p = 0.33, 14/103 (13.6% boys, and 11/100 (11% girls had anemia. However, the Hb and hematological indices values found in boys was significantly lower than in girls (p < 0.001. Conclusion: This investigation is the first one in Brazil to present and analyze the CBC results of DS children, reporting that their hematological indices are within the expected range for children without DS. Additionally, it was found that 12.3% of them had anemia.

  1. Hematological manifestations of primary mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef

    2007-01-01

    At onset mitochondrial disorders (MID) frequently manifest as a mono-organic problem but turn into multisystem disease during the disease course in most of the cases. Organs/tissues most frequently affected in MID are the cerebrum, peripheral nerves, and the skeletal muscle. Additionally, most of the inner organs may be affected alone or in combination. Hematological manifestations of MID include aplastic, megaloblastic, or sideroblastic anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or pancytopenia. In single cases either permanent or recurrent eosinophilia has been observed. Hematological abnormalities may occur together with syndromic or nonsyndromic MIDs. Syndromic MIDs, in which hematological manifestations predominate, are the Pearson syndrome (pancytopenia), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (anemia), Barth syndrome (neutropenia), and the autosomal recessive mitochondrial myopathy, lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia syndrome. In single cases with Leigh's syndrome, MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fiber) syndrome, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, and Friedreich's ataxia anemia has been described. Anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, or pancytopenia can frequently also be found in nonsyndromic MIDs with or without involvement of other tissues. Therapy of blood cell involvement in MID comprises application of antioxidants, vitamins, iron, bone marrow-stimulating factors, or substitution of cells.

  2. Hematological abnormalities in severe anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Allison L; Gaudiani, Jennifer L; Statland, Barbara; Mehler, Philip S

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of hematologic abnormalities in adults with severe anorexia nervosa. We report the first major analysis of hematologic dysfunction in such patients. We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 53 men and women with severe anorexia nervosa, admitted between October 2008 and December 2010 for medical stabilization to our center, which has a national referral base. Patients were predominantly female (89 %), with a median age of 28 years (range 17-65), and were hospitalized for a median duration of 15 days (I.Q.R. 9-29). Nadir body mass index during hospitalization was markedly low at 12.4 kg/m(2) (range 8.4-15.7), and the mean discharge BMI was 13.8 kg/m(2) (range 10.2-16.8). 83 % of patients were anemic (hematocrit  400 k/μL) during their hospitalization. Eighty-nine percent of patients had resolved their neutropenia by discharge. Marked hematologic deficiencies are often present in patients with severe anorexia nervosa, generally attributed to starvation-mediated gelatinous marrow transformation which resolves with proper nutritional rehabilitation. Improved provider awareness of this association may reduce unnecessary testing and costly treatment interventions.

  3. Chemotherapy for resistant or recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alazzam, Mo'iad

    2012-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a highly curable group of pregnancy-related tumours; however, approximately 25% of GTN tumours will be resistant to, or will relapse after, initial chemotherapy. These resistant and relapsed lesions will require salvage chemotherapy with or without surgery. Various salvage regimens are used worldwide. It is unclear which regimens are the most effective and the least toxic.

  4. Thyroid incidentalomas in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijk, Lutske; Bongers, Pim J.; Kist, Jakob W.; Conemans, Elfi B.; de Laat, Joanne M.; Pieterman, Carla R. C.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Jorna, Ciska; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Currently, little is known about the prevalence of thyroid tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients and it is unclear whether tumorigenesis of these thyroid tumors is MEN1-related. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas in MEN1 pat

  5. Thyroid incidentalomas in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijk, Lutske; Bongers, Pim J; Kist, Jakob W; Conemans, Elfi B; de Laat, Joanne M; Pieterman, Carla R C; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N A; Jorna, Ciska; Hermus, Ad R; Dekkers, Olaf M; de Herder, Wouter W; Drent, Madeleine L; Bisschop, Peter H; Havekes, Bas; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Vriens, Menno R; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently, little is known about the prevalence of thyroid tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients and it is unclear whether tumorigenesis of these thyroid tumors is MEN1-related. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas in MEN1 pat

  6. Imaging Finding of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, Tae Jun; Cho, Hee Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with characteristic clinical and radiological manifestations. Many reports on MEN1 have been published; however, no cases of radiologically diagnosed MEN1 have been reported. Therefore, we report on a radiologically diagnosed case of MEN1 with clinical symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  8. In vivo and in vitro hyperspectral imaging of cervical neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaojian; Zheng, Wenli; Bu, Yanggao; Chang, Shufang; Tong, Qingping; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2014-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a prevalent disease in many developing countries. Colposcopy is the most common approach for screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, its clinical efficacy heavily relies on the examiner's experience. Spectroscopy is a potentially effective method for noninvasive diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. In this paper, we introduce a hyperspectral imaging technique for noninvasive detection and quantitative analysis of cervical neoplasia. A hyperspectral camera is used to collect the reflectance images of the entire cervix under xenon lamp illumination, followed by standard colposcopy examination and cervical tissue biopsy at both normal and abnormal sites in different quadrants. The collected reflectance data are calibrated and the hyperspectral signals are extracted. Further spectral analysis and image processing works are carried out to classify tissue into different types based on the spectral characteristics at different stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The hyperspectral camera is also coupled with a lab microscope to acquire the hyperspectral transmittance images of the pathological slides. The in vivo and the in vitro imaging results are compared with clinical findings to assess the accuracy and efficacy of the method.

  9. Teaching hematology to second year medical students: results of a national survey of hematology course directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broudy, Virginia C; Hickman, Scot

    2007-04-01

    Increasing clinical productivity expectations at academic medical centers and new faculty effort reporting requirements for NIH-supported investigators challenge the tradition of faculty volunteerism for medical student teaching. To better define the structure, content, and financial support of second year medical school hematology courses nationwide, we mailed a survey to the hematology course directors at 85 of the 125 accredited US medical schools. The 58 course directors who returned the survey represent all regions of the US and both public and private medical schools. Median class size was 150 students (range 40-200), and some courses included a substantial proportion (up to 33%) of other types of students. The median number of hours per course was 33 h (range 8 to 74). Approximately 50% of the total teaching time was devoted to lecture (range 5 to 100%). Web-based teaching was used by 62% of course directors. The median number of faculty responsible for teaching the second year hematology course was 12 (range 1-36). The hematology course directors identified a number of obstacles, including difficulty in recruiting teachers, the lack of well-defined content, and the very modest budget (less than $1,500 for most courses). Only three of the course directors indicated that they received salary support for this role. These findings suggest that a national effort to define learning objectives for the hematology courses and to share teaching materials among medical schools is warranted. Little financial support is provided for the hematology course, and these findings compel the identification of resources to pay faculty for teaching medical student required courses.

  10. Manejo dos portadores das neoplasias intraepiteliais anais Managment of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a neoplasia intraepitelial anal (NIA, provocada pelo HPV, seja a lesão precursora do carcinoma anal. Segundo a literatura, são encontradas entre 11% e 52% dos homens infectados pelo HIV, entre 6% a 20% dos homens e 1% a 2,8% das mulheres sem essa infecção. Entre 8,5% e 13% das NIA de alto grau evoluirão para carcinoma invasivo, indicando a necessidade do rastreamento e do seguimento desses doentes para prevenção. Não há tratamento satisfatório com baixos índices de morbidez e a recidiva é comum. Em geral, as formas de tratamento podem de ser divididas em tópicas, entre elas, ácido tricloroacético, podofilina, podofilotoxina, imiquimod, terapia fotodinâmica, e ablativas, ou seja, excisão cirúrgica, ablação pelo LASER, coagulação pelo infravermelho e eletrofulguração. Há, ainda, os que consideram aceitável a conduta expectante. O tratamento tópico se justifica pelo caráter multifocal da lesão e os ablativos têm taxas de complicação e recidiva muito semelhantes. De qualquer forma, doentes com qualquer anormalidade histológica necessitam de seguimento adequado, principalmente com colposcopia e citologia anal.Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN, provoked by HPV, is considered as an anal cancer precursor. Some articles noticed that it occurred among 11% and 52% of men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV and, among seronegatives, from 6% to 20% of men and from 1% to 2.8% of women. From 8.5% to 13% of high grade AIN will evolve to invasive carcinoma, needing follow-up and screening for prevention. There is no satisfactory treatment with low morbidity and recurrence is frequent. There are two main forms of treatment: topics (trichloroacetic acid, podophylin, podophylotoxin, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy and ablatives (chirurgical excision, LASER, infrared, eletrocautery. Others consider acceptable an expectant management. Topical therapy is justified because of multifocal presentation of HPV

  11. Surveillance for colitis-associated colon neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh; James; Freeman

    2010-01-01

    The risk of developing colon cancer is increased in colitis patients, particularly if the disease is extensive and its duration long-standing. Endoscopic guidelines have been developed with the goal of detecting early neoplastic changes prior to development of advanced malignancy. Unfortunately, the natural history of this superimposed neoplastic process in colitis appears to be very heterogeneous and poorly understood. Moreover, there are numerous confounding variables in colitis patients that limit accura...

  12. Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like ductal prostatic adenocarcinoma: A case suitable for active surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Rais-Bahrami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to typical prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of prostate cancer with low-grade clinical behavior. We report a case of a 66-year-old African-American male with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MRI/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsies. Pathology demonstrated low-volume Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 (Grade Group 1, acinar adenocarcinoma involving one core and PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma on a separate core. Herein, we discuss the potential role of active surveillance for patients with this rare variant of prostate cancer found in the era of advanced imaging with multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer.

  14. Update on fungemia in oncology and hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Enric; Vázquez, Lourdes; Rodríguez Tudela, José Luis; Pahisa, Albert; Azanza, José Ramón; Rovira, Montserrat; de la Cámara, Rafael

    2011-03-01

    The present article is an update of the literature on fungemia in onco-hematologic patients. A multidisciplinary group of Spanish physicians with an interest in this field selected the most important papers published lately. Papers from the fields of epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, outcome, prevention and treatment are discussed. Important aspects of these studies include the assessment of different strategies in the management of fever in neutropenic patients. Moreover, early identification of patients at risk of fungal infections, as well as identification of patients at risk for fluconazole-resistant strains are topics of increasing interest.

  15. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, John R; Delahunt, Brett; Eble, John N; Egevad, Lars; Epstein, Jonathan I; Grignon, David; Hes, Ondrej; Moch, Holger; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tickoo, Satish K; Zhou, Ming; Argani, Pedram

    2013-10-01

    The classification working group of the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference on renal neoplasia was in charge of making recommendations regarding additions and changes to the current World Health Organization Classification of Renal Tumors (2004). Members of the group performed an exhaustive literature review, assessed the results of the preconference survey and participated in the consensus conference discussion and polling activities. On the basis of the above inputs, there was consensus that 5 entities should be recognized as new distinct epithelial tumors within the classification system: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, the MiT family translocation RCCs (in particular t(6;11) RCC), and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. In addition, there are 3 rare carcinomas that were considered as emerging or provisional new entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC; succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC; and ALK translocation RCC. Further reports of these entities are required to better understand the nature and behavior of these highly unusual tumors. There were a number of new concepts and suggested modifications to the existing World Health Organization 2004 categories. Within the clear cell RCC group, it was agreed upon that multicystic clear cell RCC is best considered as a neoplasm of low malignant potential. There was agreement that subtyping of papillary RCC is of value and that the oncocytic variant of papillary RCC should not be considered as a distinct entity. The hybrid oncocytic chromophobe tumor, which is an indolent tumor that occurs in 3 settings, namely Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome, renal oncocytosis, and as a sporadic neoplasm, was placed, for the time being, within the chromophobe RCC category. Recent advances related to collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and mucinous spindle cell and tubular RCC

  16. Papilomavírus humano e neoplasia cervical Human papillomavirus and cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês da Rosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O papilomavírus humano (HPV é um fator etiológico bem estabelecido para o câncer cervical. Esse vírus de DNA infecta primariamente o epitélio e pode induzir lesões benignas ou malignas na pele e na mucosa. Alguns HPVs são considerados de alto risco, responsáveis pela progressão das lesões precursoras até câncer cervical. A infecção genital pelo HPV é comum em mulheres jovens e geralmente é transitória. Uma pequena proporção de mulheres infectadas desenvolve câncer cervical, implicando o envolvimento de fatores ambientais e fatores genéticos na carcinogênese. Essa revisão aborda a estrutura viral, classificação e patologia do HPV, história natural e fatores de risco para neoplasia cervical e perspectivas futuras com a vacina anti-HPV.Human papillomavirus (HPV has been established as an important etiological factor for the development of cervical cancer. This DNA virus primarily infects the epithelium and can induce benign and malignant lesions of the mucous membranes and skin. Some HPVs are considered high risk due to their role in malignant progression of cervical tumors. Genital HPV infections are common and usually transient among young sexually active women. Only a small fraction of infected women develop cervical cancer, implying the involvement of environmental and genetic cofactors in cervical carcinogenesis. Classification, virology, pathology, natural history, epidemiological features of genital HPV infection, and future prospects for cervical cancer prevention with HPV vaccines will be reviewed here.

  17. Risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with glomerulonephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartveit, F.; Bertelsen, B; Thunold, S; Maehle, B O; Skaarland, E; J. Christensen

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the occurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with glomerulonephritis and its possible association with immunosuppressive treatment. DESIGN--Retrospective study of cytological or histological specimens from women presenting with glomerulonephritis and a group of case and age matched controls. SETTING--University department of pathology, Norway. PATIENTS--81 women presenting with glomerulonephritis from 1981 to 1988, from whom gynaecological cytologica...

  18. 21 CFR 864.8625 - Hematology quality control mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hematology quality control mixture. 864.8625 Section 864.8625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... quality control mixture. (a) Identification. A hematology quality control mixture is a device used...

  19. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  20. [Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in onco-hematology. PICC line in onco-hematology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabsy, Y; Baudin, G; Vinti, H; Novellas, S; Mannone, L; Chevallier, P; Mounier, N

    2010-09-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) have the advantage of limiting the risk of accidents during installation and are easy to remove. Its use in oncology remains debated because of possible infectious complications. We analyzed 52 PICC in patients with hematological tumor from Nice Hospital. An installation failure was noted in 5.8% of cases. After a follow-up of 15 months, the complication rate was 26.9%, mainly mechanical complications: obstruction (13.5%) or accidental removal (9.6%). The organic complications such as infection or thrombophlebitis represented 3.8%. The median duration was 26 days [2-291]. The longest duration was associated with PICC for chemotherapy (median: 58 days). Frequent blood samples (above: 2 week) were associated with lower duration (median: 23 days). In conclusion, PICC represent a simple and effective alternative to intra-venous central devices in onco-hematology. However, physicians have to focus on short-course treatment.

  1. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  2. Laparoscopic wedge resection of synchronous gastric intraepithelial neoplasia and stromal tumor: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Synchronous occurrence of epithelial neoplasia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach is uncommon. Only rare cases have been reported in the literature. We present here a 60-year-old female case of synchronous occurrence of gastric high-level intraepithelial neoplasia and GIST with the features of 22 similar cases and detailed information reported in the English-language literature summarized. In the present patient, epithelial neoplasia and GIST were removed en bloc by lapa...

  3. [Treatment of hematologic neoplasms during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartas, Norma E; Foncuberta, María C; Avalos, Julio C Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    The most common hematological malignancy in pregnant patients is Hodgkin's lymphoma, but other diseases such as chronic and acute leukemia or non Hodgkin's lymphoma have also been reported. In the last decade, new drugs have changed the prognostic of acute promyelocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and non Hodgkin's lymphoma. Herein we present updated information on drugs and treatments, new developments, mechanism of action, clinical application, experience on treatment outcomes, adverse effects and teratogenesis, with the objective of orienting hematologists, oncologists and pediatricians. The medical team should offer the most efficient treatment available in order to achieve cure or remission of the disease, and also inform on possible risks for the mother and the fetus, as well as those derived from the delay in treatment application.

  4. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiman eAleem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia, and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219, pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638 as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed.

  5. Vaginal cancer in a patient treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3): case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsopoulos, G; Adonakis, G; Ravazoula, P; Kourounis, G

    2006-01-01

    In 1% to 3% of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) will either coexist or occur at a later date. The time interval from an earlier diagnosis of CIN 3 to a current diagnosis of VAIN 3 varies from two to 17 years. Invasive vaginal cancer occurred in a woman five years after total abdominal hysterectomy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In women who have undergone total hysterectomy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer, postoperative cytologic and colposcopic follow-up of the vagina is necessary.

  6. Squamous morules are functionally inert elements of premalignant endometrial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Chieh; Lomo, Lesley; Baak, Jan P A; Eng, Charis; Ince, Tan A; Crum, Christopher P; Mutter, George L

    2009-02-01

    Squamous morules are a common component of premalignant glandular lesions that are followed by glandular, rather than squamous, carcinomas. We tested the hypothesis that the appearance of glands associated with morules predicts cancer risk, and undertook molecular testing to determine the clonal and hormonal response properties of admixed squamous and glandular elements. A total of 66 patients with squamous morules in an index endometrial biopsy had follow-up clinical data (average follow-up: interval 31 months, 2.5 biopsies) showing development of carcinoma in 11% (7/66) of cases. The histological appearance of morule-associated glands in the index biopsy was significantly associated with this clinical outcome, with the majority (71%, 5/7) of cancer occurrences following an overtly premalignant lesion (endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia) with squamous morules. Eight endometrial intraepithelial neoplasias with squamous morules were examined by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors and mitotic activity (Ki-67 antigen percent stained). Glandular components had abundant estrogen and progesterone receptors, and high levels of mitotic activity in all cases. In sharp contrast, all squamous morules were devoid of sex hormone receptors and had undetectable or extremely low-proliferation rates. When mutated, the same specific PTEN mutation was detected in squamous and glandular elements, indicating that both are of common lineage. The clinical and laboratory data are consistent with a model of morule biology in which squamous morules are a hormonally incompetent subpopulation of endometrial glandular lesions. Isolated morules might result from artifactual displacement from their native glandular context, or selective hormonally induced regression of the glandular but not squamous components over time. Subsequent cancer risk, as promoted by estrogens, is greatest when the glandular component has the appearance of endometrial intraepithelial

  7. [New challenges to the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J H

    2016-07-01

    Due to the progress of intracavitary afterloading technology and dosage of brachytherapy, a similar dose distribution as that of cervical conization can be achieved and can be applied to the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), it is called "afterloading conization" . Being adjusted the radioactive source movement and weight, low exposure doses to the ovary, endometrium and vagina can be assured. So a high quality of life after treatment could be maintained and overcomes the shortcomings of cervical conization and hysterectomy, such as anesthesia, bleeding, over or insufficient treatment, early ovarian ageing and operative complications.

  8. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using hexaminolevulinate and methylaminolevulinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, Philipp; Staboulidou, Ismini; Hertel, Herrmann; Schippert, Cordula; Hillemanns, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the precursor of invasive cervical cancer. Previous studies indicated that photodynamic therapy (PDT) represents an effective treatment modality in CIN. In 28 patients with CIN 1 - 3, 1 - 2 cycles of PDT were conducted using hexaminolevulinate (HAL) or methylaminolevulinate (MAL) and a special light delivery system. After 6 months, biopsies were obtained to assess response. The overall response rate for complete or partial response was 65%. Photodynamic therapy using new ALA esters is effective and may offer unique advantages in the therapy of CIN.

  9. Phosphodiesterases in non-neoplastic appearing colonic mucosa from patients with colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Badar; Damm, Morten Matthiesen Bach; Jensen, Thorbjørn Søren Rønn

    2016-01-01

    showed overexpression of subtype PDE4B (p = 0.002) and subtype PDE5A (p = 0.02) in colorectal neoplasia patients. Finally, immunohistochemistry for 7 PDE isozymes demonstrated the presence of all 7 isozymes, albeit with weak reactions, and with no differences in localization between colorectal neoplasia...

  10. Quality and safety in pediatric hematology/oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Brigitta U

    2014-06-01

    Many principles of quality of care and patient safety are at the foundation of pediatric hematology/oncology. However, we still see too many errors, continue to have problems with communication, and the culture in many of our areas is still one of worrying about retribution when mentioning a problem. This review explores why specialists in pediatric hematology/oncology should be leaders in the field of quality and safety in healthcare.

  11. Exploring Big Data in Hematological Malignancies: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, Gustavo F; Dias, Ajoy L; Go, Ronald S

    2016-08-01

    Secondary analysis of large datasets has become a useful alternative to address research questions outside the reach of clinical trials. It is increasingly utilized in hematology and oncology. In this review, we provided an overview of some examples of commonly used large datasets in the USA and described common research themes that can be pursued using such a methodology. We selected a sample of 14 articles on adult hematologic malignancies published in 2015 and highlighted their contributions as well as limitations.

  12. Immunological and hematological reference intervals among HIV-seronegative pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genetu M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Meaza Genetu,1 Debasu Damtie,1 Meseret Workineh,1 Biniam Mathewos Tebeje,1,2 Bamlaku Enawgaw,3 Tekalign Deressa1 1Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia; 3Department of Hematology and Immunohematology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Pregnancy is a state characterized by profound physiological hematological changes. However, hematological reference intervals being used in clinical practice in Ethiopia are derived from nonlocal general populations, despite the significant variations reported previously. The aim of this study was to determine the immunological and hematological reference intervals in healthy pregnancy among HIV-seronegative pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A total of 200 healthy, HIV-seronegative pregnant women were enrolled from February 2015 to June 2015 in a cross-sectional study setting at Gondar University Hospital. Sociodemographic and obstetric data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples collected from each participant were used to define the immunological and hematological parameters. The mean, median, and 95% interval values were calculated for the immunological and hematological parameters. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all variables.Results: This study found that there were changes in CD4+ T-cell count, platelet count, and hematocrit (HCT values as pregnancy advances. The calculated combined reference intervals for the absolute CD4+ T-cell count and platelet count were 712.47–760.67 and 221.25–240.14, respectively. A progressive decline in the platelet count was observed as pregnancy advanced, with 95

  13. Testicular neoplasia in undescended testes of cryptorchid boys-does surgical strategy have an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jorgen; Petersen, Bodil Laub

    2004-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We investigated whether or not surgical strategy has an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia in cases of cryptorchidism. We made a database study of the incidence of testicular neoplasia at surgery for cryptorchidism in childhood, and evaluated if such abnormalities were...... other than cryptorchidism, or diagnosed abnormal karyotype, versus no case in the 1281 patients without these characteristics (Fisher's exact test, p ... (Fisher's exact test, p

  14. Connective tissue: Vascular and hematological (blood) support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvino, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Connective Tissue (CT) is a ubiquitous component of all major tissues and structures of the body (50% of all body protein is CT), including that of the blood, vascular, muscle, tendon, ligament, fascia, bone, joint, IVD's (intervertebral discs) and skin. Because of its ubiquitous nature, CT is an often overlooked component of any essential nutritional program that may address the structure, and/or function of these tissues. The central role of CT in the health of a virtually all cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, is discussed. General nutritional CT support strategies, as well as specific CT support strategies that focus on blood, vascular, structural system (eg, muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, bone, and joints), integument (skin) and inflammatory and immune mediation will be discussed here and will deal with connective tissue dynamics and dysfunction. An overview of the current scientific understanding and possible options for naturally enhancing the structure and function of CT through the application of these concepts will be discussed in this article, with specific attention on the vascular and hematological systems.

  15. Hyperhemolysis Syndrome without Underlying Hematologic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Anne Eberly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperhemolysis is characterized by a life-threatening hemolytic transfusion reaction, with hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct dropping markedly lower than before transfusion. This phenomenon, commonly described in sickle cell disease, is a rare occurrence in patients without hemoglobinopathies. Case Report. A 55-year-old male presented to the hospital after a motorcycle crash and received 10 units of cross-matched blood for active bleeding. The patient was blood group O, with a negative antibody screen. Ten days later, he represented complaining of dyspnea and was found to have a hematocrit of 12%. The direct antiglobulin test was positive for anti-immunoglobin G and complement. Indirect antiglobulin test was positive for anti-Jka alloantibodies. The presence of Jka antigen was revealed in one unit of previously transfused blood; patient’s RBCs were negative for the Jka antigen. Laboratory data demonstrated findings consistent with DHTR, as well as reticulopenia and elevated ferritin levels. He continued to show signs of active hemolysis, requiring a total of 4 subsequent units of pRBCs. Each transfusion precipitated a drop in Hb and Hct to levels lower than before transfusion; once transfusions were held, the patient slowly recovered. Discussion. Hyperhemolysis in the setting of a DHTR can occur in patients without hematologic disease.

  16. MUCORMYCOSIS IN HEMATOLOGIC PATIENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Romero Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most invasive fungal infections occur in patients with hematologic malignancies and the prevalence has increased steadily in recent years due to intensive cytotoxic chemotherapies, stem cell transplantation, myeloablative radiation therapy, and the use of corticosteroids, cyclosporine or new immunosuppressive agents. Although Candida is the main fungal agent involved in invasive fungal infection (IFI, an increasing number of infections are caused by molds, mostly Aspergillus spp, but in the last 20 years other emerging fungal pathogens such as Zygomycetes causing mucormycosis have appeared with higher mortality rates. The rhinocerebral and pulmonary forms of mucormycosis together with disseminated disease have the highest mortality (78-100%. Zygomycetes characteristically invade blood vessels, causing thrombosis and infarction with necrosis and scarring. Rapid diagnosis of zygomycosis is vital for management and therapy since these infections progress rapidly. Treatment should combine early aggressive surgical excision of the necrotic lesions, restoration of immune function if possible, and amphotericin B at a dose of 1-1.5 mg/kg or a new antifungal such as posaconazole.

  17. Parvovirus-B19 and hematologic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Yetgin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus-B19 (PV-B19 is a member of Parvoviridae, which is one of the smallest DNA viruses. PV-B19-associated diseases usually serve as a good representation of the balance of virus, host response and the immune system. The diseases manifested with PV-B19 are erythema infectiosum, which is common in children, hydrops fetalis, transient pure red cell aplasia in patients with chronic hemolytic anemia, arthralgia - mostly observed in women, and chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. Cytopenia (bicytopenia, monocytopenia or pancytopenia may also accompany the diseases mentioned above. On the other hand, there are many diseases, including neurologic, vasculitic, hepatic, rheumatoid, nephritic, autoimmune, myocardial, and others in which the mechanisms of the diseases are not clear, which may be associated with PV-B19. The virus may manifest with unexpected and unexplained clinical pictures and lead to misdiagnosis. Therefore, hematologic disorders in any unestablished clinical diagnosis should be investigated for PV-B19 infection. However, serologic examination for PV-B19 diagnosis is not sufficient in immunocompromised status. The virus can be determined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the serum or tissue samples. Supportive therapy, blood transfusion and immunoglobulin are the conventional therapeutic interventions for PV-B19 today. Vaccination studies are under examination.

  18. Erythrocyte and platelet proteomics in hematological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Halder, Suchismita; Karmakar, Shilpita

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocytes undergo ineffective erythropoesis, hemolysis, and premature eryptosis in sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Abnormal hemoglobin variants associated with hemoglobinopathy lead to vesiculation, membrane instability, and loss of membrane asymmetry with exposal of phosphatidylserine. This potentiates thrombin generation resulting in activation of the coagulation cascade responsible for subclinical phenotypes. Platelet activation also results in the release of microparticles, which express and transfer functional receptors from platelet membrane, playing key roles in vascular reactivity and activation of intracellular signaling pathways. Over the last decade, proteomics had proven to be an important field of research in studies of blood and blood diseases. Blood cells and its fluidic components have been proven to be easy systems for studying differential expressions of proteins in hematological diseases encompassing hemoglobinopathies, different types of anemias, myeloproliferative disorders, and coagulopathies. Proteomic studies of erythrocytes and platelets reported from several groups have highlighted various factors that intersect the signaling networks in these anucleate systems. In this review, we have elaborated on the current scenario of anucleate blood cell proteomes in normal and diseased individuals and the cross-talk between the two major constituent cell types of circulating blood.

  19. Neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical: diagnóstico e tratamento Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Françoise Mauricette Derchain

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O câncer do colo uterino é hoje doença passível de prevenção secundária. Os métodos de detecção das lesões precursoras e da infecção pelo papilomavírus humano, tais como a citologia oncológica e biologia molecular, são de uso mundialmente difundido. Entretanto, ainda há muita controvérsia em relação à aplicação destes métodos na prática ginecológica. Qual o melhor exame ou a melhor associação de exames que podem ser utilizados, com que intervalo e em quais mulheres permanecem questões que com freqüência geram ansiedade nos consultórios ou nas unidades de saúde. Por outro lado, uma vez detectada a infecção viral ou a neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical, o tratamento dessas mulheres ainda não é consensual e muitos fatores interferem na definição da conduta ótima. O tipo de infecção, gravidade da neoplasia intra-epitelial, tipo histológico encontrado, todos estes aspectos tendem a dificultar o planejamento terapêutico. Esta revisão tem como objetivo abordar, dentro do conhecimento atual e baseado nos consensos vigentes no país, vários aspectos relacionados ao rastreamento das lesões cervicais e as possíveis condutas terapêuticas vigentes.Cervical cancer is nowadays a disease amenable to secondary prevention. Methods for the detection of its precursor lesions and human papillomavirus infection, such as cervical cytology and molecular biology, achieved widespread use worldwide. However, there is still too much controversy regarding the use of these methods in gynecological practice. Which is the best examination or the best association of examinations, and the most adequate time intervals to proceed with screening, are still pending questions, generating anxiety in patients and doctors. On the other hand, the management of women who have been diagnosed with viral infection and/or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is not yet consensual, and several factors may affect the clinical decision on how to

  20. Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the presence of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE expression was significantly higher in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal tissue (all p values < .001). Similarly, elevated nuclear levels of 8-oxo-dG were seen in all in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal (p values < .07, < .001, < .001, respectively). In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups). Comparing all 3 groups, 4-HNE levels were higher than 8-oxo-dG levels (p < .001 for all groups) except that cytoplasmic levels of 8-oxo-dG were higher than 4-HNE in all (p < .001). These results were independent of proliferation status. CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.

  1. Spermatozoa-like cell invaders (nuclear vlimata) in human neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetou-Rella, H

    1993-07-01

    Spermatozoa-like cells (nuclear vlimata) have been identified in malignant cell cultures and embryonic cells, also common in the cytology and histology of all types of human neoplasia even after chemotherapy. A new mechanism of invasion of malignant cells has been described, according to which neoplastic cells behave and function as parasites using host-cells to divide, survive and eventually produce nuclear vlimata (bullets). Nuclear vlimata are the end cell products of incomplete, unequal, assymetrical division of neoplastic cells. The nuclear vlima exhibits similar morphology to spermatozoa and virus (head with, or without, tail) and invades the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of surrounding host-cells by a similar mechanism to sperm-oocyte interaction (fertilization) or viral cell infection, in the events of nuclear vlima-->tumor-->nuclear vlima-->tumor. The nuclear vlima head contains and transfers DNA, and when incorporated into the host-nucleus is indistinguishable from nucleoli and when in the cytoplasm is similar to sperm pronucleus, observed after sperm penetration of the oocyte. Function of nuclear vlimata is directly dependent on the specific extracellular matrix produced by malignant cells, consisting of glycosaminoglycans-protease-membranes. This mechanism of invasion constitutes the link of all scientific information concerning human neoplasia.

  2. A Multiscale Model Evaluates Screening for Neoplasia in Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Curtius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE patients are routinely screened for high grade dysplasia (HGD and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC through endoscopic screening, during which multiple esophageal tissue samples are removed for histological analysis. We propose a computational method called the multistage clonal expansion for EAC (MSCE-EAC screening model that is used for screening BE patients in silico to evaluate the effects of biopsy sampling, diagnostic sensitivity, and treatment on disease burden. Our framework seamlessly integrates relevant cell-level processes during EAC development with a spatial screening process to provide a clinically relevant model for detecting dysplastic and malignant clones within the crypt-structured BE tissue. With this computational approach, we retain spatio-temporal information about small, unobserved tissue lesions in BE that may remain undetected during biopsy-based screening but could be detected with high-resolution imaging. This allows evaluation of the efficacy and sensitivity of current screening protocols to detect neoplasia (dysplasia and early preclinical EAC in the esophageal lining. We demonstrate the clinical utility of this model by predicting three important clinical outcomes: (1 the probability that small cancers are missed during biopsy-based screening, (2 the potential gains in neoplasia detection probabilities if screening occurred via high-resolution tomographic imaging, and (3 the efficacy of ablative treatments that result in the curative depletion of metaplastic and neoplastic cell populations in BE in terms of the long-term impact on reducing EAC incidence.

  3. Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Hamster and Human Pancreatic Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Crowell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 has been implicated in the development of gastrointestinal malignancies. The aim of the present study was to determine COX-2 expression/activity throughout stages of experimental and human pancreatic neoplasia. COX-2 immunohistochemistry was performed in pancreata of hamsters subjected to the carcinogen N-nitrosobis-(2-oxopropylamine (BOP and in human pancreatic tumors. COX-2 activity was determined by prostaglandin E2 assay in tumor versus matched normal pancreatic tissues. The activity of the COX inhibitor sulindac was tested in the PC-1 hamster pancreatic cancer model. COX-2 expression was elevated in all pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs and adenocarcinomas. In BOP-treated hamsters, there were significant progressive elevations in COX-2 expression throughout pancreatic tumorigenesis. In human samples, peak COX-2 expression occurred in PanIN2 lesions and remained moderately elevated in PanIN3 and adenocarcinoma tissues. COX-2 activity was significantly elevated in hamster and human pancreatic cancers compared to pair-matched normal pancreas. Furthermore, hamster pancreatic tumor engraftment/formation in the PC-1 hamster pancreatic cancer model was reduced 4.9-fold by oral administration of sulindac. Increased COX-2 expression is an early event in pancreatic carcinogeneses. The BOP-induced hamster carcinogenesis model is a representative model used to study the role of COX-2 in well-differentiated pancreatic tumorigenesis. COX inhibitors may have a role in preventing tumor engraftment/formation.

  4. Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G.

    2004-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

  5. Fractal dimension and image statistics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahammer, H., E-mail: helmut.ahammer@medunigraz.a [Institute of Biophysics, Center of Physiological Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Harrachgasse 21, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kroepfl, J.M. [Human Performance Research Graz (HPR Graz), Karl-Franzens and Medical University of Graz, Max-Mell Allee 11, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Hackl, Ch. [Research Group of Applied Theoretical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Country Medical Centre St.Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St.Poelten (Austria); Sedivy, R. [Research Group of Applied Theoretical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Country Medical Centre St.Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St.Poelten (Austria); Department of Pathology, Country Medical Centre St.Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St.Poelten (Austria)

    2011-01-15

    Research Highlights: Human papillomaviruses cause anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Digital image processing was carried out to classify the grades of AIN quantitatively. The fractal dimension as well as grey value statistics was calculated. Higher grades of AIN yielded higher values of the fractal dimension. An automatic detection system is feasible. - Abstract: It is well known that human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce a variety of tumorous lesions of the skin. HPV-subtypes also cause premalignant lesions which are termed anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The clinical classification of AIN is of growing interest in clinical practice, due to increasing HPV infection rates throughout human population. The common classification approach is based on subjective inspections of histological slices of anal tissues with all the drawbacks of depending on the status and individual variances of the trained pathologists. Therefore, a nonlinear quantitative classification method including the calculation of the fractal dimension and first order as well as second order image statistical parameters was developed. The absolute values of these quantitative parameters reflected the distinct grades of AIN very well. The quantitative approach has the potential to decrease classification errors significantly and it could be used as a widely applied screening technique.

  6. SENSITIVITY OF IMPRESSION CYTOLOGY IN DIAGNOSING OCULAR SURFACE SQUAMOUS NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleswari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OSSN describes a spectrum of neoplastic lesions, originating from squamous epithelium ranging from simple dysplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, involving the conjunctiva, limbus and the cornea. Impression cytology refers to the technique by which superficial layers of the ocular surface are removed through application of cellulose acetate filter material onto the ocular surface AIM: To Assess the Sensitivity of Impression Cytology in the Diagnosis of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia Using Millipore Filter Paper. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a Prospective Observational and Interventional Study conducted at Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Gandhi Medical College/Hospital, Hyderabad. Study was conducted from July2013 to Feb2015 and included 50patients presenting with conjunctival mass at the limbus or on the conjunctiva Hospital ethics committee approval was obtained No financials involved in the study. RESULTS: A total of 50Excision biopsies of 50patients suspected for OSSN were performed there were 40 males and 10females Excision biopsy confirmed the Impression Cytology results in 44 cases. In 6 cases there was poor correlation among which 4cases showed mild dysplasia in Impression Cytology while HPE showed Invasive Squamous cell carcinoma in 2cases few dysplastic cells were noted in Impression cytology but HPE showed Carcinoma in situ. CONCLUSION: This study shows that Impression Cytology has a promising role in diagnosing Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia for its high positive predictive accuracy (95.65% compared with tissue histology.

  7. Outcomes from a prospective trial of endoscopic radiofrequency ablation of early squamous cell neoplasia of the esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.G.H.M. Bergman; Y.M. Zhang; S. He; B. Weusten; L. Xue; D.E. Fleischer; N. Lu; S.M. Dawsey; G.Q. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is safe and effective for eradicating neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Objective: To evaluate RFA for eradicating early esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) defined as moderate-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (MGIN) and high-grade squamous int

  8. Are the review criteria for automated complete blood counts of the International Society of Laboratory Hematology suitable for all hematology laboratories?

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Ricardo Comar; Mariester Malvezzi; Ricardo Pasquini

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the review criteria for automated blood counts suggested by the International Consensus Group for Hematology Review of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology are suitable for the Hematology Laboratory of Hospital de Clinicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná.METHODS: initially, the review criteria of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology were adapted due to limitations in the Institution's electronic hospital records and interfacing system...

  9. Microtopographic Inspection and Fractal Analysis of Skin Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Hipolito, Alberto Valencia; Gutierrez, Gustavo Fidel; Chanona, Jorge; Gallegos, Eva Ramón

    2008-04-01

    ) corresponding to some neoplasia is higher (1.334+/-0.072) than those for healthy skin (1.091+/-0.082). A significant difference between the fractal dimensions of neoplasia and healhty skin (>0.001) was registered. The FD of microtopography maps (FDm) can also distinguish between healthy and malignant tissue in general (2.277+/-0.070 to 2.309+/-0.040), but not discriminate the different types of skin neoplasias. The combination of the rugometric evaluation and fractal geometry characterization provides valuable information about the malignity of skin lesions and type of lesion.

  10. A series of 64 cases of pancreatic cystic neoplasia from an institutional study of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Ji; Wen-Hui Lou; Da-Yong Jin; Tian-Tao Kuang; Meng-Su Zeng; Yun-Shan Tan; Hai-Ying Zeng; Akesu Sujie; Xiong-Zeng Zhu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To recognize cystic neoplasia of the pancreas and thus to identify a panel of curable diseases. METHODS: Sixty-four cases of cystic neoplasia of the pancreas, including 28 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN), 12 Cases of serous cystic neoplasia (SCN), 11 cases of mucinous cystic neoplasia (MCN), 11 cases of solid pseudo-papillary neoplasia (SPN), and 2 cases of solid tumor with cystic degeneration were examined immunohistochemically for their expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC6, as well as other related antigens.RESULTS: Adenoma type of IPMN and borderline lesions exhibited high expressions of MUC2, and MUCSAC. Tn contrast, IPMN with invasive carcinoma component showed MUC1 immunoreactivity. SCN was mainly positive for MUC1 and MUC6, while negative for MUC2, MUC4 and MUC5AC. Noninvasive MCN, regardless of its cellular atypia degree, was positive for MUC5AC and negative for MUC1. MUC1 expression was only observed in patients with an invasive component. No mucin expression was found in SPN.CONCLUSION: Mucin profile may, in conjunction with histologic study, provide important information on tumor types and patient treatment of cystic neoplasia of the pancreas.

  11. Psychological effects of diagnosis and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Njor, Sisse; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a common minor surgical procedure to prevent uterine cervical cancer. However, news of an abnormality detected at screening for cancer might cause the woman to worry. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the psychological consequences...... psychological outcomes in women with a histological diagnosis or treatment of CIN, and in women having an outcome other than CIN at cervical screening. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We abstracted the data using a pre-specified list of study characteristics and measured outcomes. For studies not reporting...... statistical testing, we estimated the statistical significance of the differences between the compared groups using unpaired t tests. MAIN RESULTS: From 5099 retrieved abstracts, 16 studies were included. Diagnosis and treatment of CIN were associated with worse psychological outcomes than normal cytology...

  12. LASER EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA NEOPLASIA INTRAEPITELIAL DE VAGINA

    OpenAIRE

    Yazigi I.,Roberto; Rodríguez A.,Tulio; Contreras M,Luis

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: Presentar la experiencia en el tratamiento de la neoplasia intraepitelial de vagina (VAIN) utilizando el láser de CO2. Método: 19 pacientes con el diagnóstico histológico de VAIN fueron tratadas con esta técnica. Se utilizó un diámetro del punto de helio-neón de 1,5 a 2 mm y un poder de densidad de 400 a 500 W/cm². Toda la lesión detectable más un margen de al menos 5 mm de tejido circundante aparentemente normal fueron vaporizados a una profundidad de 2 mm. Resultados: 12 de las 14...

  13. Treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark 1991 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel Svennekjær

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives: The number of invasive cervical cancers peaked in Denmark in 1966 with 963 cases. Cervical cancer is prevented by treatment of screen-detected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We assessed the trend in CIN treatments in Denmark. Material and Methods: From highly...... the data using the unique Danish identification numbers, and excluded all duplicate registrations. We excluded all destructive therapies and hysterectomies for which no CIN or cervical cancer diagnosis was found in the period from 3 months before to 1 month after the treatment date. We age......-standardized the number of cervical treatments using Danish women in 2007 as standard population. Results: The preliminary analysis shows that the number of treatments increased from about 6,000 in 1991 to about 8,200 in 2007, most noticeably due to an increase of about 2,600 in the number of conisations (Figure 1...

  14. Photodynamic therapy of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) high grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Belotto, Renata; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-02-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the precursor of invasive cervical cancer and associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors. PDT is based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer in target cells that will generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species upon illumination, inducing the death of abnormal tissue and PDT with less damaging to normal tissues than surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy and seems to be a promising alternative procedure for CIN treatment. The CIN high grades (II and III) presents potential indications for PDT due the success of PDT for CIN low grade treatment. The patients with CIN high grade that were treated with new clinic protocol shows lesion regression to CIN low grade 60 days after the treatment. The new clinical protocol using for treatment of CIN high grade shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  15. Evaluation of febrile neutropenic patients hospitalized in a hematology clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M ucahit Goruk; Mehmet Sinan Dal; Tuba Dal; Abdullah Karakus; Recep Tekin; Nida Ozcan; Orhan Ayyildiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the febrile neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies hospitalized in hematology clinic with poor hygiene standards. Methods: A total of 124 patients with hematological malignancies (69 male, 55 female) hospitalized in hematology clinic with poor hygiene conditions depending on hospital conditions, between January 2007 and December 2010, were evaluated, retrospectively. Results: In this study, 250 febrile neutropenia episodes developing in 124 hospitalized patients were evaluated. Of the patients, 69 were men (56%) and 55 women (44%). A total of 40 patients (32%) had acute myeloid leukemia, 25 (20%) acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 19 (15%) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 10 (8%) multiple myeloma, and 8 (8%) chronic myeloid leukemia. In our study, 56 patients (22%) were diagnosed as pneumonia, 38 (15%) invasive aspergillosis, 38 (15%) sepsis, 16 (6%) typhlitis, 9 (4%) mucormy-cosis, and 4 (2%) urinary tract infection. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from 52%(n = 20), while Gram-negative bacilli 42%(n = 16) and yeasts from 6% (n = 2) of the sepsis patients, respectively. The most frequently isolated Gram-positive bacteria were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=18), while the most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacteria was Escherichia coli (n=10). Conclusions: Febrile neutropenia is still a problem in patients with hematological ma-lignancies. The documentation of the flora and detection of causative agents of infections in each unit would help to decide appropriate empirical therapy. Infection control pro-cedures should be applied for preventing infections and transmissions.

  16. Hematological and liver toxicity of anti-tuberculosis drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Maryam-Sadat; Ekrami, Alireza; Shirali, Saeed; Ghobeishavi, Mehdi; Pourmotahari, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and anti-tuberculosis drugs can cause severe adverse reactions. The aim of this study was to determine hematological and biochemical changes and associated risk factors in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment with standard protocols. Methods In a descriptive study, a total of 40 tuberculosis patients aged between 15–60 years were collected from hospitals in Khuzestan Province (Iran) from March 2013 to March 2014. The patients were treated with drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide) during the initial two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampicin for the next four to six months. Activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) and hematological parameters were recorded before and after treatment. Data were analyzed using paired samples t-test and Wilcoxon test by SPSS 16. Results After using drug treatments, hematological parameters (RBC, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, and MCHC), except platelet count, were changed significantly (p ≤ 0.001). Liver enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and ALP) were decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) after treatment. Conclusion In this study, changes of hematological and biochemical parameters have been observed in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. It can be concluded that the anti-tuberculosis treatment is associated with changes of hematological parameters and liver enzymes.

  17. Hematological abnormalities in adult patients with Down's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLean, S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding hematological abnormalities in adults with Down\\'s syndrome (DS). AIMS: We aimed to characterize hematological abnormalities in adult patients with DS and determine their long-term significance. METHODS: We retrospectively studied a cohort of nine DS patients referred to the adult hematology service in our institution between May 2001 and April 2008. Data collected were: full blood count (FBC), comorbidities, investigations performed, duration of follow-up and outcome to most recent follow-up. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 26 months (9-71). Of the nine patients, two had myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) at presentation. Of these, one progressed, with increasing marrow failure, and requiring support with transfusions and gCSF. The remaining eight patients, with a variety of hematological abnormalities including leukopenia, macrocytosis, and thrombocytopenia, had persistently abnormal FBCs. However there was no evidence of progression, and no patient has evolved to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CONCLUSIONS: MDS is a complication of DS and may require supportive therapy. However, minor hematological abnormalities are common in adult DS patients, and may not signify underlying marrow disease.

  18. HEMATOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN DENGUE FEVER – AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathesha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major preventable and treatable cause of morbidity and mortality among children and adults that occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Early diagnosis of dengue is important for provision of specific care which ensures marked reduction in the morbidity of the disease itself. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hematological changes in serologically proven patients with clinical manifestations of Dengue in Bapuji & Chigateri Hospital, Davangere. METHODS: Clinical, hematological and serological information from Patients diagnosed with dengue infection in Bapuji & Chigateri hospital Davangere from April 2013 -June 2013. RESULTS: 221 cases of classic dengue predominated (90.2%, with mild clinical manifestations lacking complications. The main hematological findings were raised hematocrit (79.6%, lymphocytosis (66% monocytosis (84.6%, basophilia (52.9%, thrombocytopenia (100% and atypical lymphocytes (87%. In dengue hemorrhagic fever, thrombocytopenia was more prolonged and the number of atypical lymphocytes was higher, while the other hematological abnormalities presented daily evolution similar to those in classic dengue. The hematological changes observed in dengue presented according to the clinical course of the disease and its severity

  19. Hematological Profile of Zovawk – an indigenous pig of Mizoram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prava Mayengbam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To generate baseline data on the hematological profile of local pig of Mizoram at different age groups. Materials and Methods: 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 108 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult groups reared in the Veterinary College, Aizawl Livestock Farm in order to find out the normal hematological profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. Results: Total erythrocyte count (TEC, Total leukocyte count (TLC, Packed cell volume (PCV, Mean corpuscular volume (MCV and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH were significantly higher in adults as compared to the young ones (p<0.05. MCH declined significantly from the pre-weaning pigs to grower pigs and increased in adult pigs (p<0.05. There was no significant change in Hb and MCHC with age. Conclusion: Hematological parameters of Zovawk, a locally available indigenous pig of Mizoram were investigated. Hematological profile changed with the age.

  20. Viral-type orchitis: a potential mimic of testicular neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Kristina M; Young, Robert H; Ferry, Judith A

    2009-10-01

    Orchitis of viral or presumed viral etiology is an uncommon cause of testicular pain or enlargement. Rarely orchitis is clinically or radiographically suggestive of neoplasia, resulting in a testicular biopsy or orchiectomy being performed. Between 1978 and 2004, 10 cases submitted in consultation were diagnosed as orchitis at the Massachusetts General Hospital. The patients were from 18 to 37 years of age and presented with testicular enlargement or a mass, pain, or both. Radiographic studies were suspicious for a neoplasm in all 5 cases in which results were available. The patients underwent testicular biopsy (2 cases), orchiectomy (6 cases), biopsy immediately followed by orchiectomy (1 case), or biopsy followed by orchiectomy 3 weeks later (1 case). The cases were submitted with diagnoses that included intratubular seminoma, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unspecified, Sertoli cell hyperplasia, myeloid sarcoma, and lymphoma. Microscopic examination revealed preservation of the architecture of the testicular parenchyma, typically with hemorrhage and edema, with patchy inflammation in the form of a lymphohistiocytic infiltrate within seminiferous tubules and also between tubules. The intratubular infiltrate usually predominated. Immunohistochemical studies, performed in 7 cases showed a mixture of CD68+ histiocytes and CD3+ T cells, with few B cells (CD20+) and few granulocytes. Follow-up was available in 5 cases; all 5 patients were alive and well 11 months to 10 years after diagnosis. In the rare instance in which a testicular specimen with orchitis is submitted for pathologic evaluation, diagnosis may be difficult. Familiarity with the pathologic changes characteristic of orchitis will help avoid misdiagnosis.

  1. Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN In An Endometrial Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devic Ana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN is a monoclonal neoplastic cell proliferation of the endometrium associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. We herein present the case of a 58-year-old female patient who underwent a hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy because of the existence of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia in an endometrial polyp. The patient had irregular uterine bleeding, which lasted 10 days. An endometrial polyp was diagnosed by ultrasound examination. The polyp was located in the isthmus of the uterus, on the back wall, and measured 32 mm × 25 mm. The patient underwent fractional dilation and curettage, and the specimens were subjected to a histopathological examination. The histopathological findings were EIN, endometrioid type, a focus of which was found within the endometrial polyps, as well as the endometrial polyp and proliferative endometrium. The endocervical tissue was normal. Given the age of the patient and the histopathological findings, she underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The final histopathological findings were EIN, endometrioid type with a focus found within the endometrial polyp; endometrial polyp; simple hyperplasia; chronic inflammation of the uterine cervix; hyperkeratosis of the cervical squamous epithelium; and cervicitis chronica. There was also hydrosalpinx of the left fallopian tube, and cystic follicles in the left ovary. There was no significant morphological change in the right ovary or fallopian tube. The surgical and postoperative course were normal. The patient was sent home on the fifth postoperative day in good general condition. A check-up performed one month after surgery showed normal findings.

  2. Neoplasias de Cavidad nasal y senos paranasales en caninos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Torres

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Las neoplasias de cavidad nasal y senos paranasales en caninos son de escasa presentación; llegan tan sóloal 1.5% de los quistes diagnosticados en esta especie.Con referencia al total de tumores del tracto respiratorio representan entre el 60 y el 80%. Son más comunes en caninos de nariz larga, no existe predilección por género; por el comportamiento, las neoplasias que se desarrollanen la cavidad nasal y senos paranasales son benignas y malignas, siendo estas últimas las más frecuentes. Teniendo en cuenta el tejido de origen pueden ser epiteliales, mesenquimales y de otro origen como los linfomas y el tumor venéreo transmisible. La apariciónde la sintomatología se asocia con la capacidad de obstruir las vías aéreas, la invasión y destrucción local de tejido. En general los signos clínicos asociados consistenen: dificultad respiratoria, estornudo, secreciónnasal, hemorragia nasal y la presencia de masas de características variadas en tamaño y forma. El diagnóstico se basa en signos clínicos, evaluación citológica e histológica de las lesiones. Esta última es 100% diagnóstica, para el tratamiento se utiliza la extracción quirúrgica combinada con terapia de radiación y quimioterapia.

  3. [International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hes, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Kidney tumours form a broad spectrum of distinguished histopathological and molecular genetic entities. The last WHO classification is dated to 2004. Current classification has been published in October 2013 by ISUP (International Society of Urological Pathology). There were 5 new epithelials tumours: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo-)papillary RCC, the MiT family translocation RCCs (in particular t(6;11) RCC), and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. Another 3 subtypes of RCC were added as "provisional" entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC; succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC; and ALK translocation RCC. Modifications were performed in already existing entities: multicystic clear cell RCC (formerly multilocular cystic RCC) is newly included as a subcategory of clear cell RCC with low malignant potential. Oncocytic papillary RCC (PRCC) has not been recognized as a distinctive subcategory of PRCC yet. Hybrid oncocytic-chromophobe tumour was placed within the chromophobe RCC category. Recent advances related to collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and mucinous spindle cell and tubular RCC were elucidated. Outside of the epithelial category, current approach to our understanding of angiomyolipoma, including the epithelioid variant and angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts was clarified. Cystic nephroma and mixed epithelial and stromal tumour were considered as a spectrum of one entity. Synovial sarcoma was placed within the sarcoma group. The new classification is to be referred to as the International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia.

  4. Laparoscopic wedge resection of synchronous gastric intraepithelial neoplasia and stromal tumor: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yi-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Xie, Kun; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Ke

    2010-10-21

    Synchronous occurrence of epithelial neoplasia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach is uncommon. Only rare cases have been reported in the literature. We present here a 60-year-old female case of synchronous occurrence of gastric high-level intraepithelial neoplasia and GIST with the features of 22 similar cases and detailed information reported in the English-language literature summarized. In the present patient, epithelial neoplasia and GIST were removed en bloc by laparoscopic wedge resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case treated by laparoscopic wedge resection.

  5. Development of a reactive stroma associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in EAF2 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Pascal

    Full Text Available ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2 is an androgen-responsive tumor suppressor frequently deleted in advanced prostate cancer that functions as a transcription elongation factor of RNA Pol II through interaction with the ELL family proteins. EAF2 knockout mice on a 129P2/OLA-C57BL/6J background developed late-onset lung adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, B-cell lymphoma and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. In order to further characterize the role of EAF2 in the development of prostatic defects, the effects of EAF2 loss were compared in different murine strains. In the current study, aged EAF2(-/- mice on both the C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ backgrounds exhibited mPIN lesions as previously reported on a 129P2/OLA-C57BL/6J background. In contrast to the 129P2/OLA-C57BL/6J mixed genetic background, the mPIN lesions in C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ EAF2(-/- mice were associated with stromal defects characteristic of a reactive stroma and a statistically significant increase in prostate microvessel density. Stromal inflammation and increased microvessel density was evident in EAF2-deficient mice on a pure C57BL/6J background at an early age and preceded the development of the histologic epithelial hyperplasia and neoplasia found in the prostates of older EAF2(-/- animals. Mice deficient in EAF2 had an increased recovery rate and a decreased overall response to the effects of androgen deprivation. EAF2 expression in human cancer was significantly down-regulated and microvessel density was significantly increased compared to matched normal prostate tissue; furthermore EAF2 expression was negatively correlated with microvessel density. These results suggest that the EAF2 knockout mouse on the C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ genetic backgrounds provides a model of PIN lesions associated with an altered prostate microvasculature and reactive stromal compartment corresponding to that reported in human prostate tumors.

  6. State of immune status in hematological patients with invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Frolova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis – is severe mycotic infection that often occurs in hematological patients and is characterized by high mortality. We examined the immunological parameters of hematological patients with invasive aspergillosis developed after cytostatic chemotherapy. Was founded, disruption of all parts of the immune respons: reduction in the absolute number of T-helper cells (CD4 +, natural killer cells (CD16 +, lowering of IFN-γ and IL-10 production, reduction in the number of B-lymphocytes and immunoglobulin levels of all classes, suppression killer ability of neutrophils are features of immune status in hematological patients with invasive aspergillosis receiving cytostatic chemotherapy.

  7. Hematologic Changes In Dogs Naturally Infected With Babesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Andoni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Canine babesiosis caused by tick-borne organisms of the genus Babesia, is one of the most significant disease worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the hematological changes in six dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis. The hematological evaluation included Hemoglobin (Hb, Red Blood Cell (RBC, Platelet, Packet Cell Volume (PCV, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC and Reticulocyte counts. They were estimated using an autonomic hematologic analyzer. The animal had hypocytic hypochromic anemia and 20% of the cases had a packed cell volume (PCV less of 24%. All the animal had thrombocytopenia and platelets counts was lower than 50x103 cell/ µl The results of this study show that Babesia infection in dogs caused anemia and thrombocytopenia.

  8. Preleukemia: hematological disorders prior to onset of leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi,Isao

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Published data on Japanese leukemia patients with a preleukemic hematological disorder were assessed. The reexamined cases were from the "Japona Centra Revuo Medicina" reported during the period from 1952 to 1971. Among preleukemic hematological disorders, hypoplastic anemia was the most frequently reported (41 of 62 cases. These "hypoplastic preleukemia" patients were rather elderly and terminated mostly in atypical myelocytic leukemia. The chief hematological feature of the hypoplastic preleukemia cases was the coexistence of a relative erythroid hyperplasia and a slight increase of myeloblasts in the bone marrow that was unusual in hypoplastic anemia. The presence of pancytopenia and hypocellular marrow with a relative erythroid hyperplasia combined with a slight increase of myeloblasts probably indicates hypoplastic preleukemia that terminates later in acute leukemia.

  9. Targeting cyclooxygenase-2 in hematological malignancies: rationale and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, M P; Bancos, S; Sime, P J; Phipps, R P

    2008-01-01

    There is much interest in the potential use of Cox-2 selective inhibitors in combination with other cancer therapeutics. Malignancies of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origin often have increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), a key modulator of inflammation. For example, hematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma often highly express Cox-2, which correlates with poor patient prognosis. Expression of Cox-2 enhances survival and proliferation of malignant cells, while negatively influencing anti-tumor immunity. Hematological malignancies expressing elevated levels of Cox-2 potentially avoid immune responses by producing factors that enhance angiogenesis and metastasis. Cellular immune responses regulated by natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and T regulatory cells are also influenced by Cox-2 expression. Therefore, Cox-2 selective inhibitors have promising therapeutic potential in patients suffering from certain hematological malignancies.

  10. Effect of pregnancy in hematological profile of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenica Dimco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant impact on hematological parameters in the dogs was award in this study. Blood was collected in the cephalic vein of 32 female animals, clinically healthy, in different physiological condition. Hematological parameters that studied were RBC, WBC and platelets count, Hgb concentration, HCT, differential counting of leukocytes and erythrocyte indicators. The obtained results from the analysis showed that pregnancy can affect the values of hematological parameters. The number of erythrocytes, the level of hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in pregnant animals resulted lower than in non-pregnant animals. No volatility resulted in the values of MCV, MCH and MCHC. In the pregnant animals group was found the increase of the circulating leucocytes number, of relative value of neutrophils and lymphocytes decrease. The pregnancy condition should be taken in consideration during the results interpretation of laboratory analysis.

  11. Role of leptin and leptin receptors in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Shahab; Mohammad, Ramzi M

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose-derived cytokine that has an important role in bodyweight homeostasis and energy balance. There are a number of studies which have suggested that leptin and its receptors dysregulation play a critical role in the development of malignancies including hematological malignancies, mainly via activation of the JAK/STAT pathway which regulates downstream signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT signaling and ERK1/2. In this review, current understandings of leptin/leptin receptors mediated pathogenesis in various lymphoid malignancies are described. Blocking of the leptin receptor might be a unique therapeutic approach for many hematological malignancies.

  12. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies hypermethylated biomarkers in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendvai, Ágnes; Johannes, Frank; Grimm, Christina; Eijsink, Jasper J H; Wardenaar, René; Volders, Haukeline H; Klip, Harry G; Hollema, Harry; Jansen, Ritsert C; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G Bea A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, such as aberrant DNA promoter methylation, are frequently observed in cervical cancer. Identification of hypermethylated regions allowing discrimination between normal cervical epithelium and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3), or worse, may improve curr

  13. Fatal cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia over four decades in the Netherlands: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lybol, C.; Centen, D.W.; Thomas, C.M.G.; ten Kate-Booij, M.J.; Verheijen, R.H.; Sweep, F.C.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe fatal cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) over four decades and evaluate whether treatment was given according to the protocol and reveal possible implications for future management. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The Netherlands. POPULATION: Women

  14. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma associated with pancreatic ductal intraepithelial neoplasia:repor t of a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajkumar Krishnasamy; Shaleen Agarwal; Shivendra Singh; Sunil Puri; Puja Sakhuja; Anil K Agarwal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The presence of pancreatic ductal intraepithelial neoplasia in patients with chronic pancreatitis is a risk factor for development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHOD: A case of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma associated with pancreatic ductal intraepithelial neoplasia was diagnosed in the setting of chronic pancreatitis. RESULTS:Distal pancreatectomy combined with splenec-tomy was performed with a diagnosis of pancreatic body carcinoma. Histopathological examination suggested adenocarcinoma associated with pancreatic ductal intraepithelial neoplasia. The tumor was detected in the remaining head of the pancreas, for which a total pancreatectomy was done. CONCLUSIONS: When a patient with pancreatic ductal intraepithelial neoplasia associated with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in the setting of chronic pancreatitis is at an increased risk of recurrence in the remaining pancreatic parenchyma, total pancreatectomy may be feasible.

  15. The Relationship Between Distal and Proximal Colonic Neoplasia: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.; De Winter, J.C.F.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between proximal colonic neoplasia and distal lesions as a function of the lesion type. The extent to which health, demographic, and study characteristics moderate this association was also examined.

  16. A new association – multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Preda, Veronica; Sywak, Mark; Learoyd, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and an aggressive malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) arising from a ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland. Patients with MEN-1 require careful consideration of other tumor associations, including MPNST, as it can portend a poor prognosis. MEN-1 and MPNST have not been reported. We report a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and an aggressive malignant peripheral nerve she...

  17. Observer variation in histopathological diagnosis and grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, S. M.; Colclough, A. B.; Dinnen, J. S.; Eakins, D.; Evans, D M; Gradwell, E.; O'Sullivan, J. P.; Summerell, J M; Newcombe, R G

    1989-01-01

    To assess the variability among histopathologists in diagnosing and grading cervical intraepithelial neoplasia eight experienced histopathologists based at different hospitals examined the same set of 100 consecutive colposcopic cervical biopsy specimens and assigned them into one of six diagnostic categories. These were normal squamous epithelium, non-neoplastic squamous proliferations, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades I, II, and III, and other. The histopathologists were given curr...

  18. Infectious complications in hematology patients: A clinical focus on prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Slobbe (Lennert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis was to contribute to infection preventive strategies in hematology patients with prolonged neutropenia. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) develops by pulmonary deposition of conidia. A placebo-controlled trial on the efficacy of prophylactic aerosolized lipos

  19. Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD38 in hematological malignancies and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Janmaat, Maarten L.; Mutis, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    CD38 is a multifunctional cell surface protein that has receptor as well as enzyme functions. The protein is generally expressed at low levels on various hematological and solid tissues, while plasma cells express particularly high levels of CD38. The protein is also expressed in a subset of hema...

  20. Evaluation of febrile neutropenic patients hospitalized in a hematology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mücahit Görük

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Febrile neutropenia is still a problem in patients with hematological malignancies. The documentation of the flora and detection of causative agents of infections in each unit would help to decide appropriate empirical therapy. Infection control procedures should be applied for preventing infections and transmissions.

  1. Two cases of paralitic ileus in onco-hematologic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Carraro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ileus is a severe complication resulting from a variety of disorders. It occurs most commonly in patients with serious underlying medical or surgical conditions. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate management may improve the outcome. We describe 2 cases of onco-hematologic patients who presented this complication after intensive chemotherapy.

  2. Two cases of paralitic ileus in onco-hematologic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Francesca; Rivetti, Elisa; Romano, Erica; Fagioli, Franca

    2012-01-01

    Paralytic ileus is a severe complication resulting from a variety of disorders. It occurs most commonly in patients with serious underlying medical or surgical conditions. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate management may improve the outcome. We describe 2 cases of onco-hematologic patients who presented this complication after intensive chemotherapy. PMID:22690309

  3. Advances in imaging and endoscopic therapy in Barrett’s esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Herrero, L.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis evaluated the role of advanced imaging around endoscopic therapy as well as explored the further possibilities of endoscopic therapy of early neoplasia (i.e. high-grade dysplasia and early cancer) in Barrett's esophagus. Advanced imaging techniques such as autofluorescence and narrow-ban

  4. BACTERIAL INFECTIONS FOLLOWING SPLENECTOMY FOR MALIGNANT AND NONMALIGNANT HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES

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    Giuseppe Leone

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Splenectomy, while often necessary in otherwise healthy patients after major trauma, find its primary indication for patients with an underlying malignant or nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Indications of splenectomy for hematologic diseases have been reducing in the last few years, due to improved diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In high-income countries, there is a clear decrease over calendar time in the incidence of all indication splenectomy except nonmalignant hematologic diseases. However, splenectomy, even if with different modalities including laparoscopic splenectomy and partial splenectomy, continue to be a current surgical practice both in nonmalignant hematologic diseases, such as Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP, Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA, Congenital Hemolytic Anemia such as Spherocytosis, Sickle Cell Anemia and Thalassemia and Malignant Hematological Disease, such as lymphoma. Today millions of people in the world are splenectomized. Splenectomy, independently of its cause, induces an early and late increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolism and infections. Infections remain the most dangerous complication of splenectomy. After splenectomy, the levels of antibody are preserved but there is a loss of memory B cells against pneumococcus and tetanus, and the loss of marginal zone monocytes deputed to immunological defense from capsulated bacteria. Commonly, the infections strictly correlated to the absence of the spleen or a decreased or absent splenic function are due to encapsulated bacteria that are the most virulent pathogens in this set of patients. Vaccination with polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines again Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis should be performed before the splenectomy. This practice reduces but does not eliminate the occurrence of overwhelming infections due to capsulated bacteria. At present, most of infection found in splenectomized patients

  5. Evaluation of febrile neutropenic patients hospitalized in a hematology clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mcahit; Grk; Mehmet; Sinan; Dal; Tuba; Dal; Abdullah; Karakus; Recep; Tekin; Nida; zcan; Orhan; Ayyildiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the febrile neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies hospitalized in hematology clinic with poor hygiene standards.Methods:A total of 124 patients with hematological malignancies(69 male,55 female)hospitalized in hematology clinic with poor hygiene conditions depending on hospital conditions,between January 2007 and December 2010,were evaluated,retrospectively.Results:In this study,250 febrile neutropenia episodes developing in 124 hospitalized patients were evaluated.Of the patients,69 were men(56%)and 55 women(44%).A total of 40 patients(32%)had acute myeloid leukemia,25(20%)acute lymphoblastic leukemia,19(15%)non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,10(8%)multiple myeloma,and 8(8%)chronic myeloid leukemia.In our study,56 patients(22%)were diagnosed as pneumonia,38(15%)invasive aspergillosis,38(15%)sepsis,16(6%)typhlitis,9(4%)mucormycosis,and 4(2%)urinary tract infection.Gram-positive cocci were isolated from 52%(n=20),while Gram-negative bacilli 42%(n=16)and yeasts from 6%(n=2)of the sepsis patients,respectively.The most frequently isolated Gram-positive bacteria were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci(n=18),while the most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacteria was Escherichia coli(n=10).Conclusions:Febrile neutropenia is still a problem in patients with hematological malignancies.The documentation of the flora and detection of causative agents of infections in each unit would help to decide appropriate empirical therapy.Infection control procedures should be applied for preventing infections and transmissions.

  6. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  7. Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia Associated with Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit; Espana, Edgar M.; Singh, Arun D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe 2 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that originated in the setting of severe atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Methods Case one involved a 73-year-old male with atopic eczema and severe AKC who developed a limbal lesion suspicious for ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). Slit-lamp examination was significant for a new sessile lesion in the temporal limbal region of the left eye. The lesion was treated with excisional biopsy and cryotherapy. Topical therapy with mitomycin C, topical interferon alpha 2b, and topical 5-fluorouracil provided only partial control. Exenteration was eventually needed. Case two involved a 53-year-old male with history of severe AKC and eczema. Computed tomography imaging showed an infiltrative mass of the right orbit. Incisional biopsies confirmed conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma of both sides (invasive in the right eye, in situ in the left eye). Exenteration was needed for control of invasive carcinoma in the right eye. Results Squamous cell carcinoma was treated without success in spite of surgical excision and aggressive treatment with multiple topical agents and multiple applications of cryotherapy. Orbital exenteration was needed in both cases. Conclusion Chronic inflammation associated with AKC may be a risk factor for the development of bilateral, diffuse, invasive, and recurrent OSSN that may require exenteration.

  8. Diagnosis of gastric epithelial neoplasia: Dilemma for Korean pathologists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joon Mee Kim; Eunsil Yu; Eun Sun Jung; Mee Soo Chang; Jong Eun Joo; Mee Joo; Youn Wha Kim; Do Youn Park; Yun Kyung Kang; Sun Hoo Park; Hye Seung Han; Mee-Yon Cho; Young Bae Kim; Ho Sung Park; Yang Seok Chae; Kye Won Kwon; Hee Jin Chang; Jin Hee Sohn; Dae Young Kang; Cheol Keun Park; Woo Ho Kim; So-Young Jin; Kyoung Mee Kim; Hee Kyung Chang

    2011-01-01

    The histopathological diagnosis of gastric mucosal biopsy and endoscopic mucosal resection/endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens is important, but the diagnostic criteria, terminology, and grading system are not the same in the East and West. A structurally invasive focus is necessary to diagnose carcinoma for most are active. Additionally, Korean doctors are familiar with Western style medical terminology. As a result, the terminology, definitions, and diagnostic criteria for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia are very heterogeneous in Korea. To solve this problem, the Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has made an effort and has suggested guidelines for differential diagnosis: (1) a diagnosis of carcinoma is based on invasion; (2) the most important characteristic of low grade dysplasia is the architectural pattern such as regular distribution of crypts without severe branching, budding, or marked glandular crowding; (3) if nuclear pseudostratification occupies more than the basal half of the cryptal cells in three or more adjacent crypts, the lesion is considered high grade dysplasia; (4) if severe cytologic atypia is present, careful inspection for invasive foci is necessary, because the risk for invasion is very high; and (5) other structural or nuclear atypia should be evaluated to make a final decision such as cribriform pattern, papillae, ridges, vesicular nuclei, high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, loss of nuclear polarity, thick and irregular nuclear membrane, and nucleoli.

  9. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-14

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation.

  10. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: efficacy of color doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sun Wha; Jee, Won Hee; Choe, Bo Young; Byun, Jae Young; Choi, Byung Gil; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of color Doppler ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Intralesional color flows and resistive index (RI) on color Doppler US were prospectively analyzed in 21 consecutive suspected GTN cases. RI of the intralesional artery was investigated on the basis of the presence or absence of mass and metastasis. Correlation between RI of intralesional artery and urinary {beta}-hCG was also investigated. Intralesional color flows were identified in 15 patients with GTN. On operation, intralesional color flows were observed in one of two patients in whom the presence of completely necrotic tissue was confirmed. Intralesional color flows, however, were not detected in four patients who were proved not to be GTN sufferers. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 100%, 83%, 95%, 94% and 100%, respectively. Significant correlation between RI of the intralesional artery and urinary {beta}-hCG was not established (p=0.49, r=0.19). RI of this artery was not substantially different between groups with and without mass, and between groups with and without metastasis (p=0.32, p=0.82). The current study demonstrates that color Doppler US is a sensitive and useful method for the diagnosis of GTN.

  11. INFECTION WITH HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN CERVICAL NEOPLASIA

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    Eduard Crauciuc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish if the infection with human papilloma virus (HPV presents a potential irreversible evolution towards malignancy. Materials and methods. The study was made on a number of 1885 patients that were suspected to have cervical neoplasia, which were monitored between 2001-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved that the risk of contacting a genital infection with HPV and cervical cancer is influenced by the sexual activity, the risk of getting infected with HPV during a person’ s lifetime is at least 50% for those sexually active. Conclusions. The patients benefited from colposcopy and biopsy only if the repeated cytology suggested more severe changes. The conservative conduct is represented by a repeated cytology when the patients are admitted into the lot (the initial cytology is performed before this moment

  12. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with retroperitoneal metastases: A fatal complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimopoulos Athanassios-Meletios

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN is a pathologic entity that can affect any pregnancy and develop long after the termination of the pregnancy. Its course can be complicated by metastases to distant sites such as the lung, brain, liver, kidney and vagina. The therapeutic approach of this condition includes both surgical intervention and chemotherapy. The prognosis depends on many prognostic factors that determine the stage of the disease. Case Report We present a woman with GTN and retroperitoneal metastatic disease who came to our department and was diagnosed as having high risk metastatic GTN. Accordingly she received chemotherapy as primary treatment but unfortunately developed massive bleeding after the first course of chemotherapy, was operated in an attempt to control bleeding but finally succumbed. Conclusion This case demonstrates that GTN, while usually curable, can be a deadly disease requiring improved diagnostic, treatment modalities and chemotherapeutic agents. The gynaecologist should be aware of all possible metastatic sites of GTN and the patient immediately referred to a specialist center for further assessment and treatment.

  13. Brain metastases from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: review of pertinent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piura, E; Piura, B

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is rare with about 222 cases documented in the literature and an incidence of about 11% in living GTN patients. Brain metastasis from GTN was part of a disseminated disease in 90% of patients, single metastases in the brain - 80% and located in the cerebrum - 90%. Brain metastasis was the only manifestation of metastatic GTN in 11.3% of patients, appeared synchronously with metastatic GTN in other sites of the body - 30.6% and was diagnosed from 0.3 to 60 months after diagnosis of metastatic GTN in other sites (most often in the lung) - 58.1%. Overall, 83.9% of patients with brain metastases from GTN had also lung metastases from GTN. Brain metastases from GTN showed a greater tendency to be hemorrhagic compared to brain metastases from other primaries. In patients with brain metastases from GTN, the best outcome was achieved with multimodal therapy including craniotomy, whole brain radiotherapy, and EP-EMA or EMA-CO chemotherapy. Nonetheless, brain metastasis from GTN is a grave disease with a median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastasis of about 12 months.

  14. Challenges in automated detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Yeshwanth; Yang, Shuyu; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda; Phillips, Benny; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) is a precursor to invasive cervical cancer, which annually accounts for about 3700 deaths in the United States and about 274,000 worldwide. Early detection of CIN is important to reduce the fatalities due to cervical cancer. While the Pap smear is the most common screening procedure for CIN, it has been proven to have a low sensitivity, requiring multiple tests to confirm an abnormality and making its implementation impractical in resource-poor regions. Colposcopy and cervicography are two diagnostic procedures available to trained physicians for non-invasive detection of CIN. However, many regions suffer from lack of skilled personnel who can precisely diagnose the bio-markers due to CIN. Automatic detection of CIN deals with the precise, objective and non-invasive identification and isolation of these bio-markers, such as the Acetowhite (AW) region, mosaicism and punctations, due to CIN. In this paper, we study and compare three different approaches, based on Mathematical Morphology (MM), Deterministic Annealing (DA) and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM), respectively, to segment the AW region of the cervix. The techniques are compared with respect to their complexity and execution times. The paper also presents an adaptive approach to detect and remove Specular Reflections (SR). Finally, algorithms based on MM and matched filtering are presented for the precise segmentation of mosaicism and punctations from AW regions containing the respective abnormalities.

  15. Imiquimod in cervical, vaginal and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, C J; van de Sande, A J M; van Beekhuizen, H J; Koeneman, M M; Kruse, A J; Gerestein, C G

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is in the vast majority of patients accountable for the development of vulvar, cervical and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, CIN, VAIN); precursors of vulvar, cervical and vaginal cancers. The currently preferred treatment modality for high grade VIN, CIN and VAIN is surgical excision. Nevertheless surgical treatment is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and recurrence is not uncommon. The aim of this review is to present evidence on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of imiquimod (an immune response modifier) in HPV-related VIN, CIN and VAIN. A search for papers on the use of imiquimod in VIN, CIN and VAIN was performed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Data was extracted and reviewed. Twenty-one articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed; 16 on VIN, 3 on CIN and 2 on VAIN. Complete response rates in VIN ranged from 5 to 88%. Although minor adverse effects were frequently reported, treatment with imiquimod was well tolerated in most patients. Studies on imiquimod treatment of CIN and VAIN are limited and lack uniformly defined endpoints. The available evidence however, shows encouraging effect. Complete response rates for CIN 2-3 and VAIN 1-3 ranged from 67 to 75% and 57 to 86% respectively. More randomized controlled trials on the use of imiquimod in CIN, VAIN and VIN with extended follow-up are necessary to determine the attributive therapeutic value in these patients.

  16. [Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Chlamydia trachomatis and other co-factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Troconis, J T

    1995-09-01

    The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in patients with diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) was studied in one hundred eighty patients. The Chlamydiazyme test was performed in all of them. Endocervical samples were taken from 103 patients with CIN and 77 women who sought medical attention for different gynecological reasons (CG). Twenty three tests (12.8%) were positive; 15 of them had CIN (14.6%) and 8 were from the control group (10.4%). It was found a statistical significant difference between NIC III and early intercourse, NIC III and age, NIC and vaginal douches and, among NIC and number of pregnancies and deliveries. There was not a significant difference among Ct and early intercourse, number of sexual partners, pregnancies, deliveries, vaginal douches, oral contraceptives (OC), and vaginal discharge. No statistically significant differences were found between NIC and number of sexual partners, and OC and vaginal discharge. The low incidence of Ct in patients with CIN does not mean that Ct does not play a role in the origin and development of the cervical pathology.

  17. Planes, Trains, and Automobiles: Perspectives on CAR T Cells and Other Cellular Therapies for Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Saar

    2016-08-01

    Hematologic oncologists now have at their disposal (or a referral away) a myriad of new options to get from point A (a patient with relapsed or poor-risk disease) to point B (potential tumor eradication and long-term disease-free survival). In this perspective piece, we discuss the putative mechanisms of action and the relative strengths and weaknesses of currently available cellular therapy approaches. Notably, while many of these approaches have been published in high impact journals, with the exception of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and of checkpoint inhibitors (PD1/PDL1 or CTLA4 blockade), the published clinical trials have mostly been early phase, uncontrolled studies. Therefore, many of the new cellular therapy approaches have yet to demonstrate incontrovertible evidence of enhanced overall survival compared with controls. Nonetheless, the science behind these is sure to advance our understanding of cancer immunology and ultimately to bring us closer to our goal of curing cancer.

  18. Epigenetics in Cancer: A Hematological Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Stahl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, we have known that epigenetic regulation is disrupted in cancer. Recently, an increasing body of data suggests epigenetics might be an intersection of current cancer research trends: next generation sequencing, immunology, metabolomics, and cell aging. The new emphasis on epigenetics is also related to the increasing production of drugs capable of interfering with epigenetic mechanisms and able to trigger clinical responses in even advanced phase patients. In this review, we will use myeloid malignancies as proof of concept examples of how epigenetic mechanisms can trigger or promote oncogenesis. We will also show how epigenetic mechanisms are related to genetic aberrations, and how they affect other systems, like immune response. Finally, we will show how we can try to influence the fate of cancer cells with epigenetic therapy.

  19. Benign and malignant hematological manifestations of chronic Hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiksha Kedia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, that affects 3% of world′s population, is associated with several hematological manifestations mainly benign cytopenias, coagulopathy and lymphoproliferative diseases. Immune or non-immune-mediated thrombocytopenia is a major challenge in chronic HCV infected patients especially in the setting of an advanced liver disease, with average prevalence of nearly 24%. Although several treatment modalities such as steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, splenectomy and immunosuppresants have been tried with some success, their efficacy is not impressive and can result in an increase in viral load or other thrombotic complications. Even though a recent phase 2 study has shown promising role of a platelet growth factor, eltrombopag, in boosting platelets counts prior to antiviral treatment, its use in pre-operative setting had unexpected complications. Unlike thrombocytopenia, anemia and neutropenia are more frequently seen in treated patients and are often the result of antiviral therapy. HCV infection also pre-disposes to lymphoproliferative diseases, mainly non-Hodking′s lymphomas, likely as a result of chronic antigenic stimulation and mutation of several genes involved in carcinogenesis. Understanding of the role of HCV infection in these conditions has therapeutic implications. Whereas antiviral therapy has shown therapeutic role in HCV-associated indolent lymphomas, monitoring of hepatic function and viral load is important in the management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in HCV-infected patients. Although our knowledge about the HCV infection and hematological manifestations has substantially grown in last few decades, further studies are important to advance our therapeutic approach.

  20. Síndrome de Sweet asociado a neoplasias Sweet's syndrome associated with neoplasms

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    Mariana Franco

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Sweet fue descrito en el año 1964 por Robert Douglas Sweet, como una entidad a la cual denominó dermatosis neutrofílica febril y aguda. Se caracteriza por cinco rasgos principales: 1 aparición brusca de placas eritemato-dolorosas en cara, cuello y extremidades; 2 fiebre; 3 leucocitosis polimorfonuclear; 4 denso infiltrado dérmico a predominio neutrofilico; 5 rápida respuesta al tratamiento esteroideo. Se puede clasificar en cinco grupos: idiopático, parainflamatorio, paraneoplásico, secundario a drogas y asociado a embarazo. En el 20% de los casos se asocia a enfermedades malignas, representando las hematológicas el 85% y los tumores sólidos el 15% restante. Se presenta una serie de siete casos de síndrome de Sweet asociado a neoplasias, diagnosticados durante el período 2002-2006, de los cuales seis correspondieron a enfermedades oncohematológicas y el restante a tumores sólidos. Como comentario de dicha casuística, se hace hincapié en la importancia del diagnóstico de este síndrome, debido a que puede anunciar la recaída del tumor o la progresión de la enfermedad de base. De esta manera, mediante el uso de métodos de diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos, se lograría mejorar la calida de vida de estos pacientes. También debe tenerse en cuenta, que los pacientes oncológicos reciben múltiples medicaciones (factor estimulante de colonias, que pueden estar implicadas en la aparición de esta entidad, debiendo ser las mismas descartadas como posibles causas.Sweet's syndrome was described in 1964 by Robert Douglas Sweet, as an entity he named acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. It is characterized by five main features: 1 sudden appearance of erythematous and tender plaques on the face, neck and extremities; 2 fever; 3 polymorphonuclear leukocytes; 4 predominantly neutrophilic dense infiltrate in the dermis, and 5 rapid response to steroid therapy. Sweet's syndrome can be classified into five groups

  1. Linfoma canino: clínica, hematologia e tratamento com o protocolo de Madison-Wisconsin Canine lymphoma: clinical and hematological aspects and treatment with the Madison-Wisconsin protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Buffo de Cápua

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O linfoma é uma neoplasia de elevada incidência na população canina mundial, e que apresenta sinais clínicos diversos, dependentes da classificação anatômica e da extensão da doença. Este estudo objetivou avaliar as características clínicas e hematológicas de cães com linfoma no momento do diagnóstico, além da evolução clínica dos mesmos ao longo do tratamento com o protocolo de Madison-Wisconsin. Dos 18 cães inseridos no estudo, 50% apresentaram a forma multicêntrica da doença e 33% a forma cutânea. A manifestação clínica mais comum foi a linfadenomegalia superficial, acompanhada dos sinais sistêmicos de hiporexia, apatia e perda de peso. As principais alterações hematólogicas foram anemia normocítica normocrômica, trombocitopenia e leucocitose, associadas às síndromes paraneoplásicas. Vinte e sete por cento dos animais atingiram remissão completa da doença e apenas 22% atingiram sobrevida de um ano. Houve correlação positiva entre o valor do hematócrito e o tempo de sobrevida para os cães que morreram, demonstrando a influência da anemia no prognóstico dos animais. Sugere-se que o estágio avançado da doença no momento do diagnóstico tenha influenciado as baixas taxas de remissão e sobrevida obtidas neste estudo.Lymphoma is a neoplasm of high incidence in dogs, and has several clinical signs, depending on the tumor anatomical area and the extent of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and hematological findings in dogs with lymphoma at diagnosis, and the clinical evolution during Madison-Wisconsin chemotherapy protocol. Of the 18 dogs that underwent the study, 50% of the dogs had the multicentric form and 33% the cutaneous forms of the disease. The most common clinical sign was superficial lymphadenomegaly, combined to systemic signs of hyporexia, apathy and weight loss. The main hematological changes were anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, associated with paraneoplastic

  2. Co-expression of p16 and p53 characterizes aggressive subtypes of ductal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, Charles; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Tramm, Trine; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

    2016-12-01

    In the USA alone, approximately 61,000 new diagnoses of ductal intraepithelial neoplasia 1c-3 (DIN) are made each year. Around 10-20 % of the patients develop a recurrence, about 50 % of which are invasive. Prior studies have shown that invasive breast carcinomas positive for p16 or p53 have a higher frequency of recurrence and a more aggressive course; however, the co-expression of these markers across the entire spectrum of DIN and its potential correlation with grade of the lesions has not been studied previously. Immunohistochemical staining for p16 and p53 was evaluated on 262 DIN lesions from 211 cases diagnosed between 1991 and 2008. The lesions ranged from DIN1b (atypical intraductal hyperplasia) to DIN3 (DCIS, grade 3) and included 45 cases with associated invasive carcinoma. Frequency of staining for both p16 and p53 increased with increasing grade of DIN. Strong co-expression was found exclusively in higher grade DIN lesions (DIN2 and DIN3) particularly those associated with periductal stromal fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate. Strong co-expression was seen in 8 of 12 DIN3 lesions (67 %) associated with invasive carcinoma. In conclusion, co-expression of p16 and p53 increases with advancing grade of DIN and is maximal in high grade DIN lesions associated with invasive carcinoma, indicating a more aggressive phenotype. A distinctive variant of DIN with periductal fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate invariably falls into the high-grade category, based on either morphology or marker expression. Co-expression of p16/p53 may be of help in distinguishing between high-grade and low-grade DIN lesions.

  3. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

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    Nagayasu Egawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted.

  4. Risk factors for the development of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; GUO Yan-li; ZHANG Jing-xu; QIAO Jie; GENG Li

    2012-01-01

    Background Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN),as aprecursor of vaginal cancer,is a rare disease.Its prevalence has not been well analyzed.This research is to ascertain the risk factors for VAIN in a Chinese population.@@Methods A case-control study was conducted,including 63 VAIN cases and 64healthy controls.In all subjects Pap smear and HPV tests were performed.A questionnaire survey was distributed,covering information on socio-demographic characteristics,smoking,past history,reproductive and sexual histories.The clinical pathological data were collected from medical records including symptoms,Pap smear results,grade of lesions,and human papillomavirus (HPV) status.@@Results Postmenopausal women had a 2.09 times higher risk for VAIN than pre-menopausal women (95% C/:1.10-3.85; P=0.024).The patients with previous hysterectomy had an increased risk of VAIN (OR=4.69; P=0.003).Patients with a history of cervical cancer or CIN were predisposed to VAIN (OR=78.75; P <0.0001).The rate of HPV infection in VAIN was significantly higher than in controls,and an increased risk of VAIN was observed in patients with higher viral load (OR=126.00; P=0.000).Multivariate analysis showed that HPV infection and a history of CIN or cervical cancer were still found to be significant in patients.@@Conclusion HPV infection and a history of CIN or cervical cancer are the main risk factors for the development of VAIN.

  5. Cushing’s Syndrome in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, William F.; Varghese, Sarah; Marx, Stephen J.; Nieman, Lynnette K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Cushing’s syndrome (CS) from endogenous hypercortisolism can result from pituitary, adrenal, or other endocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to characterize the range of presentations of CS in a large series of MEN1 patients. Design Retrospective review of NIH Clinical Center inpatient records over an approximately 40 year period. Patients 19 patients (8 males, 11 females) with CS and MEN1. Measurements Biochemical, imaging, surgical, and pathological findings. Results An etiology was determined for 14 of the 19 patients with CS and MEN1: 11 (79%) had Cushing’s disease (CD) and three (21%) had ACTH-independent CS due to adrenal tumors, frequencies indistinguishable from sporadic CS. Three of 11 MEN1 patients with CD (27%) had additional non-ACTH secreting pituitary microadenomas identified at surgery, an incidence 10-fold higher than in sporadic CD. Ninety-one percent of MEN1 patients with CD were cured after surgery. Two of three MEN1 patients with ACTH-independent CS (67%) had adrenocortical carcinoma. One patient with adrenal cancer and another with adrenal adenoma were cured by unilateral adrenalectomy. No case of ectopic ACTH secretion was identified in our patient cohort. The etiology of CS could not be defined in five patients; in three of these, hypercortisolism appeared to resolve spontaneously. Conclusions The tumor multiplicity of MEN1 can be reflected in the anterior pituitary, MEN1-associated ACTH-independent CS may be associated with aggressive adrenocortical disease, and an etiology for CS in MEN1 may be elusive in a substantial minority of patients. PMID:21916912

  6. RAP1 GTPase overexpression is associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

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    Marcelo Antonio Pascoal-Xavier

    Full Text Available RAP1 (RAS proximate 1, a small GTP-binding protein of the RAS superfamily, is a putative oncogene that is highly expressed in several malignant cell lines and types of cancers, including some types of squamous cell carcinoma. However, the participation of RAP1 in cervical carcinogenesis is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study of paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies to determine the association of RAP1 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Standard and quantitative immunohistochemistry assessment of RAP1 expression in fixed tissue was performed on 183 paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies that were classified as normal or non-dysplastic mucosa (NDM (n = 33; CIN grade 1 (n = 84 and CIN grade 2/3 (n = 66. A gradual increase in RAP1 expression in NDM < CIN 1 < CIN 2/3 (p<0.001 specimens was observed and was in agreement with the histopathologic diagnosis. A progressive increase in the RAP1 expression levels increased the risk of CIN 1 [odds ratio (OR = 3.50; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.30-10.64] 3.5 fold and the risk of CIN 2/3 (OR = 19.86, 95% CI 6.40-70.79 nearly 20 fold when compared to NDM. In addition, stereotype ordinal regression analysis showed that this progressive increase in RAP1 expression more strongly impacted CIN 2/3 than CIN 1. Our findings suggest that RAP1 may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of CIN.

  7. Gigantism in sibling unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, A; Teramoto, A; Yamada, S; Kitanaka, S; Tanaka, T; Sanno, N; Osamura, R Y; Kirino, T

    1994-11-01

    The cases of gigantism sisters with somatotroph adenomas unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) Type 1 are reported. The sisters grew rapidly since they were 5 or 6 years old and were diagnosed to have gigantism with pituitary adenoma by computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging. A serum endocrinological examination showed the elevated growth hormone values. After thyroxine-releasing hormone stimulation, growth hormone values exhibited a paradoxical rise. They were supposed to be unrelated to MEN Type 1, because analysis of the 11th chromosomes and the other endocrine functions were normal. They were operated on by the transphenoidal method. Immunohistochemical staining of both tumor specimens confirmed somatotroph adenomas. Pituitary adenoma associated with MEN Type 1 is a well-recognized entity. However, the sporadic occurrence of pituitary adenoma unrelated to MEN Type 1, especially in siblings, is extremely rare. Fifteen cases of pituitary adenomas in siblings were described in the literature. As for gigantism, only two brothers were reported. Our case of gigantism sisters is the second sporadic case. In our review of the isolated cases of pituitary adenoma in siblings described in the literature, 12 (70%) of 17 cases including ours are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than that of MEN Type 1 patients with pituitary adenomas. The cause of the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas is still unclear, although autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested. It has been stated that point mutations in codon 201 or 227 of the Gs alpha gene located in chromosome 20 were found in about 35 to 40% of somatotroph adenomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Atrial Fibrillation and Colonic Neoplasia in African Americans.

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    Mehdi Nouraie

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American.We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression.The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10% followed by adenoma patients (7.2% then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002. In the three groups of participants, older age (P<0.008 and heart failure (P<0.001 were significantly associated with higher risk of AF. After adjusting for these risk factors, CRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI:0.9-2.2, P = 0.2 and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI:0.7-1.6, P = 0.7 were not significantly associated AF compared to control group.AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.

  9. Metastatic multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: report of one case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Zhu, Xiaodong; Han, Xu

    2016-01-01

    A 46-year-old Chinese woman was admitted to our hospital because of presence of space-occupying lesions in the liver for 2 months in April, 2015. She had a family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and physical examination is unremarkable. Previously, she has performed surgery for primary pituitary tumor in 2002 and radiosurgery for its recurrence. Around December 2014, she suffered from abdominal discomfort associated with regurgitation and gastroscopy revealed “gastroduodenal ulcers”, along with elevated gastrin. Next, both magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging showed multiple intrahepatic lesions, the PET-CT unveiled uptake pattern of 18F-FDG in duodenum and multiple intrahepatic lesions, resembling the appearance of metastatic gastrinoma. The octreotide scan gave identical results. The parathyroid SPECT scans showed abnormal concentrations of radioactivity in right parathyroid. She also had an elevated serum chromogranin A (CgA) level. There was medical evidence to show that she is metastatic MEN1. Although multiple liver metastases, they were considered to be resectable after MDT consultation. The intraoperative exploration found a 1.5 cm tumor on the surface of the tail of the pancreas, a 12 cm retroperitoneal lipoma and two liver metastases, sized 3.5 cm and 1.5 cm, respectively. All these tumors were completely removed. For pancreatic tumor, pathological findings met the diagnostic criteria of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) (G2). Immunohistochemistry revealed neuroendocrine areas were diffusely positive for ATRX, DAXX, SSR2, SSR5 and CgA. For lipoma, the FISH results were negative for CDK4 and MDM2 genes. Postoperatively, adjuvant therapy with octreotide was applied. This case suggested that, as for metastatic gastrinoma, a potentially curative surgical debulking should be considered when a resection of complete or more than 90% of metastatic lesions along with the primary site could be achieved, which is helpful to control

  10. Advances in renal neoplasia: recommendations from the 2012 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Montironi, Rodolfo; Egevad, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2012 Consensus Conference made recommendations regarding the classification, prognostic factors, staging, and immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of adult renal tumors. There was consensus that 5 entities should be recognized as novel tumors: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell papillary RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor-family translocation RCC [in particular t(6; 11) RCC], and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. In addition, 3 rare epithelial carcinomas were considered emerging or provisional entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC, succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocation RCC. There were also a number of suggested modifications to existing World Health Organization 2004 categories, with the new classification to be known as the ISUP Vancouver Classification. Tumor morphotype, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation, and tumor necrosis were identified as significant prognostic parameters for RCC. The ISUP Grading System was accepted with grades 1-3 of clear cell and papillary RCC being based on nucleolar prominence, whereas extreme nuclear pleomorphism or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation defined grade 4 tumors. It was agreed that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. Consensus guidelines were formulated for specimen handling, and it was agreed that renal sinus invasion is present when tumor is in direct contact with fat or loose connective tissue of the sinus or if there is involvement of endothelial-lined spaces within the renal sinus, regardless of the size. The role of biomarkers in the diagnosis and assessment of prognosis of renal tumors was considered, and panels of immunohistochemical markers were identified for use in specific differential diagnostic scenarios.

  11. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoots, W Keith; Abkowitz, Janis L; Coller, Barry S; DiMichele, Donna M

    2015-04-30

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology.

  12. Practical notes on an integrated curriculum of hematology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-li WU; Jun-ke ZHENG; Li XIA; Han-zhang XU

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review the experiences on an integrated curriculum of hematology for eight-year students in the first half of 2015 and to lay the foundation for improvement and application to students in the five-year program of clinical medicine.Methods The reform processes were described and the advantages and disadvantages of the integrated curriculum were analyzed by using descriptive and comparative methodologies.Results The original teaching contents were simplified.A teaching group composed of basic science researchers and clinicians was established.New small-group learning mode was conducted.Conclusion The integrated hematology course was established and after improvement this course can be implemented into the five-year program of clinical medicine in the future.

  13. Hematological, biochemical, and behavioral responses of Oncorhynchus mykiss to dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Demet; Can, Canan

    2011-12-01

    The effects of dimethoate on hematological, biochemical parameters, and behavior were investigated in Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.0735, 0.3675, and 0.7350 mg/l for 5, 15, and 30 days. Significant decrease was determined in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and MCH, which was pronounced after prolonged exposure indicating the appearance of microcytic hypochromic anemia. There were no prominent changes in thrombocyte and MCHC. The glucose concentration showed an ascending pattern that proved to be positively correlated with duration. The protein concentration declined in higher dimethoate concentrations following 15 and 30 days. Negative and significant correlation was detected between glucose and protein concentrations. The fish showed remarkable behavioral abnormality such as loss of balance, erratic swimming, and convulsion. Present findings revealed that dimethoate exerts its toxic action even in sublethal concentrations and hematological parameters and abnormal behavior may be sensitive indicators to evaluate pesticide intoxication.

  14. The targeting of immunosuppressive mechanisms in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M H

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive immune system has the capacity to recognize and kill leukemic cells. However, immune tolerance mechanisms that normally protect healthy tissues from autoimmune effects prevent the development of effective antitumor immunity. Tumors use several different immunosuppressive mechanisms...... to evade otherwise effective T-cell responses. A growing number of immune evasion mechanisms have been characterized mainly in solid tumors. In hematological malignancies, less is known about how different immune escape mechanisms influence tumor immune evasion and the extent of their impact on ongoing...... immune responses. The present review highlights the potential role of three well-defined immunosuppressive mechanisms in hematological malignancies: (i) inhibitory T-cell pathways (especially programmed death ligand 1/programmed death 1 (PD-L1/PD-1)), (ii) regulatory immune cells, and (iii) metabolic...

  15. Drug repurposing in pediatrics and pediatric hematology oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Julie; Corey, Seth J

    2013-01-01

    Drug 'repurposing', that is, using old drugs for new indications, has been proposed as a more efficient strategy for drug development than the current standard of beginning with novel agents. In this review, we explore the scope of drug repurposing in pediatric hematology oncology and in pediatrics in general. Drugs commonly used in children were identified using the Harriet Lane Handbook (HLH) and searched in PubMed for different uses. Additional drugs were identified by searching PubMed and Google.com for 'drug repurposing' or 'drug repositioning'. Almost 10% of drugs with primary uses in pediatrics have been repurposed in pediatric hematology oncology or pediatrics. The observant clinician, pharmacologist and translational bioinformatician, as well as structural targeting, will have a role in discovering new repurposing opportunities.

  16. Prospective study of strongyloidosis in patients with hematologic malignancies

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    Graeff-Teixeira Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunocompromised individuals infected with Strongyloides stercoralis may develop severe hyperinfection or disseminated disease with high mortality. Patients with hematological malignancies are at risk because of immunodepression produced either by the disease or its treatment. A prospective study was undertaken at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from July 1994 to July 1995. Seventy-two (HIV negative, had 3 stool samples collected at different days and had not received recent anti-helmintic therapy. Larvae, isolated in a modified Baermann method, were found in 6 patients, with a resultant prevalence of 8.3%. No complicated strongyloidosis was documented. The positive result for S. stercoralis larvae was significantly associated (p < 0.001 with eosinophilia. Knowledge of prevalence figures and incidence of severe disease is important to adequate guidelines for empirical treatment besides the rigorous search for strongyloidosis in patients with hematological malignancies.

  17. Implementing virtual microscopy improves outcomes in a hematology morphology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, Mauri S; Swinehart, Cheryl; Yue, Mary Jane; Conway-Klaassen, Janice M; Wiesner, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of virtual microscopy as the primary mode of laboratory instruction in undergraduate level clinical hematology teaching. Distance education (DE) has become a popular option for expanding education and optimizing expenses but continues to be controversial. The challenge of delivering an equitable curriculum to distant locations along with the need to preserve our slide collection directed our effort to digitize the slide sets used in our teaching laboratories. Students enrolled at two performance sites were randomly assigned to either traditional microscopy (TM) or virtual microscopy (VM) instruction. The VM group performed significantly better than the TM group. We anticipate that this approach will play a central role in the distributed delivery of hematology through distance education as new programs are initiated to address workforce shortage needs.

  18. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy of rectal carcinoma. Baseline hematologic parameters influencing outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodek, Miroslav; Sirak, Igor; Paluska, Petr; Kopecky, Jindrich; Petera, Jiri; Vosmik, Milan [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Ferko, Alexander; Oerhalmi, Julius [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Department of Surgery, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Hovorkova, Eva; Hadzi Nikolov, Dimitar [University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Fingerland Department of Pathology, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2016-09-15

    The link between the blood count and a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is indisputable and well described. Pretreatment hematological parameters may predict the overall clinical outcomes in many types of cancer. Thus, this study aims to systematically evaluate the relationship between baseline blood count levels and treatment response in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. From 2009-2015, 173 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were retrospectively enrolled in the study and analyzed. The baseline blood count was recorded in all patients 1 week before chemoradiation. Tumor response was evaluated through pathologic findings. Blood count levels which included RBC (red blood cells), Hb (hemoglobin), PLT (platelet count), neutrophil count, WBC (white blood cells), NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio), and PLR (platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio) were analyzed in relation to tumor downstaging, pCR (pathologic complete response), OS (overall survival), and DFS (disease-free survival). Hb levels were associated with a response in logistic regression analysis: pCR (p = 0.05; OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.07); T downstaging (p = 0.006; OR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01-1.05); N downstaging (p = 0.09; OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.00-1.04); T or N downstaging (p = 0.007; OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07); T and N downstaging (p = 0.02; OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.00-1.04); Hb and RBC were the most significant parameters influencing OS; PLT was a negative prognostic factor for OS and DFS (p = 0.008 for OS); an NLR value of 2.8 was associated with the greatest significance for OS (p = 0.03) and primary tumor downstaging (p = 0.02). Knowledge of pretreatment hematological parameters appears to be an important prognostic factor in patients with rectal carcinoma. (orig.) [German] Die Verbindung zwischen dem Blutbild und der systemischen Entzuendungsreaktion (''systemic inflammatory response'', SIR) ist unbestreitbar und gut beschrieben. Aufgrund der

  19. Diagnostic value of hematological parameters in patients with osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Hira; Cuneyt Tamam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Complete blood count parameters have been investigated as a predictor of inflammatory process in many diseases, but their role in osteoarthritis is unclear. The aim of present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of routine hematological parameters on osteoarthritis and to explore their clinical significance. Material and Methods: The study included 118 patients with osteoarthritis and 145 healthy individuals. Medical records, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reac...

  20. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  1. Trombose venosa profunda e sua relação com trombofilias e neoplasias: estudo retrospectivo Deep venous thrombosis and its relationship with thrombophilias and malignancies: retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vieira Baptista

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectivos: Avaliação dos resultados obtidos através dos protocolos instituídos no Serviço para despiste de trombofilias e/ou neoplasias em doentes internados ao longo de 5 anos com o diagnóstico de trombose venosa profunda (TVP. Material e métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, através da consulta dos processos hospitalares, de todos os doentes com idade igual ou inferior a 50 anos internados no Serviço entre 01 de Janeiro de 2006 e 31 de Dezembro de 2010 com esse diagnóstico, e análise dos resultados obtidos nos protocolos. Resultados: De um total de 89 doentes, 64 (71,9% eram do sexo feminino e 25 (28,1% do masculino, sendo a média de idades de 33,3 ±10,0 anos. 14,6% dos doentes já haviam tido, pelo menos, um episódio prévio de TVP e 78,7% apresentavam, pelo menos, um factor de risco. Em 65 doentes (73,0% foi aplicado o protocolo de despiste de trombofilias e de neoplasias, tendo sido detectadas trombofilias congénitas em 41 doentes (63,1%, dois casos de síndrome dos anticorpos anti-fosfolipídicos (SAF, um caso de gamapatia monoclonal, um de neoplasia do pulmão e um de cordoma do sacro. 49 dos doentes que realizaram os protocolos (75,4% foram orientados para a Consulta de Hematologia, sendo que em 40 deles (81,6% foi sugerido manter a anticoagulação oral por um período superior a 12 meses. Conclusões: Dada a elevada prevalência de polimorfismos genéticos que conferem risco trombótico acrescido e os não raros casos de SAF e de neoplasias ocultas presentes nesta população de doentes, considera-se que, apesar dos elevados custos, se deverá continuar a fazer o despiste deste tipo de patologias.Objectives: Evaluation of the results obtained with the application of specific protocols established in the Department for screening for thrombophilia and malignancy in patients hospitalized during a period of five years with the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT. Material and methods: A retrospective study was performed

  2. Serum ferritin and hematological feature among malaria patients in Assam

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    Jitendra Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assam is considered as a vulnerable state for malarial infection. Malarial patient exhibit several divergent values in their blood cell parameter as well as changes in concentration of normal serum ferritin level. The study was intended to observe the concentration of serum ferritin level and estimation of hematological feature among malaria patients in Assam. Materials and Methods: During the period from August 2012 to January 2013, a total of 77 blood samples have been collected from 77 individuals suspected with malaria from different malaria endemic districts of Assam. Results: A total of 36 cases were found to be malaria positive of which 25 were symptomatic and 11 were asymptomatic. Overall the percentage of parasitaemia was found 0.1-15%. Distribution of malaria cases was observed in all age groups and both the sexes. Hematological values among the malaria positive patients revealed that about 89% were having anaemia, 66.67% with Thrombocytopenia and 47% Lymphocytopenia. Iron deficiency anaemia was recorded in 63.87% of the patients. Other haematological status includes 30.56% individual with Granulocytosis and 50.00% subjects with low Mean platelet volume etc. Results also showed that the serum ferritin level in the malaria positive population ranged in from 70 ng/ml to 300 ng/ml, with a mean value of 114 ng/ml. Conclusion: In our study, hematological abnormality and low serum ferritin level is observed as an imperative marker for identification of malaria patients.

  3. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Kidney Stones in Patients with Hematological Malignancy

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    Baris Kuzgunbay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To define the alterations in the outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL operations for kidney stones in patients with history of hematological malignancy (HM. Material and Method: Between 2000 and 2013, 1700 adult patients underwent PNL for the treatment of kidney stones in our institution. Four of these patients had a history of HM and considered to be HM group (n=4. Ten elderly (>65 years patients who had no history of operation, HM or any other co-morbide diseases were chosen as the control group (n=10. Surgical parameters, success rates, additional treatments and complications were evaluated. Results: Statistical analyses showed no significant differences between HM and control group according to stone area, operation time, fluoroscopy time, hospitalization time, %u2206Hb, blood transfusion rates and INR values (p>0.05. Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences between HM and control groups according to the success rates (p=0.470. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference between groups for additional treatment requirements (p=0.882. No major perioperative complication was seen in both of the groups. Discussion: The treatment of kidney stone disease by PNL in patients with hematological malignancy is feasible, safe and effective. However, close cooperation with the Hematology Department before the operation is mandatory.

  4. Using a Hematology Curriculum in a Web Portfolio Environment

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    Ambjörn Naeve

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 the European Hematology Association developed the European Hematology Curriculum. This was distributed as a printed booklet and the intention was that junior hematologist could use it for personal competence development. In the EU-funded project H-net this Curriculum has been adapted into the a web environment by using RDF and placed inside a web portfolio system. How this is done is further described in this article. Furthermore, the possibilities of reusing the curriculum in ways that was not initially intended is described, such as describing Learning Resources inside the web-portfolio system with how they relate to different parts of the curriculum. That way a search for learning resources inside the portfolio by using the curriculum is enabled. And, since the medical field of hematology is closely related to other medical fields the design of the web-version of the curriculum was done in a way that builds for possible combination with any other curriculum in another medical field.

  5. Secondary osteosarcoma arising after treatment for childhood hematologic malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Atsushi; Hosaka, Masami; Watanuki, Munenori; Itoi, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Secondary osteosarcoma arising after the treatment of hematologic malignancies other than Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare. We report two cases of secondary osteosarcoma arising after treatment for childhood hematologic malignancies (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphoblastic leukemia). A 10-year-old boy, at the age of 3, was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He received chemotherapy, radiation, and bone-marrow transplantation and then was in complete remission. At 6 years, he complained of increasing pain of the right thigh and was diagnosed with osteoblastic osteosarcoma. A 26-year-old man, at the age of 6, was diagnosed as having acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). He received chemotherapy, radiation, and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). At 11 years after PBSCT, he visited with the complaint of left lumbar swelling. He was diagnosed with chondroblastic osteosarcoma. In both cases alkaline phosphatase (ALP) had already increased prior to the onset of the symptom. We should rule out secondary osteosarcoma at the abnormal elevation of ALP during clinical follow-up of patients after treatment of childhood hematologic malignancies. PMID:19961270

  6. Cervical and Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia after Treatment with Oral Isotretinoin for Severe Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Al Hallak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral isotretinoin is the drug of choice for severe acne vulgaris, but its use is still controversial in preventing, treating or stopping the progression of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [6–8]. It induces cell differentiation, inhibits cell proliferation, stimulates host immune reaction, inhibits the oncogene expression, augments cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and induces apoptosis [5]. The isotretinoin has many side effects including teratogenicity. There is no previous report of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN after introducing oral isotretinoin to a patient. We are reporting a 37-year-old female with no risk factors for cervical cancer who had developed CIN-I and VIN-I during a 6-month treatment period of oral isotretinoin for her severe acne vulgaris. Interestingly, the patient had complete spontaneous pathologic-proven remission after stopping the isotretinoin. Further case reports are warranted to support this incidence.

  7. Pathogenesis and Active Prevention of Testicular Germ Cell Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slowikowska-Hilczer J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Most testicular neoplasms originate from fetal germ cells (germ cell tumors [GCT]. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN or testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS are terms used for the state when these cells are present in the seminiferous epithelium. The highest risk of neoplastic lesions occurs in testes with disturbed organogenesis (in our study, 65 %. Genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors are suspected to lead to disturbed testicular organogenesis (dysgenesis, which creates the milieu favorable for GCT development. An external environment can cause a block or delay in fetal germ and somatic cell differentiation. CIS cells in dysgenetic testes of children reveal a predominantly aneuploid DNA pattern (62.2–97.6 % of germ cells and they do not express an RBM protein (present in normal germ cells, this indicates that CIS cells are neoplastic from fetal life on. Most of the neoplastic germ cells die, however, some survive and proliferate, leading to a clonal expansion and giving rise to gonadoblastoma, CIS, and GCT. Neoplastic germ cells located inside underdeveloped testicular tubules have an intratesticular environment favorable for their survival – this was confirmed by the finding that the highest incidence of neoplastic lesions occurred in patients with partial (90.9 % and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (76.9 %. It was hypothesized that the transformation of CIS into overt GCT may be promoted by gonadotropin action. We found that in gonadal dysgenesis, serum concentrations of FSH and LH reveal highly significant, positive correlations with the number of CIS cells, even in childhood. At present, surgical biopsy of the testis is the only reliable method to detect CIS and hence to actively prevent the development of overt GCT. Accordingly, early bilateral gonadectomy is recommended in all types of disturbance of testicular organogenesis because of the high risk of various neoplastic lesions in dysgenetic testes (86 % of adult patients with

  8. Heat shock protein90 in lobular neoplasia of the breast

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    Patsouris Efstratios

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 overexpression has been implicated in breast carcinogenesis, with putative prognostic and therapeutic implications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Hsp90 and to examine whether Hsp90 expression is associated with estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha and beta (ER-beta immunostaining in lobular neoplasia (LN of the breast. Methods Tissue specimens were taken from 44 patients with LN. Immunohistochemical assessment of Hsp90, ER-alpha and ER-beta was performed both in the lesion and the adjacent normal breast ducts and lobules; the latter serving as control. As far as Hsp90 evaluation is concerned: i the percentage of positive cells, and ii the intensity was separately analyzed. Additionally, the Allred score was adopted and calculated. Accordingly, Allred score was separately evaluated for ER-alpha and ER-beta. The intensity was treated as an ordinal variable-score (0: negative, low: 1, moderate: 2, high: 3. Statistical analysis followed. Results Hsp90 immunoreactivity was mainly cytoplasmic in both the epithelial cells of normal breast (ducts and lobules and LN. Some epithelial cells of LN also showed nuclear staining, but all the LN foci mainly disclosed a positive cytoplasmic immunoreaction for Hsp90. In addition, rare intralobular inflammatory cells showed a slight immunoreaction. The percentage of Hsp90 positive cells in the LN areas was equal to 67.1 ± 12.2%, whereas the respective percentage in the normal adjacent breast tissue was 69.1 ± 11.6%; the difference was not statistically significant. The intensity score of Hsp90 staining was 1.82 ± 0.72 in LN foci, while in the normal adjacent tissue the intensity score was 2.14 ± 0.64. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.029, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. The Hsp90 Allred score was 6.46 ± 1.14 in the LN foci, significantly lower than in the normal adjacent tissue (6.91

  9. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

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    Weis SE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen E Weis1,2 1Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, 2Preventive Medicine Clinic, Tarrant County Public Health, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN, the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5

  10. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-wen; WEI Yao; CHEN Xi; JIANG Xiao-hua; LI Xiao-ying; NING Guang; LI Hong-wei

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is relatively rare. But more patients could be found by detailed examination. We discuss the diagnosis and surgical treatment of MEN. Methods The clinical data of 95 MEN cases were retrospectively analyzed. There were 30 cases of MEN1 including 19 cases from 6 families. The MEN1 gene mutation was detected in 81.48% of cases admitted after 1997. There were 22 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), 10 cases of enteropanceatic tumor including 9 cases of insulinoma, 15 cases of pituitary adenoma, 9 cases of adrenal adenoma, 2 cases of thymic carcinoid. Two patients had 4 glands involved, 3 patients had 3 glands involved, 16 patients had 2 glands involved, and 6 patients had only one gland involved. Three patients had neither clinical symptoms nor biochemical changes, and was diagnosed by MEN1 gene mutation. Six patients presented with nephrolithasis and 6 patients had impaired pancreatic endocrine function. There were 60 cases of MEN2a and 5 cases of MEN2b. 58 cases of MEN2a belongs to 19 kindreds. All MEN2a patients but one presented RET gene mutation in codon 634, and all MEN2b cases had mutation in codon 918. 48 cases of MEN2a had thyroid masses with elevated calcitonin levels. 27 patients had pheochromocytoma including 12 cases of multiple loci and 5 malignancy. 13 patients presented with hyperparathyroidism. 5 MEN2b patients had medullary thyroid carcinoma and mucosal ganglioneuromatosis with Marfanoid. Among them, 3 patients had bilateral pheochromocytoma. Results In MEN1, subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed in 12 patients with PHPT and one patient received parathyroid adenoma enucleation. Insulinomas were enucleated in 4 patients. Two patients underwent thymus tumor extirpation. Total thyroidectomy with bilateral dissection of regional lymph nodes was performed in 16 patients with MEN2a and nodule enucleation was performed in 9 patients. Twenty two MEN2a patients underwent pheochromocytoma enucleation

  11. Clinical and pathological heterogeneity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3.

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    Hannah P Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3, the immediate cervical cancer precursor, is a target of cervical cancer prevention. However, less than half of CIN3s will progress to cancer. Routine treatment of all CIN3s and the majority of CIN2s may lead to overtreatment of many lesions that would not progress. To improve our understanding of CIN3 natural history, we performed a detailed characterization of CIN3 heterogeneity in a large referral population in the US. METHODS: We examined 309 CIN3 cases in the SUCCEED, a large population-based study of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results. Histology information for 12 individual loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP segments was evaluated for each woman. We performed case-case comparisons of CIN3s to analyze determinants of heterogeneity and screening test performance. RESULTS: CIN3 cases varied substantially by size (1-10 LEEP segments and by presentation with concomitant CIN2 and CIN1. All grades of CINs were equally distributed over the cervical surface. In half of the women, CIN3 lesions were found as multiple distinct lesions on the cervix. Women with large and solitary CIN3 lesions were more likely to be older, have longer sexual activity span, and have fewer multiple high risk HPV infections. Screening frequency, but not HPV16 positivity, was an important predictor of CIN3 size. Large CIN3 lesions were also characterized by high-grade clinical test results. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate substantial heterogeneity in clinical and pathological presentation of CIN3 in a US population. Time since sexual debut and participation in screening were predictors of CIN3 size. We did not observe a preferential site of CIN3 on the cervical surface that could serve as a target for cervical biopsy. Cervical cancer screening procedures were more likely to detect larger CIN3s, suggesting that CIN3s detected by multiple independent diagnostic tests may represent cases

  12. NEOPLASIAS TESTICULARES EN CANINOS: UN CASO DE TUMOR DE CÉLULAS DE SERTOLI

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Eslava M; Giovanny Torres V

    2008-01-01

    Las neoplasias del testículo no son muy frecuentes en los animales domésticos Los caninos son los que las manifiestan con mayor frecuencia; estando entre los 0.7 y 4.6% de todos los tumores que sufren. Algunos factores se han asociado como predisponentes: entre ellos la edad madura y la presencia del criptorquidia uni o principalmente bilateral. Las neoplasias del testículo más frecuente son el tumor de células de Sertoli, el tumor de células de Leydig y los seminomas, que en general presen...

  13. Estudo comparativo de indicadores nutricionais em pacientes com neoplasias do trato digestório

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida; Tristão, Ana Paula; Moretto,Maria Clara; Fugulin, Natália Maria; Portero-McLellan,Kátia Cristina; AQUINO,José Luiz Braga de

    2008-01-01

    RACIONAL: O câncer tem sido considerado atualmente como um dos principais problemas de saúde pública em todo o mundo e os tumores mais frequentes são os dos tratos gastrintestinal e o respiratório. OBJETIVO: Comparar indicadores do estado nutricional em pacientes portadores de neoplasias do trato digestório. MÉTODO: Estudo comparativo de indicadores nutricionais (antropométricos, laboratoriais e dietéticos), entre 28 pacientes portadores de neoplasias do trato digestório (esofágicas, gástrica...

  14. The prognostic significance of virus-associated changes in grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Worning, A M; Nordsten, M;

    1987-01-01

    Virus-associated changes of the cervix uteri were assessed in patients treated for grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Of 106 patients evaluated, 67 (63%) had virus-associated changes. The patients were treated without regard to the presence/absence of virus-associated changes. In 26...... patients the treatment was unsuccessful (persistence, recurrence, or progression of the neoplasia). The frequency of treatment failure was 33% in patients with, and 10% in patients without virus-associated changes (p less than 0.025). It is recommended that patients with CIN 1 and virus-associated changes...... should, after initial treatment, be followed-up with increased attention....

  15. A shift from distal to proximal neoplasia in the colon: a decade of polyps and CRC in Italy

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    Panzone Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years a trend towards proximalization of colorectal carcinomas (CRC has been reported. This study aims to evaluate the distribution of CRC and adenomatous polyps (ADP to establish the presence of proximalization and to assess the potential predictors. Methods We retrieved histology reports of colonic specimens excised during colonoscopy, considering the exams performed between 1997 and 2006 at Cuneo Hospital, Italy. We compared the proportion of proximal lesions in the period 1997-2001 and in the period 2002-2006. Results Neoplastic lesions were detected in 3087 people. Proximal CRC moved from 25.9% (1997-2001 to 30.0% (2002-2006. Adjusting for sex and age, the difference was not significant (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 0,95-1,58. The proximal ADP proportion increased from 19.2% (1997-2001 to 26.0% (2002-2006 (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.17-1.89. The corresponding figures for advanced proximal ADP were 6.6% and 9.5% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.02-2.17. Adjusting for gender, age, diagnostic period, symptoms and number of polyps the prevalence of proximal advanced ADP was increased among people ≥ 70 years compared to those aged 55-69 years (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.032.16. The main predictor of proximal advanced neoplasia was the number of polyps detected per exam (> 1 polyp versus 1 polyp: considering all ADP: OR 2.16; 95% CI: 1.59-2.93; considering advanced ADP OR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.08-2.46. Adjusting for these factors, the difference between the two periods was no longer significant. Conclusions CRC do not proximalize while a trend towards a proximal shift in adenomas was observed among people ≥ 70 years.

  16. Association of ABO and Colton Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms With Hematological Traits Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbazi, Shirin; Mashayekhi, Amir; Fatahi, Neda; Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hematological parameters are appraised routinely to determine overall human health and to diagnose and monitor certain diseases. In GWASs, more than 30 loci carrying common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymorphisms have been identified related to hematological traits. In this study, we investigated the contribution of ABO rs2073823 along with AQP1 rs1049305 and rs10244884 polymorphisms in hematological traits variation in a cohort of Iranian healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extra...

  17. Application of genome editing technologies to the study and treatment of hematological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellagatti, Andrea; Dolatshad, Hamid; Yip, Bon Ham; Valletta, Simona; Boultwood, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing technologies have advanced significantly over the past few years, providing a fast and effective tool to precisely manipulate the genome at specific locations. The three commonly used genome editing technologies are Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), and the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. ZFNs and TALENs consist of endonucleases fused to a DNA-binding domain, while the CRISPR/Cas9 system uses guide RNAs to target the bacterial Cas9 endonuclease to the desired genomic location. The double-strand breaks made by these endonucleases are repaired in the cells either by non-homologous end joining, resulting in the introduction of insertions/deletions, or, if a repair template is provided, by homology directed repair. The ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 systems take advantage of these repair mechanisms for targeted genome modification and have been successfully used to manipulate the genome in human cells. These genome editing tools can be used to investigate gene function, to discover new therapeutic targets, and to develop disease models. Moreover, these genome editing technologies have great potential in gene therapy. Here, we review the latest advances in the application of genome editing technology to the study and treatment of hematological disorders.

  18. Hematology of Wild Caught Hoplobatrachus rugulosus in Northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suthirote MEESAWAT; Noppadon KITANA; Jirarach KITANA

    2016-01-01

    The rice field frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus is an important anuran species found in wetlands throughout Thailand. At present, the hematological parameters of wild populations are unknown. Therefore, hematological and morphological characteristics of peripheral blood cells of wild-caught H. rugulosus were examined. Thirty-three adult frogs (17 male and 16 female frogs) were collected from a natural population in Nan Province, northern Thailand during the wet season of 2014. Blood samples were analyzed by packed cell volume (PCV) and blood cell counts from hemocytometer and Giemsa-stained blood smears. The mean PCV of male frogs (30.70% ± 6.07%) was significantly higher than that of the female frogs (25.09% ± 4.85%). The mean number of lymphocytes and neutrophils also showed significant sex-related differences. Moreover, the morphometric analysis of blood cells revealed dimensions as follows:erythrocytes (17.96 ± 1.44 µm length × 11.50 ± 1.09 µm width), immature erythrocytes (14.91 ± 2.20 µm diameter), thrombocytes (13.93 ± 3.14 µm length × 7.05 ± 1.31 µm width), lymphocytes (11.01 ± 2.69 µm diameter), monocytes (12.04 ± 2.40 µm diameter), neutrophils (12.58 ± 2.08 µm diameter), basophils (13.60 ± 2.17 µm diameter) and eosinophils (12.33 ± 2.95 µm diameter). Overall, the hematological parameters obtained in this study could be regarded as the first report and a crucial baseline data of wild H. rugulosus in Thailand that can be used for monitoring the health status of this anuran.

  19. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  20. Colorectal neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis undergoing liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristin Kaasen; Lindström, Lina; Cvancarova, Milada

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies have implicated primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) as an additional risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Some reports have indicated that the risk is even higher in PSC-IBD patients after liver transplantation (Ltx), but this issue...

  1. 3-GROUP METAPHASE AS A MORPHOLOGIC CRITERION OF PROGRESSIVE CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOURITS, MJE; PIETERS, WJLM; HOLLEMA, H; BURGER, MPM

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to investigate the presence of three-group metaphase in progressive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective histologic study on the conization specimens of 41 women with microinvasive cervical carcinoma, 28 of whom were enrol

  2. Von Hippel-Lindau Disease : Genetics and role of genetic counseling in a multiple neoplasia syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Sarah M; Rhodes, Lindsay; Blanco, Ignacio; Chung, Wendy K; Eng, Charis; Maher, Eamonn R; Richard, Stéphane; Giles, Rachel H

    2016-01-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is one of the most common inherited neoplasia syndromes and is characterized by highly vascular tumors of the eyes, brain, and spine, as well as benign and malignant tumors and/or cysts of the kidneys, adrenal medullae and sympathetic paraganglia, endolymphatic sac, e

  3. Adult Immunohistochemical Markers Fail to Detect Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Prepubertal Boys with Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina;

    2014-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. The condition is characterized by large germ cells with large nuclei with a hyperchromatic, coarse chromatin pattern, large prominent nucleoli and abundant pale cytoplasm. In prepubertal boys these cells are located c...

  4. Discovery of new methylation markers to improve screening for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, A; Wang, R; van Leeuwen, R W; Klip, H G; de Bock, G H; Hollema, H; van Criekinge, W; de Meyer, T; Denil, S; van der Zee, A G J; Schuuring, E; Wisman, G B A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of DNA promoter methylation markers in cervical scrapings for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer is feasible, but finding methylation markers with both high sensitivity as well as high specificity remains a challenge. In this study, w

  5. A hypothesis to relate salivary tumors with mammary and prostate neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Adriana B

    2005-04-21

    Salivary, mammary and prostate glands are sex hormone-dependent organs sharing common aspects in structure, hormonal responsiveness and tumor histopathology. Salivary tumors (especially the malignant types) are not as frequent as mammary and prostate neoplasias. Hence, prognosis of some salivary tumors is not always efficient. Here, we review the oncology of salivary gland and its putative relation to breast/prostate tumors.

  6. Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of endocrine and neuroendocrine neoplasias. This summary contains information about the MEN1 gene, the RET gene, genetic testing, and clinical interventions. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have a hereditary medullary thyroid cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  7. A rare presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN type 2A syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elroy Patrick Weledji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer disease may be a manifestation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. A case of an intractable complicated peptic ulcer disease secondary to hypercalcaemia from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A is presented. Hypercalcaemia should always be excluded as a cause of recurrent, or complicated peptic ulcer disease.

  8. Pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia in testicular dysgenesis and disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    in individuals with 46,XY DSD. We summarise knowledge concerning development and sex differentiation of human gonads, with focus on sex-dimorphic steps of germ cell maturation, including meiosis. We also briefly outline the histopathology of germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) and gonadoblastoma (GDB), which...

  9. Linear regression of postevacuation serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations predicts postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lybol, C.; Sweep, F.C.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) follow-up after evacuation of hydatidiform moles is essential to identify patients requiring chemotherapeutic treatment for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). We propose a model based on linear regression of postevacuation serum hCG co

  10. New insights into inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, F.D.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes new insights into the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD: ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD)) and IBD-associated neoplasia. In the first part, the value of serological markers as predictors of IBD was investigated in a large European cohort of individua

  11. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srigley, J.R.; Delahunt, B.; Eble, J.N.; Egevad, L.; Epstein, J.I.; Grignon, D.; Hes, O.; Moch, H.; Montironi, R.; Tickoo, S.K.; Zhou, M.; Argani, P.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The classification working group of the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference on renal neoplasia was in charge of making recommendations regarding additions and changes to the current World Health Organization Classification of Renal Tumors (2004). Members of the group p

  12. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Burn (John); D.T. Bishop (David Timothy); J.-P. Mecklin (Jukka-Pekka); F.A. Macrae (Finlay); G. Möslein (Gabriela); S. Olschwang (Sylviane); M.-L. Bisgaard (Marie-Luise); R.S. Ramesar (Rajkumar); D. Eccles (Diana); E.R. Maher (Eamonn); L. Bertario (Lucio); H.J. Jarvinen (Heikki); A. Lindblom (Annika); D.G. Evans (Gareth); J. Lubinski (Jan); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); J.W.C. Ho (Judy); H. Vasen (Hans); L. Side (Lucy); H.J.W. Thomas (Huw ); R.J. Scott (Rodney); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); G. Barker (Gail); F. Elliott (Faye); J.R. Jass (Jeremy ); R. Fodde (Riccardo); H. Lynch (Henry); J.C. Mathers (John )

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplas

  13. Detection of cervical neoplasia by DNA methylation analysis in cervico-vaginal lavages, a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsink, J. J. H.; Yang, N.; Lendvai, A.; Klip, H. G.; Volders, H. H.; Buikema, H. J.; van Hemel, B. M.; Voll, M.; Bennink, H. J. T. Coelingh; Schuuring, E.; Wisman, G. B. A.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To explore the feasibility of DNA methylation analysis for the detection of cervical neoplasia in self-obtained cervico-vaginal lavages. Methods. Lavages collected by a self-sampling device and paired cervical scrapings were obtained from 20 cervical cancer patients and 23 patients referr

  14. Natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia : a review of prognostic biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, Margot M.; Kruitwagen, Roy F. P. M.; Nijman, Hans W.; Slangen, Brigitte F. M.; Van Gorp, Toon; Kruse, Arnold-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is largely unpredictable and current histopathological examination is unable to differentiate between lesions that will regress and those that will not. Therefore, most high-grade lesions are currently treated by surgical exc

  15. Surgical approach in patients with hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: total versus partial parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, primary hyperparathyroidism is the first endocrinopathy to be diagnosed in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and is also the most common one. The timing of the surgery and strategy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1/hyperparathyroidism are still under debate. The aims of surgery are to: 1 correct hypercalcemia, thus preventing persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism; 2 avoid persistent hypoparathyroidism; and 3 facilitate the surgical treatment of possible recurrences. Currently, two types of surgical approach are indicated: 1 subtotal parathyroidectomy with removal of at least 3-3 K glands; and 2 total parathyroidectomy with grafting of autologous parathyroid tissue. Transcervical thymectomy must be performed with both of these procedures. Unsuccessful surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism is more frequently observed in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in sporadic hyperparathyroidism. The recurrence rate is strongly influenced by: 1 the lack of a pre-operative multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis; 2 the surgeon's experience; 3 the timing of surgery; 4 the possibility of performing intra-operative confirmation (histologic examination, rapid parathyroid hormone assay of the curative potential of the surgical procedure; and, 5 the surgical strategy. Persistent hyperparathyroidism seems to be more frequent after subtotal parathyroidectomy than after total parathyroidectomy with autologous graft of parathyroid tissue. Conversely, recurrent hyperparathyroidism has a similar frequency in the two surgical strategies. To plan further operations, it is very helpful to know all the available data about previous surgery and to undertake accurate identification of the site of recurrence.

  16. Post-surgical follow-up of primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia L. Coutinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density increments in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy have been studied by several investigators, but few have investigated this topic in primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Further, as far as we know, only two studies have consistently evaluated bone mineral density values after parathyroidectomy in cases of primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Here we revised the impact of parathyroidectomy (particularly total parathyroidectomy followed by autologous parathyroid implant into the forearm on bone mineral density values in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Significant increases in bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck values were found, although no short-term (15 months improvement in bone mineral density at the proximal third of the distal radius was observed. Additionally, short-term and medium-term calcium and parathyroid hormone values after parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are discussed. In most cases, this surgical approach was able to restore normal calcium/parathyroid hormone levels and ultimately lead to discontinuation of calcium and calcitriol supplementation.

  17. Frequencies and role of regulatory T cells in patients with (pre)malignant cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Nijman, H. W.; Hoogenboom, B.-N.; Jager, P.; van Baarle, D.; Schuuring, E.; Abdulahad, W.; Miedema, F.; van der Zee, A. G.; Daemen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV)-infection is crucial for developing cervical cancer and its precursor lesions [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)]. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) might be involved in the failure of the immune system to control the development of HPV-induced cancer. We invest

  18. The pathophysiologic role of VEGF in hematologic malignancies: therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Klaus; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2005-02-15

    Besides its role as an essential regulator of physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers growth, survival, and migration of leukemia and multiple myeloma cells; plays a pivotal role in hematopoiesis; inhibits maturation of dendritic cells; and increases osteoclastic bone-resorbing activity as well as osteoclast chemotaxis. Dysregulation of VEGF expression and signaling pathways therefore plays an important role in the pathogenesis and clinical features of hematologic malignancies, in particular multiple myeloma. Direct and indirect targeting of VEGF and its receptors therefore may provide a potent novel therapeutic approach to overcome resistance to therapies and thereby improve patient outcome.

  19. Hematology and immunology studies - The second manned Skylab mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Johnson, P. C.; Ritzman, S. E.; Mengel, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    The hematologic and immunologic functions of the Skylab 3 astronauts were monitored during the preflight, inflight, and postflight phases of the mission. Plasma protein profiles showed high consistency in all phases. A transient suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness was observed postflight. A reduction in the circulating blood volume due to drops in both the plasma volume and red cell mass was found. The loss of red cell mass is most likely a suppressed erythrypoiesis. The functional integrity of the circulating red cells did not appear to be compromised in the course of flight.

  20. Prostaglandin E2-induced colonic secretion in patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Steen S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis for colorectal cancer remains unresolved. A growing body of evidence suggests a direct correlation between cyclooxygenase enzyme expression, prostaglandin E2 metabolism and neoplastic development. Thus further understanding of the regulation of epithelial functions by prostaglandin E2 is needed. We hypothesized that patients with colonic neoplasia have altered colonic epithelial ion transport and express functionally different prostanoid receptor levels in this respect. Methods Patients referred for colonoscopy were included and grouped into patients with and without colorectal neoplasia. Patients without endoscopic findings of neoplasia served as controls. Biopsy specimens were obtained from normally appearing mucosa in the sigmoid part of colon. Biopsies were mounted in miniaturized modified Ussing air-suction chambers. Indomethacin (10 μM, various stimulators and inhibitors of prostanoid receptors and ion transport were subsequently added to the chamber solutions. Electrogenic ion transport parameters (short circuit current and slope conductance were recorded. Tissue pathology and tissue damage before and after experiments was assessed by histology. Results Baseline short circuit current and slope conductance did not differ between the two groups. Patients with neoplasia were significantly more sensitive to indomethacin with a decrease in short circuit current of 15.1 ± 2.6 μA·cm-2 compared to controls, who showed a decrease of 10.5 ± 2.1 μA·cm-2 (p = 0.027. Stimulation or inhibition with theophylline, ouabain, bumetanide, forskolin or the EP receptor agonists prostaglandin E2, butaprost, sulprostone and prostaglandin E1 (OH did not differ significantly between the two groups. Histology was with normal findings in both groups. Conclusions Epithelial electrogenic transport is more sensitive to indomethacin in normal colonic mucosa from patients with previous or present colorectal neoplasia compared

  1. Dolor en hematología clínica Pain in clinical hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Aguilar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión es una puesta al día acerca del tratamiento del dolor así como los cuidados paliativos aplicables a pacientes con patología hematológica, oncológica o no. En hematología hay diversas entidades nosológicas y causas que pueden requerir alivio del dolor u otros síntomas molestos para el paciente. Generalmente, se admite que sólo un 5% de los pacientes afectados de enfermedad hematológica maligna presenta cuadros de dolor, mientras que en otros tipos de cáncer (pulmón, próstata y mama que cursan, con frecuencia, con metástasis ósea el porcentaje llega al 70-80% de los pacientes. El dolor puede venir motivado por la propia enfermedad, por infiltración leucémica o mielomatosa, destrucción ósea (75-80%, por los tratamientos empleados (15-19%, mucositis en neutropénicos, posmetotrexato, talidomida (parestesias, bortezomib (Velcade®, imatinib (Glivec®, trasplante de médula ósea, neurotoxicidad de citostáticos (vincristina, cisplatino y radioterapia. El dolor no tiene relación con el cáncer en un 3-5% de casos (debilidad muscular y mialgia, úlceras por decúbito, neuralgia postherpética, procedimientos diagnósticos, etc.. Clásicamente la drepanocitosis, que no es una enfermedad prevalente en España, se encuentra entre las enfermedades hematológicas benignas que producen crisis de dolor. En nuestra experiencia, 10 años después de nuestra primera revisión sobre el tema, el porcentaje de enfermos hematológicos que requieren atención específica al problema del "dolor" (entendido como "dolor total" la afectación de tipo físico, emocional, espiritual, social, laboral, familiar, etc. se puede incrementar si englobamos no sólo a los pacientes con dolor, sino también a aquellos con síntomas más o menos desagradables durante el curso de su enfermedad. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS estima que se producen 9 millones de casos nuevos de cáncer cada año, 6,7 millones de

  2. Quality audit of colonoscopy reports amongst patients screened or surveilled for colorectal neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daphnée Beaulieu; Alan Barkun; Myriam Martel

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To complete a quality audit using recently published criteria from the Quality Assurance Task Group of the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable.METHtODS:Consecutive colonoscopy reports of patients at average/high risk screening,or with a prior colorectal neoplasia (CRN) by endoscopists who perform 11 000 procedures yearly,using a commercial computerized endoscopic report generator.A separate institutional database providing pathological results.Required documentation included patient demographics,history,procedure indications,technical descriptions,colonoscopy findings,interventions,unplanned events,follow-up plans,and pathology results.Reports abstraction employed a standardized glossary with 10% independent data validation.Sample size calculations determined the number of reports needed.RESULTS:Two hundreds and fifty patients (63.2 ±10.5 years,female:42.8%,average risk:38.5%,personal/family history of CRN:43.3%/20.2%) were scoped in June 2009 by 8 gastroenterologists and 3 surgeons (mean practice:17.1 ± 8.5 years).Procedural indication and informed consent were always documented.14% provided a previous colonoscopy date (past polypremoval information in 25%,but insufficient in most to determine surveillance intervals appropriateness).Most procedural indicators were recorded (exam date:98.4%,medications:99.2%,difficulty level:98.8%,prep quality:99.6%).All reports noted extent of visualization (cecum:94.4%,with landmarks noted in 78.8%-photodocumentation:67.2%).No procedural times were recorded.One hundred and eleven had polyps (44.4%) with anatomic location noted in 99.1%,size in 65.8%,morphology in 62.2%; removal was by cold biopsy in 25.2% (cold snare:18%,snare cautery:31.5%,unrecorded:20.7%),84.7% were retrieved.Adenomas were noted in 24.8%(advanced adenomas:7.6%,cancer:0.4%) in this population with varying previous colonic investigations.CONCLUSION:This audit reveals lacking reported items

  3. Alterations in the ribosomal machinery in cancer and hematologic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy Niraj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ribosomes are essential components of the protein translation machinery and are composed of more than 80 unique large and small ribosomal proteins. Recent studies show that in addition to their roles in protein translation, ribosomal proteins are also involved in extra-ribosomal functions of DNA repair, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis. Consequently, alterations in the synthesis or functioning of ribosomal proteins can lead to various hematologic disorders. These include congenital anemias such as Diamond Blackfan anemia and Shwachman Diamond syndrome; both of which are associated with mutations in various ribosomal genes. Acquired uniallelic deletion of RPS14 gene has also been shown to lead to the 5q syndrome, a distinct subset of MDS associated with macrocytic anemia. Recent evidence shows that specific ribosomal proteins are overexpressed in liver, colon, prostate and other tumors. Ribosomal protein overexpression can promote tumorigenesis by interactions with the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and also by direct effects on various oncogenes. These data point to a broad role of ribosome protein alterations in hematologic and oncologic diseases.

  4. Orofacial manifestations of hematological disorders: Anemia and hemostatic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilope A Adeyemo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the literature and identify orofacial manifestations of hematological diseases, with particular reference to anemias and disorders of hemostasis. A computerized literature search using MEDLINE was conducted for published articles on orofacial manifestations of hematological diseases, with emphasis on anemia. Mesh phrases used in the search were: oral diseases AND anaemia; orofacial diseases AND anaemia; orofacial lesions AND anaemia; orofacial manifestations AND disorders of haemostasis. The Boolean operator "AND" was used to combine and narrow the searches. Anemic disorders associated with orofacial signs and symptoms include iron deficiency anemia, Plummer-Vinson syndrome, megaloblastic anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassaemia and aplastic anemia. The manifestations include conjunctiva and facial pallor, atrophic glossitis, angular stomatitis, dysphagia, magenta tongue, midfacial overgrowth, osteoclerosis, osteomyelitis and paraesthesia/anesthesia of the mental nerve. Orofacial petechiae, conjunctivae hemorrhage, nose-bleeding, spontaneous and post-traumatic gingival hemorrhage and prolonged post-extraction bleeding are common orofacial manifestations of inherited hemostatic disorders such as von Willebrand′s disease and hemophilia. A wide array of anemic and hemostatic disorders encountered in internal medicine has manifestations in the oral cavity and the facial region. Most of these manifestations are non-specific, but should alert the hematologist and the dental surgeon to the possibilities of a concurrent disease of hemopoiesis or hemostasis or a latent one that may subsequently manifest itself.

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms in the initiation of hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maleki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer development is not restricted to the genetic changes, but also to epigenetic changes. Epigenetic processes are very important in the development of hematological malignancies. The main epigenetic alterations are aberrations in DNA methylation, post-translational modifications of histones, chromatin remodeling and microRNAs patterns, and these are associated with tumor genesis. All the various cellular pathways contributing to the neoplastic phenotype are affected by epigenetic genes in cancer. These pathways can be explored as biomarkers in clinical use for early detection of disease, malignancy classification and response to treatment with classical chemotherapy agents and epigenetic drugs. Materials and Method: A literature review was performed using PUBMED from 1985 to 2008. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also reviewed.Results: In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, regional hypermethylation of gene promoters leads to gene silencing. Many of these genes have tumor suppressor phenotypes. In myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, CDKN2B (alias, P15, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that negatively regulates the cell cycle, has been shown to be hypermethylated in marrow stem (CD34+ cells in patients with MDS. At present both Vidaza and Decitabine (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors are approved for the treatment of MDS.Conclusion: Unlike mutations or deletions, DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation are potentially reversible by pharmacological inhibition, therefore those epigenetic changes have been recognized as promising novel therapeutic targets in hematopoietic malignances. In this review, we discussed molecular mechanisms of epigenetics, epigenetic changes in hematological malignancies and epigenetic based treatments

  6. Notch signaling: its roles and therapeutic potential in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yisu; Masiero, Massimo; Banham, Alison H

    2016-05-17

    Notch is a highly conserved signaling system that allows neighboring cells to communicate, thereby controlling their differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, with the outcome of its activation being highly dependent on signal strength and cell type. As such, there is growing evidence that disturbances in physiological Notch signaling contribute to cancer development and growth through various mechanisms. Notch was first reported to contribute to tumorigenesis in the early 90s, through identification of the involvement of the Notch1 gene in the chromosomal translocation t(7;9)(q34;q34.3), found in a small subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Since then, Notch mutations and aberrant Notch signaling have been reported in numerous other precursor and mature hematological malignancies, of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, as well as many epithelial tumor types. Of note, Notch has been reported to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles, dependent on the cancer cell type. In this review, we will first give a general description of the Notch signaling pathway, and its physiologic role in hematopoiesis. Next, we will review the role of aberrant Notch signaling in several hematological malignancies. Finally, we will discuss current and potential future therapeutic approaches targeting this pathway.

  7. RET gene mutations (genotype and phenotype) of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampitz, Geoffrey W; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2014-07-01

    The rapid technical advances in molecular biology and accelerating improvements in genomic and proteomic diagnostics have led to increasingly personalized strategies for cancer therapy. Such an approach integrates the genomic, proteomic, and molecular information unique to the individual to provide an accurate genetic diagnosis, molecular risk assessment, informed family counseling, therapeutic profiling, and early preventative management that best fits the particular needs of each patient. The discovery of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene resulting in variable onset and severity of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) was the first step in developing direct genetic testing for at-risk individuals. Patients with germline RET mutations may undergo risk assessment and appropriate intervention based on specific mutations. Moreover, family members of affected individuals receive counseling based on understanding of the genetic transmission of the disease. Increasingly, clinicians are able to make therapeutic choices guided by an informative biomarker code. Improvements in detection and management of patients with MEN2 resulting from understanding of the RET proto-oncogene are evidence of the benefits of personalized cancer medicine. This review describes the discovery of the RET proto-oncogene, the association between genotype and phenotype, and the role of mutation analysis on diagnosis and treatment of MEN2.

  8. Disseminated neoplasia in flat oysters Ostrea edulis from Galicia (NW Spain): occurrence, ultrastructural aspects and relationship with bonamiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Fuentes, José; Villalba, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Disseminated neoplasia (DN) was one of the most important pathological conditions found in cultured flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) from different geographical origins grow in Galicia (NW Spain), during a two years selective breeding programme to produce oysters less susceptible to bonamiosis. Histological characteristics observed in oysters affected by DN included intense infiltration of connective tissue of various organs (gills, stomach, digestive gland and gonad) by large undifferentiated cells, with a large nucleus and a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. The main ultrastructural features were predominance of euchromatin over heterochromatin that was arrayed in small clumps in the nucleus, prominent granular nucleolus, swollen mitochondria with few cristae and high number of free ribosomes in the cytoplasm. A seasonal pattern of DN prevalence was detected, with higher values in spring-summer, but there were no significant differences between geographic origins or families within these origins. However, the intensity of the disease was significantly different between origins; oysters originating outside of Galicia (particularly those originating from Ireland) were more susceptible to develop advanced DN. DN (8%) and bonamiosis (4.9%) were found concurrently in oysters. The nature and significance of this association warrants more investigation to determine its importance, if any.

  9. Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Young People. When Should We Perform Genetic Testing for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 1 (MEN-1)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Friis-Hansen, Lennart Jan; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-1) is a rare, autosomal dominant inherited disorder. Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is the most frequent and usually the earliest expression of MEN-1, with typical age of onset at 20-25 years. Early detection of the disease and correct treatment...... endocrine neoplasia 1 OR multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 AND Mutational analysis OR genetic testing OR testing OR Hyperparathyroidism, primary [majr]. A total of 625 abstracts were reviewed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Whether to perform screening of patients with pHPT under the age of 30, 35, or 40 years...

  10. Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami AA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Akinsegun A Akinbami,1 Sarah O Ajibola,2 Kabiru A Rabiu,3 Adeniyi A Adewunmi,3 Adedoyin O Dosunmu,1 Adewumi Adediran,4 Vincent O Osunkalu,4 Bodunrin I Osikomaiya,5 Kamal A Ismail,51Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, 2Department of Haematology and Blood, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, 4Department of Haematology and Blood, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, 5Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: Hematological profile is considered one of the factors affecting pregnancy and its outcome. Anemia is the most common hematological problem in pregnancy, followed by thrombocytopenia. Leukocytosis is almost always associated with pregnancy. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the overall mean values of seven major hematological parameters and their mean values at different trimesters of pregnancy.Subjects and methods: This examination was a cross-sectional study of 274 pregnant women who registered to attend the Lagos University Teaching Hospital or Lagos State University Teaching Hospital antenatal clinics between their first and third trimester. Blood (4.5 mL was collected from each participant into a tube containing the anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. A full blood count was performed on each sample and the results were analyzed.Results: Overall, the values obtained were (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: hematocrit level, 30.16% ± 5.55%; hemoglobin concentration, 10.94 ± 1.86 g/dL; white blood cells, 7.81 ± 2.34 × 109; platelets, 228.29 ± 65.6 × 109; cell volume 78.30 ± 5.70 fL, corpuscular hemoglobin, 28.57 ± 2.48 pg; and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, 36.45 ± 1.10 g/dL. When grouped by trimester, the mean ± SD value of packed cell volume

  11. Risk factors affecting the Barrett'smetaplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Advances in stents design have led to a substantialincrease in the use of stents for a variety of digestivediseases. Initially developed as a non-surgical treatmentfor palliation of esophageal cancer, the stents nowhave an emerging role in the management of malignantand benign conditions as well as in all segments of thegastrointestinaltract. In this review, relevant literaturesearch and expert opinions have been used to evaluatethe key-role of stenting in gastrointestinal benign andmalignant diseases.

  12. Large scale copy number variation (CNV at 14q12 is associated with the presence of genomic abnormalities in neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turley Stefanie

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances made in the area of microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH have enabled the interrogation of the entire genome at a previously unattainable resolution. This has lead to the discovery of a novel class of alternative entities called large-scale copy number variations (CNVs. These CNVs are often found in regions of closely linked sequence homology called duplicons that are thought to facilitate genomic rearrangements in some classes of neoplasia. Recently, it was proposed that duplicons located near the recurrent translocation break points on chromosomes 9 and 22 in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML may facilitate this tumor-specific translocation. Furthermore, ~15–20% of CML patients also carry a microdeletion on the derivative 9 chromosome (der(9 and these patients have a poor prognosis. It has been hypothesised that der(9 deletion patients have increased levels of chromosomal instability. Results In this study aCGH was performed and identified a CNV (RP11-125A5, hereafter called CNV14q12 that was present as a genomic gain or loss in 10% of control DNA samples derived from cytogenetically normal individuals. CNV14q12 was the same clone identified by Iafrate et al. as a CNV. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR was used to determine the relative frequency of this CNV in DNA from a series of 16 CML patients (both with and without a der(9 deletion together with DNA derived from 36 paediatric solid tumors in comparison to the incidence of CNV in control DNA. CNV14q12 was present in ~50% of both tumor and CML DNA, but was found in 72% of CML bearing a der(9 microdeletion. Chi square analysis found a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.001 between the incidence of this CNV in cancer and normal DNA and a slightly increased incidence in CML with deletions in comparison to those CML without a detectable deletion. Conclusion The increased incidence of CNV14q12 in tumor samples suggests that either

  13. Certain new progresses in experimental hematology in China and more queries on mesenchymal stem cell research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐佩弦

    2004-01-01

    @@ Since 1995 stem cell engineering and allied biological study in China has been developing more quickly, particularly in the field of experimental and clinical hematology. Some articles presented in this issue are mainly related to stem cell biology and immuno-hematology, particularly the immuno-mechanism in pathogenesis of blood diseases, immunotherapy for malignant blood diseases as well as novel methodology in laboratory.

  14. Hematopoietic reconstitution on the prognosis of hematological malignancies after allogenceic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the impact of the time to hematopoietic reconstitution on the prognosis of hematological malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(allo-HSCT) . Methods 173 patients with hematological malignancies treated with allo-HSCT (excluding umbilical cord blood transplantation)

  15. Trends in hematological cancer in the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocias, Lukas F; Larsen, Thomas S; Vestergaard, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of hematological malignancies is expected to increase as the Danish population ages within the next few decades. Despite this, data on the course of hematological cancers among the oldest patients are sparse with many intervention studies focusing on younger age groups. The...

  16. The outcome of thirteen patients with nonmalignant hematologic diseases treated with HLA haploidentical stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶媛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of human leukocyte antigen(HLA)haploidentical stem cell transplantation in nonmalignant hematologic diseases.Methods To analyze the outcome of 13 patients with nonmalignant hematologic diseases who underwent HLA haploidentical stem cell transplantation from September

  17. Hematologic patients' clinical and psychosocial experiences with implanted long-term central venous catheter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Adamsen, Lis

    2010-01-01

    A significant decrease in catheter-related infections was demonstrated in our earlier randomized controlled trial of central venous catheter (CVC) care in hematologic patients.......A significant decrease in catheter-related infections was demonstrated in our earlier randomized controlled trial of central venous catheter (CVC) care in hematologic patients....

  18. Chemotherapy near the end of life; assessment of the clinical practise in onco-hematological in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Taberner Bonastre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: ensure a good quality of life in the last phase of onco- hematological patients should be the primary goal, despite this, we have little data at European level and published studies are contradictory. Nevertheless, most of them agree saying that administrating chemotherapy near the end of life impacts negatively in the patients quality of life. The main objective of this study is to analyze the treatment non-aggressiveness parameters in onco-hematological patients. The secondary objective is to do a describing study of the clinical variables of the patients who receive chemotherapy at the end of life and the treatments more used. Methods: a retrospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Both, oncological and hematological patients receiving chemotherapy (oral or intravenous between January and December 2013 who were receiving chemotherapy in the last 90 days before death, were included. Results: there were 823 patients that were threated between January and December of 2013. Of these 106 (13% met the inclusion criteria to be analyzed. There were a 14.1% (n = 93 of oncological and a 8.4% (n = 13 of hematologic patients that maintained the antineoplasic treatment during the last three months before death. A 21.7% (n = 23 of the patients received chemotherapy in the last two weeks of life, 41.5% (n = 44 in the last 30 days and 78.3% (n = 83 in the last two months of life. There was a 67.9% (n = 72 of patients that had hospital admissions during their last three months of life, 47,2% (n = 50 during the last month, 33% (n = 35 during the last two weeks and 10,4% (n = 11 during the last three days of life. A 25,5% (n = 27 of patients had more than one hospital admission during their last 90 days. Conclusions: according to the Earle et al. criteria, our population had been treated aggressively. We need more scientific evidence with consolidate date that allows us to establish a unified criteria for the selection of

  19. Association of the blood eosinophil count with hematological malignancies and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen L; Siersma, Volkert D; Hasselbalch, Hans C;

    2015-01-01

    Blood eosinophilia (≥0.5x10(9) /l) may be an early sign of hematological malignancy. We investigated associations between levels of blood eosinophils and risks of hematological malignancies and mortality in order to provide clinically derived cut-offs for referral to specialist hematology care....... From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356,196 individuals with at least one differential cell count encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007 and matched these laboratory data with Danish nationwide health registers. We used multivariable...... logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the 4-year incidences of hematological malignancies and mortality between the eosinophil counts and a reference count of 0.16x10(9) /l which was the median eosinophil count in our data. Risks of hematological malignancies and mortality increased above...

  20. Changes in Hematology and Calcium Metabolism After Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Dorte; Madsbad, Sten; Kristiansen, Viggo B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concerns regarding nutritional deficiencies have recently emerged after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: A total of 835 subjects underwent RYGB, age 43.3 years, body mass index (BMI) 47.2 kg/m(2). Hematological and calcium metabolic variables were measured before, 6, 12, and 24...... decreased from before surgery to month 24 for both men (9.3 ± 0.05 vs. 8.3 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p anemia was present in 25.8 % of women and 22.1 % of men. Predictors of anemia in both sexes were baseline hemoglobin (p ... sexes (p anemia, which especially affected premenopausal women. More attention should...

  1. Gene editing and its application for hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Mark J; Belanto, Joseph J; Tolar, Jakub; Voytas, Daniel F

    2016-07-01

    The use of precise, rationally designed gene-editing nucleases allows for targeted genome and transcriptome modification, and at present, four major classes of nucleases are being employed: zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), meganucleases (MNs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9. Each reagent shares the ability to recognize and bind a target sequence of DNA. Depending on the properties of the reagent, the DNA can be cleaved on one or both strands, or epigenetic changes can be mediated. These novel properties can impact hematological disease by allowing for: (1) direct modification of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), (2) gene alteration of hematopoietic lineage committed terminal effectors, (3) genome engineering in non-hematopoietic cells with reprogramming to a hematopoietic phenotype, and (4) transcriptome modulation for gene regulation, modeling, and discovery.

  2. Molecular functions of metallothionein and its role in hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Shinichiro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metallothionein (MT was reported to be a potential negative regulator of apoptosis, and various reports have suggested that it may play roles in carcinogenesis and drug resistance, in at least a portion of cancer cells. The author summarizes the current understanding of the molecular functions of MT for tumor cell growth and drug resistance. These activities are regulated through intracellular metal ion modulation and free radical scavenging. Compared with analyses of solid tumors, few studies have analyzed the roles of MT in hematological malignancies. This review mainly describes the functions of MT in hematopoietic cells. Furthermore, through expression analyses of leukemias and lymphomas, the roles of MT in the biology of these diseases are particularly focused upon.

  3. Information transfer by exosomes: A new frontier in hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyiadzis, Michael; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2015-09-01

    Exosomes are small (30-150 mm) vesicles secreted by all cell types and present in all body fluids. They are emerging as vehicles for delivery of membrane-tethered signaling molecules and membrane enclosed genes to target cells. Exosome-mediated information transfer allows for crosstalk of cells within the hematopoietic system and for interactions between hematopoietic cells and local or distant tissue cells. Exosomes carry physiological signals essential for health and participate in pathological processes, including malignant transformation. In hematologic malignancies, exosomes reprogram the bone marrow microenvironment, creating a niche for abnormal cells and favoring their expansion. The molecular and genetic mechanisms exosomes utilize to shuttle information between cells are currently being examined as are the potential roles exosomes play as biomarkers of disease or future therapeutic targets.

  4. Splenectomy for hematologic disease. The UCLA experience with 306 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, G; Lazar, G; Hocking, W; Busuttil, R W

    1984-07-01

    Between 1956 and 1981, 306 splenectomies for hematologic diseases were performed at the UCLA Medical Center. Of these operations, more than 75% were performed for therapeutic reasons to control anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, or painful symptoms of splenomegaly. Of the 65 patients who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, 77% showed an excellent response, and of the 39 patients who had hereditary spherocytosis, 90% responded. Other diseases with predictably good response rates were autoimmune hemolytic anemias, Felty's syndrome, and hairy cell leukemia. Forty patients with Hodgkin's disease had splenectomies for diagnostic purposes the last 10 years. The overall morbidity and mortality were 24% and 6%, respectively, the most common complications being pneumonia, wound infections, and local postoperative bleeding, and the most common cause of death being sepsis. The review supports the thesis that in carefully selected patients, therapeutic splenectomy can have desirable palliative effects and that diagnostic splenectomy has a sufficiently low risk to warrant its consideration in patients with Hodgkin's disease.

  5. Overview of pediatric oncology and hematology in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Halbert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar is a country in southeast Asia in political, economic and healthcare transition. There are currently only two pediatric oncology centers serving a population of almost 19 million children. An estimated 85-92% of children with cancer are undiagnosed or not receiving treatment. Abandonment of treatment is as high as 60%. Although a number of chemotherapy agents are available, difficulties remain concerning treatment costs, quality control and the availability of supportive care. Radiotherapy services are also limited and not usually included in pediatric protocols. Healthcare professional training, improved diagnostics, strategies to tackle abandonment of treatment and the development of a parents′ support group are major priorities. Local and international partnerships including a recent partnership with world child cancer are essential in the interim to support the development of pediatric oncology and hematology in Myanmar. A unique opportunity exists to support the development of preventive, diagnostic, curative and palliative care for children′s cancer in Myanmar from the outset.

  6. Relapsing Fever: Diagnosis Thanks to a Vigilant Hematology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Inbal; Tarabin, Salman; Kafka, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Three cases of relapsing fever from southern Israel were diagnosed promptly thanks to vigilance of the hematology laboratory technicians. In this region of Israel, patients presenting with prolonged fever and leukopenia without localizing symptoms are generally suspected of having brucellosis or a rickettsial disease. Pediatric patients with prolonged fever, cytopenias, and negative aforementioned serologies are often hospitalized for further work-up. Because of the policy of performing a manual blood smear when results of the automated blood count demonstrate severe anemia and abnormal platelet and/or white blood cell counts, a diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever was confirmed and promptly relayed to the physician. This routine prevented unnecessary examinations and hospitalization days and provided important information to regional epidemiology and public health authorities.

  7. Nursing safety management in onco-hematology pediatric wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Miranda da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying how safety management is applied by nurses to manage the nursing care, and at analyzing their challenges in onco-hematology pediatric wards. Descriptive and qualitative research, conducted at the Instituto Estadual de Hematologia Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in August 2013. Six nurses were interviewed, and the content analysis was used. The key aspects relate to the importance of training and continuing education, teamwork, with the challenges in the care of hospitalized children and particularities of the disease, and the systematization, use of instruments and protocols. For child safety, the relationship between the administration and support is critical to the quality of care.

  8. Laparoscopic splenectomy in children with benign hematological diseases: Leaving nothing behind policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharieb Khirallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is considered the standard approach for the treatment of children with nonmalignant hematological diseases due to the advances in the minimal invasive surgery over the conventional splenectomy (CS. Different techniques are involved in the operation to secure the hilum. Aim: The use of (Ligasure™ is a safe, effective, less time consuming and with less complications rate. Materials and Methods: Sixty children (33 with thalassemia, 20 with immune thrombocytopenic purpura [ITP] and seven with spherocytosis were operated during the period from June 2007 to December 2014. These children had undergone LS using (Ligasure™. Three ports were used in small-sized spleens while four ports were used in large spleens. Results: There were 60 children (37 girls and 23 boys with a mean age of 10.2 years had LS using Ligasure™ with mean operative time of 85 min for cases of ITP and 120 min for other cases. There was no mortality. Two cases were converted to CS. Conclusions: Use of Ligasure™ alone was safe, less time consuming with less complications rates.

  9. Patients with hematological disorders requiring admission to medical intensive care unit: Characteristics, survival and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash H

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This retrospective chart review assessed the characteristics and outcome of patients with hematological disorders who required admission to medical intensive care unit over a 4 year period (January 1998 to December 2001. Results: There were a total of 104 patients, 67 (64% male, 37 (36% female subjects, with a mean age of 36.3 ± 15.3 years (range 10 to 65 years. The mean duration from hospital admission to ICU transfer was 11 days. Sixty-nine (66% had malignant and 35 (34% had non-malignant conditions. Respiratory distress was the commonest reason for ICU admission 58 (56%. The other indications were hemodynamic instability 38 (36%, low sensorium 22 (21%, following cardio-pulmonary arrest 12 (11.5% and generalized tonic-clonic seizures 5 (5%. Forty-three (42% patients had absolute neutophil count (ANC less than 500, 48 (47.5% had platelet count < 20000. The mean duration of ICU stay was 4 days (range < 24 hours to 28 days. Sixty-nine (66% patients required mechanical ventilation, 61 (59% required hemodynamic support. Pneumonia or sepsis was diagnosed in 71 (68%. Twenty-five (24% survived ICU stay and 20 (19% survived to hospital discharge. ICU admission following cardio-pulmonary arrest, advanced malignancy, requirement of mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support, ANC count < 500 and platelet count < 20000 were the predictors of adverse outcome. Associated organ dysfunction further increases the mortality.

  10. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells as a promising innovative tool for immunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Meraviglia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The potent anti-tumor activities of γδ T cells, their ability to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, and their strong cytolytic activity have prompted the development of protocols in which γδ agonists or ex vivo-expanded γδ cells are administered to tumor patients. γδ T cells can be selectively activated by either synthetic phosphoantigens or by drugs that enhance their accumulation into stressed cells as aminobisphosphonates, thus offering new avenues for the development of γδ T cell-based immunotherapies. The recent development of small drugs selectively activating Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes, which upregulate the endogenous phosphoantigens, has enabled the investigators to design the experimental approaches of cancer immunotherapies; several ongoing phase I and II clinical trials are focused on the role of the direct bioactivity of drugs and of adoptive cell therapies involving phosphoantigen- or aminobisphosphonate-activated Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes in humans. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the activation/expansion of γδ T cells in vitro and in vivo that may represent a promising target for the design of novel and highly innovative immunotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies.

  11. No evidence of somatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations in sporadic endocrine neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raitila, A; Georgitsi, M; Karhu, A;

    2007-01-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene were recently observed in patients with pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP). Though AIP mutation-positive individuals with prolactin-, mixed growth hormone/prolactin-, and ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas as well...... as non-secreting pituitary adenomas have been reported, most mutation-positive patients have had growth hormone-producing adenomas diagnosed at relatively young age. Pituitary adenomas are also component tumors of some familial endocrine neoplasia syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1....... Here, we have analyzed 32 pituitary adenomas and 79 other tumors of the endocrine system for somatic AIP mutations by direct sequencing. No somatic mutations were identified. However, two out of nine patients with prolactin-producing adenoma were shown to harbor a Finnish founder mutation (Q14X...

  12. Prostaglandin E2-induced colonic secretion in patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Nicolai; Tilotta, Maria C; Witte, Anne-Barbara;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis for colorectal cancer remains unresolved. A growing body of evidence suggests a direct correlation between cyclooxygenase enzyme expression, prostaglandin E2 metabolism and neoplastic development. Thus further understanding of the regulation of epithelial functions...... colorectal neoplasia. Patients without endoscopic findings of neoplasia served as controls. Biopsy specimens were obtained from normally appearing mucosa in the sigmoid part of colon. Biopsies were mounted in miniaturized modified Ussing air-suction chambers. Indomethacin (10 microM), various stimulators...... and inhibitors of prostanoid receptors and ion transport were subsequently added to the chamber solutions. Electrogenic ion transport parameters (short circuit current and slope conductance) were recorded. Tissue pathology and tissue damage before and after experiments was assessed by histology. RESULTS...

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of alpha interferon and thymostimulin in patients with neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, I; Marinaro, M; Gesario, A; Cannuscio, B; Michel, Y; Paulling, E

    1995-01-01

    In this report, we have evaluated the immunological effects following administration of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) in combination with thymostimulin (TP-1), as well as of IFN-alpha and TP-1 alone in patients with neoplasias who underwent surgery and were subsequently treated with conventional chemotherapy. Data suggest that the combination of IFN-alpha and TP-1 is the most effective in the up-regulation of some immune parameters such as the CD4(+)-CD8+ cell-dependent antibacterial activity. Since this immune function plays an important role in the host protection against different targets such as invading microorganisms and/or neoplastic cells, the administration of TP-1-IFN-alpha is advisable for patients with neoplasias under chemotherapy. PMID:7583935

  14. Phenotypic characterisation of immune cell infiltrates in testicular germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvarness, Tine; Nielsen, John E; Almstrup, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    and overt seminoma, in comparison to biopsies from infertile men without neoplasia. The composition of immune cells was similar across all the groups studied. Macrophages, CD8(+) and CD45R0(+) T lymphocytes constituted the majority of infiltrates, B lymphocytes were present in an intermediate proportion......Immune cells often infiltrate testicular germ cell neoplasms, including pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS), but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. The composition and distribution of infiltrating immune cells were examined by immunohistochemistry in testis samples with CIS...... and very few CD4(+) and FoxP3(+) T cells were detected. HLA-I antigen was more abundant in Sertoli cells in tubules containing CIS than in those with normal spermatogenesis. This study showed a phenotypically comparable composition of infiltrating immune cells independently of the presence of neoplasia...

  15. Targeted therapy of colorectal neoplasia with rapamycin in peptide-labeled pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khondee, Supang; Rabinsky, Emily F; Owens, Scott R; Joshi, Bishnu P; Qiu, Zhen; Duan, Xiyu; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Thomas D

    2015-02-10

    Many powerful drugs have limited clinical utility because of poor water solubility and high systemic toxicity. Here, we formulated a targeted nanomedicine, rapamycin encapsulated in pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles labeled with a new ligand for colorectal neoplasia, LTTHYKL peptide. CPC;Apc mice that spontaneously develop colonic adenomas were treated with free rapamycin, plain rapamycin micelles, and peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles via intraperitoneal injection for 35days. Endoscopy was performed to monitor adenoma regression in vivo. We observed complete adenoma regression at the end of therapy. The mean regression rate for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles was significantly greater than that for plain rapamycin micelles, Prapamycin micelles compared to that of free drug, and no other toxicities were found on chemistries. Together, this unique targeted micelle represents a potential therapeutic for colorectal neoplasia with comparable therapeutic efficacy to rapamycin free drug and significantly less systemic toxicity.

  16. Myoepithelial cells: their origin and function in breast morphogenesis and neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Adriance, Melissa C; Sternlicht, Mark D;

    2005-01-01

    The human breast epithelium is a branching ductal system composed of an inner layer of polarized luminal epithelial cells and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells that terminate in distally located terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs). While the luminal epithelial cell has received the most...... the subject of investigation pertains to how the luminal epithelial and myoepithelial lineages are related and precisely how they arise from a common putative stem cell population within the breast. Equally important is the question of how heterotypic signaling occurs between luminal epithelial...... and surrounding myoepithelial cells in normal breast morphogenesis and neoplasia. In this review we discuss data from our laboratories and from others regarding the cellular origin of human myoepithelial cells, their function in maintaining tissue polarity in the normal breast, and their role during neoplasia....

  17. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Frisch, M;

    1994-01-01

    A total of 843 consecutive boys (median age 12.7 years) who had undergone testicular biopsy at operation for undescended testis was followed into adulthood (median age 25.2 years) to examine for testicular germ cell neoplasia. Five cases of testicular germ cell neoplasia were identified, including...... testicular biopsy from the patient in whom nonseminoma was noted at followup showed Sertoli cells only. We recommend that testicular biopsy be performed at operation for undescended testis in boys with abnormal sex chromosomes, particularly 45,X/46,XY karyotype, and in those with abnormal external genitalia....... The pattern of Sertoli cells only in biopsies from boys does not preclude the occurrence of testicular cancer in adulthood....

  18. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia with pagetoid features: report of an unusual variant mimicking Paget disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ali; Griffith, Rogers C; Chaux, Alcides

    2014-04-01

    Precancerous lesions of the penis frequently share the morphologic features of the invasive counterpart. We have recently subclassified penile intraepithelial neoplasia into differentiated, warty, and basaloid subtypes, each one with distinctive microscopic morphology. Nevertheless, in our experience, some cases depart from this classification scheme and show unusual morphologic features, hindering the proper diagnosis on routine morphology alone. Herein we present a case of penile intraepithelial neoplasia with a pagetoid growth pattern, closely mimicking Paget disease. We describe the necessary steps to reach the final diagnose, including the use of immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK20, CK34βE12, CAM 5.2, AE1/AE3, CEA, S100, Melan-A, and p63. We also discuss other differential diagnoses that should be considered such as malignant melanoma and urothelial carcinoma in situ with pagetoid spread and less common lesions such as pagetoid dyskeratosis, clear cell papulosis, and mucinous metaplasia.

  19. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplastic effect...... on the colon. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a two-by-two design to investigate the effects of aspirin, at a dose of 600 mg per day, and resistant starch (Novelose), at a dose of 30 g per day, in reducing the risk of adenoma and carcinoma among persons with the Lynch syndrome...... developed in 141 participants. Of 693 participants randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo, neoplasia developed in 66 participants receiving aspirin (18.9%), as compared with 65 receiving placebo (19.0%) (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 1.4). There were no significant...

  20. Bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis patients with hematologic abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cengiz Demir; Mustafa Kasim Karahocagil; Ramazan Esen; Murat Atmaca; Hayriye G(o)nüllü; Hayrettin Akdeniz

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis can mimic various multisytem diseases,showing wide clinical polymorphism that frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay,further increasing the complication rates.In this study,we aimed to examine bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis cases presenting with hematologic abnormalities.Methods Forty-eight brucellosis cases were prospectively investigated.Complaints and physical examination findings of patients were recorded.Patients' complete blood count,routine biochemical tests,erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and serological screenings were performed.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration was performed in patients with cytopenia,for bone marrow examination and brucella culture,in accordance with the standard procedures from spina iliaca posterior superior region of pelvic bone.Results Of the 48 patients,35 (73%) were female and 13 (27%) were male.Mean age was (34.8±15.4) years (age range:15-70 years).Anemia,leukopenia,thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia were found in 39 (81%),28 (58%),22 (46%) and 10 patients (21%),respectively.In the examination of bone marrow,hypercellularity was found In 35 (73%) patients.Increased megacariocytic,erythroid and granulocytic series were found in 28 (58%),15 (31%) and 5 (10%) patients,respectively.In addition,hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 (31%) patients,granuloma observed in 12 (25%) and increased eosinophil and plasma cells observed in 9 (19%) patients.Conclusion According to the results of our series,hemophagocytosis,microgranuloma formation and hypersplenism may be responsible for hematologic complications of brucellosis.

  1. Invasive fungal diseases in children with hematologic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Günay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fungal infection is a significant problem, causing of infective deaths of leukemic patients. The situation in developing countries is not well documented. The purpose of this study was characterizing IFD by analyzing data retrospectively to determine the incidence, predisposing factors, diagnostic methods, efficacy of treatment, and the outcome in pediatric patients with hematological disorders. Materials and Methods: There were 160 children with leukemia (22 AML, 129 ALL and 9 with aplastic anemia (AA. The diagnostic criteria for IFD were defined according to the EORTC/MSG, 2008. IFD was classified as proven or probable. Empiric antifungal treatment with L-AmB was commenced by day 5-7 of persistent fever. Patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA who were refractory to primary treatment were commenced on voriconazole (VCZ. Salvage therapy as combination of VCZ and caspofungin was given to those with progressive infection. Results: The incidence of IFD was found 23 (14.3%. 19 with leukemia (14 ALL, 5 AML and 4 with aplastic anemia were diagnosed as IFD. IA was the dominant cause of infection (n=17 and the rest (n: 6 had candidiasis. Ten children had “proven” infection and 13 children were defined as “probable”. The most frequent site of infection was lungs. In our series, the most frequently used diagnostic methods were clinical findings (100% and radiologic methods (84%. The success rate of treatment for candidiasis and IA were found 60%, 71% respectively. IFD related death rate was found 30%.Conclusion: IFD is still a major morbidity and mortality reason in children with hematologic disorders. However, the availability of new antifungal treatments and diagnostic tests will improve the survival rates in these children.

  2. Preclinical Medical Student Hematology/Oncology Education Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberg, Marc S; Broudy, Virginia C; Bengtson, Elizabeth M; Gitlin, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    To better prepare medical students to care for patients in today's changing health-care environment as they transition to continuing their education as residents, many US medical schools have been reviewing and modifying their curricula and are considering integration of newer adult learning techniques, including team-based learning, flipped classrooms, and other active learning approaches (Assoc Am Med Coll. 2014). Directors of hematology/oncology (H/O) courses requested an assessment of today's H/O education environment to help them respond to the ongoing changes in the education content and environment that will be necessary to meet this goal. Several recommendations for the improvement of cancer education resulted from American Association for Cancer Education's (ACCE's) "Cancer Education Survey II" including a call for medical schools to evaluate the effectiveness of current teaching methods in achieving cancer education objectives (Chamberlain et al. J Cancer Educ 7(2):105-114.2014). To understand the current environment and resources used in medical student preclinical H/O courses, an Internet-based, Survey Monkey®-formatted, questionnaire focusing on nine topic areas was distributed to 130 United States Hematology/Oncology Course Directors (HOCDs). HOCDs represent a diverse group of individuals who work in variably supportive environments and who are variably satisfied with their position. Several aspects of these courses remain relatively unchanged from previous assessments, including a predominance of traditional lectures, small group sessions, and examinations that are either written or computer-based. Newer technology, including web-based reproduction of lectures, virtual microscopes, and availability of additional web-based content has been introduced into these courses. A variety of learner evaluation and course assessment approaches are used. The ultimate effectiveness and impact of these changes needs to be determined.

  3. Suplementación oral nutricional en pacientes hematológicos Oral nutritional supplementation in hematologic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peñalva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los pacientes afectos de neoplasias hematológicas presentan con frecuencia anorexia que sumada a los efectos secundarios del tratamiento con quimioterapia y/o radioterapia comprometen su estado nutricional. La suplementación oral puede ayudar a cumplir los requerimientos energético-proteicos de estos pacientes. No obstante, el uso de los suplementos nutritivos comerciales habitualmente disponibles está limitado por su pobre aceptación. Objetivo: Evaluar el grado de cumplimiento de la prescripción de suplementos y de los requerimientos energéticos así como de la evolución del estado nutricional en pacientes hematológicos hospitalizados para tratamiento con quimioterapia y/o radioterapia. Metodología: Estudio prospectivo, aleatorio y abierto de pacientes ingresados en la planta de hematología. De forma secuencial los pacientes se asignaron a 3 tipos de intervención nutricional: Grupo 1 (G1, suplemento comercial oral con sabores; Grupo 2 (G2, suplemento comercial oral de sabor neutro, y Grupo 3 (G3, suplemento de cocina. Necesidad y cantidad de suplementos nutricionales pautados en función de la ingesta calórica calculada. Valoración nutricional (al ingreso y al alta mediante Valoración Global Subjetiva (VGS, Índice de Riesgo Nutricional (IRN y % de pérdida de peso (%PP. Se analizaron tanto el cumplimiento de la ingesta de suplementos como el cumplimiento de los requerimientos energéticos. Resultados: Se analizaron 125 pacientes de 51,3 ± 16,8 años (45% hombres y 55% mujeres. Diagnósticos: 54% linfoma; 33% leucemia; 8% mieloma y 4% otros. Estancia hospitalaria: 7,0 ± 3,6 días. La valoración nutricional mostró cambios significativos negativos en los pacientes de los grupos G2 y G3 con respecto a la VGS (G1: 30% desarrollaron malnutrición y 28% mejoraron su estado nutricional, p = NS; G2: 50% desarrollaron malnutrición frente al 7% que mejoraron su estado de nutrición, p = 0,002; y G3: 37% desarrollaron

  4. Cutting edge: chemoprevention of colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Giovanni C; Tarallo, Sonia; Rosina, Floriano

    2013-02-01

    Colitis-associated cancer represents a long-standing problem, with two new factors adding to its importance: the diffusion of inflammatory bowel disease in developing countries, and the increased availability of effective drugs that control ulcerative colitis delaying or abrogating the need for a curative colectomy. The consolidated evidence that inflammation is the unique variable that factors in colitic cancer development has conferred impetus to the search and release of anti-inflammatory/immune suppressive molecules to pursue the goal of cancer chemoprevention. Cutting-edge research has provided breakthrough insights into the mechanism of the chemopreventive actions of mesalamines, thiopurines, and probiotics, and we expand on these topics. Despite these advancements, bedside evidence is still mixed and calls for further scrutiny. Nowadays, the clinician must continue to rely on classic preventive measures such as surveillance colonoscopy, and the early and aggressive use of drugs that permit to keep the degree of mucosal inflammation to a minimum.

  5. Economic burden of vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: retrospective cost study at a German dysplasia centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus is responsible for a variety of diseases including grade 2 and 3 vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. The aim of this study was to assess parts of the burden of the last diseases including treatment costs. The direct medical resource use and cost of surgery associated with neoplasia and related diagnostic procedures (statutory health insurance perspective were estimated, as were the indirect costs (productivity losses associated with surgical treatment and related gynaecology visits for diagnostic purposes. Methods Data from 1991-2008 were retrospectively collected from patient records of the outpatient unit of the Gynaecological Dysplasia Clinic, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany. Two subgroups of patients were analysed descriptively: women undergoing one surgical procedure related to a diagnosis of vulvar and/or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, and women undergoing two or more surgical procedures. Target measures were per-capita medical resource consumption, direct medical cost and indirect cost. Results Of the 94 women analysed, 52 underwent one surgical intervention and 42 two or more interventions (mean of 3.0 interventions during the total period of analysis. Patients undergoing one surgical intervention accrued €881 in direct costs and €682 in indirect costs; patients undergoing more than one intervention accrued €2,605 in direct costs and €2,432 in indirect costs. Conclusions The economic burden on German statutory health insurance funds and society induced by surgical interventions and related diagnostic procedures for grade 2/3 vulvar and vaginal neoplasia should not be underrated. The cost burden is one part of the overall burden attributable to human papillomavirus infections.

  6. Spermatozoa-li ke cell invaders, nuclear vlimata, in human neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Spermatozoa-like cells (nuclear vlimata) have been identified in malignant cell cultures and embryonic cells, also common in the cytology and histology of all types of human neoplasia even after chemotherapy. A new mechanism of invasion of malignant cells has been described, according to which neoplastic cells behave and function as parasites using host-cells to divide, survive and eventually produce nuclear vlimata (bullets). Nuclear vlimata are the end ce...

  7. Acute renal failure as an initial manifestation of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Afshar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN is a group of heritable syndromes characterized by aberrant growth of benign or malignant tumors in a subset of endocrine tissues. There are three major syndromes: MEN1, 2A and 2B. We describe a 60-year-old woman who initially manifested acute renal failure due to hypercalcemia and dehydration and, finally, was diagnosed as a sporadic MEN1 case.

  8. First-line chemotherapy in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alazzam, Mo'iad

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in Issue 1, 2009. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare but curable disease arising in the fetal chorion during pregnancy. Most women with low-risk GTN will be cured by evacuation of the uterus with or without single-agent chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy regimens vary between treatment centres worldwide and the comparable benefits and risks of these different regimens are unclear.

  9. Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Michael A; Ramsay, Edward C; Rotstein, David S

    2008-12-01

    A review of medical records and necropsy reports from 1979-2003 found 40 neoplasms in 26 zoo felids, including five lions (Panthera leo, two males and three females), three leopards (Panthera pardus, two males and one female), one jaguar (Panthera onca, female), 11 tigers (Panthera tigris, three males and eight females), two snow leopards (Panthera uncia, one male and one female), two cougars (Felis concolor, one male and one female), one bobcat (Felis rufus, male), and one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, female). Animals that had not reached 3 yr of age or had been housed in the collection less than 3 yrs were not included in the study. Neoplasia rate at necropsy was 51% (24/47), and overall incidence of felid neoplasia during the study period was 25% (26/103). Neoplasia was identified as the cause of death or reason for euthanasia in 28% (13/47) of those necropsied. Neoplasms were observed in the integumentary-mammary (n=11), endocrine (n=10), reproductive (n=8), hematopoietic-lymphoreticular (n=5), digestive (n=3), and hepatobiliary (n=2) systems. One neoplasm was unclassified by system. Multiple neoplasms were observed in 11 animals. Both benign and malignant neoplasms were observed in all systems except for the hematopoietic-lymphoreticular systems where all processes were malignant. Of the endocrine neoplasms, those involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands predominated (n=8) over other endocrine organs and included adenomas and carcinomas. In the integumentary system, 63% (7/11) of neoplasms involved the mammary gland, with mammary carcinoma representing 83% (6/7) of the neoplasms. The rates of neoplasia at this institution, during the given time period, appears to be greater than rates found in the one other published survey of captive felids.

  10. Cervical glandular atypia associated with squamous intraepithelial neoplasia: a premalignant lesion?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, L J; Wells, M

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have described premalignant changes in the endocervical epithelium, but morphological criteria for the diagnosis of cervical glandular atypia of lesser severity than adenocarcinoma in situ have not been established. Adenocarcinoma in situ is often associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The endocervical mucosa in 105 cases of CIN grade III was evaluated and compared with that of 100 controls. Sixteen cases of cervical glandular atypia and one case of adenocarc...

  11. HPV-Based Screening, Triage, Treatment, and Followup Strategies in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza; Jessica Deas; Claudia Gómez-Cerón; Wendy Argelia García-Suastegui; Geny del Socorro Fierros-Zárate; Nadia Judith Jacobo-Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop immunotherapy and gene therapy strategies to treat cervical cancer. HPV genotyping has potentially valuable applications in triage of low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, assessment of prognosis and followup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia...

  12. Prognostic Significance of Immunohistochemical Phenotypes in Patients Treated for High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Origoni; Marta Parma; Giacomo Dell'Antonio; Chiara Gelardi; Chiara Stefani; Stefano Salvatore; Massimo Candiani

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence exists that the host's immune system plays a crucial role for the development of human papillomavirus-related cervical premalignant and malignant lesions. In particular, effective cell-mediated immunity (CMI) promotes spontaneous infection clearance and cancer precursors regression in healthy subjects, while immunosuppressed individuals are more likely to experience infection persistence, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions, and cervical cancer. In this study, the...

  13. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Bhatla; Kriti Puri; Elizabeth Joseph; Alka Kriplani; Venkateswaran K. Iyer; Sreenivas, V

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is considered a potential cofactor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of CT infection with HPV, other risk factors for cervical cancer, and CIN in symptomatic women. Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, inter...

  14. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (Sipple's syndrome): clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a kindred.

    OpenAIRE

    Zatterale, A.; Stabile, M; Nunziata, V; Di Giovanni, G.; Vecchione, R; Ventruto, V

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a kindred with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN-2 or Sipple's syndrome) in two generations. Medullary thyroid carcinoma was present in five members either as a large or as an occult tumour. Phaeochromocytoma was demonstrated in one severely hypertensive relative and urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) was increased in one normotensive member. Serum parathormone (PTH) was normal in all but one normocalcaemic patient of this f...

  15. Does Postevacuation β -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Level Predict the Persistent Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    β -human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level is not a reliable marker for early identification of persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after evacuation of hydatidiform mole. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate β -HCG regression after evacuation as a predictive factor of malignant GTN in complete molar pregnancy. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 260 patients with complete molar pregnancy. Sixteen of the 260 patients were excluded. Serum leve...

  16. Características de um grupo de adolescentes com suspeita de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical Characteristics of a group of adolescents with suspected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

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    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência de alterações citológicas, colposcópicas e histopatológicas observadas no colo uterino de adolescentes com suspeita de neoplasia cervical e as correlações epidemiológicas, compararando com mulheres adultas jovens. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, retrospectivo de revisão de 366 prontuários de mulheres encaminhadas para esclarecimento diagnóstico com suspeita de neoplasia cervical. As pacientes foram classificadas em dois grupos definidos por idade. O grupo Adolescente foi composto por 129 mulheres de 13 a 19 anos e o grupo Adulta foi composto por 237 mulheres de 20 a 24 anos. Foram calculados razão de prevalência (RP, respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC a 95% para cada variável, teste chi2 ou teste exato de Fisher quando aplicável para comparação das proporções. RESULTADOS: a sexarca ocorreu em média aos 15,0 anos no grupo Adolescente e 16,6 anos no grupo Adulta. A chance de diagnóstico de alterações citológicas no primeiro exame realizado (RP=2,61; IC 95%: 2,0-3,4, a condição neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical (NIC a esclarecer (RP=1,78; IC 95%: 1,26-2,52 e a colposcopia de baixo grau (RP=1,42; IC 95%: 1,08-1,86 foram estatisticamente significantes no grupo Adolescente. A análise histopatológica não mostrou diferenças para qualquer grau de NIC. Entretanto, foram identificados dois casos de carcinoma microinvasor, sendo um em cada grupo, e três casos de carcinoma invasor no grupo Adulta. CONCLUSÃO: nosso estudo sugere que o câncer de colo uterino é raro na adolescência, mas verificamos que alterações a ele associadas aconteceram em mulheres muito jovens. A investigação da neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical com a aplicação criteriosa dos mesmos métodos utilizados para a mulher adulta foi apropriada também na adolescência.PURPOSE: to evaluate the prevalence of cytologic, colposcopic and histopathologic alterations observed in the uterine cervix of adolescents with

  17. Importance of thoracic radiography in the approach of animals with neoplasia/ A importância do exame radiográfico torácico na abordagem de animais portadores de neoplasias

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    Antonio Carlos Faria dos Reis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of the thoracic radiography in dogs and cats with neoplasias of diverse origins and localizations, excepting mammary neoplasm. It was studied 54 animals on suspicion of pulmonary metastase and/or primary lung tumors- 49 dogs (91% and five cats (9%; being 28 (52% female (3 cats and 26 (48% male (2 cats – attended by Thoracic and Oncology Medicine Services in the Veterinary Hospital/UEL, in 2005. The mammary neoplasias were not included in this work. From the 54 animals, six (11% presented radiography examinations with evidence of pulmonary metastase, being one cat. Four animals (8% had compatible radiography examination with primary pulmonary neoplasia. These results indicate the importance of the thoracic radiography in the approach of animals with neoplasia, to exclude the possibility of pulmonary metastase independent from the neoplasm origin and the necessity of radiographic attendance to the animals without radiographic signals of pulmonary metastase.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a importância do exame radiográfico torácico em cães e gatos com neoplasias de diversas origens e localizações, excetuando neoplasias mamárias. Foram estudados 54 animais com suspeita de metástase pulmonar e/ou neoplasia pulmonar primária – 49 cães (91% e cinco felinos (9%; sendo 28 (52% fêmeas (3 felinas e 26 (48% machos (2 felinos – atendidos nos Projetos de Extensão em Medicina Torácica e Oncologia do Hospital Veterinário/UEL, durante o ano de 2005. As neoplasias mamárias, não foram inclusas neste trabalho. Dos 54 animais, seis (11% apresentaram exames radiográficos com evidência de metástase pulmonar, sendo um felino. Quatro animais (8% tiveram exame radiográfico compatível com neoplasia pulmonar primária. Esses resultados indicam a importância do exame radiográfico torácico na abordagem de animais com neoplasias, para descartar a possibilidade de met

  18. Effects of oncological treatments on semen quality in patients with testicular neoplasia or lymphoproliferative disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cataldo Di Bisceglie; Angela Bertagna; Emanuela R Composto; Fabio Lanfranco; Matteo Baldi; Giovanna Motta; Anna M Barberis

    2013-01-01

    Pretherapy sperm cryopreservation in young men is currently included in good clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients.The aim of this paper is to outline the effects of different oncological treatments on semen quality in patients with testicular neoplasia or lymphoproliferative disorders,based on an 8-year experience of the Cryopreservation Centre of a large public hospital.Two hundred and sixty-one patients with testicular neoplasia and 219 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders who underwent chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and pretherapy semen cryopreservation were evaluated.Sperm and hormonal parameters (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),luteinizing hormone (LH),testosterone,inhibin B levels) were assessed prior to and 6,12,18,24 and 36 months after the end of cancer treatment.At the time of sperm collection,baseline FSH level and sperm concentration were impaired to a greater extent in patients with malignant testicular neoplasias than in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders.Toxic effects on spermatogenesis were still evident at 6 and 12 months after the end of cancer therapies,while an improvement of seminal parameters was observed after 18 months.In conclusion,an overall increase in sperm concentration was recorded about 18 months after the end of cancer treatments in the majority of patients,even if it was not possible to predict the evolution of each single case ‘a priori'.For this reason,pretherapy semen cryopreservation should be considered in all young cancer patients.

  19. Inflammation and Atrophy Precede Prostatic Neoplasia in a PhIP-Induced Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Borowsky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-bpyridine (PhIP has been implicated as a major mutagenic heterocyclicamine in the human diet and is carcinogenic in the rat prostate. To validate PhIP-induced rat prostatic neoplasia as a model of human prostate cancer progression, we sought to study the earliest histologic and morphologic changes in the prostate and to follow progressive changes over time. We fed sixty-seven 5-week-old male Fischer F344 rats with PhIP (400 ppm or control diets for 20 weeks, and then sacrificed animals for histomorphologic examination at the ages of 25, 45, and 65 weeks. Animals treated with PhIP showed significantly more inflammation (P = .002, > .001, and .016 for 25, 45, and 65 weeks, respectively and atrophy (P = .003, > .001, and .006 for 25, 45, and 65 weeks, respectively in their prostate glands relative to controls. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN occurred only in PhIP-treated rats. PIN lesions arose in areas of glandular atrophy, most often in the ventral prostate. Atypical cells in areas of atrophy show loss of glutathione S-transferase π immunostaining preceding the development of PIN.None of the animals in this study developed invasive carcinomas, differing from those in previous reports. Overall, these findings suggest that the pathogenesis of prostatic neoplasia in the PhIP-treated rat prostate proceeds from inflammation to postinflammatory proliferative atrophy to PIN.

  20. Turner syndrome and meningioma: support for a possible increased risk of neoplasia in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, Danielle B; Nunes, Fabio P; Plotkin, Scott R; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Kim, James C; Shih, Helen A; Brastianos, Priscilla; Lin, Angela E

    2014-01-01

    Neoplasia is uncommon in Turner syndrome, although there is some evidence that brain tumors are more common in Turner syndrome patients than in the general population. We describe a woman with Turner syndrome (45,X) with a meningioma, in whom a second neoplasia, basal cell carcinomas of the scalp and nose, developed five years later in the absence of therapeutic radiation. Together with 7 cases of Turner syndrome with meningioma from a population-based survey in the United Kingdom, and 3 other isolated cases in the literature, we review this small number of patients for evidence of risk factors related to Turner syndrome, such as associated structural anomalies or prior treatment. We performed histological and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of 22q (NF2 locus) analyses of the meningeal tumor to search for possible molecular determinants. We are not able to prove causation between these two entities, but suggest that neoplasia may be a rare associated medical problem in Turner syndrome. Additional case reports and extension of population-based studies are needed.

  1. Inflammation and Atrophy Precede Prostate Neoplasia in PhIP Induced Rat Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowsky, A D; Dingley, K; Ubick, E; Turteltaub, K; Cardiff, R D; DeVere-White, R

    2006-06-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) has been implicated as a major mutagenic heterocyclic amine in the human diet and is carcinogenic in the rat prostate. In order to validate PhIP induced rat prostate neoplasia as a model of human prostate cancer progression, we sought to study the earliest histologic and morphologic changes in the prostate and to follow the progressive changes over time. We fed 67 male Fischer F344 5 week old rats with PhIP (400 PPM) or control diets for 20 weeks, and then sacrificed animals for histomorphologic examination at age 25 weeks, 45 weeks, and 65 weeks. Animals treated with PhIP showed significantly more inflammation (P=.002 (25wk), >.001(45wk), .016(65wk)) and atrophy (P=.003(25wk), >.001(45wk), .006 (65wk)) in their prostate glands relative to controls. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) occurred only in PhIP treated rats. PIN lesions arose in areas of glandular atrophy, most often in the ventral prostate. Atypical cells in areas of atrophy show loss of glutathione S-transferase pi immunostaining preceding development of PIN. None of the animals in this study developed invasive carcinomas differing from previous reports. Overall, these findings suggest that the pathogenesis of prostatic neoplasia in the PhIP treated rat prostate proceeds from inflammation to post-inflammatory proliferative atrophy to PIN.

  2. Manejo das neoplasias metastáticas da coluna vertebral - uma atualização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Vitorino Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da sobrevivência do paciente oncológico decorrente da melhoria e do avanço das modalidades terapêuticas promove progressivo aumento da prevalência das neoplasias metastáticas da coluna vertebral, tornando o seu conhecimento condição sine qua non para os profissionais da área de saúde. As metástases na coluna vertebral são usualmente procedentes de neoplasia maligna da mama, pulmão e próstata, o gênero masculino é o mais acometido e a dor é o sintoma inicial em mais de 90% dos pacientes. Estima-se que 30-90% dos pacientes com câncer em estágio terminal apresentem metástase em algum segmento da coluna vertebral. A alta prevalência das neoplasias malignas e a significativa experiência dos autores no tratamento das metástases na coluna vertebral motivaram uma atualização do tema. Acreditamos que a padronização da conduta e o conhecimento pormenorizado dos principais aspectos da doença, podem promover a melhor opção terapêutica. O presente estudo visa à revisão e descrição didática dos principais aspectos relacionados à fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento desta entidade.

  3. Human papilloma virus identification in breast cancer patients with previous cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Women with human papilloma virus (HPV associated cervical neoplasia have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general female population. The purpose of this study was to (i identify high risk for cancer HPVs in cervical neoplasia and subsequent HPV positive breast cancers which developed in the same patients and (ii determine if these HPVs were biologically active.Methods: A range of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of cervical precancers and subsequent breast cancers in the same patients. Results: The same high risk HPV types were identified in both the cervical and breast specimens in 13 (46% of 28 patients. HPV type 18 was the most prevalent. HPVs appeared to be biologically active as demonstrated by the expression of HPV E7 proteins and the presence of HPV associated koilocytes. The average age of these patients diagnosed with breast cancer following prior cervical precancer was 51 years, as compared to 60 years for all women with breast cancer (p for difference = 0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate that high risk HPVs can be associated with cervical neoplasia and subsequent young age breast cancer. However these associations are unusual and are a very small proportion of breast cancers. These outcomes confirm and extend the observations of 2 similar previous studies and offer one explanation for the increased prevalence of serious invasive breast cancer among young women.

  4. Diagnosis and management of mastocytosis: an emerging challenge in applied hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a unique and rare neoplasm defined by abnormal expansion and accumulation of clonal mast cells (MCs) in one or multiple organ systems. Most adult patients are diagnosed to have systemic mastocytosis (SM). Based on histological findings and disease-related organ damage, SM is classified into indolent SM (ISM), smoldering SM (SSM), SM with an associated hematologic non-MC-lineage disease (SM-AHNMD), aggressive SM (ASM), and MC leukemia (MCL). The clinical picture, course, and prognosis vary profoundly among these patients. Nonetheless, independent of the category of SM, neoplastic cells usually exhibit the KIT point-mutation D816V. However, in advanced SM, additional molecular defects are often detected and are considered to contribute to disease progression and drug resistance. These lesions include, among others, somatic mutations in TET2, SRSF2, ASXL1, CBL, RUNX1, and RAS. In SM-AHNMD, such mutations are often found in the "AHNMD component" of the disease. Clinical symptoms in mastocytosis result from (1) the release of proinflammatory and vasoactive mediators from MCs, and (2) SM-induced organ damage. Therapy of SM has to be adjusted to the individual patient and the SM category: in those with ISM and SSM, the goal is to control mediator secretion and/or mediator effects, to keep concomitant allergies under control, and to counteract osteoporosis, whereas in advanced SM (ASM, MCL, and SM-AHNMD) anti-neoplastic drugs are prescribed to suppress MC expansion and/or to keep AHNMD cells under control. Novel drugs directed against mutated KIT and/or other oncogenic kinase targets are tested currently in these patients. In rapidly progressing and drug-resistant cases, high-dose polychemotherapy and stem cell transplantation have to be considered.

  5. Major hematologic diseases in the developing world- new aspects of diagnosis and management of thalassemia, malarial anemia, and acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, P L; Gordeuk, V; Issaragrisil, S; Siritanaratkul, N; Fucharoen, S; Ribeiro, R C

    2001-01-01

    The three presentations in this session encompass clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of hematologic diseases which impact most heavily on developing world countries. Dr. Victor Gordeuk discusses new insights regarding the multi-faceted pathogenesis of anemia in the complicated malaria occurring in Africa. He describes recent investigations indicating the possible contribution of immune dysregulation to this serious complication and the implications of these findings for disease management. Dr. Surapol Issaragrisil and colleagues describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the thalassemic syndromes. In addition to being considered a major health problem in Southeast Asia, the migration throughout the world of people from this region has caused the disease to have global impact. A unique thalassemia variant, Hb Ebeta-thalassemia, with distinctive clinical features, has particular relevance for this demographic issue. Special focus will be reported regarding recent prenatal molecular screening methods in Thailand which have proven useful for early disease detection and disease control strategies. Dr. Raul Ribeiro describes a clinical model for providing effective treatment for a complex malignancy (childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia) in countries with limited resources. With the multidisciplinary approach in Central American of the joint venture between St. Jude Children's Research Hospital International Outreach Program and indigenous health care personnel, major therapeutic advances for this disease have been achieved. Given the major demographic population shifts occurring worldwide, these illnesses also have important clinical implications globally. These contributions demonstrate that lessons learned within countries of disease prevalence aid our understanding and management of a number of disorders prominently seen in developed countries. They will show how effective partnerships between hematologists in more and less developed

  6. [Testing the hemalog D in a hematology department of a general hospital in Paris (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortholary, P; Lejeune, F; Ganon, J P; Mathiot, C; Turpin, F

    1978-06-10

    Europe's firs Hemalog D was installed in the Hematology Laboratory of the Franco-Musulman Hospital at Bobigny, just outside Paris, in March 1975. The authors' experience with the apparatus since that date has enabled them to analyze the significance of "alarms", "high peroxidase", "large unstained cells", "remainder" and "low rate" in patients with and without hematologic disorders. On the basis of these results it has been possible to define the fate of the various blood cells in the Hemalog D, the role of the apparatus in the ivestigation of hematologic disorders and the type of "cooperation" between the hematologist and the Hemalog D.

  7. Is there any association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia in a poor Nigerian setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chibuike Ogwuegbu Chigbu,2 Benjamin Chukwuma Ozumba,2 Theophilus Chimezie Oguanuo,2 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The association between hormonal contraception and cervical cancer is controversial. These controversies may hamper the uptake of hormonal contraceptives. Objective: To determine the association between hormonal contraceptives and cervical neoplasia. Materials and methods: This was a case-control study in which Pap-smear results of 156 participants on hormonal contraceptives were compared with those of 156 participants on no form of modern contraception. Modern contraception is defined as the use of such contraceptives as condoms, pills, injectables, intrauterine devices, implants, and female or male sterilization. Those found to have abnormal cervical smear cytology results were subjected further to colposcopy. Biopsy specimens for histology were collected from the participants with obvious cervical lesions or those with suspicious lesions on colposcopy. The results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 71 (45.5%, 60 (38.5%, and 25 (16.0% of the participants on hormonal contraceptives were using oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives, and implants, respectively. Cervical neoplasia was significantly more common among participants who were ≥35 years old (6% versus 1%, P<0.0001, rural dwellers (6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, unmarried (7.6% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, unemployed (6.8% versus 3.5%, P<0.0001, less educated (6% versus 3.8%, P<0.0001, and had high parity (6.8% versus 3.6%, P<0.0001. There was no statistical significant difference in cervical neoplasia between the two groups of participants (7 [4.5%] versus 6 [3.8%], P=1.0. Conclusion

  8. Vaporização a laser do cervix para tratamento da neoplasia intraepitelial cervical Laser vaporization of the cervix for the management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euridice Maria de Almeida Figueiredo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available O câncer cérvico-uterino é muito comum em vários países da América Latina. As estatísticas de mortalidade e as taxas de incidência demonstram a sua real importância. O cânver cérvico-uterino freqüentemente é uma doença progressiva iniciada com mudanças intra-epiteliais, que podem se transformar em um processo invasivo, sendo o nosso objetivo tratar precocemente estas lesões quando ainda é possível a cura de 100%. Em nosso estudo prospectivo foram selecionadas 21 pacientes com neoplasia cervical intra-epitelial reatreadas pela citplogia e diagnosticadas pela histopatologia após biópsia dirigida pela colposcopia. O método terapêutico empregado foi a vaporização a laser com o CO2. Tiveram como pré-requisito os seguintes critérios: informação segura pela colposcopia da zona de transformação e afastar a presença de câncer invasivo; a neoplasia epitelial cervical deve ocupar a ectocervix sem nenhuma extensão para o canal cervical e correlação positiva entre a citologia, colposcopia e histologia. O uso de laser CO2 com microscópio permitiu precisão na aplicação e com vantagens de ser um procedimento ambulatorial diminuindo estresse cirúrgico das pacientes. Foi realizado sem anestesia e com duração média de 15 minutos. A cicatrização completou-se em torno de três semanas e com cuidados operatórios mínimos. Somente dois casos tiveram sangramento vaginal discreto no quinto e décimo dia de pós-operatório, resolvido com tamponamento vaginal por 24 horas. A colposcopia, cirurgia e o seguimento foram feitos pelo autor, tendo uma paciente sido submetida a uma segunda vaporização no quinto mês de controle. Somente uma paciente teve recidiva no 26° mês de seguimento e complementará o tratamento. As vinte outras restantes estão em controle sem recidiva de doença. Em vista dos resultados obtivemos um percentual de cura de 95%, que coincide com a literatura. O uso de laser CO2 no tratamento das neoplasias

  9. Transporter function and cyclic AMP turnover in normal colonic mucosa from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleberg Karen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia is still unresolved but has been associated with alterations in epithelial clearance of xenobiotics and metabolic waste products. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the transport of cyclic nucleotides in colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia. Methods Cyclic nucleotides were used as model substrates shared by some OATP- and ABC-transporters, which in part are responsible for clearance of metabolites and xenobiotics from the colonic epithelium. On colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia, molecular transport was electrophysiologically registered in Ussing-chamber set-ups, mRNA level of selected transporters was quantified by rt-PCR, and subcellular location of transporters was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Of four cyclic nucleotides, dibuturyl-cAMP induced the largest short circuit current in both patient groups. The induced short circuit current was significantly lower in neoplasia-patients (p = 0.024. The observed altered transport of dibuturyl-cAMP in neoplasia-patients could not be directly translated to an observed increased mRNA expression of OATP4A1 and OATP2B1 in neoplasia patients. All other examined transporters were expressed to similar extents in both patient groups. Conclusions OATP1C1, OATP4A1, OATP4C1 seem to be involved in the excretory system of human colon. ABCC4 is likely to be involved from an endoplasmic-Golgi complex and basolateral location in goblet cells. ABCC5 might be directly involved in the turnover of intracellular cAMP at the basolateral membrane of columnar epithelial cells, while OATP2B1 is indirectly related to the excretory system. Colorectal neoplasia is associated with lower transport or sensitivity to cyclic nucleotides and increased expression of OATP2B1 and OATP4A1 transporters, known to transport PGE2.

  10. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2013-05-08

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with

  11. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  12. A importância da integração de dados do diagnóstico das hemopatias The importance of integrating results of several techniques in the diagnosis of hematological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lorand- Metze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise diagnóstica da medula óssea compreende classicamente a citologia. Mais recentemente, tornou- se rotina o estudo histológico. Desde o início, tentou- se integrar estes dados, pois, enquanto a citologia fornece uma análise mais detalhada das características das células e permite quantificá- las, a biópsia, por analisar o tecido como um todo, permite o estudo da estrutura do tecido hemopoético, seu estroma e a ocorrência de estruturas estranhas à medula, como granulomas, fibrose e metástases de neoplasias. Com o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias e o melhor conhecimento das diversas entidades, principalmente em onco- hematologia, além do desenvolvimento de terapias alvo- específicas, tornou- se importante o estudo citogenético/molecular em algumas patologias. Nas leucemias agudas e síndromes linfoproliferativas, a imunofenotipagem tem contribuído de modo decisivo para a classificação correta das diversas neoplasias pelos critérios da OMS. Assim, o diagnóstico hematológico se tornou uma atividade multidisciplinar que integra profissionais de diversas especialidades. Assim se consegue tratar os pacientes de modo mais adequado, além de poder rastrear a doença residual após o tratamento. Isto levou a novas definições de remissão: hematológica, fenotípica, citogenética e molecular. O estudo da medula óssea é importante em algumas hemopatias benignas, como anemias carenciais, que podem se manifestar como pancitopenias. Este estudo deve ser complementado com exames sorológicos e bioquímicos. A mielocultura tem permitido o diagnóstico de infecções, especialmente nos indivíduos imunossuprimidos.The diagnosis of hematologic diseases has traditionally been based on features of peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM cytology. Histologic examination of the BM has been used for the staging of neoplasias when aspiration is not possible due to fibrosis. Cytology permits a better evaluation of cell morphology and a

  13. Nutritional Assessment of Children With Hematological Malignancies and Their Subsequent Tolerance to Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Our research goals were to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in children with cancer, observe malnutrition's effect on tolerance to chemotherapy, and establish malnutrition at onset as one of the prognostic factors in children with hematological malignancies.

  14. Hematology in 2010: New therapies and standard of care in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Vincent T; Canellos, George P

    2011-02-01

    2010 was not a year of survival breakthroughs in hematologic malignancies. However, in Hodgkin's disease and multiple myeloma new therapies emerged as the standard of care and nilotinib may be considered the treatment choice for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia.

  15. Prevalence of hematological abnormalities in patients with Sheehan's syndrome: response to replacement of glucocorticoids and thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Bhat, Javid Rasool; Samoon, Jeelani; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2011-03-01

    Anemia and other hematological abnormalities are common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. The response of these abnormalities to replacement of thyroxine and glucocorticoids is not clear. The aim of the present study was to document the profile of hematological abnormalities and response to treatment in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Forty patients of Sheehan's syndrome and an equal number of age and parity matched healthy controls were studied for prevalence of hematological abnormalities. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red cell, white cell and platelet count were significantly decreased in patients with Sheehan's syndrome compared to controls. Frequency of anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia was significantly higher in these patients compared to controls. After achieving euthyroid and eucortisol state, there was a complete recovery of these hematological abnormalities. We conclude that anemia and other cytopenias are common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome and replacement with thyroxine and glucocorticoids results in complete recovery of these abnormalities.

  16. Favorable outcome of chronic disseminated candidiasis in four pediatric patients with hematological malignancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, A.E.; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.C.; Die, L.E. van; Verweij, P.E.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Warris, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four children were diagnosed with chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) during treatment for hematological malignancies. All presented with persistent fever, not responsive to broad-spectrum antibiotics, abdominal distension and hepatosplenomegaly. Two children needed artificial ventilation because

  17. Alaska Steller sea lion pup serum chemistry and hematology values, 1998-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  18. Thrombotic and infectious complications of central venous catheters in patients with hematological malignancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, R.S.; Jie, K.S.; Verbon, A.; Pampus, EC van; Schouten, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) have considerably improved the management of patients with hematological malignancies, by facilitating chemotherapy, supportive therapy and blood sampling. Complications of insertion of CVCs include mechanical (arterial puncture, pneumothorax), thrombotic and infectio

  19. The Importance of Hematological Parameters in Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Alekseeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological studies are basic and mandatory in diagnostics and laboratory monitoring of infectious diseases, which led to their inclusion in the modern standards of laboratory examinations of children. Assessment of hematological parameters used for the provisional differential diagnosis of viral or bacterial nature of the disease. For research currently being used increasingly Hematology analyzers, which allows to facilitate and standardize the results. In this paper a comparison and differences hematological parameters practically healthy children and children with respiratory infections. Identified some changes in indicators of haemogram depending on the etiology and character of the clinical course of the disease. On the basis of the leukocyte formula defined leukocyte indices of intoxication and illustrates their importance in assessing the severity of the infection process.

  20. Hematology and plasma biochemistry reference range values for free-ranging desert tortoises in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Vanessa M; Jarchow, James L; Trueblood, Mark H

    2002-01-01

    Baseline values and ranges for 10 hematologic and 32 plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed for 36 free-ranging Sonoran desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizzi) collected in Yavapai and La Paz Counties (Arizona, USA) from 1990 to 1995. Tortoises were radio tagged from 1990 to 1994, and attempts were made to recapture them three times a year. Tortoises were weighed, measured, and chemically immobilized to collect blood for hematology and blood chemistry assessments. Tortoise biochemistry differed (P < 0.01) between sites and sexes and among seasons and years. Normal reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters were determined. Seasonal and annual differences in hematology and blood chemistry were related to rainfall patterns, forage availability, and physiological condition.

  1. Hematology - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Open...base Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Hematology - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes in the dog: a natural resource for the genetic dissection of hematological parameters in a mammalian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lawrence

    Full Text Available Remarkably little has been published on hematological phenotypes of the domestic dog, the most polymorphic species on the planet. Information on the signalment and complete blood cell count of all dogs with normal red and white blood cell parameters judged by existing reference intervals was extracted from a veterinary database. Normal hematological profiles were available for 6046 dogs, 5447 of which also had machine platelet concentrations within the reference interval. Seventy-five pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by 10 or more dogs. All measured parameters except mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC varied with age. Concentrations of white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and platelets, but not red blood cell parameters, all varied with sex. Neutering status had an impact on hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, MCHC, and concentrations of WBCs, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and platelets. Principal component analysis of hematological data revealed 37 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, all hematological parameters except MCHC showed significant differences between specific individual breeds and the mixed breed group. Twenty-nine breeds had distinctive phenotypes when assessed in this way, of which 19 had already been identified by principal component analysis. Tentative breed-specific reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis. This study represents the first large-scale analysis of hematological phenotypes in the dog and underlines the important potential of this species in the elucidation of genetic determinants of hematological traits, triangulating phenotype, breed and genetic predisposition.

  3. Expression patterns of maspin and mutant p53 are associated with the development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengming; Wu, Qibin; Ruan, Guanyu; Zheng, Xiu; Song, Yiyi; Zhun, Jianfan; Wu, Lixiang; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2016-11-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of conditions that originate from the abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic cells. GTDs encompass hydatidiform moles (HMs) and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). GTNs are a group of malignant diseases that require chemotherapy, or more aggressive treatment. There is a requirement for more tumor markers to predict the development of GTN from HMs. The current study evaluated the expression of maspin and tumor protein p53 (p53) in GTD, and their role in predicting the development of GTN. Expression of maspin and mutant p53 (m-p53) was detected by immunohistochemistry in 48 normal first trimester placentas, matched for gestational age to 49 HMs that regressed, 39 malignant HMs and 11 invasive moles or choriocarcinomas. Spearman's rank correlation analysis and logistic regression were performed on the expression patterns of maspin and m-p53, and on the clinical prognostic factors in GTD. Compared with normal placenta levels, the expression levels of maspin were decreased, whereas the expression levels of m-p53 were increased in GTDs (Pp53 in complete and partial HMs were not significantly different (P>0.05). In HMs, maspin expression was inversely correlated with serum β human chorionic gonadotropin, uterine size and diameter of theca-lutein cysts; however, m-p53 expression demonstrated a positive correlation with these factors (all Pp53 expression was significantly higher in patients with an advanced FIGO stages (FIGO stage ≥III) compared with patients in early stages (FIGO stage ≤II; 87.9 vs. 58.8%; P=0.019). The combination of maspin negative expression with m-p53 positive expression had an 84% specificity value, 76% positive predictive value and 70% negative predictive value for the development of GTN. In conclusion, maspin-negative and m-p53-positive expression is associated with the development of GTN in HMs.

  4. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples and the subsequent risk of hematological malignancies and death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl;

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilia may represent an early paraclinical sign of hematological malignant disease, but no reports exist on its predictive value for hematological malignancies. From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356,196 individuals with at least one...... differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007. From these, one DIFF was randomly chosen and categorized according to no (...

  5. Association of the blood eosinophil count with hematological malignancies and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Christen L; Siersma, Volkert D; Hasselbalch, Hans C; Vestergaard, Hanne; Mesa, Ruben; Felding, Peter; Olivarius, Niels D F; Bjerrum, Ole W

    2015-03-01

    Blood eosinophilia (≥0.5 × 10(9) /l) may be an early sign of hematological malignancy. We investigated associations between levels of blood eosinophils and risks of hematological malignancies and mortality in order to provide clinically derived cut-offs for referral to specialist hematology care. From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356,196 individuals with at least one differential cell count encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007 and matched these laboratory data with Danish nationwide health registers. We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the 4-year incidences of hematological malignancies and mortality between the eosinophil counts and a reference count of 0.16 × 10(9) /l which was the median eosinophil count in our data. Risks of hematological malignancies and mortality increased above the median eosinophil count. At the 99th percentile, corresponding to an eosinophil count of 0.75 × 10(9) /l, risks of hematological malignancies were increased more than twofold with OR (95% C.I.) of 2.39 (1.91-2.99). Interestingly, risks reached a plateau around an eosinophil count of 1.0 × 10(9) /l. Risks also increased when the eosinophil count approached zero. Here, counts associated relatively more with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes whereas counts above 0.16 × 10(9) /l associated more with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Eosinophil counts associate with hematological malignancies and mortality even below the definition of eosinophilia. The observed plateau of risks around 1.0 × 10(9) /l is important for physicians encountering patients with eosinophilia since even mild-to-moderate eosinophilia according to traditional definitions confers maximally increased risks of subsequent/subclinical hematological malignancy.

  6. A "bone marrow score" for predicting hematological disease in immunocompetent patients with fevers of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Yang, Ching-Fen; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Yang, Sheng-Hsiang; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Liu, Chun-Yu; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Chen, Po-Min; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Fung, Chang-Phone; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Delayed diagnosis of hematological malignancies in immunocompetent patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains an exhausting challenge for non-hematologist physicians. This retrospective cohort study aimed to establish a scoring system, "bone marrow (BM) score", to identify FUO patients who require early bone marrow biopsy (BMB) to diagnose hematological disease. Two cohorts, comprising 85 (training) and 20 (validation) eligible immunocompetent patients, with FUOs diagnosed between January 1, 2006 and July 31, 2013, underwent BMBs and were enrolled in the study. Demographic, laboratory, imaging, diagnostic, and outcome data were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Factors associated with hematological etiologies diagnosed using BMBs in the training cohort were identified and scored according to the relative hazards. These were further validated using the validation cohort. For the training cohort, 29 of 85 (34.1%) patients had hematological etiologies diagnosed using BMB. Seven factors significantly predicted the diagnostic yield of hematological diseases in the BM and were scored, with the 6 points for leucoerythroblastic changes in peripheral blood smears, 5.5 for elevated ferritin level (>1000 ng/mL), 4 for splenomegaly, 2 for thrombocytopenia, 1.5 for each of elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels and anemia, and 1 for neutropenia. When the cut-off value of the scoring system was set to 6, its sensitivity and specificity to diagnose hematological diseases in the BM of immunocompetent FUO patients were 93% and 58%, respectively. For the validation cohort, 7 of 20 (35%) patients had hematological disease, and all had BM scores higher than the cut-off, with the sensitivity and specificity at 100% and 77%, respectively. As immunocompetent FUO patients with hematological disease have poor prognoses, the "BM score" is valuable for non-hematologist physicians to identify immunocompetent FUO patients requiring early BMB.

  7. Measuring symptoms as a critical component of drug development and evaluation in hematological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Loretta A.; Yucel, Emre; Cortes, Jorge E.; Cleeland, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of new therapies for patients with hematological malignancies, there is an increasing need for patient report of symptom status during all phases of drug testing. The patient’s perspective on new treatments reflects treatment tolerability as well as symptom benefit, and may assist patients and clinicians in choosing treatments. Inclusion of patient-reported outcomes, more common in solid-tumor than hematological trials, provides early information about symptoms to g...

  8. Reference values of hematological indices of infants, children, and adolescents in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FI Buseri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available FI Buseri1, IJ Siaminabo2, ZA Jeremiah11Hematology and Blood Transfusion Sciences Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaBackground: Lack of standard local reference values have been a problem facing hematological practice in Nigeria. Our aim was to establish reference hematological values from infancy to adolescence for future use in Nigeria.Methods: A total of 1,021 apparently healthy Nigerian children aged 0–17 years were recruited for this cross-sectional descriptive study from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching ­Hospital, Port Harcourt, during preparatory exercises for immunization for Hepatitis B vaccine and from the Rivers State University of Science and Technology Day Care/Nursery, Primary, and International Demonstration Secondary School, Port Harcourt, during their standard medical examination prior to starting school. All hematological parameters were carried out using International Committee on Standardization in Hematology (ICSH approved manual methods.Results: We report a reference range study conducted in Port Harcourt infants (aged 1 day to less than 1 year, children (1 to less than 5 years, 5 to less than 9 years, 9 to 14 years, and adolescents (14 to 17 years old, establishing reference intervals for hematological parameters. Several differences were observed when compared to previously established values from Caucasians, most notably in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, platelets, total white blood cell count, and neutrophil values.Conclusion: The values reported in this study can be used as local reference values for Port Harcourt infants, children, and adolescents.Keywords: reference values, hematologic indices, infants, children, adolescents, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

  9. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME, kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1. The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfagia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME, cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1. O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido.

  10. Hematologic Abnormalities in Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Chamanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with cyanotic heart disease may have an acceptable quality of life. However, they are invariably prone to several complications. The aim of this study is search about hematologic abnormalities in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Materials and Methods:  In this cross sectional study every cyanotic congenital heart disease patients who was referred to the adult congenital heart disease clinic was selected and asked of any possible hyperviscosity symptoms, gingival bleeding, Epistaxis, hemoptysis, hypermenorrhagia and gouty arthritis irrespective of their age, gender and primary diagnosis in a six-month period. In this regard, 02 saturation was obtained via pulse oximetry, an abdominal ultrasound was done in order to discover any gallstones and lab tests including CBC, coagulation parameters (bleeding time(BT,clotting time(CT, prothrombin time(PT,international ratio( INR, Ferritin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (Cr were provided as well. Results:  A total of 69 patients were enrolled in the present study. The mean age of the patients was 22.44±5.72 with a minimum of 15 and the maximum of 46 years old. Twenty two (34.4% of them were female and 45(65.6% were male. Conclusion: Our patients had less hyperuricemia, there is no correlation between hyperviscosity symptoms and haematocrit level and an inverse correlation between the Ferritin level and hyperviscosity symptoms were seen.  

  11. The effect of Ramadan fasting on hematological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nasiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ramadan fasting is an obligation for many Muslims around the world who abstain from eating and drinking for one month, which has different medical and physiological effects, such as reducing blood pressure, lipid profile, blood glucose, and body weight. It has also been hypothesized that Ramadan fasting may induce some changes in the hematologic parameters. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood cell count (CBC, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Methods: In the present study, 59 adult healthy individuals, who had completed one month of Ramadan fasting were included. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for ESR, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Hct, white blood cell (WBC, platelet count (PLT, mean corpuscular Volume (MCV and mean platelet volume (MPV, one day before, on the second and last week of Ramadan and one month after Ramadan (phase I , II, III,  and IV, respectively. Results: 34 men and 25 women with an age range of 15 to 24 years participated in the study. Mean ESR increased significantly (except phase IV, in comparison phase III. Mean Hb and Hct levels were significantly greater in phase III than phase I (P

  12. Serologic and hematologic values of wild coyotes in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G.J.; Rongstad, O.J.

    1980-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 30 coyotes (Canis latrans) captured in northern Wisconsin in conjunction with radio-telemetry studies. Samples were assayed for seven hematologic values, seven serum chemistries, serum albumin, globulin and total protein. Results are given with respect to sex and age and are compared with available data for captive wild and pen-raised coyotes. Leukocyte counts were greater for males than females and packed cell volumes were greater for adults than young, possibly due to differential response to capture and handling stress. Hemoglobin concentrations and calcium levels suggest differences in nutrition between pen-raised and wild coyotes. Sex and age differences in serum calcium for wild coyotes probably reflect nutritional differences between groups examined. Juvenile coyote serum alkaline phosphatase levels declined curvilinearly with age for coyotes less than one year old, suggesting a possible technique for separating juveniles and yearlings captured in autumn that are released for research purposes. Elevated glucose levels and leukocyte counts in wild coyotes may reflect greater handling stress than for pen-raised and captive coyotes. No significant sex or age effects were found for levels of serum urea nitrogen, total protein, cholesterol, and total bilirubin.

  13. Genetic epidemiology, hematological and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with -α(3.7 kb) as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed.

  14. ESCHERICHIA COLI: AN IMPORTANT PATHOGEN IN PATIENTS WITH HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli (E. coli is a pathogen of great concern in immunosuppressed patients.  While antimicrobial prophylactic therapy has become the standard, the emergence of resistant pathogens has some questioning its use.  This study describes our experience with E.coli as a pathogen in neutropenic patients with a hematologic malignancy, and addresses future directions of treatment for this patient population. Methods A retrospective chart review of 245 E.coli bacteremia patients at Moffitt Cancer Center from 05/18/02 – 05/15/12 was conducted. Patients were identified via microbiology laboratory computerized records. Results The included patients experienced clinically significant E.coli bacteremia resulting in a median hospital stay of 14.7 days.  Several patients developed severe sepsis requiring the use of pressor and ventilator therapy. Conclusions E.coli is a major pathogen in these patient populations resulting in extended hospital stays and specialized treatment to overcome their E.coli bacteremia. The data supports the use of fluoroquinolone prophylactic therapy, however, earlier detection and treatment of neutropenic infection is needed.

  15. Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome in children with hematologic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Malbora

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES is characterized by headache, altered mental status, cortical blindness, and seizures associated with neuroradiological findings. It involves predominantly white matter of the parieto-occipital lobes. Several medications and disorders play a role in the etiology of PRES. In this study, we aimed to show how the prognosis of PRES in hematological diseases of childhood might be according to the etiological factors.Materials and Methods: Here, we report PRES in six patients, aged 4 to 14 years, with diagnoses of leukemia and aplastic anemia. Results: Suggested causes in our patients were chemotherapeutics, hypertension, infection and antimicrobial drug administration, tumor lysis syndrome, acute renal failure and hemodialysis, immunosuppressive drug administration, and hypomagnesemia. One of the patients died of sepsis, renal failure and pulmonary hemorrhage and another died of relapse after total recovery from PRES. The other four patients are under follow-up without problems. Conclusion: We suggest that PRES can recover fully with early diagnosis and treatment whereas it can show poor prognosis depending on the etiology.

  16. Aplastic anemia: A common hematological abnormality among peripheral pancytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldar Biswajit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aplastic anemia is a well-recognized form of marrow failure. The incidence of aplastic anemia is subjected to wide variation. Most cases are acquired and immune-mediated but there are also inherited forms. Aim: The study was conducted to assess the magnitude of the problem, morphological changes and determinants of aplastic anemia in North Bengal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study had been conducted for a period of one year among 5 to 70 years age group. Initially complete blood count followed by bone marrow examination was done for diagnosis. Results: Out of 48 cases, 38 (79.17% had hypocellular diagnosed as aplastic anemia, 5 (10.42% each had normocellular and hypercellular bone marrow. Histopathology shows that 30 (78.95% cases had increased iron stores in bone marrow and 8 (21.05% cases had decreased iron stores. Subjects less than 20 years of age mostly (31.58% suffered from non-severe disease in contrast to subjects in higher age groups who had severe or very severe disease, though the trend was not significantly different (χ2 for linear trend 0.171, P > 0.05. Conclusion: The study shows aplastic anemia is a common hematological abnormality among peripheral pancytopenia in North Bengal region where males were affected more than females.

  17. TET proteins and 5-methylcytosine oxidation in hematological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myunggon; An, Jungeun; Pastor, William A; Koralov, Sergei B; Rajewsky, Klaus; Rao, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has pivotal regulatory roles in mammalian development, retrotransposon silencing, genomic imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. Cancer cells display highly dysregulated DNA methylation profiles characterized by global hypomethylation in conjunction with hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands that presumably lead to genome instability and aberrant expression of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. The recent discovery of ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family dioxygenases that oxidize 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) in DNA has led to profound progress in understanding the mechanism underlying DNA demethylation. Among the three TET genes, TET2 recurrently undergoes inactivating mutations in a wide range of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. TET2 functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor particularly in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies resembling chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in human. Here we review diverse functions of TET proteins and the novel epigenetic marks that they generate in DNA methylation/demethylation dynamics and normal and malignant hematopoietic differentiation. The impact of TET2 inactivation in hematopoiesis and various mechanisms modulating the expression or activity of TET proteins are also discussed. Furthermore, we also present evidence that TET2 and TET3 collaborate to suppress aberrant hematopoiesis and hematopoietic transformation. A detailed understanding of the normal and pathological functions of TET proteins may provide new avenues to develop novel epigenetic therapies for treating hematological malignancies.

  18. Gab Adapter Proteins as Therapeutic Targets for Hematologic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grb-2 associated binder (Gab family of scaffolding/adaptor/docking proteins is a group of three molecules with significant roles in cytokine receptor signaling. Gabs possess structural motifs for phosphorylation-dependent receptor recruitment, Grb2 binding, and activation of downstream signaling pathways through p85 and SHP-2. In addition, Gabs participate in hematopoiesis and regulation of immune response which can be aberrantly activated in cancer and inflammation. The multifunctionality of Gab adapters might suggest that they would be too difficult to consider as candidates for “targeted” therapy. However, the one drug/one target approach is giving way to the concept of one drug/multiple target approach since few cancers are addicted to a single signaling molecule for survival and combination drug therapies can be problematic. In this paper, we cover recent findings on Gab multi-functionality, binding partners, and their role in hematological malignancy and examine the concept of Gab-targeted therapy.

  19. Curcumin-induced Histone Acetylation in Malignant Hematologic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junbin HU; Yan WANG; Yan CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of curcumin on proliferation of hemato-logical malignant cells in vitro and the anti-tumor mechanism at histone acetylation/histone deacety-lation levels.The effects of curcumin and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on the growth of Raji cells were tested by MTT assay.The expression of acetylated histone-3 (H3) in Raji,HL60 and K562 cells,and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with curcumin or TSA was detected by immunohistochemistry and FACS.The results showed curcumin inhibited pro-liferation of Raji cells significantly in a time- and dose-dependent fashion,while exhibited low toxic-ity in PBMCs.Curcumin induced up-regulation of the expression of acetylated H3 dose-dependently in all malignant cell lines tested.In conclusion,curcumin inhibited proliferation of Raji cells selec-tively,enhanced the level of acetylated H3 in Raji,HL60,and K562 cells,which acted as a histone deacetylase inhibitor like TSA.Furthermore,up-regulation of H3 acetylation may play an important role in regulating the proliferation of Raji cells.

  20. Image and Histologic Characterization of Intracranial Neoplasias Caracterización tomográfica e histológica de las neoplasias intracraneales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rafael Rivera Prieto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Cuba, as in all developed countries, cancer is the second cause of death and among it the different types of intracranial neoplasms present a morbidity of 2-3 %. Among the diagnostic methods that can be used computarized tomography (CT-Scan and magnetic resonance image (MRI are the techniques that define the patient’s diagnosis and treatment in this type of neoplasm. Objective: to characterize intracranial neoplasm. Methods: a retrospective descriptive study that included the discharged patients operated from central nervous system neoplasms was carried out at the University General Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” from Cienfuegos province, from January 1st, 2003 to December 31st , 2007. All the patients had undergone a computarized tomography and had the histological post operatory diagnosis of primary or secondary neoplasms of the intracranial central nervous system. The variables under study were: sex, age, symptoms, location of the tumor, histological diagnosis, and tomography variables. Results: Neoplasms were predominant in males and in patients between 40 - 59 years of age. The most frequent symptom was headache, and its location in the frontal - parietal area. In 85, 7 % of the metastases a hypodense image was observed meanwhile in meningiomas a hyperdense image was seen. All tumors increased their density after contrast administration. The tomographic diagnosis coincided with the histological one in 85,7 % of gliomas, in 80 % of meningiomas and in 40 % of metastases. Conclusion: The computarized images of the cranium allow the inference of the histological type of intracranial neoplasms.Fundamento: en Cuba, al igual que en la mayoría de los países desarrollados, el cáncer ocupa la segunda causa de muerte y dentro de este, las neoplasias intracraneales tienen una morbilidad del 2-3 %. Entre los métodos de

  1. Advanced Endoscopic Imaging for Diagnosis of Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Neumann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopy in IBD has tremendous importance to diagnose inflammatory activity, to evaluate therapeutic success and for the surveillance of colitis associated cancer. Thus it becomes obvious that there is a need for new and more advanced endoscopic imaging techniques for better characterization of mucosal inflammation and early neoplasia detection in IBD. This paper describes the concept of advanced endoscopic imaging for the diagnosis and characterization of Crohn's disease, including magnification endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, balloon-assisted enteroscopy, capsule endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and endocytoscopy.

  2. The Analysis of Genetic Polymorphism. The Relationship between Interleukin – 4 Polymorphisms and Intraepithelial Cervical Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin STAMATIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Interleukin 4 plays a critical role in T helper 2 responses to HPV infection and angiogenesis. The present study aim to study the association between the IL4 promoter polymorphism – 590 C>T, respectively VNTR intron 2 polymorphism and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Material and method: We have realized a prospective case controls study that included 128 cases of intraepithelial neoplasia positive for HPV HR testing and 111 controls negative for intraepithelial lesion and also negative for HPV HR. Clinical examination was performed on each patient; blood and cervical sample were obtained. Cervical probes were analyzed regarding cytology and HPV HR testing. From peripheral blood DNA sample was obtain followed by genotype analysis for IL4 -590 C>T using PCR RFLP, respectively IL4 70 bp VNTR determined by PCR. Results: The absolute frequency of genotypes for IL4 -590 C>T was T/T-5, C/T-42, C/C-81 in the cases group respectively T/T-2, C/T-32, C/C-77 in the control group. The chi-square test had a value of 0.983 (p=0.321 while considering the presence of a minimum one single variant allele as a risk factor for cervical cancer, respectively 0.926 (p=0.336 for homozygous variant genotype. Odds ratio was 0.761 (95%CI [0.443-1.306] while considering C/T+T/T respectively 2R/3R, 2R/2R as a risk factor, and 0.451 (95%CI 95% [0.086-2.374] - TT respectively 2R/2R as a risk factor. Conclusion: No linear statistical significant association has been found between IL4 polymorphism and cervical neoplasia (p = 0.322.

  3. The role of apparent diffusion coefficient values in detecting testicular intraepithelial neoplasia: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsili, Athina C., E-mail: a_tsili@yahoo.gr [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Ntorkou, Alexandra, E-mail: alexdorkou@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Baltogiannis, Dimitrios, E-mail: Greece.dbaltog@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Goussia, Anna, E-mail: agoussia@uoi.gr [Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G., E-mail: astrakas@uoi.gr [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Malamou-Mitsi, Vasiliki, E-mail: vmalamou@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Sofikitis, Nikolaos, E-mail: akrosnin@hotmail.com [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I., E-mail: margyrop@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • ADC values proved useful in the discrimination between TGCNs and normal testis. • Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia represents the precursor of most TGCNs. • ADC values cannot be used to detect testicular intraepithelial neoplasia. - Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study is to improve detection of testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: Fifty-six MRI examinations of the scrotum, including 26 histologically proven testicular germ cell neoplasms were retrospectively evaluated. DWI was performed using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s mm{sup −2}. ADC measurements were classified into three groups according to their location: group 1 (n = 19), non-tumoral part, adjacent to testicular carcinoma, where the possible location of TIN was; group 2 (n = 26), testicular carcinoma; and group 3 (n = 60), normal testicular parenchyma. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc analysis (Dunnett T3) was used for statistical purposes. Results: The mean ± s.d. of ADC values (×10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) of different groups were: group 1, 1.08 ± 0.20; group 2, 0.72 ± 0.27; and group 3, 1.11 ± 0.14. ANOVA revealed differences of mean ADC between groups (F = 38.859, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed differences between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001), groups 2 and 1 (P < 0.001), but not between groups 3 and 1 (P = 0.87). Conclusions: Based on our preliminary results, ADC values do not provide a reliable differentiation between TIN and testicular carcinoma or normal testicular parenchyma.

  4. A profile of cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia at a large tertiary centre in dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwala, Tasneem H; Badawi, Faiza

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To study (1) the prevalence of different types of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) in the local and nonlocal population of women at Al Wasl Hospital, a tertiary level referral centre for northern Emirates, (2) the safety of cervical preparation before uterine evacuation, (3) the role of repeat uterine evacuation in curing these cases, and (4) the percentage of cases ultimately requiring chemotherapy. Material and Methods. Retrospective analysis of case records of 35 women with diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia were managed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Al Wasl Hospital, over a 2-year period between January 2007 to December 2008. Results. 35 cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia were seen in a 2-year period (January 2007 to December 2008) at Al Wasl Hospital, with 7000 deliveries per year, prevalence being 1 in 400 live births. 60% cases were local Arabs. Histopathology revealed complete mole in 13 cases, partial mole in 17 cases, hydropic degeneration of villi in 4 cases, and no identifiable tissue in 1 case. No cases of choriocarcinoma or placental site trophoblastic tumour were seen during the study period. 34% cases received cervical preparation with prostaglandins prior to surgical curettage. Complications were minor. 62% were cured by primary suction curettage, 12% after second (repeat) uterine evacuation, and 25% needed single drug chemotherapy. 8% cases defaulted after primary evacuation and were lost to followup. Conclusions. Prevalence of GTN in the local Arab population is similar to other Asian populations. The majority of cases are cured by simple suction uterine curettage. Cervical preparation with prostaglandins should be done in selected cases to avoid perforation during evacuation. Second (repeat) uterine evacuation can be curative in some cases with strict selection criteria and avoid the need for chemotherapy. Regional registry of cases is needed to estimate the true incidence of this

  5. The ISUP system of staging, grading and classification of renal cell neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamali Samaratunga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been significant changes in the staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia in recent times. Major changes have occurred in our understanding of extra-renal extension by renal cell cancer and how gross specimens must be handled to optimally display extra-renal spread. Since the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO classification of renal tumors, in which only a handful of different entities were reported, many new morphological types have been described in the literature, resulting in 50 different entities reported in the 2004 WHO classification. Since 2004, further new entities have been recognized and reported necessitating an update of the renal tumor classification. There have also been numerous grading systems for renal cell carcinoma with Fuhrman grading, the most widely used system. In recent times, the prognostic value and the applicability of the Fuhrman grading system in practice has been shown to be, at best, suboptimal. To address these issues and to recommend reporting guidelines, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP undertook a review of adult renal neoplasia through an international consensus conference in Vancouver in 2012. The conduct of the conference was based upon evidence from the literature and the current practice amongst recognized experts in the field. Working groups selected to deal with key topics evaluated current data and identified points of controversy. A pre-meeting survey of the ISUP membership was followed by the consensus conference at which a formal ballot was taken on each key issue. A 65% majority vote was taken as consensus. This review summarizes the outcome and recommendations of this conference with regards to staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia.

  6. A new insight into fecal hemoglobin concentration-dependent predictor for colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Wang, Po-En; Lin, Sheng-Che; Chen, Yao-Der; Liao, Chao-Sheng; Yeh, Yen-Po; Lee, Yi-Chia; Chiu, Han-Mo; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2014-09-01

    We sought to assess how much of the variation in incidence of colorectal neoplasia is explained by baseline fecal hemoglobin concentration (FHbC) and also to assess the additional predictive value of conventional risk factors. We enrolled subjects aged 40 years and over who attended screening for colorectal cancer with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in Keelung community-based integrated screening program. The accelerated failure time model was used to train the clinical weights of covariates in the prediction model. Datasets from two external communities were used for external validation. The area under curve (AUC) for the model containing only FHbC was 83.0% (95% CI: 81.5-84.4%), which was considerably greater than the one containing only conventional risk factors (65.8%, 95% CI: 64.2-67.4%). Adding conventional risk factors did not make significant additional contribution (p = 0.62, AUC = 83.5%, 95% CI: 82.1-84.9%) to the predictive model with FHbC only. Males showed a stronger linear dose-response relationship than females, yielding gender-specific FHbC predictive models. External validation confirms these results. The high predictive ability supported by a dose-dependent relationship between baseline FHbC and the risk of developing colorectal neoplasia suggests that FHbC may be useful for identifying cases requiring closer postdiagnosis clinical surveillance as well as being an early indicator of colorectal neoplasia risk in the general population. Our findings may also make contribution to the development of the FHbC-guided screening policy but its pros and cons in connection with cost and effectiveness of screening should be evaluated before it can be applied to population-based screening for colorectal cancer.

  7. Infecções fúngicas em pacientes pediátricos portadores de neoplasias

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rabelo de Carvalho, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Infecções fúngicas são freqüentes em pacientes com neoplasias, principalmente as crianças, devido à imaturidade do sistema imunológico e quando fazem uso de terapêuticas invasivas, internamento prolongado e medicamentos imunossupressores. O presente estudo teve como objetivos diagnosticar infecções fúngicas em crianças com câncer e relatar as espécies isoladas correlacionando com o tipo de câncer. Foram realizadas coletas no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz/ Centro de Oncologia...

  8. Risk of head-and-neck cancer following a diagnosis of severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, M F; Munk, C; Jensen, S M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 including adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN3/AIS) may be more prone to develop cancers of the ano-genital region and head-and-neck cancers. The current literature is, however, limited. METHODS: We established a nationwide...... intervals (CIs) for the association between CIN3/AIS and risk of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HRs were presented for any HNSCC and for four subgroups categorized by their anticipated degree of association with human papillomavirus (HPV). RESULTS: A history of CIN3/AIS was significantly...

  9. NEOPLASIA TROFOBLÁSTICA GESTACIONAL: HOSPITAL FÉLIX BULNES CERDA, 1992 - 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken S,Sergio; Benavides M.,Alicia; Smirnow S,Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar los hallazgos clínicos y el seguimiento de los casos de neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional. Material y Métodos: Se revisaron todos los casos de mola hidatidiforme en el Hospital Félix Bulnes Cerda, entre los años 1992 y 2002. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron 79 casos. La edad promedio de las pacientes fue 26,4 años. El diagnóstico de mola hidatidiforme fue sospechado clínicamente en 75,6% y en 24,4% fue hallazgo anatomopatológico. Los principales síntomas al ingreso fueron: d...

  10. Estudo comparativo entre citopatologia e histopatologia no diagnóstico de neoplasias caninas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Adelaide M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo comparativo entre os diagnósticos citológico e histopatológico em diversas neoplasias de 150 cães, pelas colorações de Wright, May-Grünwald-Giemsa, Novo Azul de Metileno e Papanicolau. Colorações histológicas como Hematoxilina-Eosina, van Gieson, Sudan, Azul de Toluidina e Ácido Periódico de Schiff também foram empregadas. Os dados revelaram uma eficácia de ordem de 85,3% no diagnóstico citopatológico, considerando-se os resultados histopatológicos como corretos. Em 4,0% dos casos somente a origem embrionária das neoplasias foi estabelecida. Em 1,3% das neoplasias apenas o prognóstico foi determinado; o diagnóstico citológico diferiu da histopatologia em 8,1% dos casos. Em dois casos (1,3% o diagnóstico citológico diferiu do histológico, mas um reexame determinou que o primeiro estava correto, o que elevou a sua eficácia para 86,6%. Entre as técnicas utilizadas, a punção aspirativa por agulha fina foi o melhor método para obter amostras. A citologia não foi adequada para o diagnóstico de neoplasias mamárias, dadas às variações morfológicas em diferentes áreas. A impressão em lâmina não é recomendada para análise de tumores mesenquimais e deve ser substituída pela citologia esfoliativa. O Wright revelou-se o método de coloração mais eficiente. As colorações adaptadas da histopatologia, van Gieson em leiomiomas e leiomiossarcomas, Sudan em lipomas e lipossarcomas, e Ácido Periódico de Schiff e Azul de Toluidina em mastocitomas, foram empregadas com sucesso fornecendo assim maior clareza de detalhes para as diversas neoformações de origem epitelial e mesenquimal.

  11. Detecção de glicoconjugados de lecitinas em neoplasias mamárias caninas

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerril, Juliana Evangelista

    2013-01-01

    Os tumores mamários representam aproximadamente 52%, de todas as neoplasias observadas em cadelas. Lecitinas são proteínas naturais de origem não imune, que se ligam a carboidratos. Por existir um grande número de lecitinas com capacidade de ligação com diferentes carboidratos, esta versátil molécula tem sido utilizada em diversos segmentos da pesquisa biológica. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo investigar, em tecido mamário canino, receptores das lecitinas UEA - Ulex europaeus (carqueja)...

  12. Nonfunctional Metastatic Parathyroid Carcinoma in the Setting of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A Syndrome

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    María Posada-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare malignancy. It has been associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome, familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1 and 2A (MEN-2A syndromes. We report a 54-year-old man with a MEN-2A which presents with a nonfunctional metastatic parathyroid carcinoma and a pheochromocytoma in the absence of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Only a few cases of parathyroid carcinoma have been reported in the literature associated with this syndrome.

  13. Actualización del diagnóstico y tratamiento de la neoplasia intraepitelial vulvar.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael E. Pérez Castro

    2011-01-01

    La Neoplasia Intraepitelial Vulvar (NIV) constituye lesiones potencialmente premalignas del epitelio escamoso de la vulva con diversos grados de diferenciación celular y maduración. En el aspecto histológico son hiperplasia de las células basales y parabasales, además tienen características genéticas morfológicas y metabólicas similares a las células cancerosas. Son etapas previas a la enfermedad. Generalmente las NIV se diagnostican como lesiones de alto grado (NIV I, II y III) o carcinoma i...

  14. Mapping of multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) to proximal chromosome 18 of the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luongo, C.; Gould, K.A.; Moser, A.R. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)); Su, Likuo; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B. (Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Dietrich, W.; Lander, E.S. (MIT, Cambridge (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia) mutation of the mouse has been mapped by analyzing the inheritance of restriction fragment length polymorphisms and simple sequence length polymorphisms in progeny from two intraspecific crosses segregating for the Min mutation. Min, a mutant allele of Apc, the mouse homo- log of the human APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene, maps to proximal chromosome 18. The synteny between Apc and Mcc, the mouse homolog of the human MCC (mutated in colorectal cancer) gene, is conserved between mouse and human, although the gene order in the Apc to Mcc interval is different from that in the APC to MCC interval. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Radiation-induced intestinal neoplasia in a genetically-predisposed mouse (Min)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellender, M.; Larder, S.M.; Harrison, J.D.; Cox, R.; Silver, A.R.J. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    A mouse lineage with inherited predisposition to multiple intestinal neoplasia (min) has been proposed as a model to study human colorectal cancer. Min mice are heterozygous for the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene implicated in human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). There is an increased risk of intestinal cancer in humans following radiation exposure and the min mouse model may be used to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. The present study showed a 2 Gy dose of x-rays doubles the tumour numbers in the murine gastrointestinal tract of F1 min heterozygotes. The distribution of tumours through the gut was also recorded. (authors)

  16. Epidemiología de las neoplasias linfoides. Incidencia atribuible al SIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos-Gragera, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada En los últimos 20-30 años se ha descrito una aumento significativo de la incidencia de las neoplasias linfoides, si bien las causas de dicho incremento no son del todo conocidas, parece que la mejora diagnóstica de dichas enfermedades y la epidemia del SIDA han contribuido en parte a la creciente incidencia reportada recientemente, pero en la gran mayoría de los casos los factores de riesgo son aún desconocidos. Los obje...

  17. Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia of the Testis, Bilateral Testicular Cancer, and Aberrant Histologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pranav; Dhillon, Jasreman; Sexton, Wade J

    2015-08-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, most of which are early stage. ITGCN is also associated with testicular cancer or ITGCN in the contralateral testis, leading to a risk of bilateral testicular malignancy. Testicular biopsy detects most cases, and orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with unilateral ITGCN. Low-dose radiation therapy is recommended in patients with bilateral ITGCN or ITGCN in the solitary testis, but the long-term risks of infertility and hypogonadism need to be discussed with the patient. Rare histologies of primary testicular cancer are also discussed.

  18. Osteoporosis in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I: A Case Report – Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtuluş Kaya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type I (MEN type-I is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common clinical expression in affected patients, present in more than 90% of cases. Osteoporosis is a frequent and early complication of primary hyperparathyroidism in MEN type I. A case with a diagnosis of MEN type-I, 39 years old, presented with humeral, femural and L4 vertebral fractures after falling is evaluated in the view of the literature in this case report. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2008;14:40-3

  19. RISK FACTORS FOR GESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC NEOPLASIA: A CASE CONTROL STUDY IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Sreedharan Nair

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational trophoblastic disease is a spectrum of proliferative abnormalities of the trophoblast. GTD represents a benign form of the disease while GTN is the malignant often metastatic lesion. 75-80 per cent of patients initially diagnosed as GTD will follow a benign course after dilatation and curettage. 15-20 per cent develop locally invasive disease and 3-5 per cent develop metastatic lesions. The study aims to assess the proportion of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia among women with gestational trophoblastic disease and identify the risk factors for chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case-control study conducted in a tertiary hospital during a 5-year period. Cases are gestational trophoblastic neoplasia diagnosed by either rising beta-HCG levels or plateauing beta-HCG levels or by histological evidence of choriocarcinoma. Controls are cases of gestational trophoblastic disease post evacuation with normal HCG regression at 8 weeks. There were 306 controls and 57 cases. RESULTS Tabulated and analysed using SPSS package. Of the 363 patients of gestational trophoblastic disease, 57 (15.7% needed chemotherapy. 98.2% belonged to the age group of 20-35 years. 63% had gestational age of more than 12 weeks, 56.1% had pre-evacuation HCG of more than 40,000. 15.7% needed combination therapy. CONCLUSION 1. 83.1% of patients belonged to age group of 20-30 years. 2. Blood group distribution of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease did not show any significance. 3. 15.7% of total patients were diagnosed to have gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that necessitated chemotherapy. 4. When uterine size was more than 12 weeks, a statistically significant number of patients needed chemotherapy compared to non-chemotherapy group. 5. When BHCG values were more than 40,000, a statistically significant number of patients needed chemotherapy. 6. A risk score of seven or more was found to

  20. Hematological effects of ionizing radiations 7. April 1, 1949--February 28, 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low-Beer, B.V.A.; Aggeler, P.M.

    1950-12-31

    A total of 32 patients were treated with X rays generated by 100 200, and 1000 kv. Individual exposures varied from 5 to 50 r measured on the body surface.at each treatment. The total accumulated doses varied from 100 to 390 r total-body dose as measured on the skin. The calculated tissue dose in the central plane of the body varied from approximately 60 to 264 r. The total elapsed time from the first to the last treatment varied between 5 and 92 days. The 32 patients treated in this manner were followed hematologically for periods as long as possible after treatment. The longest period of observation for any member of the group is six and one-half years, the average for the group as a whole is approximately four years. A total of 22 patients were treated with radiophosphorus for advanced generalized arthritis between September 1946 and May 1948. The longest observation period for this group is three years. These patients received individual doses at weekly intervals by the intravenous route, varying from 700 to 2000 {mu}c of p{sup 32} in the form of an aqueous solution of disodium hydrogen phosphate. The total dose varied from 3600 to 8000 {mu}c, and the treatment period varied from 7 to 21 days, with the exception of two patients who received their treatment in a period of 40 and 41 days, respectively. The third group of patients, a total of 33, consisted of those who received radioiodine treatment for Graves, Disease and for thyroid malignancy. Carrier-free I{sup 131} in the form of sodium iodide was administered orally in amounts varying from a few hundred microcuries to 100,000 {mu}c in a single dose. Since May 1948, patients treated with radioiodine constitute the only new additions to our series.

  1. Frequency of clinically occult intraepithelial and invasive neoplasia in reduction mammoplasty specimens: a study of 516 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, Jorge; Kluk, Michael; Geramizadeh, Bita; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

    2008-01-01

    Reduction mammoplasty is a frequently performed procedure for the treatment of macromastia and for the achievement of symmetry in breast cancer patients following lumpectomy. Slides from 516 consecutive bilateral reduction mammoplasties performed for macromastia over 15 years were reviewed. Among these, 92 (18%) low-risk ductal intraepithelial neoplasia/intraductal hyperplasia, 28 (5%) ductal intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (1 low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ, 11 atypical intraductal hyperplasia, and 16 flat type), 17 (3%) lobular intraepithelial neoplasia, and 1 (0.2%) tubular carcinoma were identified. The patients were categorized into 3 age groups: clinically occult malignancies identified in reduction mammoplasty specimens and provide substantial information about the frequency of a variety of intraepithelial proliferations. Preoperative mammography, specimen orientation, and inking of margins with 1 color are advised when reduction mammoplasty is scheduled for women>or=40 years of age.

  2. Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination...... with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order...... to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. METHODS: Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias...

  3. Technicon H*1 Hematology System: Optical Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, G. M.; Tycko, D. H.; Groner, W.

    1988-06-01

    The Technicon H*1 systemTM is a clinical laboratory flow cytometer which performs a complete hematology profile, providing quantitative information on the various types of cells in a blood sample. A light-scattering method, using a HeNe laser, determines in a single flow channel the red cell count, platelet count, and the distributions of red cell volume, red cell hemoglobin concentration, and platelet volume. To accomplish this the scattered light from each red cell in the sample is measured in real time at two angular intervals. The cell volume and the hemoglobin concentration within the cell are derived from these two measurements. Severe accuracy and precision specifications are placed on the medically important red cell count (RBC) and the mean red cell volume (MCV). From the point of view of optical system design, the dominant factor is the requirement that RBC and MCV have precision and accuracy of the order of 2%. Signal-to-noise and scattering-angle definition requirements dictated the choice of a HeNe laser light source. The optics includes an illumination system for producing a sharply defined, uniformly illuminated scattering region and a detection system which must accurately define the accepted scattering angles. In previous cytometric methods for determining MCV only a single quantity was measured for each cell. Such methods cannot disentangle the independent effects of cell size and hemoglobin concentration on the measurement, thus compromising MCV accuracy. The present double-angle scattering method overcomes this accuracy problem. The H*1 red cell method, the supporting optical design and data demonstrating that the use of this technique eliminates interference between the observed red cell indices are presented.

  4. Acquired uniparental disomy of chromosome 9p in hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linghua; Wheeler, David A; Prchal, Josef T

    2016-08-01

    Acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) is a common and recurrent molecular event in human cancers that leads to homozygosity for tumor suppressor genes as well as oncogenes, while retaining the diploid chromosomal complement. Because of the lack of copy number change, aUPD is undetectable by comparative genome hybridization, so the magnitude of this genetic change was underappreciated in the past. 9p aUPD was first described in 2002 in patients with polycythemia vera (PV). Since then, systematic application of genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays has indicated that 9p aUPD is the most common chromosomal aberration in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), contributing to discovery of the PV-defining mutation JAK2V617F21. It was also found in other myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, though at a relatively lower frequency. By leading to JAK2V617F 23 homozygosity, 9p aUPD plays a causal role in the development of PV and is also associated with less favorable clinical outcomes. It is also possible that new targets other than JAK2V617F 25 are present within 9p aUPD that may contribute to diversity of PV outcome and phenotype. This review summarizes recent discoveries on 9p aUPD in hematologic malignancies and discusses possible underlying mechanisms and potential roles of 9p aUPD in the pathogenesis of PV, the relationship between 9p aUPD and JAK2V617F29, and possible new cancer-related targets within the 9p aUPD region.

  5. Association of the Genetic Polymorphisms RRM1 -756T>C and -269C>A With Cervical Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Po-Hui; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Liu, Wen-Chi; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting

    2016-10-01

    Cervical neoplasia is one of the most prevalent malignant neoplasms worldwide. Ribonucleotide reductase 1 (RRM1) is thought to play an essential role in modulating the development and progression of cervical neoplasia. Two novel genetic polymorphisms, RRM1 -756T>C and -269 C>A, are significantly correlated with RRM1 expression. Some epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetic variants play a crucial role in susceptibility to cervical cancer. The present study aimed to identify the genetic polymorphisms RRM1 -756T>C and -269 C>A in patients with cervical neoplasia and healthy controls. In total, 493 subjects, comprising 324 healthy controls and 169 patients with cervical neoplasia, were enrolled for this study. The allelic discrimination of the RRM1 -756T>C (rs11030918) and -269C>A (rs12806698) polymorphisms was assessed using the ABI StepOne™ real-time polymerase chain reaction system and analyzed using Software Design Specification (SDS), Version 3.0, software with TaqMan assays. The risk of cervical cancer was examined, revealing adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1.25 [0.51, 3.08] and 1.09 [0.43, 2.78] for individuals with CC alleles of RRM1 -756T>C and for individuals with AA alleles of RRM1 -269C>A genetic polymorphisms, respectively, compared to individuals with wild-type RRM1 genetic polymorphisms. No significant genetic interaction effect was observed in susceptibility to cervical neoplasia, and no association was found between genetic polymorphisms and clinical statuses of invasive cervical cancer. The genetic polymorphisms RRM1 -756T>C and -269C>A may not be a factor for susceptibility to cervical neoplasia.

  6. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated neoplasia: a promising model for the development of chemopreventive interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margie Lee CLAPPER; Harry Stanley COOPER; Wen-Chi Lee CHANG

    2007-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with ulcerative colitis face a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal dysplasia and cancer during their lifetime. To date, little attention has been given to the development of a chemopreventive intervention for this high-risk population. The mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis represents an excellent preclinical system in which to both charac-terize the molecular events required for tumor formation in the presence of inflam-marion and assess the ability of select agents to inhibit this process. Cyclic admin-istration of DSS in drinking water results in the establishment of chronic colitis and the development of colorectal dysplasias and cancers with pathological fea-tures that resemble those of human colitis-associated neoplasia. The incidence and multiplicity of lesions observed varies depending on the mouse strain used (ie, Swiss Webster, C57BL/6J, CBA, ICR) and the dose (0.7%-5.0%) and schedule (1-15 cycles with or without a subsequent recovery period) of DSS. The incidence of neoplasia can be increased and its progression to invasive cancer accelerated significantly by administering DSS in combination with a known colon carcinogen(azoxymethane (AOM), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)) or iron. More recent induction of colitis-associated neoplasia in genetically defined mouse strains has provided new insight into the role of specific genes (ie, adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc),p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Msh2) in the development of colitis-associated neoplasias. Emerging data from chemopreventive intervention studies document the efficacy of several agents in inhibiting DSS-induced neoplasia and provide great promise that colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia is a pre-ventable disease.

  7. Perbedaan Ekspresi P16INK4a dan HPVL1 pada Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 1, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 2, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 dan Squamous Cell Carcinoma Serviks Uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Elizabeth Padang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV memegang peranan penting dalam proses karsinogenesis kanker serviksuteri; namun hanya sebagian kecil wanita yang terinfeksi tersebut akan berkembang menjadi kankerserviks yang invasif. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN merupakan spektrum dari lesi servikalyang mewakili lesi prekursor dari squamous cell carcinoma (SCC serviks uteri yang dikategorikanmenjadi CIN1, CIN2, CIN3. Interaksi protein HPV (E6 dan E7 dengan protein pengatur selular (pRbdan p53 akan menyebabkan up regulation protein P16INK4a. P16INK4a merupakan tumor supresorprotein cyclin dependen kinase inhibitor yang menghambat cyclin dependent kinase 4 dan 6 yangmerupakan produk dari gen INK4a yang terlibat dalam fosforilasi protein retinoblastoma (pRb.Human papillomavirus-late 1 (HPVL1 merupakan protein kapsid yang terekspresi pada saat awalfase produktif karsinogenesis serviks uteri. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahuiperbedaan ekspresi protein P16INK4a dan HPVL1 pada CIN1, CIN2, CIN3, dan SCC serviks uteri,dimana ekspresi P16INK4a dapat membantu untuk membedakan berbagai derajat displasia serviksuteri dan ekspresi HPVL1 dapat membantu untuk memprediksi progresivitas dari berbagai derajatdisplasia serviks uteri, sehingga penanganan pasien menjadi lebih tepat. [MEDICINA 2013;44:77-81].

  8. Exclusion of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C beta 3 (PLC beta 3) gene as candidate for the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M J; Landsvater, R M; Sinke, R J; Geurts van Kessel, A; Lips, C J; Höppener, J W

    1997-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by hyperplasia and neoplasia in several endocrine organs. The MEN 1 gene, which is most probably a tumor suppressor gene, has been localized to a 900-kb region on chromosome 11q13. The human pho

  9. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  10. Caracterización de la neoplasia intraepitelial cervical en mujeres atendidas en el policlínico Jimmy Hirzel

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Margarita Sánchez Alarcón; Odalis Alarcon Chang; Annia Saavedra Díaz; Edita Ros Garcés; Norbelys Moreno Jeréz

    2015-01-01

    Fundamento: el cáncer de cuello uterino es, después del cáncer de mama, el que más frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La detección y tratamiento temprano de las neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales garantizan la calidad de vida ante esta afección. Objetivos: caracterizar a las pacientes con neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales que son atendidas en el policlínico “Jimmy Hirzel” en el municipio Bayamo, provincia Granma, en el período comprendido entre enero y diciembre de 2013. Métodos: se r...

  11. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  12. Clinical value of tumor doubling estimations in multiple endocrine neoplasia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C E; Talpos, G B; Block, M A; Norum, R A; Lloyd, R V; Tashjian, A H

    1984-12-01

    Experience with children with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb has emphasized that medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in MEN IIb is more aggressive than in MEN IIa. Earlier ages of onset and apparently more rapid growth of MTC in MEN IIb suggest that these tumors have earlier ages of conversion to malignant states and/or shorter doubling times. The age at which a hyperplastic C cell becomes a malignant cell and the true doubling time cannot be estimated presently. Maximum volume-doubling times of 35 and 75 days (21 to 26 doublings) were calculated from tumor size and age at operation in five patients with MEN IIb aged 2 to 5 years. Calculations in 20 patients with MEN IIa revealed maximum doubling times of 110 to 440 days, with ages ranging from 7 to 29 years and number of doubling ranging from 18 to 38. Positive provocative calcitonin tests in two adult patients with MEN IIa after 10 to 11 years of repeated negative tests suggest a minimum doubling time of 190 to 210 days. Such experience emphasizes that negative stimulated calcitonin tests less than 11 years after operation do not provide assurance of cures for MTC in MEN IIa although negative tests after more than 5 years for MEN IIb are encouraging. Calculations of volume doublings accounting for various-sized tumors are compatible with Knudson's two-mutational-event theory on the initiation of neoplasia.

  13. Lower motor neuron degeneration and familial predisposition to colonic neoplasia in two adult siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, P J; Ince, P G; Slade, J; Burn, J; Cartlidge, N E

    1991-11-01

    A previously unreported association between a familial predisposition to colonic neoplasia and familial adult onset lower motor neuron (LMN) degeneration is reported. Two brothers presented at the ages of 53 and 44 years with multiple colonic adenomata and invasive colonic carcinoma respectively. Subsequently both developed a virtually identical pattern of motor neuron disease of progressive muscular atrophy type. At presentation both had LMN weakness affecting predominantly the upper limb and neck muscles. The disease progressed rapidly to involve the lower limb and bulbar musculature and both brothers died after a 15 month course. Necropsy was performed on one brother and showed pathological changes confined to the LMNs with no evidence of involvement of the pyramidal tracts or motor cortex. The combination of these diseases in two brothers may be of importance in the search for genes responsible for familial motor neuron disorders. It is suggested that a genomic search should be directed initially to the vicinity of known colon neoplasia genes, particularly 5q, 17q and 18q.

  14. Clinical features and anesthetic management of multiple endocrine neoplasia as sociated with pheochromocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗爱伦; 郭向阳; 任洪智; 黄宇光; 叶铁虎

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical features and anesthetic management of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) associated with pheochromocytoma.Methods Medical records of patients who were diagnosed as multiple endocrine neoplasia a ssociated with pheochromocytoma in our hospital from April 1977 to April 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic data, clinical presentations, fami ly history, biochemical examinations, type of MEN, sequence of different surgica l procedures, anesthetic methods and hemodynamics during surgery were analyzed. Results Thirteen cases of MEN associated with pheochromocytoma were investigated, accounting for 6% (13/213) of the pheochromocytoma patients admitted into our hospital. Nine of the 13 patients presented as type Ⅱa MEN (Sipple syndrome), on e as type Ⅱb MEN, and three as mixed MEN. Four patients with typeⅡa MEN had a family history of similar disease. Five patients with other coexisting endocri ne disorders first underwent excision of the pheochromocytomas, although only tw o had hypertensive symptoms at the time of admittance. Seven patients without h istories of hypertension received surgical treatment for pheochromocytoma second ly. The excision of pheochromocytoma was performed under general anesthesia in 8 patients and epidural block in 4 patients. Marked hemodynamic fluctuation was recorded in 8 patients. No perioperative death was recorded. Conclusion Pheochromocytoma may be linked to other endocrine disorders during MEN, either as the main clinical presentation or most frequently as an occult tumor. Recognition of this feature of pheochromocytoma is of importance to the improvement of diagnosis and treatment both for pheochromocytoma and MEN.

  15. Prognostic Significance of Immunohistochemical Phenotypes in Patients Treated for High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Origoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong evidence exists that the host’s immune system plays a crucial role for the development of human papillomavirus-related cervical premalignant and malignant lesions. In particular, effective cell-mediated immunity (CMI promotes spontaneous infection clearance and cancer precursors regression in healthy subjects, while immunosuppressed individuals are more likely to experience infection persistence, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN lesions, and cervical cancer. In this study, the prognostic significance of immunohistochemical profiling of CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, dendritic cells (CD11c+, T-bet+, and GATA-3+ transcription factors has been studied in surgical specimens of 34 consecutive women affected by high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3 submitted to cervical conization. Results have been correlated with the clinical outcomes at 24 months after treatment and statistically analyzed. Higher rates of CD4+ T-cells, CD11c+ dendritic cells, and T-bet+ transcription factor positivity showed a strong statistically significative correlation with favourable clinical outcomes (P≤0.0001. These data reinforce the evidence of the relevance of the host’s immune status in the natural history of HPV-related cervical disease and add a prognostic significance of the cervical immunological profile in terms of predicting significant lower recurrence rates.

  16. Loss of adipose triglyceride lipase is associated with human cancer and induces mouse pulmonary neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Pichler, Martin; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Haybaeck, Johannes; Jahn, Stephan W; Lackner, Carolin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Popper, Helmut; Schauer, Silvia; Nusshold, Elisa; Kindt, Alida S D; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Speicher, Michael R; Haemmerle, Guenther; Zimmermann, Robert; Zechner, Rudolf; Vesely, Paul W; Hoefler, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Understanding cancer metabolism is instrumental to devise innovative therapeutic approaches. Anabolic metabolism, including the induction of lipogenic enzymes, is a key feature of proliferating cells. Here, we report a novel tumor suppressive function for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate limiting enzyme in the triglyceride hydrolysis cascade.In immunohistochemical analysis, non-small cell lung cancers, pancreatic adenocarcinoma as well as leiomyosarcoma showed significantly reduced levels of ATGL protein compared to corresponding normal tissues. The ATGL gene was frequently deleted in various forms of cancers. Low levels of ATGL mRNA correlated with significantly reduced survival in patients with ovarian, breast, gastric and non-small cell lung cancers. Remarkably, pulmonary neoplasia including invasive adenocarcinoma developed spontaneously in mice lacking ATGL pointing to an important role for this lipase in controlling tumor development.Loss of ATGL, as detected in several forms of human cancer, induces spontaneous development of pulmonary neoplasia in a mouse model. Our results, therefore, suggest a novel tumor suppressor function for ATGL and contribute to the understanding of cancer metabolism. We propose to evaluate loss of ATGL protein expression for the diagnosis of malignant tumors. Finally, modulation of the lipolytic pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of human cancer.

  17. Detecting N-RAS Q61R Mutated Thyroid Neoplasias by Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, A; Fulciniti, F; Bongiovanni, M; Giovanella, L; Trimboli, Pierpaolo

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) for N-RAS Q61R has been developed and commercialized for clinical practice. Here, we investigated the reliability of IHC to identify N-RAS Q61R mutated thyroid neoplasia. A series of 24 consecutive thyroid lesions undergone surgery following indeterminate cytology were enrolled. Paraffin sections were stained for IHC using the rabbit monoclonal anti-human N-RAS Q61R, clone SP174. N-RAS mutations in codon 61 were also investigated by automated sequencing. At histology, 12 cases of follicular carcinoma, cytologically defined as follicular lesions, 1 papillary cancer, 7 follicular adenomas, and 4 hyperplastic nodules were found. Of these, 4 showed a positive IHC for anti N-RAS antibody where N-RAS expression was detected mainly at cytoplasmic level with similar intensity of reaction. The remaining cases had negative IHC. A 100% concordance between IHC and molecular analysis for N-RAS Q61R was observed. In conclusion, this study shows high reliability of IHC to identify N-RAS Q61R mutated thyroid lesions with high cost-effectiveness. These data indicate the reliability of IHC to identify N-RAS Q61R mutated thyroid neoplasia and suggest to adopt this approach for a more accurate management of patients, when indicated.

  18. Multiphoton imaging of low grade, high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and intramucosal invasive cancer of esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is devastating because of its aggressive lymphatic spread and clinical course. It is believed to occur through low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), and intramucosal invasive cancer (IMC) before transforming to submucosal cancer. In particular, these early lesions (LGIN, HGIN and IMC), which involve no lymph node nor distant metastasis, can be cured by endoscopic treatment. Therefore, early identification of these lesions is important so as to offer a curative endoscopic resection, thus slowing down the development of ESCC. In this work, spectral information and morphological features of the normal esophageal mucosa are first studied. Then, the morphological changes of LGIN, HGIN and IMC are described. Lastly, quantitative parameters are also extracted by calculating the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of epithelial cells and the pixel density of collagen in the lamina propria. These results show that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to identify normal esophageal mucosa, LGIN, HGIN and IMC. With the development of multiphoton endoscope systems for in vivo imaging, combined with a laser ablation system, MPM has the potential to provide immediate pathologic diagnosis and curative treatment of ESCC before the transformation to submucosal cancer in the future.

  19. Hyperspectral wide gap second derivative analysis for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenli; Wang, Chaojian; Chang, Shufang; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique has been used for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. However, the clinical outcome of this technique is suboptimal owing to multiple limitations such as nonuniform illumination, high-cost and bulky setup, and time-consuming data acquisition and processing. To overcome these limitations, we acquired the hyperspectral data cube in a wavelength ranging from 600 to 800 nm and processed it by a wide gap second derivative analysis method. This method effectively reduced the image artifacts caused by nonuniform illumination and background absorption. Furthermore, with second derivative analysis, only three specific wavelengths (620, 696, and 772 nm) are needed for tissue classification with optimal separability. Clinical feasibility of the proposed image analysis and classification method was tested in a clinical trial where cervical hyperspectral images from three patients were used for classification analysis. Our proposed method successfully classified the cervix tissue into three categories of normal, inflammation and high-grade lesion. These classification results were coincident with those by an experienced gynecology oncologist after applying acetic acid. Our preliminary clinical study has demonstrated the technical feasibility for in vivo and noninvasive detection of cervical neoplasia without acetic acid. Further clinical research is needed in order to establish a large-scale diagnostic database and optimize the tissue classification technique.

  20. Changes of hematological references depends on storage period and temperature conditions in rats and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Because changes in rat and dog hematological parameters according to storage conditions have been poorly documented, we sought to examine such changes. Blood analysis was performed using two hematology analyzers (ADVIA 2120i and Sysmex XN-V) after storage at room temperature and in cold storage for 5, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Interassay coefficients of variation for hematological parameters analyzed with the ADVIA 2120i and the XN-V showed similar. The levels of hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and platelet (PLT) showed significant variations with time in blood samples of rats and dogs. The leukocyte subpopulation showed high variation with storage conditions. The data for leukocyte differential counts obtained using the ADVIA 2120i, XN-V, and a manual differential counting procedure showed good agreement for neutrophils and lymphocyte counts, but monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils showed differences between the procedures. In conclusions, most rat and dog hematological parameters showed minimal changes; however, some showed high variation with storage time and temperature, especially PLT and leukocyte subpopulations. In conclusion, when performing hematological analysis in dogs and rats, it will be exactitude to analyze blood samples in fresh condition and at least within 24 h in the cold storage. PMID:28053618

  1. Hematologic responses to deferasirox therapy in transfusion-dependent patients with myelodysplastic syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattermann, Norbert; Finelli, Carlo; Della Porta, Matteo; Fenaux, Pierre; Stadler, Michael; Guerci-Bresler, Agnes; Schmid, Mathias; Taylor, Kerry; Vassilieff, Dominique; Habr, Dany; Marcellari, Andrea; Roubert, Bernard; Rose, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background Reductions in transfusion requirements/improvements in hematologic parameters have been associated with iron chelation therapy in transfusion-dependent patients, including those with myelodysplastic syndromes; data on there reductions/improvements have been limited to case reports and small studies. Design and Methods To explore this observation in a large population of patients, we report a post-hoc analysis evaluating hematologic response to deferasirox in a cohort of iron-overloaded patients with myelodysplastic syndromes enrolled in the Evaluation of Patients’ Iron Chelation with Exjade® (EPIC) study using International Working Group 2006 criteria. Results Two-hundred and forty-seven, 100 and 50 patients without concomitant medication for myelodysplastic syndromes were eligible for analysis of erythroid, platelet and neutrophil responses, respectively. Erythroid, platelet and neutrophil responses were observed in 21.5% (53/247), 13.0% (13/100) and 22.0% (11/50) of the patients after a median of 109, 169 and 226 days, respectively. Median serum ferritin reductions were greater in hematologic responders compared with non-responders at end of study, although these differences were not statistically significant. A reduction in labile plasma iron to less than 0.4 μmol/L was observed from week 12 onwards; this change did not differ between hematologic responders and non-responders. Conclusions This analysis suggests that deferasirox treatment for up to 1 year could lead to improvement in hematologic parameters in some patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:22419577

  2. Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations.

  3. Development of the family symptom inventory: a psychosocial screener for children with hematology/oncology conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Cynthia W; Haynes, Stacey; Faith, Melissa A; Elkin, Thomas D; Smith, Maria L; Megason, Gail

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of literature has begun to underscore the importance of integrating family-based comprehensive psychological screening into standard medical care for children with oncology and hematology conditions. There are no known family-based measures designed to screen for clinically significant emotional and behavioral concerns in pediatric oncology and hematology patients. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the Family Symptom Inventory (FSI), a brief screener of patient and family member psychological symptoms. The FSI also screens for common comorbid physical symptoms (pain and sleep disturbance) and is designed for use at any point during treatment and follow-up. A total of 488 caregivers completed the FSI during regular hematology/oncology visits for 193 cancer, 219 sickle cell disease, and 76 hematology pediatric patients. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and tests of reliability and preliminary validity were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a 34-item, 4-factor solution, which was confirmed in an independent sample using confirmatory factor analysis (factor loadings=0.49 to 0.88). The FSI demonstrated good internal reliability (α's=0.86 to 0.92) and good preliminary validity. Regular psychosocial screening throughout the course of treatment and follow-up may lead to improved quality of care for children with oncology and hematology conditions.

  4. Phase I study of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin by oral route in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Andersen, E; Elbaek, K

    1988-01-01

    In a phase I trial 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (4-dm DNR) was administered as oral capsules once a week to 51 adults with advanced mainly gastrointestinal solid tumors. No fatal toxicity was observed at doses up to 25.0 mg/m2. Dose-limiting granulocytopenia and non-hematologic toxicity developed...

  5. Simulating Four Essential Conversations with Hematology/Oncology Trainees: a Qualitative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutakis, Konstantinos; Anders, Michael; Berry, Katherine

    2016-03-01

    Hematologists/oncologists have a crucial responsibility to effectively communicate with patients. However, they have been criticized for ineffective communication with patients. To develop effective communication behaviors that meet the needs of patients and families, trainees need practice and feedback about their performance. Medical faculties frequently teach communication skills using simulation-based curricula; however, they often include only general communication skills, without tailored approaches for specialties. This study examined Hematology/Oncology trainees' qualitative perceptions about the value of and techniques used for simulations of specialty specific, essential conversations with patients and families, and debriefing sessions. Results demonstrate a highly effective curriculum and positive learner experiences. While most reports on this topic take place within major academic cancer centers, outcomes from a mid-sized Hematology/Oncology training program are unknown. The study confirms feasibility for implementing a simulation-based communications program in a mid-sized Hematology/Oncology program and describes simulation techniques that were effective.

  6. Three cases of hematologic malignancies in pregnancy: Still difficult to diagnose and hard to treat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Bozoklu Akkar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hematologic malignancies during pregnancy are rare and there is often a delay in diagnosis because of the similarity of symptoms to those of pregnancy. Therefore the management of disease necessitates many medical, psychological, social, and ethical problems for the patient and physician to deal with and a multidisciplinary approach of a medical team consisting of hematologist, obstetrician and pediatrician. Here, we present three cases of hematologic malignancies during pregnancy; acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that were admitted to our clinic with different clinical presentation. There is a need for measures to increase the awareness of health workers related to hematologic malignancies during antenatal care.

  7. Effect of Resistance Training on Hematological Blood Markers in Older Men and Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bobeuf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training on hematological blood markers in older individuals. Twenty-nine men and women participated to this study. Subjects were randomized in 2 groups: (1 control (n=13 and (2 resistance training (n=16. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects were submitted to a blood sample to determine their hematological profile (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width. At baseline, no difference was observed between groups. Moreover, we found no significant difference after the intervention on any of these markers. A 6-month resistance program in healthy older individuals seems to have no beneficial nor deleterious effects on hematological blood parameters. However, resistance training was well tolerated and should be recommended for other health purposes. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in a large population.

  8. Multicenter study in monitoring central venous catheters complications in hematologic patiennts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen García Gabás

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most hematological patients suffer a significant venous damage related to different administrated intravenous therapy, being necessary to place central venous catheters (CVC. CVC is associated with various complications. The most common catheter-related complications are occlusion and infection. To avoid such of them, the development of protocols for insertion and care are needed, as well as recording and following up complications. To this end, we propose a cross-sectional carried out during 13 months whose main goal is to know the incidence of CVC- related complications (mainly occlusion and infection in hematological patients.Population included all the =14 ages patients admitted to different hematological units at Ramon y Cajal and Gregorio Marañón hospitals in Madrid and who signed informed consent. Socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and complications were entered into a log which included a pursuit of care protocol.

  9. Endoscopic video-autofluorescence imaging followed by narrow band imaging for detecting early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Kara; F.P. Peters; P. Fockens; F.J.W. ten Kate; J.J.G.H.M. Bergman

    2006-01-01

    Background: Video-autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and narrow band imaging (NBI) are new endoscopic techniques that may improve the detection of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) in Barrett's esophagus (BE). AFI improves the detection of lesions but may give false-positive findings. NBI allo

  10. EUS is superior for detection of pancreatic lesions compared with standard imaging in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, S.J. van; Brouwers, A.H.; Dullemen, H.M. van; Jagt, E.J. van der; Bongaerts, A.H.; Kema, I.P.; Koopmans, K.P.; Valk, G.D.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Herder, W.W. de; Feelders, R.A.; Fockens, P.; Sluiter, W.J.; Vries, E.G. de; Links, T.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are the leading MEN1-related cause of death. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate EUS and (11)C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography ((11)C-5-HTP PET), compared with the recommended screening techniques

  11. Randomized trial on endoscopic resection-cap versus multiband mucosectomy for piecemeal endoscopic resection of early Barrett's neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, Roos E.; van Vilsteren, Frederike G. I.; Peters, Femke P.; Herrero, Lorenza Alvarez; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Visser, Mike; Schenk, Boudewijn E.; Schoon, Erik J.; Peters, Frans T. M.; Houben, Martin; Bisschops, Raf; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic resection (ER) is an important treatment for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and early cancer in Barrett's esophagus. ER-cap requires submucosal lifting and positioning of a snare in the cap, making it technically demanding and laborious. Multiband mucosectomy (MBM) uses

  12. Randomized trial on endoscopic resection-cap versus multiband mucosectomy for piecemeal endoscopic resection of early Barrett's neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Pouw; F.G.I. van Vilsteren; F.P. Peters; L. Alvarez Herrero; F.J.W. ten Kate; M. Visser; B.E. Schenk; E.J. Schoon; F.T.M. Peters; M. Houben; R. Bisschops; B.L.A.M. Weusten; J.J.G.H.M. Bergman

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic resection (ER) is an important treatment for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and early cancer in Barrett's esophagus. ER-cap requires submucosal lifting and positioning of a snare in the cap, making it technically demanding and laborious. Multiband mucosectomy (MBM) uses a modified v

  13. Multiple endocrine neoplasia phenocopy revealed as a co-occurring neuroendocrine tumor and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, Silje; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Nissen, Peter H;

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 should be considered as differential diagnosis in patients with suspected primary hyperparathyroidism and/or suspected multiple neoplasia syndrome, as correct diagnosis will spare the patients for going through multiple futile parathyroidectomies and fo...... and for the worry of being diagnosed with a cancer susceptibility syndrome....

  14. Transporter function and cyclic AMP turnover in normal colonic mucosa from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleberg, Karen; Jensen, Gerda Majgaard; Christensen, Dan Ploug

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia is still unresolved but has been associated with alterations in epithelial clearance of xenobiotics and metabolic waste products. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the transport of cyclic nucleotides in colonic biopsies from patients w...

  15. BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS IS NOT IMPORTANT IN THE ETIOLOGY OF CERVICAL NEOPLASIA - A SURVEY ON WOMEN WITH DYSKARYOTIC SMEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, AM; PIETERS, WJLM; HOLLEMA, H; QUINT, WGV; BURGER, MPM

    1995-01-01

    Background and Objectives: It has been suggested that bacterial vaginosis may play a role in the etiology of cervical neoplasia. The authors analyzed the prevalence, risk factors, and impact on histologic changes of bacterial vaginosis in women with cytological abnormalities of the uterine cervix. M

  16. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...

  17. Acromegaly in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family with low penetrance of the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, KMA; van Beek, AP; Lentjes, EGWM; Post, JG; van der Luijt, RB; Carnninga-van Dijk, MR; Lips, CJM

    2005-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of tumours in the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, the pituitary gland and the adrenal glands and by neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours, often at a young age. The penetrance of MEN1 a

  18. EUS is superior for detection of pancreatic lesions compared with standard imaging in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Sophie J.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; van Dullemen, Hendrik M.; van der Jagt, Eric J.; Bongaerts, Alfons H. H.; Kema, Ido P.; Koopmans, Klaas P.; Valk, Gerlof D.; Timmers, Henri J.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Feelders, Richard A.; Fockens, Paul; Sluiter, Wim J.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Links, Thera P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are the leading MEN1-related cause of death. Objective: To evaluate EUS and C-11-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography (C-11-5-HTP PET), compared with the recommended screening techniques i

  19. Relapse rates after two versus three consolidation courses of methotrexate in the treatment of low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lybol, C.; Sweep, F.C.; Harvey, R.; Mitchell, H.; Short, D.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Savage, P.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Seckl, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate (MTX) alternating with folinic acid is a commonly used treatment regimen for low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). In The Netherlands, two courses of MTX are administered after normalization of serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels (consolidation cour

  20. Long-term absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse following human papillomavirus infection: role of persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Susanne K; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk;

    2010-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type-specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection...

  1. TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (TOPIC trial): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Koeneman (Margot); A.J. Kruse; L.F.S. Kooreman; A. Zur Hausen (Axel); A.H.N. Hopman (Anton); S.J.S. Sep (Simone); T. van Gorp (Toon); A.H.L. Slangen (Arjen); H.J. van Beekhuizen (Heleen); M. van de Sande; C.G. Gerestein (Kees); H.W. Nijman (Hans); R.F.M.P. Kruitwagen (Roy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the premalignant condition of cervical cancer. Whereas not all high grade CIN lesions progress to cervical cancer, the natural history and risk of progression of individual lesions remain unpredictable. Therefore, high-grade CIN is

  2. TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (TOPIC trial) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, M. M.; Kruse, A. J.; Kooreman, L. F. S.; zur Hausen, A.; Hopman, A. H. N.; Sep, S. J. S.; van Gorp, T.; Slangen, B. F. M.; van Beekhuizen, H. J.; van de Sande, M.; Gerestein, C. G.; Nijman, H. W.; Kruitwagen, R. F. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the premalignant condition of cervical cancer. Whereas not all high grade CIN lesions progress to cervical cancer, the natural history and risk of progression of individual lesions remain unpredictable. Therefore, high-grade CIN is currently tr

  3. Comparing Benign and Malignant Neoplasia and DSB Induction for Low-and High-LET Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Fredric; (Eric) Tang, Moon-Shong; Wu, Feng

    One-and 2-stage models based on DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) have been developed to describe the dose and LET dependence of cancer induction in rat skin exposed to the Bragg plateau of several ion beams or electron radiation. Data are presented showing that carcinomas (malignant) and fibromas (benign) are induced differently by low and high LET radiation. DSBs are subject to complex repair processes, including homologous and non-homologous end joining, that slowly eliminate broken chromosome ends but at the expense of elevating genomic instability that increases the risk of neoplasia. In this formulation the initial molecular lesion in radiation carcinogenesis is assumed to be a DNA double strand break (DSB). The 2-event model assumes that pairs of DSBs join to create cellular genomic instability that eventually progresses to malignancy. The 1-event model assumes that joining is insignificant but that unrepaired DSBs remain and are sufficiently destabilizing to produce low-grade neoplasias. The respective expected relationships between neoplasia yield (Y), radiation dose (D) and LET (L) are: Y(D) = CLD + BD2 (A) for 2-events and Y(D) = CLD (B) for 1-event. Respective B and C values have been evaluated empirically for carcinomas, fibromas and DSBs, the latter via the -H2Ax technique in surrogate keratinocytes, for several types of radiations, including, 40Ar ions, 56Fe ions, 20Ne ions, protons, electrons and x-rays. Fibromas outnumber carcinomas by about 6:1 but are more sensitive than carcinomas to the cytolethal effect of the radiations. The 2-event model agrees well with carcinoma yields in rat skin but fails to model fibromas correctly. Instead the fibroma yields best fitted with the 1-event model for the high LET ion radiations, but at very low LET (electron radiation), an empirical D3 component becomes apparent which is not currently incorporated into the theoretical model. At higher LET values, the D3 component was not detected. The overall results are

  4. Tuberculose ileocecal isolada simulando neoplasia maligna e doença de Crohn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BROMBERG S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No Brasil, a tuberculose ileocecal isolada, na ausência de tuberculose pulmonar ativa ou cicatrizada, é rara, sendo freqüentemente confundida com neoplasia e a doença de Crohn. MÉTODOS: Os autores apresentam oito doentes com essas características, tratados por cirurgia, em período de 20 anos. A dor abdominal na fossa ilíaca direita foi o principal sintoma (100%, seguido da presença de perda de peso (62,5%, febre, náuseas e vômitos e fadiga em 50% dos doentes. Sete enfermos (87,5% apresentaram massa palpável na fossa ilíaca direita. A duração média dos sintomas foi de 14,7 meses, variando de 5 a 36 meses. Todas as lesões foram detectadas pelo enema opaco e mimetizavam aspecto neoplásico. A colonoscopia foi realizada em três doentes, evidenciando lesões sub-oclusivas da região íleo-cecal em dois; as biópsias foram sugestivas de tuberculose, não sendo possível diferenciá-las da doença de Crohn. RESULTADOS: Seis enfermos com diagnóstico presuntivo de neoplasia foram submetidos a cirurgia eletiva, realizando-se neles a colectomia direita clássica. Os outros dois, com suspeita de tuberculose, foram operados na vigência de obstrução intestinal, sendo submetidos a ressecção limitada (ileocecectomia. O estudo anatomopatológico estabeleceu o diagnóstico final pelo encontro de necrose caseosa e de bacilos álcool ácido-resistentes no intestino ou nos linfonodos. A evolução pós-operatória foi satisfatória, com pequena morbidade resolvida clinicamente. Posteriormente, todos os doentes receberam o esquema tríplice por 12 meses, variando a droga de acordo com a época do tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de rara, a tuberculose hipertrófica ileocecal isolada freqüentemente é confundida com neoplasias e com a doença de Crohn, devendo ser lembrada no diagnóstico diferencial das lesões localizadas no quadrante inferior direito do abdome.

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopy incorporated in an Optical Biopsy System for the detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerwinkel, D F; Holz, J A; Hawkins, D M; Curvers, W L; Aalders, M C; Weusten, B L; Visser, M; Meijer, S L; Bergman, J J

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic surveillance is recommended for patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) to detect high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) or early cancer (EC). Early neoplasia is difficult to detect with white light endoscopy and random biopsies are associated with sampling error. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied to distinguish non-dysplastic Barrett's epithelium (NDBE) from early neoplasia. The Optical Biopsy System (OBS) uses an optical fiber integrated in a regular biopsy forceps. This allows real-time spectroscopy and ensures spot-on correlation between the spectral signature and corresponding physical biopsy. The OBS may provide an easy-to-use endoscopic tool during BE surveillance. We aimed to develop a tissue-differentiating algorithm and correlate the discriminating properties of the OBS with the constructed algorithm to the endoscopist's assessment of the Barrett's esophagus. In BE patients undergoing endoscopy, areas suspicious for neoplasia and endoscopically non-suspicious areas were investigated with the OBS, followed by a correlating physical biopsy with the optical biopsy forceps. Spectra were correlated to histology and an algorithm was constructed to discriminate between HGIN/EC and NDBE using smoothed linear dicriminant analysis. The constructed classifier was internally cross-validated and correlated to the endoscopist's assessment of the BE segment. A total of 47 patients were included (39 males, age 66 years): 35 BE patients were referred with early neoplasia and 12 patients with NDBE. A total of 245 areas were investigated with following histology: 43 HGIN/EC, 66 low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, 108 NDBE, 28 gastric or squamous mucosa. Areas with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and gastric/squamous mucosa were excluded. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the constructed classifier was 0.78. Sensitivity and specificity for the discrimination between NDBE and HGIN/EC of OBS alone were 81% and 58

  6. A Prospective Study of Gastric Carcinoids and Enterochromaffin-Like Cell Changes in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: Identification of Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Marc J.; Annibale, Bruno; Marignani, Massimo; Luong, Tu Vinh; Corleto, Vito; Pace, Andrea; Ito, Tetsuhide; Liewehr, David; Venzon, David J.; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Bordi, Cesare; Jensen, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients frequently develop Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). These patients can develop proliferative changes of gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells and gastric carcinoids (ECL-cell tumors). ECL-cell changes have been extensively studied in sporadic ZES patients and can be precursor lesions of gastric carcinoids, but little is known about factors influencing their severity or development of carcinoids in MEN1/ZES patients. Objectives: Our objective was to prospectively analyze ECL-cell changes and gastric carcinoids (ECL-cell tumors) in a large series of MEN1/ZES patients to detect risk factors and deduct clinical guidelines. Setting and Patients: Fifty-seven consecutive MEN1/ZES patients participated in this prospective study at two tertiary-care research centers. Interventions and Outcome Measures: Assessment of MEN1, gastric hypersecretion, and gastroscopy with multiple biopsies was done according to a fixed protocol and tumor status. ECL-cell changes and α-human chorionic gonadotropin staining were assessed in each biopsy and correlated with clinical, laboratory, and MEN1 features. Results: ECL-cell proliferative changes were universally present, advanced changes in 53% and carcinoids in 23%. Gastric nodules are common and are frequently associated with carcinoids. Patients with high fasting serum gastrin levels, long disease duration, or a strong α-human chorionic gonadotropin staining in a biopsy are at higher risk for an advanced ECL-cell lesion and/or gastric carcinoid. Conclusions: Gastric carcinoids and/or advanced ECL-cell changes are frequent in MEN1/ZES patients, and therefore, regular surveillance gastroscopy with multiple routine biopsies and biopsies of all mucosal lesions are essential. Clinical/laboratory data and biopsy results can be used to identify a subgroup of MEN1/ZES patients with a significantly increased risk for developing gastric carcinoids, allowing development of better

  7. Hematological response of pancytopenia to glucocorticoids in patients with Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Bhat, Javid Rasool; Lone, Mohd Iqbal; Samoon, Jeelani; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Sheehan's syndrome presents with panhypopituitarism after childbirth, usually preceded by post partum hemorrhage. Hematological abnormalities like pancytopenia with hypocellular marrow in these patients are reported rarely. Though multiple hormone deficiencies may contribute to Pancytopenia in Sheehan's syndrome, complete recovery is observed after achieving eucortisolemic and euthyroid state. The predominant role of thyroxine or glucocorticoids in reversing pancytopenia in these patients has not been studied. We present the clinical, hormonal, hematological course and response to glucocorticoids in a patient of Sheehan's syndrome presenting with pancytopenia. Complete recovery of pancytopenia was observed after achieving eucortisolemic state thus concluding that gulcocorticoid replacement is sufficient to reverse pancytopenia in these patients.

  8. Carcass Quality and Hematological Alterations Associated with Lung Lesions in Slaughter Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Dj Čobanović

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine effects of lung lesions on carcass quality and hematological parameters of slaughter pigs. The group of pigs with lung lesion score 2 had significantly lower live weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight compared to the group of pigs with lung lesion score 0 (P0.05. The total number of red blood cells, concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit showed significantly lower mean values in the group of pigs with lung lesions score 2 (P0.05. In conclusion, the results showed that lung lesions in fattening pigs had negative impact on carcass quality and hematological parameters.

  9. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  10. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for wild osprey nestlings (Pandion haliaetus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna; Surguine, Katie; Handel, Ian; Bronsvoort, Mark; Beard, Philippa; Thornton, Susan M; Wesche, Petra; Hart, Mike; Anderson, David; Dennis, Roy

    2012-09-01

    A retrospective study of blood samples from 95 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nestlings from Scotland and England, collected opportunistically over a 10-yr period, was performed to determine hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals. The age of the sampled nestlings was estimated to be between 4 and 8 wk. Ninety-five percent reference intervals were determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables using parametric and nonparametric methods as appropriate. No blood parasites were detected. This is the first published study providing baseline reference data for osprey nestlings, and it is hoped the data will be of use to wildlife veterinarians and biologists in assessing the health of this species.

  11. Hematologic, serum chemistry and serologic values of Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Smith, T C; Evermann, J F; Heimer, W E

    1983-04-01

    In June 1979, 73 Dall's sheep were captured near Tok, Alaska to determine selected hematologic and serum metabolite parameters and to determine the presence of antibodies to selected pathogens. Hematology and serum metabolite values were compared with values for domestic sheep and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Antibodies were detected against Brucella sp. (4%), Campylobacter feti (30%), contagious ecthyma virus (23%) and bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (1%). Antibodies were not detected against Anaplasma sp., Leptospira sp., bovine virus diarrhea virus, bluetongue virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, ovine progressive pneumonia, and Toxoplasma sp.

  12. Caracterización de la neoplasia intraepitelial cervical en mujeres atendidas en el policlínico Jimmy Hirzel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Margarita Sánchez Alarcón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer de cuello uterino es, después del cáncer de mama, el que más frecuentemente afecta a la mujer. La detección y tratamiento temprano de las neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales garantizan la calidad de vida ante esta afección. Objetivos: caracterizar a las pacientes con neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales que son atendidas en el policlínico “Jimmy Hirzel” en el municipio Bayamo, provincia Granma, en el período comprendido entre enero y diciembre de 2013. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, en un universo de 3450 pacientes a las que se realizó citología vaginal en el período de referencia; la muestra fueron las 55 mujeres cuyos exámenes resultaron positivos. Se midieron variables como tipo de neoplasia, edad, inicio de las relaciones sexuales, presencia de cervicitis, sepsis vaginal y hábitos de fumar. Los datos se procesaron por conteo simple, se tabularon utilizando valores absolutos y porcentajes. Resultados: la presencia de la neoplasia intraepitelial cervical fue de un 1,6 %, predominando las de bajo grado (NIC I. El grupo de edad más afectado fue el de 36 a 45 años. Otros factores asociados encontrados con relativa frecuencia, en orden decreciente, fueron: sepsis vaginal, inicio de las relaciones sexuales entre 15-20 años, cervicitis y el hábito de fumar. Conclusiones: existe poca incidencia de las neoplasias intraepiteliales en el área de salud y período estudiados.

  13. Bacterial vaginosis and inflammatory response showed association with severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Sobrinho, Juçara Maria; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena; Fugueiredo-Alves, Rosane Ribeiro; Derchain, Sophie; Sarian, Luis Otávio Z; Pitta, Denise R; Campos, Elisabete A; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal infections may affect susceptibility to and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and chronic inflammation has been linked to carcinogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory response (IR) with the severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-infected women. HPV DNA was amplified using PGMY09/11 primers and genotyping was performed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay in 211 cervical samples from women submitted to excision of the transformation zone. The bacterial flora was assessed in Papanicolaou stained smears, and positivity for BV was defined as ≥ 20% of clue cells. Present inflammatory response was defined as ≥ 30 neutrophils per field at 1000× magnification. Age higher than 29 years (OR:1.91 95% CI 1.06-3.45), infections by the types 16 and/or 18 (OR:1.92 95% CI 1.06-3.47), single or multiple infections associated with types 16 and/or 18 (OR: 1.92 CI 95% 1.06-3.47), BV (OR: 3.54 95% CI 1.62-7.73) and IR (OR: 6.33 95% CI 3.06-13.07) were associated with severity of cervical neoplasia (CIN 2 or worse diagnoses), while not smoking showed a protective effect (OR: 0.51 95% CI 0.26-0.98). After controlling for confounding factors, BV(OR: 3.90 95% CI 1.64-9.29) and IR (OR: 6.43 95% CI 2.92-14.15) maintained their association with the severity of cervical neoplasia. Bacterial vaginosis and inflammatory response were independently associated with severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women, which seems to suggest that the microenvironment would relate to the natural history of cervical neoplasia.

  14. 5-Aminosalicylates reduce the risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis: an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the chemopreventive effect of 5-aminosalicylates on patients with ulcerative colitis has been extensively studied, the results remain controversial. This updated review included more recent studies and evaluated the effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylates use on colorectal neoplasia prevention in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Up to July 2013, we searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SinoMed of China for all relevant observational studies (case-control and cohort about the effect of 5-aminosalicylates on the risk of colorectal neoplasia among patients with ulcerative colitis. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs were extracted from each study. A random-effects model was used to generate pooled ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed. RESULTS: Seventeen studies containing 1,508 cases of colorectal neoplasia and a total of 20,193 subjects published from 1994 to 2012 were analyzed. 5-aminosalicylates use was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis (OR 0.63; 95%CI 0.48-0.84. Pooled OR of a higher average daily dose of 5-aminosalicylates (sulfasalazine ≥ 2.0 g/d, mesalamine ≥ 1.2 g/d was 0.51 [0.35-0.75]. Pooled OR of 5-aminosalicylates use in patients with extensive ulcerative colitis was 1.00 [0.53-1.89]. CONCLUSION: Our pooled results indicated that 5-aminosalicylates use was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis, especially in the cases with a higher average daily dose of 5-aminosalicylates use. However, the chemopreventive benefit of 5-aminosalicylates use in patients with extensive ulcerative colitis was limited.

  15. Current concepts in the diagnosis and pathobiology of intraepithelial neoplasia: A review by organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Bishop, Justin A; Argani, Pedram; Cuda, Jonathan D; Epstein, Jonathan I; Hruban, Ralph H; Netto, George J; Stoler, Mark H; Taube, Janis M; Vang, Russell; Westra, William H; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE In this report, a team of surgical pathologists has provided a review of intraepithelial neoplasia in a host of (but not all) anatomic sites of interest to colleagues in various medical specialties, namely, uterine cervix, ovary, breast, lung, head and neck, skin, prostate, bladder, pancreas, and esophagus. There is more experience with more readily accessible sites (such as the uterine cervix and skin) than with other anatomic sites, and the lack of uniform terminology, together with divergent biology in various sites, makes it difficult to paint a unifying, relevant portrait. The authors' aim was to provide a framework from which to move forward as we care for patients with such precancerous lesions. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:408-436. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. Multifocal Gastric Neoplasia after Recurrent Laser Therapy for the Watermelon Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Bernstein

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated laser therapy has become an accepted therapeutic approach in the treatment of watermelon stomach, and to date no important negative sequelae have been reported. The case of a patient who underwent repeated sessions of neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG laser therapy over a five-year period for the treatment of the watermelon stomach is presented. Postlaser therapy the patient developed deep ulcerations that would heal; however, he ultimately developed a nodular antrum. Random biopsies of antral nodules revealed carcinoma-in-situ. A Billroth I gastrectomy revealed two foci of carcinoma-in-situ/high grade dysplasia and multiple foci of lower grades of dysplasia. This case suggests a possible association between use of laser therapy and development of gastric neoplasia.

  17. Virus como inductores de neoplasias cutáneas Viruses as agents inducing cutaneous neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bravo Puccio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El rol oncogénico de los virus en las neoplasias cutáneas es conocido por el hombre desde hace más de un siglo, cuando se atribuía el origen de la verruga vulgar al virus papiloma humano (VPH. En la actualidad, las neoplasias inducidas por virus pueden agruparse en tumores sólidos y procesos linfoproliferativos. Destacan entre los primeros el VPH, del cual ahora conocemos numerosos serotipos, cada uno vinculado a una neoplasia específica, el herpesvirus humano tipo 8 que produce el sarcoma de Kaposi y el poliomavirus vinculado al carcinoma de Merkel. Entre los procesos linfoproliferativos debemos mencionar al virus linfotrópico de células T humanas tipo 1 (HTLV-1 responsable de los linfomas de células T, en los cuales el compromiso cutáneo es inespecífico, con un amplio espectro de presentaciones clínicas y, que por consiguiente, plantean un reto para el diagnóstico diferencial. En este grupo también se encuentra el virus Epstein Barr vinculado a los linfomas nasales de Células NK/T y a los linfomas tipo Hidroa, de reciente descripción. En esta era en la que lo genético y lo molecular priman en las investigaciones en cáncer, no podemos dejar de lado el concepto de neoplasia como resultado de la infección por un agente viral, lo que abre una nueva veta de posibilidades de tratamiento anticanceroso basado en medicamentos antiviralesThe oncogenic role of viruses in cutaneous neoplasms has been known by humankind for more than a century, when the origin of the common wart, or verruca vulgaris, was attributed to the human papilloma virus (HPV. Currently, virus-induced cutaneous neoplasms may be grouped into solid tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders. HPV, from which various serotypes are now known, each being linked to a specific neoplasm, the human herpes virus type 8 producing Kaposi sarcoma, and the Merkel cell polyomavirus, highlight among the first group. Regarding the lymphoproliferative disorders, we should mention the

  18. Protein kinase D1 drives pancreatic acinar cell reprogramming and progression to intraepithelial neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Geou-Yarh; Döppler, Heike; Braun, Ursula B.; Panayiotou, Richard; Scotti Buzhardt, Michele; Radisky, Derek C.; Crawford, Howard C.; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.; Wang, Q. Jane; Leitges, Michael; Storz, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells to a ductal phenotype (acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, ADM) occurs after injury or inflammation of the pancreas and is a reversible process. However, in the presence of activating Kras mutations or persistent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signalling, cells that underwent ADM can progress to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually pancreatic cancer. In transgenic animal models, ADM and PanINs are initiated by high-affinity ligands for EGF-R or activating Kras mutations, but the underlying signalling mechanisms are not well understood. Here, using a conditional knockout approach, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is sufficient to drive the reprogramming process to a ductal phenotype and progression to PanINs. Moreover, using 3D explant culture of primary pancreatic acinar cells, we show that PKD1 acts downstream of TGFα and Kras, to mediate formation of ductal structures through activation of the Notch pathway.

  19. Citologia no diagnóstico intra-operatório de neoplasias intracranianas

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    L. C. Mattosinho-França

    1970-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam técnica de diagnóstico citológico para neoplasias do sistema nervoso central, aplicável ao diagnóstico rápido intra-operatório. A técnica é baseada em esfregaços não fixados, corados pela tionina. O controle dos resultados foi feito tanto com esfregaços fixados e corados pela técnica de Papanicolaou, como mediante cortes histológicos do mesmo material. Os resultados obtidos são concordes com dados já publicados na literatura por outros autores. Os autores julgam que as técnicas citológicas suplantam com vantagens as técnicas histológicas de congelação, para o diagnóstico neuropatológico intra-operatório.

  20. Mielopatia necrotizante e neoplasias: registro clinico-patologico de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois casos de mielopatia transversa subaguda associada a tumores malignos. O primeiro paciente apresentava neoplasia de células reticulares histiocitárias e o segundo, carcinoma renal. Os autores fazem revisão dos casos similares descritos na literatura. As alterações anátomo-patológicas medulares encontradas foram semelhantes às descritas nos relatos prévios, sendo que no primeiro caso havia também intenso infiltrado inflamatório perivascular e a presença de astrócitos bizarros. Tais alterações encontradas sugerem ser esta afecção de natureza viral.

  1. Developmental arrest of germ cells in the pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Brøndum-Nielsen, K

    1998-01-01

    Clinical observations and epidemiological evidence suggest that important aetiopathological events that cause neoplastic transformation of the male germ cell may occur in fetal life or early infancy. The incidence of germ cell neoplasia is high in individuals with various disorders of gonadal......, primordial germ cells, human embryonal carcinoma cells and closely related primate embryonal stem cells reveals various similarities but also differences. We speculate that phenotypical heterogeneity of CIS cells may be associated with their potential to give rise to different tumour types, and may...... hypothesise that if the development of the testis is disturbed or delayed, primordial germ cells or gonocytes undergo maturation delay or differentiation arrest which may render them susceptible to neoplastic transformation. Morphologically homogenous premalignant carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells have...

  2. A Case Report of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type IIa Associated with Cushing Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Borzouei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa (MEN IIa is an autosomal dominant syn-drome characterized bypheochromocytoma ,medullary thyroid carcinoma and hyperparathy-roidism. Pheochromocytoma approximately occurs in 50% of patients with MEN IIa. This tumor has the capacity to produce ACTH ectopically and becomes manifest like Cushing syndrome,although it is very rare. Case Report: We report a 26-year-old woman patient with severe muscle weakness, skin le-sions in extremity, hypertension, new onset diabetes and in the laboratory data hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, high serum level of cortisol, metanephrine, normetanephrine, calcitonin and bilateral adrenal mass in computed tomography as the first clinical manifestations of an ACTH-secreting pheochromocytoma. Conclusion: In the patients with hypertension, new onset diabetes and hypokalemia Cushing syndrome and pheochromocytoma should always be ruled out. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:260-265

  3. The management of recurrent and drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlands, E S

    2003-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) comprises a spectrum of disease from low-risk disease which can be cured with simple relatively non-toxic treatment, to extremely aggressive tumours which require specialized management. The prognostic variables in patients with GTN are different from those in other gynaecological malignancies, and the major adverse prognostic variables include long interval from antecedent pregnancy, high concentrations of the pregnancy hormone, human chorionic gonadotrophin, metastases in brain and liver and failure of prior treatment. Patients who relapse after their prior treatment can also be categorized into different risk groups. Salvage treatment can vary from single agent actinomycin D to combination chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery. With appropriate management, the majority of patients can achieve long-term remission and, in most cases, preserve fertility. The late side-effects of more intensive treatment are a small risk of inducing second tumours and also of bringing forward the age of menopause.

  4. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: how much excision is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T; El-Sugi, R; Hicks-Boucher, W; Weberpals, J; Faught, W

    2013-08-01

    This is a retrospective observational study to compare outcomes in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) treated with loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) using combined ectocervical/endocervical resection vs ectocervical resection alone. We demonstrated that additional endocervical resection during loop electrosurgical excision procedure did not significantly lower the risk of subsequent recurrence compared with ectocervical resection alone, in the treatment of CIN. With current published data supporting subsequent increased adverse effects of LEEP on future obstetrical outcomes, endocervical excision should be applied selectively. We recommend that additional endocervical excision should be reserved only for patients with a strong suspicion of underlying endocervical canal involvement based on colposcopic assessment or in patients with unsatisfactory colposcopy, where it is essential to evaluate the endocervical canal.

  5. Fine-scaling mapping of the gene responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Minoru; Nakamura, Yusuke (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan)); Wells, S.A. (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The authors have constructed a high-resolution genetic linkage map in the vicinity of the gene responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). The mutation causing this disease, inherited as an autosomal dominant, predisposes carriers to development of neoplastic tumors in the parathyroid, the endocrine pancreas, and the anterior lobe of the pituitary. The 12 markers on the genetic linkage map reported here span nearly 20 cM, and linkage analysis of MEN1 pedigrees has placed the MEN1 locus within the 8-cM region between D11S480 and D11S546. The markers on this map will be useful for prenatal or presymptomatic diagnosis of individuals in families that segregate a mutant allele of the MEN1 gene.

  6. Comparison of virtual colonoscopy and colonoscopy in diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宁; 忻莹; 邹立秋; 王建国; 高敏; 章士正; 姒健敏

    2002-01-01

    The diagnostic value of virtual colonoscopy versus colon oscopy was compared in detection of colorectal neoplasia. Virtual colonoscopy wa s performed on 29 patients with suspected colorectal diseases, Results were comp ared with colonoscopy for each case. Virtual colonoscopy was successfully perfor med on each patient. All patients tolerated virtual colonoscopy well, had no com plications. All colorectal malignance were identified both by virtual colonoscop y and colonoscopy. Twenty-five polyps were detected with colonoscopy, whereas o n ly 16 polyps were defined by virtual colonoscopy. Detection rates of polyps grea ter than 1.0 cm,between 0.5-0.9 cm and less than 0.5 cm in size were 90%,62.5% a nd 28.6% respectively. Virtual colonoscopy is fast, minimally invasive and well tolerated. This technique is a valuable clinical method in diagnosis of colorect al malignance and polyps larger than 0.5 cm in size.

  7. Increased burden of treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Denmark 1991 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel Svennekjær; Rebolj, M; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since the introduction of cytological screening in Denmark in the late 1960s, the incidence of cervical cancer decreased from 40 to 14 per 100,000 due to treatment of screen-detected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, some overtreatment is inevitable and its side...... on conisations, destructive therapies, excisions, hysterectomies and cervical treatments NOS from: The Pathology, Hospital Discharge, Health Insurance and Danish Cancer Register, for all female Danish residents aged 15 to 84 between 1991 and 2007. After linking the data using the unique Danish identification...... numbers, we excluded all duplicates and all destructive therapies and hysterectomies for which no cervical diagnosis was found in the period around the treatment. The total number of treatments was age-standardized using the Danish female population in 2007 as the standard population. Results...

  8. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    : 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared...... to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority......Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing...

  9. Volumetric imaging of oral epithelial neoplasia by MPM-SHGM: epithelial connective tissue interface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2016-03-01

    The majority of oral cancers are comprised of oral squamous cell carcinoma in which neoplastic epithelial cells invade across the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI). Invasion is preceded by a multi-component process including epithelial hyperproliferation, loss of cell polarity, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Multiphoton Autofluorescence Microscopy (MPAM) and Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy (SHGM) show promise for revealing indicators of neoplasia. In particular, volumetric imaging by these methods can reveal aspects of the 3D microstructure that are not possible by other methods and which could both further our understanding of neoplastic transformation and be explored for development of diagnostic approaches in this disease having only 55% 5-year survival rate. MPAM-SHG were applied to reveal the 3D structure of the critical ECTI interface that plays an integral part toward invasion. Epithelial dysplasia was induced in an established hamster model. MPAM-SHGM was applied to lesion sites, using 780 nm excitation (450-600nm emission) for autofluroescence of cellular and extracellular components; 840 nm using 420 nm bandpass filter for SHG. The ECTI surface was identified as the interface at which SHG signal began following the epithelium and was modeled as a 3D surface using Matlab. ECTI surface area and cell features at sites of epithelial expansion where ECTI was altered were measured; Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histology. ROC analysis using ECTI image metrics indicated the ability to delineate normal from neoplasia with high sensitivity and specificity and it is noteworthy that inflammation did not significantly alter diagnostic potential of MPAM-SHGM .

  10. Imaging appearances and clinical outcome following sacrectomy and ilio-lumbar reconstruction for sacral neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Marianna; Davies, A.M.; James, Steven L.J. [Department of Radiology, The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Stirling, A.J.; Grainger, M. [Department of Spinal Surgery, The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Grimer, R.J. [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Sacrectomy and ilio-lumbar reconstruction is an uncommonly performed complex surgical procedure for the treatment of sacral neoplasia. There are many challenges in the post-operative period including the potential for tumor recurrence, infection, and construct failure. We present our experience of this patient cohort and describe the complications and imaging appearances that can be encountered during the follow-up period. Retrospective review of our Orthopaedic Oncology database was undertaken which has been collected over a 30-year period to identify patients that had undergone sacrectomy and ilio-lumbar reconstruction. Pre and post-operative imaging including radiographs, CT, and MRI was reviewed. These were viewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists with consensus opinion if there was disagreement over the imaging findings. Data regarding patient demographics, tumor type, and dimensions was collected. Serial review of radiographs, CT, and MRI was performed to assess implant position and integrity, strut graft position and union, and for the presence of recurrence within the surgical bed. Five male and two female patients (mean age 36 years, age range 15-54 years) were treated with this procedure. Histological diagnoses included chordoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and spindle cell sarcoma. Mean maximal tumor size on pre-operative imaging was 10.7 cm (range, 6-16 cm). Post-operative follow-up ranged from 10-46 months. A total of 76 imaging studies were reviewed. Commonly identified complications included vertical rod and cross-connector fracture and screw loosening. Fibula strut graft non-union and fracture was also evident on imaging review. Two patients demonstrated disease recurrence during the follow-up period. This study demonstrates the spectrum and frequency of complications that can occur following sacrectomy and ilio-lumbar reconstruction for sacral neoplasia. (orig.)

  11. The association of uterine cervical microbiota with an increased risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H Y; Kim, B-S; Seo, S-S; Kong, J-S; Lee, J-K; Park, S-Y; Hong, K-M; Kim, H-K; Kim, M K

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested potential roles of the microbiome in cervicovaginal diseases. However, there has been no report on the cervical microbiome in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We aimed to identify the cervical microbiota of Korean women and assess the association between the cervical microbiota and CIN, and to determine the combined effect of the microbiota and human papillomavirus (HPV) on the risk of CIN. The cervical microbiota of 70 women with CIN and 50 control women was analysed using pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene. The associations between specific microbial patterns or abundance of specific microbiota and CIN risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the synergy index (S) were calculated. The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria and TM7 were predominant in the microbiota and four distinct community types were observed in all women. A high score of the pattern characterized by predominance of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus iners with a minority of Lactobacillus crispatus had a higher CIN risk (OR 5.80, 95% CI 1.73-19.4) and abundance of A. vaginae had a higher CIN risk (OR 6.63, 95% CI 1.61-27.2). The synergistic effect of a high score of this microbial pattern and oncogenic HPV was observed (OR 34.1, 95% CI 4.95-284.5; RERI/S, 15.9/1.93). A predominance of A. vaginae, G. vaginalis and L. iners with a concomitant paucity of L. crispatus in the cervical microbiota was associated with CIN risk, suggesting that bacterial dysbiosis and its combination with oncogenic HPV may be a risk factor for cervical neoplasia.

  12. Stratified epithelium in prostatic adenocarcinoma: a mimic of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Omar; Humphrey, Peter A

    2006-07-01

    Typically glands of prostatic adenocarcinoma have a single cell lining, although stratification can be seen in invasive carcinomas with a cribriform architecture, including ductal carcinoma. The presence and diagnostic significance of stratified cells within non-cribriform carcinomatous prostatic glands has not been well addressed. The histomorphological features and immunohistochemical profile of cases of non-cribriform prostatic adenocarcinoma with stratified malignant glandular epithelium were analyzed. These cases were identified from needle biopsy cases from the consultation files of one of the authors and from a review of 150 consecutive in-house needle biopsy cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was performed utilizing antibodies reactive against high molecular weight cytokeratin (34betaE12), p63 and alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme-A racemase (AMACR). A total of 8 cases were identified, including 2 from the 150 consecutive in-house cases (1.3%). In 4 cases, the focus with glands having stratified epithelium was the sole carcinomatous component in the biopsy, while such a component represented 5-30% of the invasive carcinoma seen elsewhere in the remaining cases. The main attribute in all these foci was the presence of glandular profiles lined by several layers of epithelial cells with cytological and architectural features resembling flat or tufted high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, but lacking basal cells as confirmed by negative 34betaE12 and/or p63 immunostains in all cases. The AMACR staining profile of the stratified foci was variable, with 4 foci showing positivity, and 3 foci being negative, including two cases that displayed AMACR positivity in adjacent non-stratified prostatic adenocarcinoma. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with stratified malignant glandular epithelium can be identified in prostate needle biopsy samples harboring non-cribriform prostatic adenocarcinoma and resembles glands with high-grade prostatic

  13. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades II and III with Photolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Y P; Lapzevich, T P; Chalau, V N; Shliakhtsin, S V; Trukhachova, T V

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to test in clinics a previously developed novel organ-saving approach for the treatment of CIN using PDT with the photosensitizer Photolon applied in women of a childbearing age with CIN II and III. A total number of 112 patients aged 35.2+/-1.6 with morphologically proven diagnosis of CIN II and III were enrolled into the study. All 112 patients had been observed at least during 1-year follow-up period after PDT. Among them 53 patients (44.1%) were subjected to a dynamic observation for less than 2 years; 29 patients (24.1%) were under the observation for less than 3 years; 13 patients (10.8%) - for 3-4 years and 17 women - for more than 4 years. A complete response represented by the complete regression of neoplastic lesions, which was proved by the results of morphological examinations, was revealed in 104 (92.8%) of treated women. In 3 months after treatment a complete eradication of the HPV infection was proven by PCR-analysis in 47 (53.4%) from 88 patients who have been infected with HPV of a highly oncogenic strains before PDT. PDT with Photolon is an alternative approach for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia which can be recommended for women of childbearing age. The simplicity of the procedure as well as its' high therapeutic efficacy defines the reasonability of its' introduction into the clinical practice as a new organ-saving method for the treatment of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  14. NEOPLASIAS TESTICULARES EN CANINOS: UN CASO DE TUMOR DE CÉLULAS DE SERTOLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Eslava M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Las neoplasias del testículo no son muy frecuentes en los animales domésticos Los caninos son los que las manifiestan con mayor frecuencia; estando entre los 0.7 y 4.6% de todos los tumores que sufren. Algunos factores se han asociado como predisponentes: entre ellos la edad madura y la presencia del criptorquidia uni o principalmente bilateral. Las neoplasias del testículo más frecuente son el tumor de células de Sertoli, el tumor de células de Leydig y los seminomas, que en general presentan la conducta benigna. El tratamiento recomendado previa evaluación clínica, es la orquiectomía (uni o bilateral, incluidos en los casos de criptorquidismo el testículo alojado en el escroto. En el presente manuscrito se realiza una revisión del tema en su primera parte; en la segunda, se describe el caso de un tumor de células del Sertoli en un canino Cocker que presentó al examen clínico un testículo retenido y síndrome feminizante. En este se caso se efectuó el diagnóstico histopatológico después de la extracción quirúrgica de la masa abdominal y también se realizó la extirpación del testículo alojado en el escroto.

  15. Actualización del diagnóstico y tratamiento de la neoplasia intraepitelial vulvar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Pérez Castro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La Neoplasia Intraepitelial Vulvar (NIV constituye lesiones potencialmente premalignas del epitelio escamoso de la vulva con diversos grados de diferenciación celular y maduración. En el aspecto histológico son hiperplasia de las células basales y parabasales, además tienen características genéticas morfológicas y metabólicas similares a las células cancerosas. Son etapas previas a la enfermedad. Generalmente las NIV se diagnostican como lesiones de alto grado (NIV I, II y III o carcinoma in situ. Alrededor del 5% progresan a la malignidad. Técnicamente puede ser un diagnóstico fácil, pero en la práctica no resulta así, siendo la vulvoscopia la principal arma para su diagnóstico. Estudios realizados en los últimos años señalan que aumenta cada vez más en mujeres más jóvenes, en pacientes con infección por HPV, en pacientes con neoplasia cervical intraepitelial o en cáncer en otras localizaciones del extracto genital inferior. Para tomar una decisión terapéutica hay que tener en cuenta: la edad de la paciente, la localización de las lesiones (áreas pilosas y no pilosas o descartar siempre un cáncer invasor y no invasor. Los tratamientos de lección pueden ser, extirpación local, vulvahectomía cutania parcial o total, destrucción con crioterapia o láser y técnicas combinadas de escisión o ablación. La conducta expectante valorando algunas características es la tendencia actual.

  16. Novel multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variations in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Birla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT can occur either as a sporadic case or in association with syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal-dominant disease resulting from mutations in MEN1 gene encoding a 621 amino acid long tumor suppressor protein “menin.” We report here the results of MEN1 screening in 31 patients diagnosed with sporadic PHPT. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of sporadic PHPT was made when blood urea and serum creatinine were normal, serum parathyroid hormone was high, and parathyroid enlargement could be localized on ultrasound and/or parathyroid scan. A total of 31 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited for molecular analysis after taking informed consent. Results: Major symptoms at presentation were bone pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and renal stones. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the presence of two novel intronic variations, c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A which by human splicing finder are predicted to cause potential alteration of splicing by either activating an intronic cryptic acceptor site or converting a conserved exonic splicing silencer sequence to an exonic splicing enhancer site. Apart from these, two reported polymorphisms rs144677807 and rs669976 were seen only in patients and none of the controls. Other reported polymorphisms rs2071313 and rs654440 were identified both in controls and patients. Conclusions: This is the first study of MEN1 gene screening in sporadic PHPT in India reporting on the clinical and genetic findings, wherein two novel intronic variations c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A were identified showing their possible role in disease causation.

  17. Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical en mujeres menores de 25 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha María Chávez Valdivia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: aunque la incidencia de lesiones preinvasivas del cervix ha sido mayor en mujeres de la tercera a cuarta década de la vida, en los últimos años se ha encontrando un número no despreciable de mujeres menores de 25 años afectadas por este tipo de lesiones de bajo o alto grado. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de las neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales diagnosticadas en mujeres menores de 25 años de edad, y tratadas con radiocirugía. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 67 pacientes menores de 25 años de edad, con diagnóstico de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical y tratadas por el método de radiocirugía en el Hospital General de Cienfuegos. Se analizaron las variables: edad, tipo de NIC, grado de la NIC y presencia de VPH. Resultados: el grupo más afectado fue el de las mujeres de 21 a 25 años de edad, portador del 70,4 % de lesiones. El 86, 56 % de las lesiones fue de alto grado. Las lesiones estuvieron asociadas con elevada frecuencia (88,05 % a condiloma, evidencia histológica indirecta de la citotoxicidad por la infestación tisular del VPH. Conclusiones: La presencia de NIC en mujeres menores de 25 años de edad, se configura en nuestro medio como problema de salud. El presente estudio puede servir como sustrato para desarrollar investigaciones similares en varios lugares del país, con la finalidad de aportar evidencia global que conduzca al cambio.

  18. Prevalência de neoplasias diagnosticadas em cães no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Moçambique

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo em 210 cães acometidos por neoplasias, atendidos no Hospital Veterinário (HV) da Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Moçambique, no período de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2009. Foram utilizados dados das fichas clínico-cirúrgicas, referentes às amostras de neoplasias removidas cirurgicamente, achados de exames necroscópicos e citológicos, os quais, posteriormente, foram enviados para o diagnóstico histopatológico. As neoplasias foram correlacionadas com o sexo,...

  19. Report of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, from hematology clinic, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 2000-2010 at 1st myelostone meeting: Indian evidence of chronic myelogenous leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Uday R Deotare; Urmish Chudgar; Eva Bhagat

    2013-01-01

    The data of 156 patients was presented from Hematology clinic, Ahmedabad. This hematology clinic caters large number of the population from Gujarat as well as from neighboring states such as Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Out of 156 patients, 146 (94%) patients were in chronic phase. Complete hematological response was seen in 90% of patients and overall survival was 82% at 5 years.

  20. Bioequivalence & Food Effect Study in Patients With Solid Tumor or Hematologic Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Hematological Neoplasms; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neoplasms; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Osteosarcoma; Sarcoma; Thyroid Cancer; Genitourinary