WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced flame quality

  1. The advanced flame quality indicator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oman, R.; Rossi, M.J.; Calia, V.S.; Davis, F.L.; Rudin, A. [Insight Technologies, Inc., Bohemia, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    By combining oil tank monitoring, systems diagnostics and flame quality monitoring in an affordable system that communicates directly with dealers by telephone modem, Insight Technologies offers new revenue opportunities and the capability for a new order of customer relations to oil dealers. With co-sponsorship from New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, we have incorporated several valuable functions to a new product based on the original Flame Quality Indicator concept licensed from the US DOE`s Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new system is the Advanced Flame Quality Indicator, or AFQI. As before, the AFQI monitors and reports the intensity of the burner flame relative to a calibration established when the burner is set up at AFQI installation. Repairs or adjustments are summoned by late-night outgoing telephone calls when limits are exceeded in either direction, indicating an impending contamination or other malfunction. A independently, a pressure transducer for monitoring oil tank level and filter condition, safety lockout alarms and a temperature monitor; all reporting automatically at instructed intervals via an on-board modem to a central station PC computer (CSC). Firmware on each AFQI unit and Insight-supplied software on the CSC automatically interact to maintain a customer database for an oil dealer, an OEM, or a regional service contractor. In addition to ensuring continuously clean and efficient operation, the AFQI offers the oil industry a new set of immediate payoffs, among which are reduced outages and emergency service calls, shorter service calls from cleaner operation, larger oil delivery drops, the opportunity to stretch service intervals to as along as three years in some cases, new selling features to keep and attract customers, and greatly enhanced customer contact, quality and reliability.

  2. Recent Advances in Flame Tomographyt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫勇; 邱天; 卢钢; M.M.Hossain; G.Gilabert; 刘石

    2012-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel fired power plants,a range of new combustion technologies are being developed or refined,including oxy-fuel combustion,co-firing biomass with coal and fluidized bed combustion.Flame characteristics under such combustion conditions are expected to be different from those in normal air fired combustion processes.Quantified flame characteristics such as temperature distribution,oscillation frequency,and ignition volume play an important part in the optimized design and operation of the environmentally friendly power generation systems.However,it is challenging to obtain such flame characteristics particularly through a three-dimensional and non-intrusive means.Various tomography methods have been proposed to visualize and characterize flames,including passive optical tomography,laser based tomography,and electrical tomography.This paper identifies the challenges in flame tomography and reviews existing techniques for the quantitative characterization of flames.Future trends in flame tomography for industrial applications are discussed.

  3. Removing baseline flame's spectrum by using advanced recovering spectrum techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Luis; Sbarbaro, Daniel; Torres, Sergio

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a novel automated algorithm to estimate and remove the continuous baseline from measured flame spectra is proposed. The algorithm estimates the continuous background based on previous information obtained from a learning database of continuous flame spectra. Then, the discontinuous flame emission is calculated by subtracting the estimated continuous baseline from the measured spectrum. The key issue subtending the learning database is that the continuous flame emissions are predominant in the sooty regions, in absence of discontinuous radiation. The proposed algorithm was tested using natural gas and bio-oil flames spectra at different combustion conditions, and the goodness-of-fit coefficient (GFC) quality metric was used to quantify the performance in the estimation process. Additionally, the commonly used first derivative method (FDM) for baseline removing was applied to the same testing spectra in order to compare and to evaluate the proposed technique. The achieved results show that the proposed method is a very attractive tool for designing advanced combustion monitoring strategies of discontinuous emissions. PMID:22945158

  4. Flame experiments at the advanced light source: new insights into soot formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nils; Skeen, Scott A; Michelsen, Hope A; Wilson, Kevin R; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The following experimental protocols and the accompanying video are concerned with the flame experiments that are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(1-4). This video demonstrates how the complex chemical structures of laboratory-based model flames are analyzed using flame-sampling mass spectrometry with tunable synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. This experimental approach combines isomer-resolving capabilities with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range(5,6). The first part of the video describes experiments involving burner-stabilized, reduced-pressure (20-80 mbar) laminar premixed flames. A small hydrocarbon fuel was used for the selected flame to demonstrate the general experimental approach. It is shown how species' profiles are acquired as a function of distance from the burner surface and how the tunability of the VUV photon energy is used advantageously to identify many combustion intermediates based on their ionization energies. For example, this technique has been used to study gas-phase aspects of the soot-formation processes, and the video shows how the resonance-stabilized radicals, such as C3H3, C3H5, and i-C4H5, are identified as important intermediates(7). The work has been focused on soot formation processes, and, from the chemical point of view, this process is very intriguing because chemical structures containing millions of carbon atoms are assembled from a fuel molecule possessing only a few carbon atoms in just milliseconds. The second part of the video highlights a new experiment, in which an opposed-flow diffusion flame and synchrotron-based aerosol mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of the combustion-generated soot particles(4). The experimental results indicate that the widely accepted H-abstraction-C2H2-addition (HACA) mechanism is not the sole molecular growth process responsible for the formation

  5. Recent Advances for Flame Retardancy of Textiles Based on Phosphorus Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at updating the progress on the phosphorus-based flame retardants specifically designed and developed for fibers and fabrics (particularly referring to cotton, polyester and their blends over the last five years. Indeed, as clearly depicted by Horrocks in a recent review, the world of flame retardants for textiles is still experiencing some changes that are focused on topics like the improvement of its effectiveness and the replacement of toxic chemical products with counterparts that have low environmental impact and, hence, are more sustainable. In this context, phosphorus-based compounds play a key role and may lead, possibly in combination with silicon- or nitrogen-containing structures, to the design of new, efficient flame retardants for fibers and fabrics. Therefore, this review thoroughly describes the advances and the potentialities offered by the phosphorus-based products recently developed at a lab-scale, highlighting the current limitations, open challenges and some perspectives toward their possible exploitation at a larger scale.

  6. Advances in Internet Quality of Service

    OpenAIRE

    Firoiu, Victor; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves; Towsley, Don; Zhang, Zhi-Li

    2001-01-01

    We describe recent advances in theories and architecture that support performance guarantees needed for quality of service networks. We start with deterministic computations and give applications to integrated services, differentiated services, and playback delays. We review the methods used for obtaining a scalable integrated services support, based on the concept of a stateless core. New probabilistic results that can be used for a statistical dimensioning of differentiated services are exp...

  7. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Cornelissen

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns, also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up.A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57, average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1, low EPA16-PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1 and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC.Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks; CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10 = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2.With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap

  8. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-07-14

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society.

  9. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz

    2014-08-13

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. PMID:25024412

  10. Demonstration of new frequency-based flame monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khesin, M. [MK Engineering Inc., North Andover, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Methods of flame monitoring and combustion diagnostics based on analysis of temporal frequency spectra of flame radiation are attracting growing attention. It has been demonstrated that valuable flame quality information can be extracted from the chaos of burner flames by applying advanced signal analysis. A new flame diagnostics system (Flamenco), based on the application of new signal processing algorithms, have been developed and tested. The system generates an array of statistical values correlating with main combustion parameters of individual burner flames. Along with the main system, several derivative software systems were developed to enhance the testing and analysis capabilities. This paper presents preliminary results of pilot-scale testing of the new system, conducted at a single-burner combustion test facility, with support of Forney Corporation. Pilot-scale testing was conducted on a 1.0 Mbtu/hr single-burner gas-fired boiler, equipped with analytical instrumentation to measure NOx, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CO. The tests were conducted for the full range of air flow changes at different loads. The results have proven that the new system generates output signals correlated with measured burner parameters, such as NOx and airflow. The new system offers an effective and economical new method of flame monitoring and combustion diagnostics, to facilitate balancing and adjustment of individual burners and it is applicable to both single and multi-burner installations.

  11. Quality and work organization with advanced automation in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Zulema; Kovács, Ilona; Moniz, António

    1994-01-01

    In this paper it is analysed the relationships between work organisation and quality systems in firms that uses some forms of advanced automation. Are characterised the existing quality control structures in the Portuguese industry, and the main factors that hidden or fosters the development of sociotechnical methods of quality control organisation strategies. Are analysed some industrial cases that explains more clearly the critical issues of the implementation of quality systems and work or...

  12. Methodology and Supporting Toolset Advancing Embedded Systems Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Soler, José; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Tsagkaropoulos, M.; Leclerc, Y.; Olma, C.

    Software quality is of primary importance in the development of embedded systems that are often used in safety-critical applications. Moreover, as the life cycle of embedded products becomes increasingly tighter, productivity and quality are simultaneously required and closely interrelated towards...... delivering competitive products. In this context, the MODUS (Methodology and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide a pragmatic and viable solution that will allow SMEs to substantially improve their positioning in the embedded-systems development market. This paper...... will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that will be developed advancing embedded system quality....

  13. Quality of pathology reports for advanced ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleye, Leen; Ottevanger, Petronella B; Kristensen, Gunnar B;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the quality of surgical pathology reports of advanced stage ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer. This quality assurance project was performed within the EORTC-GCG 55971/NCIC-CTG OV13 study comparing primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy with neoadjuvant...

  14. Quality of pathology reports for advanced ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleye, Leen; Ottevanger, Petronella B; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Ehlen, Tom; Johnson, Nick; van der Burg, Maria E L; Reed, Nick S; Verheijen, René H M; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; Mosgaard, Berit; Seoane, Jose Miguel; van der Velden, Jacobus; Lotocki, Robert; van der Graaf, Winette; Penninckx, Björn; Coens, Corneel; Stuart, Gavin; Vergote, Ignace

    2011-01-01

    To assess the quality of surgical pathology reports of advanced stage ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer. This quality assurance project was performed within the EORTC-GCG 55971/NCIC-CTG OV13 study comparing primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy with neoadjuvant ch...

  15. Advances in Intumescent Flame Retardation of Rubbers%橡胶膨胀型阻燃研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正洲; 孔清锋; 江平开

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,flame retardants commonly used in rubbers are mainly halogen-containing compounds and/or their combination with antimony oxides.Due to the environmental concern and increasing prices of halogen-containing compounds,halogen-free flame retardation of rubbers has aroused a great attention in recent years.Incorporation of one kind of halogen-free flame-retardants alone into rubbers,such as phosphorus-containing compounds,phosphorus and nitrogen-containing compounds,and metal hydroxides etc.cannot meet stringent flame retardant requirements of some rubber products,i.e.conveyer belts.Intumescent flame retardants(IFRs) are considered to be a promising flame retardant system.In this paper,it was introduced that the development and mechanism of IFRs,research achievements of intumescent flame retardation of rubbers(i.e.SBR,NBR,NR,SR,etc.),and some existing problems and developing trend of intumescent flame retarded rubbers.%目前,橡胶的阻燃主要是采用含卤阻燃剂与氧化锑复合体系。近年来,由于对一些含卤阻燃剂的使用限制及价格因素使得橡胶的无卤阻燃引起了人们的广泛关注。在一些对阻燃性能要求比较高的橡胶制品(如输送带)中,采用单一类型的无卤阻燃剂,如磷类化合物、磷氮类化合物、金属氢氧化物等,通常是难以满足严格的阻燃要求。膨胀型阻燃体系被认为是具有较好发展前景的阻燃体系之一。文中主要介绍膨胀型阻燃剂的发展、阻燃机理,橡胶(如丁苯橡胶、天然橡胶、乙丙橡胶、硅橡胶等)膨胀型阻燃方面的研究进展,以及膨胀型阻燃橡胶目前存在的问题及未来发展方向。

  16. ADVANCES IN TRANSGENIC MAIZE FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rajendar Reddy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays is a major food and animal feed worldwide and occupies a relevant place in the world economy and trade as an industrial grain crop. Currently more than 70% of maize production is used for food and feed; therefore, knowledge of genes involved in grain structure and chemical is important for improving the nutritional and food-making properties of maize. It is a good source of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals but deficient in two essential amino acids, Viz., lysine and tryptophan. To overcome this problem and to improve the above quality characters the maize breeders have followed different strategies like opaque 2, QPM and development of transgenic maize with improved quality characters. Finally we can conclude that the conventional breeding techniques and now plant biotechnology are helping meet the growing demand for food production, nutrition security while preserving our environment for future generations

  17. Recent Advances and Future Directions for Quality Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vining, Geoff; Kulahci, Murat; Pedersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The origins of quality engineering are in manufacturing, where quality engineers apply basic statistical methodologies to improve the quality and productivity of products and processes. In the past decade, people have discovered that these methodologies are effective for improving almost any type...... of system or process, such as financial, health care, and supply chains. This paper begins with a review of key advances and trends within quality engineering over the past decade. The second part uses the first part as a foundation to outline new application areas for the field. It also discusses...

  18. Rocket flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Vaidya

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the important parameters which characterize the rocket flames are the (1 velocity, (2 pressure, (3 temperature of the exhaust gases and (4 the nature of chemical reactions in the flame of such gases. For the determination of these quantities ordinary methods fail because the flow of exhaust gases is supersonic in character. An introduction of a probe or any foreign body will create such strong disturbances in the supersonic flow that the readings of observing instruments will have no value. Spectroscopic methods are therefore eminently suitable because observations can be taken on the flame under running conditions.

  19. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  20. Advances in genomics for the improvement of quality in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hue Tm; Lee, L Slade; Furtado, Agnelo; Smyth, Heather; Henry, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Coffee is an important crop that provides a livelihood to millions of people living in developing countries. Production of genotypes with improved coffee quality attributes is a primary target of coffee genetic improvement programmes. Advances in genomics are providing new tools for analysis of coffee quality at the molecular level. The recent report of a genomic sequence for robusta coffee, Coffea canephora, is a major development. However, a reference genome sequence for the genetically more complex arabica coffee (C. arabica) will also be required to fully define the molecular determinants controlling quality in coffee produced from this high quality coffee species. Genes responsible for control of the levels of the major biochemical components in the coffee bean that are known to be important in determining coffee quality can now be identified by association analysis. However, the narrow genetic base of arabica coffee suggests that genomics analysis of the wild relatives of coffee (Coffea spp.) may be required to find the phenotypic diversity required for effective association genetic analysis. The genomic resources available for the study of coffee quality are described and the potential for the application of next generation sequencing and association genetic analysis to advance coffee quality research are explored. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26919810

  1. Advanced spot quality analysis in two-colour microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter Guillaume

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image analysis of microarrays and, in particular, spot quantification and spot quality control, is one of the most important steps in statistical analysis of microarray data. Recent methods of spot quality control are still in early age of development, often leading to underestimation of true positive microarray features and, consequently, to loss of important biological information. Therefore, improving and standardizing the statistical approaches of spot quality control are essential to facilitate the overall analysis of microarray data and subsequent extraction of biological information. Findings We evaluated the performance of two image analysis packages MAIA and GenePix (GP using two complementary experimental approaches with a focus on the statistical analysis of spot quality factors. First, we developed control microarrays with a priori known fluorescence ratios to verify the accuracy and precision of the ratio estimation of signal intensities. Next, we developed advanced semi-automatic protocols of spot quality evaluation in MAIA and GP and compared their performance with available facilities of spot quantitative filtering in GP. We evaluated these algorithms for standardised spot quality analysis in a whole-genome microarray experiment assessing well-characterised transcriptional modifications induced by the transcription regulator SNAI1. Using a set of RT-PCR or qRT-PCR validated microarray data, we found that the semi-automatic protocol of spot quality control we developed with MAIA allowed recovering approximately 13% more spots and 38% more differentially expressed genes (at FDR = 5% than GP with default spot filtering conditions. Conclusion Careful control of spot quality characteristics with advanced spot quality evaluation can significantly increase the amount of confident and accurate data resulting in more meaningful biological conclusions.

  2. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Pandit, Naba Raj; Taylor, Paul; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Sparrevik, Magnus; Schmidt, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Flame Curtain Biochar Kilns Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed "biochar". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide) and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns), also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up. Biochar Characteristics A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57), average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1), low EPA16—PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1) and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg)(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs) were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). Gas Emission Factors Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks); CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10) = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC) = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (pemission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap construction and operation the flame curtain technology represent a promising

  3. Advanced methods of quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under pressure of current economic and electricity market situation utilities implement more demanding fuel utilization schemes including higher burn ups and thermal rates, longer fuel cycles and usage of Mo fuel. Therefore, fuel vendors have recently initiated new R and D programmes aimed at improving fuel quality, design and materials to produce robust and reliable fuel. In the beginning of commercial fuel fabrication, emphasis was given to advancements in Quality Control/Quality Assurance related mainly to product itself. During recent years, emphasis was transferred to improvements in process control and to implementation of overall Total Quality Management (TQM) programmes. In the area of fuel quality control, statistical control methods are now widely implemented replacing 100% inspection. This evolution, some practical examples and IAEA activities are described in the paper. The paper presents major findings of the latest IAEA Technical Meetings (TMs) and training courses in the area with emphasis on information received at the TM and training course held in 1999 and other latest publications to provide an overview of new developments in process/quality control, their implementation and results obtained including new approaches to QC

  4. Quality Assurance Protocol for AFCI Advanced Structural Materials Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this letter is to inform you of recent progress on the development of advanced structural materials in support of advanced fast reactors and AFCI. As you know, the alloy development effort has been initiated in recent months with the procurement of adequate quantities of the NF616 and HT-UPS alloys. As the test alloys become available in the coming days, mechanical testing, evaluation of optimizing treatments, and screening of environmental effects will be possible at a larger scale. It is therefore important to establish proper quality assurance protocols for this testing effort in a timely manner to ensure high technical quality throughout testing. A properly implemented quality assurance effort will also enable preliminary data taken in this effort to be qualified as NQA-1 during any subsequent licensing discussions for an advanced design or actual prototype. The objective of this report is to describe the quality assurance protocols that will be used for this effort. An essential first step in evaluating quality protocols is assessing the end use of the data. Currently, the advanced structural materials effort is part of a long-range, basic research and development effort and not, as yet, involved in licensing discussions for a specific reactor design. After consultation with Mark Vance (an ORNL QA expert) and based on the recently-issued AFCI QA requirements, the application of NQA-1 quality requirements will follow the guidance provided in Part IV, Subpart 4.2 of the NQA-1 standard (Guidance on Graded Application of QA for Nuclear-Related Research and Development). This guidance mandates the application of sound scientific methodology and a robust peer review process in all phases, allowing for the data to be qualified for use even if the programmatic mission changes to include licensing discussions of a specific design or prototype. ORNL has previously implemented a QA program dedicated to GNEP activities and based on an appropriately graded

  5. Flame-coating method and flame-coating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method and the device of the present invention improve the quality and operation efficiency of coating applied to corner portions of under water reactor structural components of a nuclear reactor. Namely, powders for the flame-coating are provided with ferromagnetic property in a step of forming coating films to underwater structural members by an underwater flame-coating method in a nuclear reactor. A flow of plasma arc can be bent by applying magnetic fields to the flame-coating plasma arc. Accordingly, coatings can be applied to corner portions particularly to pad-weld portions among welded members. Further, the flame-coating can be applied while being conformed to the shape of the place where a surface layer is formed, by controlling the extension of the plasma arc by making the shape of the plasma arc irradiated on the surface of a work rectangular, elliptic or linear. (I.S.)

  6. Knowledge Management Platform in Advanced Product Quality Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiliban, Bogdan; Baral, Lal Mohan; Kifor, Claudiu

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge is an essential part of organizational competitiveness. This vital resource must be managed correctly within organizations in order to achieve desired performance levels within all undertakings. The process of managing knowledge is a very difficult one due to the illusive nature of the resource itself. Knowledge is stored within every aspect of an organization starting from people and ending with documents and processes. The Knowledge Management Platform is designed as a facilitator for managers and employees in all endeavours knowledge related within the Advanced Product Quality Planning Procedure

  7. Quality-of-life assessment in advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, S

    2000-07-01

    In the past 5 years, quality-of-life (QOL) assessment measures such as the McGill, McMaster, Global Visual Analogue Scale, Assessment of QOL at the End of Life, Life Evaluation Questionnaire, and Hospice QOL Index have been devised specifically for patients with advanced cancer. The developers of these instruments have tried to respond to the changing needs of this specific population, taking into account characteristics including poor performance status, difficulty with longitudinal study, rapidly deteriorating physical condition, and change in relevant issues. Emphasis has been placed on patient report, ease and speed of completion, and the existential domain or meaning of life. Novel techniques in QOL measurement have also been adapted for palliative care, such as judgment analysis in the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life. It is generally agreed that a single tool will not cover all QOL assessment needs.

  8. Advances in the study of current-use non-PBDE brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in the environment and humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The fate of the high production volume,currently in use,and not regulated non-polybrominated diphenyl ether(PBDE) flame retardants,such as tetrabromobisphenol A(TBBPA) ,hexabromocyclododecane(HBCD) and dechlorane plus(DP),and the alternative flame retardants of PBDE,such as BTBPE and DBDPE,in the environment has attracted increasing attention and aroused concern due to the increasing regulation and phasing-out of PBDEs.This paper reviews the distribution,bioaccumulation,human exposure and environmental behavior of those non-PBDE flame retardants in various environmental compartments.The data gaps and needs for future research are discussed.

  9. Quality Nursing Care for Hospitalized Patients with Advanced Illness: Concept Development

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Shigeko; Baggs, Judith G.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    The quality of nursing care as perceived by hospitalized patients with advanced illness has not been examined. A concept of quality nursing care for this population was developed by integrating the literature on constructs defining quality nursing care with empirical findings from interviews of 16 patients with advanced illness. Quality nursing care was characterized as competence and personal caring supported by professionalism and delivered with an appropriate demeanor. Although the attribu...

  10. Experiment and Simulation of Autoignition in Jet Flames and its Relevance to Flame Stabilization and Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2016-06-01

    Autoignition characteristics of pre-vaporized iso-octane, primary reference fuels, gasolines, and dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated experimentally in a coflow with elevated temperature of air. With the coflow air at relatively low initial temperatures below autoignition temperature Tauto, an external ignition source was required to stabilize the flame. Non-autoignited lifted flames had tribrachial edge structures and their liftoff heights correlated well with the jet velocity scaled by the stoichiometric laminar burning velocity, indicating the importance of the edge propagation speed on flame stabilization balanced with local flow velocity. At high initial temperatures over Tauto, the autoignited flames were stabilized without requiring an external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames exhibited either tribrachial edge structures or Mild combustion behaviors depending on the level of fuel dilution. For the iso-octane and n-heptane fuels, two distinct transition behaviors were observed in the autoignition regime from a nozzle-attached flame to a lifted tribrachial-edge flame and then a sudden transition to lifted Mild combustion as the jet velocity increased at a certain fuel dilution level. The liftoff data of the autoignited flames with tribrachial edges were analyzed based on calculated ignition delay times for the pre-vaporized fuels. Analysis of the experimental data suggested that ignition delay time may be much less sensitive to initial temperature under atmospheric pressure conditions as compared with predictions. For the gasoline fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACEs), and primary reference fuels (PRFs), autoignited liftoff data were correlated with Research Octane Number and Cetane Number. For the DME fuel, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde (CH2O) and CH* chemiluminescence were visualized qualitatively. In the autoignition regime for both tribrachial structure and mild combustion, formaldehyde were found

  11. Evaluation of NOx emissions from advanced-technology range burners. Final report, March 1, 1990-June 30, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With growing concern for indoor air quality, it was important that emission rates from unvented combustion sources be cataloged to evaluate the effect they may have on the indoor air quality. Flue gas emissions were evaluated from new or European type or Japanese sealed or not sealed blue flame type range top burners installed in a conventional free standing gas range. Emissions were also evaluated from burners in advanced technology market ranges equipped with either blue flame or infrared burners

  12. Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahla Keyvan

    2005-12-01

    A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

  13. Flame structure of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents high speed images of OH-PLIF at 10. kHz simultaneously with 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements collected along the entire length of an inverse diffusion flame with circumferentially arranged methane fuel jets. For a fixed fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to four air to fuel velocity ratios, namely Vr = 20.7, 29, 37.4 and 49.8. A double flame structure could be observed composed of a lower fuel entrainment region and an upper mixing and intense combustion region. The entrainment region was enveloped by an early OH layer, and then merged through a very thin OH neck to an annular OH layer located at the shear layer of the air jet. The two branches of this annular OH layer broaden as they moved downstream and eventfully merged together. Three types of events were observed common to all flames: breaks, closures and growing kernels. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks were counterbalanced by flame closures. These breaks in OH signal were found to occur at locations where locally high velocity flows were impinging on the flame. As the Vr increased to 37.4, the OH layers became discontinuous over the downstream region of the flame, and these regions of low or no OH moved upstream. With further increases in Vr, these OH pockets act as flame kernels, growing as they moved downstream, and became the main mechanism for flame re-ignition. Along the flame length, the direction of the two dimensional principle compressive strain rate axis exhibited a preferred orientation of approximately 45° with respect to the flow direction. Moreover, the OH zones were associated with elongated regions of high vorticity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Advances in Application of Models in Soil Quality Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Si, Zhi-guo; Wang, Ji-jie; Yu, Yuan-chun; Liang, Guan-feng; Chen, Chang-ren; Shu, Hong-lan

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality is a comprehensive reflection of soil properties. Since the soil quality concept was put forward in the 1970s, the quality of different type soils in different regions have been evaluated through a variety of evaluation methods, but it still lacks universal soil quantity evaluation models and methods. In this paper, the applications and prospects of grey relevancy comprehensive evaluation model, attribute hierarchical model, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, matter-element mo...

  15. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  16. Basic concept of quality management for advanced technologies - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outline of the lecture was as follows: Chain of radiotherapy processes; Quality definitions; AAPM reports; FMEA - failure modes and effects analysis; A US radiotherapy accident; Understanding the uncertainties of your equipment; ICRU IMRT report. (P.A.)

  17. Quality of experience advanced concepts, applications and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Raake, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This pioneering book develops definitions and concepts related to Quality of Experience in the context of multimedia- and telecommunications-related applications, systems and services, and applies these to various fields of communication and media technologies. The editors bring together numerous key-protagonists of the new discipline “Quality of Experience” and combine the state-of-the-art knowledge in one single volume. 

  18. Field Effects of Buoyancy on Lean Premixed Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R. K.; Johnson, M. R.; Greenberg, P. S.; Wernet, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    The study of field effects of buoyancy on premixed turbulent flames is directed towards the advancement of turbulent combustion theory and the development of cleaner combustion technologies. Turbulent combustion is considered the most important unsolved problem in combustion science and laboratory studies of turbulence flame processes are vital to theoretical development. Although buoyancy is dominant in laboratory flames, most combustion models are not yet capable to consider buoyancy effects. This inconsistency has impeded the validation of theories and numerical simulations with experiments. Conversely, the understanding of buoyancy effects is far too limited to help develop buoyant flame models. Our research is also relevant to combustion technology because lean premixed combustion is a proven method to reduce the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In industrial lean premixed combustion systems, their operating conditions make them susceptible to buoyancy thus affecting heat distribution, emissions, stability, flashback and blowoff. But little knowledge is available to guide combustion engineers as to how to avoid or overcome these problems. Our hypothesis is that through its influence on the mean pressure field, buoyancy has direct and indirect effects on local flame/turbulence interactions. Although buoyancy acts on the hot products in the farfield the effect is also felt in the nearfield region upstream of the flame. These changes also influence the generation and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy inside the flame brush and throughout the flowfield. Moreover, the plume of an open flame is unstable and the periodic fluctuations make additional contributions to flame front dynamics in the farfield. Therefore, processes such as flame wrinkling, flow acceleration due to heat release and flame- generated vorticity are all affected. Other global flame properties (e.g. flame stabilization limits and flame speed) may all be coupled to buoyancy. This

  19. ANALYSIS ON EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AFTER INTRODUCING ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojiri, Yasuo; Maekawa, Shunich

    We analyze effluent water quality and electricity consumption after in troducing advanced treatment in sewage treatment plant. We define 'advanced treatment ratio' as volume of treated water through advanced treatment processes divided by total volume of treated water in plant. Advanced treatment ratio represents degree of introducing advanced treatment. We build two types of equation. One represents relation between effluent water quality and advanced treatment ratio, the other between electricity consumption and advanced treatment ratio. Each equation is fitted by least squares on 808 samples: 8 fiscal years operation data of 101 plants working in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Saitama and Chiba areas, and coefficient of advanced treatment ratio is estimated. The result is as follows. (1) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at nitrogen removal, T-N in effluent water decreases by 51.3% and electricity consum ption increases by 52.2%. (2) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at phosphorus removal, T-P in effluent water decreases by 27.8%. Using the above result, we try prioritizing 71 plants in Tokyo Bay watershed about raising advanced treatment ratio, so that, in total, pollutant in effluent water decreases with minimized increase of electricity consumption.

  20. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    K.Sujatha; VENMATHI, M.; Pappa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2), excess oxygen (O2), Nitrogen dioxide (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SOx) and Carbon monox...

  1. Reconstructing the Cryptanalytic Attack behind the Flame Malware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Flame was an advanced malware, used for espionage, which infected computers running a Microsoft Windows operating system. Once a computer in a local network was infected, Flame could spread to the other computers in the network via Windows Update, disguised as a security patch from Microsoft. Window

  2. Shapes of Buoyant and Nonbuoyant Methane Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Peter B.; Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Laminar gas jet diffusion flames represent a fundamental combustion configuration. Their study has contributed to numerous advances in combustion, including the development of analytical and computational combustion tools. Laminar jet flames are pertinent also to turbulent flames by use of the laminar flamelet concept. Investigations into the shapes of noncoflowing microgravity laminar jet diffusion flames have primarily been pursued in the NASA Lewis 2.2-second drop tower, by Cochran and coworkers and by Bahadori and coworkers. These studies were generally conducted at atmospheric pressure; they involved soot-containing flames and reported luminosity lengths and widths instead of the flame-sheet dimensions which are of Greater value to theory evaluation and development. The seminal model of laminar diffusion flames is that of Burke and Schumann, who solved the conservation of momentum equation for a jet flame in a coflowing ambient by assuming the velocity of fuel, oxidizer and products to be constant throughout. Roper and coworkers improved upon this model by allowing for axial variations of velocity and found flame shape to be independent of coflow velocity. Roper's suggestion that flame height should be independent of gravity level is not supported by past or present observations. Other models have been presented by Klajn and Oppenheim, Markstein and De Ris, Villermaux and Durox, and Li et al. The common result of all these models (except in the buoyant regime) is that flame height is proportional to fuel mass flowrate, with flame width proving much more difficult to predict. Most existing flame models have been compared with shapes of flames containing soot, which is known to obscure the weak blue emission of flame sheets. The present work involves measurements of laminar gas jet diffusion flame shapes. Flame images have been obtained for buoyant and nonbuoyant methane flames burning in quiescent air at various fuel flow-rates, burner diameters and ambient

  3. The new advances in radiotherapy technique challenges of quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What is Quality Assurance (QA)? This is all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. ISO 9000. It is the overall process which is supported by quality control activities. While, quality control describes the actual mechanisms and procedures by which one can assure quality. Consequences for radiotherapy A good acceptance testing and commissioning program is fundamental for any QA activities QA applies to both physical and clinical aspects of the treatment Treatment records must be kept of all relevant aspects of the treatment - including -Session and Summary Record information -Records all treatment parameters -Dose Calculations -Dose Measurements Particular emphasis is placed on QA of dosimetry A QA system itself and its outcomes must be critically reviewed. External audits are recommended to verify that the checks are not only done but that they also achieve what they are supposed to do Every good system requires an independent look at times A Comprehensive QA Program typically comprises Quality Assurance Committee, Policies and Procedures Manual, Quality Assurance team, Quality audit, Resources Introduction,..OBI in general. The On-Board Imager system is designed to correct for motion and setup errors of patients undergoing radiation therapy. It provides three imaging modes: Two-dimensional 2-D radiographic acquisition, Fluoroscopic image acquisition, and Three-dimensional 3-D cone-beam computed tomography CBCT acquisition. The fluoroscopic images are used to verify the gating thresholds of the respiratory gating system to account for intra-fraction i.e. respiratory motion. The radiographic images manage inter-fractional motion and setup errors. Using the 2D2DMatch and 3D3DMatch analysis tools a user can register the acquired kV or CBCT images with their associated reference image like DRR or planning CT for CBCT. Couch corrections are then downloaded to the linear

  4. Turbulent Flames in Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, A. M.

    1994-05-01

    First results of three-dimensional simulations of a thermonuclear flame in Type Ia supernovae are obtained using a new flame-capturing algorithm, and a PPM hydrodynamical code. In the absence of gravity, the flame is stabilized with respect to the Landau (1944) instability due to the difference in the behaviour of convex and concave portions of the perturbed flame front. The transition to turbulence in supernovae occurs on scales =~ 0.1 - 10 km in agreement with the non-linear estimate lambda =~ 2pi D(2_l/geff) based on the Zeldovich (1966) model for a perturbed flame when the gravity acceleration increases; D_l is the normal speed of the laminar flame, and geff is the effective acceleration. The turbulent flame is mainly spread by large scale motions driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Small scale turbulence facilitates rapid incineration of the fuel left behind the front. The turbulent flame speed D_t approaches D_t =~ U', where U' is the root mean square velocity of turbulent motions, when the turbulent flame forgets initial conditions and reaches a steady state. The results indicate that in a steady state the turbulent flame speed should be independent of the normal laminar flame speed D_l. The three-dimensional results are in sharp contrast with the results of previous two-dimensional simulations which underestimate flame speed due to the lack of turbulent cascade directed in three dimensions from big to small spatial scales. The work was supported by the NSF grants AST 92-18035 and AST 93-005P.

  5. Diffusion Flame Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm) (Fig. 1, left). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated (Fig. 1, right). A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.

  6. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES IN SERVICE QUALITY LITERATURE: ESSENTIALS AND ADVANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed naved Khan

    2013-01-01

    Academic and business researchers have for long debated on the most appropriate data analysis techniques that can be employed in conducting empirical researches in the domain of services marketing. On the basis of an exhaustive review of literature, the present paper attempts to provide a concise and schematic portrayal of generally followed data analysis techniques in the field of services quality literature. Collectively, the extant literature suggests that there is a growing trend among re...

  7. Advanced Monitoring of Indoor Air Quality in Libraries and Archives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila

    Roma: Centro Copie l'Istantanea, 2013 - (Ferrari, A.), s. 209 ISBN 978-88-97987-01-7. [International Congress on Science and Technology for the Safeguard of Curtural Heritage in the Mediterranean Basin /6./. Athens (GR), 22.10.2013-25.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : indoor air quality * library * indoor pollutants Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  8. Hybrid power filter for advanced power quality in industrial systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švec, J.; Müller, Z.; Kasembe, A. G.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 103, october 2013 (2013), s. 157-167. ISSN 0378-7796 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : hybrid power filter * power quality * industrial system Subject RIV: JA - Electronic s ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.595, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378779613001417

  9. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES IN SERVICE QUALITY LITERATURE: ESSENTIALS AND ADVANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed naved Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Academic and business researchers have for long debated on the most appropriate data analysis techniques that can be employed in conducting empirical researches in the domain of services marketing. On the basis of an exhaustive review of literature, the present paper attempts to provide a concise and schematic portrayal of generally followed data analysis techniques in the field of services quality literature. Collectively, the extant literature suggests that there is a growing trend among researchers to rely on higher order multivariate techniques viz. confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling etc. to generate and analyze complex models, while at times ignoring very basic and yet powerful procedures such as mean, t-Test, ANOVA and correlation. The marked shift in orientation of researchers towards using sophisticated analytical techniques can largely beattributed to the competition within the community of researchers in social sciences in general and those working in the area of service quality in particular as also growing demands of reviewers ofjournals. From a pragmatic viewpoint, it is expected that the paper will serve as a useful source of information and provide deeper insights to academic researchers, consultants, and practitionersinterested in modelling patterns of service quality and arriving at optimal solutions to increasingly complex management problems.

  10. Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan : ASC software quality engineering practices Version 3.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Jennifer L.; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Pilch, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. Quality is defined in the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency (DOE/NNSA) Quality Criteria, Revision 10 (QC-1) as 'conformance to customer requirements and expectations'. This quality plan defines the SNL ASC Program software quality engineering (SQE) practices and provides a mapping of these practices to the SNL Corporate Process Requirement (CPR) 001.3.6; 'Corporate Software Engineering Excellence'. This plan also identifies ASC management's and the software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals. This SNL ASC Software Quality Plan establishes the signatories commitments to improving software products by applying cost-effective SQE practices. This plan enumerates the SQE practices that comprise the development of SNL ASC's software products and explains the project teams opportunities for tailoring and implementing the practices.

  12. Influence of the radiation absorbed by micro particles on the flame propagation and combustion regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M F; Liberman, M A

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiation of the hot combustion products usually does not influence noticeably the flame propagating through gaseous mixture. the situation is changed drastically in the presence even small concentration of particles, which absorb radiation, transfer the heat to the surrounding unburned gaseous mixture by means of heat conduction, so that the gas phase temperature in front of the advancing flame lags that of the particles. It is shown that radiative preheating of unreacted mixture ahead of the flame results in a modest increase of the advancing flame velocity for a highly reactive gaseous fuel, or to considerable increase of the flame velocity in the case of a slow reactive mixture. The effects of radiation preheating as stronger as smaller the normal flame velocity. The radiation heat transfer can become a dominant mechanism compared with molecular heat conduction, determining the structure and the speed of combustion wave in the case of a small enough velocity of the advancing flame. It is shown tha...

  13. Implementation of a TMP Advanced Quality Control System at a Newsprint Manufacturing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastien Kidd

    2006-02-14

    This project provided for the implementation of an advanced, model predictive multi-variant controller that works with the mill that has existing distributed control system. The method provides real time and online predictive models and modifies control actions to maximize quality and minimize energy costs. Using software sensors, the system can predict difficult-to-measure quality and process variables and make necessary process control decisions to accurately control pulp quality while minimizing electrical usage. This method of control has allowed Augusta Newsprint Company to optimize the operation of its Thermo Mechanical Pulp mill for lower energy consumption and lower pulp quality variance.

  14. Flat flame burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Y.; Mitsudomi, H.

    1976-03-09

    Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.'s new flat-flame burner has an air-swirling chamber with a flame opening in one side so constructed that combustion gas is forced out from the flame opening in a spiral direction by the swirling air current within the air chamber. The orifice effect of permitting the flame to emanate from a small opening to an unconfined outer space assures formation of a flat flame spreading out over a very wide area, thereby ensuring very rapid, uniform and highly efficient heat treatment of an article to be heated. With the present invention, moreover, it is possible to materially reduce the thickness of the overall device.

  15. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Y.; F. Paulot; W. P. L. Carter; C. G. Nolte; Luecken, D. J.; W. T. Hutzell; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Pinder, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NOx recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry into...

  16. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Y.; W. P. L. Carter; C. G. Nolte; Luecken, D. J.; W. T. Hutzell; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Pinder, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NO_x recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry int...

  17. Independent contributors to overall quality of life in people with advanced cancer

    OpenAIRE

    M Rodríguez, A; Mayo, N. E.; Gagnon, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The definition of health for people with cancer is not focused solely on the physiology of illness and the length of life remaining, but is also concerned with improving the well-being and the quality of the life (QOL) remaining to be lived. This study aimed to identify the constructs most associated with QOL in people with advanced cancer. Methods: Two hundred three persons with recent diagnoses of different advanced cancers were evaluated with 65 variables representing individua...

  18. Unsteady Flame Embedding

    KAUST Repository

    El-Asrag, Hossam A.

    2011-01-01

    Direct simulation of all the length and time scales relevant to practical combustion processes is computationally prohibitive. When combustion processes are driven by reaction and transport phenomena occurring at the unresolved scales of a numerical simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re-ignition, and history effects-via embedded simulations at the subgrid level. The model efficiently accounts for subgrid flame structure and incorporates detailed chemistry and transport, allowing more accurate prediction of the stretch effect and the heat release. In this chapter we first review the work done in the past thirty years to develop the flame embedding concept. Next we present a formulation for the same concept that is compatible with Large Eddy Simulation in the flamelet regimes. The unsteady flame embedding approach (UFE) treats the flame as an ensemble of locally one-dimensional flames, similar to the flamelet approach. However, a set of elemental one-dimensional flames is used to describe the turbulent flame structure directly at the subgrid level. The calculations employ a one-dimensional unsteady flame model that incorporates unsteady strain rate, curvature, and mixture boundary conditions imposed by the resolved scales. The model is used for closure of the subgrid terms in the context of large eddy simulation. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from a flame-vortex interaction problem is used for comparison. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

  19. Advanced terahertz techniques for quality control and counterfeit detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Kiarash; Anwar, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports our invented methods for detection of counterfeit electronic. These versatile techniques are also handy in quality control applications. Terahertz pulsed laser systems are capable of giving the material characteristics and thus make it possible to distinguish between the materials used in authentic components and their counterfeit clones. Components with material defects can also be distinguished in section in this manner. In this work different refractive indices and absorption coefficients were observed for counterfeit components compared to their authentic counterparts. Existence of unexpected ingredient materials was detected in counterfeit components by Fourier Transform analysis of the transmitted terahertz pulse. Thicknesses of different layers are obtainable by analyzing the reflected terahertz pulse. Existence of unexpected layers is also detectable in this manner. Recycled, sanded and blacktopped counterfeit electronic components were detected as a result of these analyses. Counterfeit ICs with die dislocations were detected by depicting the terahertz raster scanning data in a coordinate plane which gives terahertz images. In the same manner, raster scanning of the reflected pulse gives terahertz images of the surfaces of the components which were used to investigate contaminant materials and sanded points on the surfaces. The results of the later technique, reveals the recycled counterfeit components.

  20. Particle-Image Velocimetry in Microgravity Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Greenberg, P. S.; Urban, D. L.; Wernet, M. P.; Yanis, W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses planned velocity measurements in microgravity laminar jet diffusion flames. These measurements will be conducted using Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower. The observations are of fundamental interest and may ultimately lead to improved efficiency and decreased emissions from practical combustors. The velocity measurements will support the evaluation of analytical and numerical combustion models. There is strong motivation for the proposed microgravity flame configuration. Laminar jet flames are fundamental to combustion and their study has contributed to myriad advances in combustion science, including the development of theoretical, computational and diagnostic combustion tools. Nonbuoyant laminar jet flames are pertinent to the turbulent flames of more practical interest via the laminar flamelet concept. The influence of gravity on these flames is deleterious: it complicates theoretical and numerical modeling, introduces hydrodynamic instabilities, decreases length scales and spatial resolution, and limits the variability of residence time. Whereas many normal-gravity laminar jet diffusion flames have been thoroughly examined (including measurements of velocities, temperatures, compositions, sooting behavior and emissive and absorptive properties), measurements in microgravity gas-jet flames have been less complete and, notably, have included only cursory velocity measurements. It is envisioned that our velocity measurements will fill an important gap in the understanding of nonbuoyant laminar jet flames.

  1. Advanced monitoring of wastewater quality: data collection and data quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alferes, Janelcy; Lamaire-Chad, C.; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar;

    and in evaluating the impact of discharges on the receiving water bodies. As measurements are carried out under arduous conditions, practical implementation of such monitoring systems entails several challenges, and automation of data collection and data quality assessment has been recognised as a...... data being collected. In this paper, results showed the successful implementation of the proposed strategy for collection of water quality data at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant....... critical issue. In this paper, a data quality assessment strategy is presented to achieve efficient water quality monitoring in real-world scenarios. Next to practical aspects concerning installation and maintenance of sensors, the paper also presents a software tool aimed at assessing the quality of the...

  2. Emerging technology: A key enabler for modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing and advancing product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas F; Yu, Lawrence X; Lee, Sau L

    2016-07-25

    Issues in product quality have produced recalls and caused drug shortages in United States (U.S.) in the past few years. These quality issues were often due to outdated manufacturing technologies and equipment as well as lack of an effective quality management system. To ensure consistent supply of safe, effective and high-quality drug products available to the patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supports modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing for improvements in product quality. Specifically, five new initiatives are proposed here to achieve this goal. They include: (i) advancing regulatory science for pharmaceutical manufacturing; (ii) establishing a public-private institute for pharmaceutical manufacturing innovation; (iii) creating incentives for investment in the technological upgrade of manufacturing processes and facilities; (iv) leveraging external expertise for regulatory quality assessment of emerging technologies; and (v) promoting the international harmonization of approaches for expediting the global adoption of emerging technologies. PMID:27260134

  3. Flat flame burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Y.; Mitsudomi, H.

    1976-02-24

    Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.'s new flat-flame heat-treatment burner offers lower material costs, reduced combustion noise, and elimination of the need for a high-pressure fuel gas to provide a high-velocity combustion burner. The flat-flame burner contains an air-swirling chamber with a flame opening in one side; the wall defining the flame opening has a small thickness around the opening and a flat outer face. This construction causes the combustion gas to be forced out from the flame opening in a spiral direction by the swirling air current within the air chamber; together with the orifice effect of permitting the flame to emanate from a small opening to an unconfined outer space, this helps assure the formation of a flat flame spreading out over a very wide area for very rapid, uniform, and highly efficient heat treatment of an article to be heated. This approach also permits the thickness of the overall device to be reduced. The supply of combustion air in the form of a swirling stream makes it possible to provide a high-velocity combustion burner without using a high-pressure fuel gas, with the advantage of satisfactory mixture of the fuel gas and combustion air and consequently markedly reduced combustion noise.

  4. Advances in energy and environment. Vol. 2: Air quality, water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5th conference of energy and environment was held on 3-6 June 1996 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the effects of advances in energy and environment. The applications of solar energy, heat transfer, thermal application, storage and bio-conversion, fuels, energy and development. This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects air pollution, environmental protection, solid and hazardous wastes, water and wastewater treatment. tabs., figs

  5. Advanced lung disease: quality of life and role of palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Christopher R; Smith, Cecilia M

    2009-02-01

    Advanced restrictive lung diseases remain a challenge for both the clinician and patient alike. Because there are few available treatment options that prolong survival for patients with diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, improvement in quality of life and palliation of significant symptoms become realistic treatment goals. Several validated instruments that assess quality of life and health-related quality of life have demonstrated the dramatic impact that lung disease has on patients. Quality-of-life assessments of patients with interstitial lung disease have commonly cited respiratory complaints as problematic, but other distressing symptoms often not addressed include fear, social isolation, anxiety, and depression. Not only do respiratory symptoms limit this patient population, but the awareness of decreased independence and ability for social participation also has an impact on the quality of life. Some patients describe a deepened spiritual well-being during their disease process; however, many patients' mental health suffers with experiences of fear, worry, anxiety, and panic. Many patients express desire for more attention to end-of-life issues from their physicians. Fears of worsening symptoms and suffocation exist with an expressed desire by most to die peacefully with symptom control. Interventions to improve quality of life are largely directed at symptom control. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions have been helpful in relieving dyspnea. Studies have demonstrated that the use of supplemental oxygen in the face of advancing hypoxemia can have both positive and negative effects on quality of life. Patients using nasal prongs describe feelings of self-consciousness, embarrassment, and social withdrawal. Pulmonary rehabilitation is recommended, with some studies noting increased quality-of-life scores and decreased sensations of dyspnea. Sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality also have a negative impact on quality of life

  6. Water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing using advanced ion chromatographic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiko TANAKA; Chao-Hong SHI; Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI

    2012-01-01

    The water quality monitoring operation to evaluate the water quality of polluted river is an extremely important task for the river-watershed management/control based on the environmental policy.In this study,the novel,simple and convenient water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing,China was carried out using an advanced ion chromatography (IC) consisting of ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC) with conductivity detection for determining simultaneously the common anions such as SO42 -,Cl -,and NO3- and the cations such as Na+,NH4+,K+,Mg2+,and Ca2+,the ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with visible detection for determining simultaneously the nutrient components such as phosphate and silicate ions,and the IEC with the enhanced conductivity detection using a post column of K+ -form cation-exchange resin for determining HCO3- -alkalinity as an inorganic-carbon source for biomass synthesis in biological reaction process under the aerobic conditions.According to the ionic balance theory between the total equivalent con-centrations of anions and cations,the water quality evaluation of the Jialing-River waters taking at different sampling sites in Chongqing metropolitan area was carried out using the advanced IC system.As a result,the effectiveness of this novel water quality monitoring methodology using the IC system was demonstrated on the several practical applications to a typical biological sewage treatment plant on Jialing-River of Chongqing.

  7. Large Scale Flame Spread Environmental Characterization Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayman, Lauren K.; Olson, Sandra L.; Gokoghi, Suleyman A.; Brooker, John E.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Kacher, Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    Under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project (SFSDP), as a risk mitigation activity in support of the development of a large-scale fire demonstration experiment in microgravity, flame-spread tests were conducted in normal gravity on thin, cellulose-based fuels in a sealed chamber. The primary objective of the tests was to measure pressure rise in a chamber as sample material, burning direction (upward/downward), total heat release, heat release rate, and heat loss mechanisms were varied between tests. A Design of Experiments (DOE) method was imposed to produce an array of tests from a fixed set of constraints and a coupled response model was developed. Supplementary tests were run without experimental design to additionally vary select parameters such as initial chamber pressure. The starting chamber pressure for each test was set below atmospheric to prevent chamber overpressure. Bottom ignition, or upward propagating burns, produced rapid acceleratory turbulent flame spread. Pressure rise in the chamber increases as the amount of fuel burned increases mainly because of the larger amount of heat generation and, to a much smaller extent, due to the increase in gaseous number of moles. Top ignition, or downward propagating burns, produced a steady flame spread with a very small flat flame across the burning edge. Steady-state pressure is achieved during downward flame spread as the pressure rises and plateaus. This indicates that the heat generation by the flame matches the heat loss to surroundings during the longer, slower downward burns. One heat loss mechanism included mounting a heat exchanger directly above the burning sample in the path of the plume to act as a heat sink and more efficiently dissipate the heat due to the combustion event. This proved an effective means for chamber overpressure mitigation for those tests producing the most total heat release and thusly was determined to be a feasible mitigation

  8. Chemical quality and temperature of water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, and the effect of the reservoir on the Green River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolke, E.L.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1975-01-01

    The major tributaries to Flaming Gorge Reservoir contribute an average of about 97 percent of the total streamflow and 82 percent of the total load of dissolved solids. The Green River is the largest tributary, and for the 1957-72 water years it contributed 81 percent of the total streamflow and 70 percent of the total load of dissolved solids. The principal constituents in the tributary streamflow are calcium and sulfate during periods of lowest flow and calcium and bicarbonate during periods of highest flow. Flaming Gorge Dam was closed in November 1962, and the most significant load changes of chemical constituents due to the net effect of inflow, outflow, leaching, and chemical precipitation in the reservoir have been load changes of sulfate and bicarbonate. The average increase of dissolved load of sulfate in the reservoir for the 1969-72 water years was 110,000 tons (99,790 t) per year, which was 40,000 tons (36,287 t) per year less than for the 1963-66 water years. The average decrease of dissolved load of bicarbonate in the reservoir for 1969-72 was 40,000 tons (36,287 t) per year, which was the same as the decrease for 1963-66. Anaerobic conditions were observed in the deep, uncirculated part of the reservoir near the dam during the 1971 and 1972 water years, and anaerobic or near-anaerobic conditions were observed near the confluence of the Blacks Fork and Green River during the summers of 1971 and 1972. The water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir is in three distinct layers, and the upper two layers (the epilimnion and the metalimnion) mixed twice during each of the 1971-72 water years. The two circulation periods were in the spring and fall. The water in the deepest layer (the hypolimnion) did not mix with the waters of the upper zones because the density difference was too great and because the deep, narrow shape of the basin probably inhibits mixing. The depletion of flow in the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam between closure of the dam and the

  9. Multivariate data analysis as a tool in advanced quality monitoring in the food production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, R.; van den Berg, F.; Thybo, A.;

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes some recent advances in mathematical modeling of relevance in advanced quality monitoring in the food production chain. Using chemometrics-multivariate data analysis - it is illustrated how to tackle problems in food science more efficiently and, moreover, solve problems that...... processing, and will cover areas such as analysis of variance, monitoring and handling of sampling variation, calibration, exploration/data mining and hard modeling. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... could not otherwise be handled before. The different mathematical models are all exemplified by food related subjects to underline the generic use of the models within the food chain. Applications will be given from meat, storage, vegetable characterization, fish quality monitoring and industrial food...

  10. Improving the Data Quality of Advanced LIGO Based on Early Engineering Run Results

    CERN Document Server

    Nuttall, L K; Areeda, J; Betzwieser, J; Dwyer, S; Effler, A; Fisher, R P; Fritschel, P; Kissel, J S; Lundgren, A P; Macleod, D M; Martynov, D; McIver, J; Mullavey, A; Sigg, D; Smith, J R; Vajente, G; Williamson, A R; Wipf, C C

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors have completed their initial upgrade phase and will enter the first observing run in late 2015, with detector sensitivity expected to improve in future runs. Through the combined efforts of on-site commissioners and the Detector Characterization group of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, interferometer performance, in terms of data quality, at both LIGO observatories has vastly improved from the start of commissioning efforts to present. Advanced LIGO has already surpassed Enhanced LIGO in sensitivity, and the rate of noise transients, which would negatively impact astrophysical searches, has improved. Here we give details of some of the work which has taken place to better the quality of the LIGO data ahead of the first observing run.

  11. Iso9000 Based Advanced Quality Approach for Continuous Improvement of Manufacturing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Deeb, Salah; Iung, Benoît

    2006-01-01

    The continuous improvement in TQM is considered as the core value by which organisation could maintain a competitive edge. Several techniques and tools are known to support this core value but most of the time these techniques are informal and without modelling the interdependence between the core value and tools. Thus, technique formalisation is one of TQM challenges for increasing efficiency of quality process implementation. In that way, the paper proposes and experiments an advanced quali...

  12. Photochemical treatment as an alternative to improve the quality of wastewater after advanced primary treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Fernando; Rivera Antonio; Romero Omar; Torres Eduardo; Ortega Mariana; Díaz Merle Yuridia

    2014-01-01

    The present research contains the photochemical treatment (PCT) of residual wastewater effluent derived from an advanced primary treatment process (APT). The application employed an ultraviolet light system, hydrogen peroxide and ozone as a free hydroxyl’s radicals generator; strong oxidants for the organic contaminants mineralization which affects the water quality. The aliquots of the APT and PCT were analyzed by determination of the parameters as the color, turbidity, electric conductivity...

  13. Quality of life among advanced breast cancer patients with and without distant metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, G.; Sikorskii, A.; TAMKUS, D.; You, M

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of a secondary analysis of data collected during a trial of reflexology that aimed to improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among women with advanced breast cancer in treatment. A comparison of HRQOL (functioning, symptoms, spirituality) of those with (n = 298) and without (n = 87) distant metastasis is presented. Following the intake interview, 385 women were randomised to reflexology, lay foot manipulation or conventional care control, and were inter...

  14. Advanced wastewater treatment by nanofiltration and activated carbon for high quality water reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Kazner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid processes combining activated carbon and nanofiltration have been studied to identify the optimum solution for advanced wastewater treatment in high quality water reclamation and reuse. With a focus on the removal of bulk and trace organic compounds the investigation identified three promising process combinations, namely powdered activated carbon followed by nanofiltration (PAC/NF), granular activated carbon followed by nanofiltration (GAC/NF) and nanofiltration followed by granular a...

  15. Quality of Dying in Nursing Home Residents Dying with Dementia: Does Advanced Care Planning Matter? A Nationwide Postmortem Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vandervoort, An; Houttekier, Dirk; Vander Stichele, Robert; van der Steen, Jenny T; Van den Block, Lieve

    2014-01-01

    Background Advance care planning is considered a central component of good quality palliative care and especially relevant for people who lose the capacity to make decisions at the end of life, which is the case for many nursing home residents with dementia. We set out to investigate to what extent (1) advance care planning in the form of written advance patient directives and verbal communication with patient and/or relatives about future care and (2) the existence of written advance general...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan. Part 2, Mappings for the ASC software quality engineering practices. Version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Molly A.; Heaphy, Robert; Sturtevant, Judith E.; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. The plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to Sandia Corporate Requirements CPR 1.3.2 and 1.3.6 and to a Department of Energy document, 'ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines'. This document also identifies ASC management and software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan. Part 1: ASC software quality engineering practices, Version 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Heaphy, Robert; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr. (,; .); Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. The plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to Sandia Corporate Requirements CPR 1.3.2 and 1.3.6 and to a Department of Energy document, ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines. This document also identifies ASC management and software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals.

  18. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, Ard; Verleur, Ria

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  19. FLAME OF GLORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Olympic torch relay will spread peace and harmony across the world Two old nations,one shared dream.A symbolic integration of Eastern and Western civi- lizations was realized when a dramatically dressed Greek priestess kindled a specially designed torch for the Beijing Olympics at the ancient stadium in Olympia,Greece.In a flawless ceremony amid sunrays on March 24,High Priestess Maria Nafpliotou lit the Olympic flame with a concave mirror in front of the Hera Temple in Olympia.The flame was then held in a replica of an ancient urn to ignite the first torch for the upcoming Summer Games in

  20. Motion-base simulator results of advanced supersonic transport handling qualities with active controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, J. B.; Joshi, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    Handling qualities of the unaugmented advanced supersonic transport (AST) are deficient in the low-speed, landing approach regime. Consequently, improvement in handling with active control augmentation systems has been achieved using implicit model-following techniques. Extensive fixed-based simulator evaluations were used to validate these systems prior to tests with full motion and visual capabilities on a six-axis motion-base simulator (MBS). These tests compared the handling qualities of the unaugmented AST with several augmented configurations to ascertain the effectiveness of these systems. Cooper-Harper ratings, tracking errors, and control activity data from the MBS tests have been analyzed statistically. The results show the fully augmented AST handling qualities have been improved to an acceptable level.

  1. Flame Stretch Analysis in Diffusion Flames with Inert Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ay Su; Ying-Chieh Liu

    2001-01-01

    Experimental investigations of impinging flame with fuel mixed with non-reaction gas were conducted.According to the observations of combustion test and temperature measurement, the non-reaction gas might dilute the local concentration of fuel in the diffusion process. The shape of the flame was symmetrical due to the flame stretch force. Results show that the conical flame might be de-structured by the addition of inert gas in pure methane fuel. The impinging flame became shorter and bluer as nitrogen was added to the fuel. The conditions of N2/CH4 equal to 1/2 and 1/1 show a wider plane in the YZ plane. The effect of inert gas overcomes the flame stretch and destroys the symmetrical column flame as well as the cold flow. Nitrogen addition also enhances the diffusion rate and combustion efficiency.

  2. Evaluation of Water Quality Renovation by Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T.; Morales, I.; DeLuca, J.; Amador, J.

    2013-12-01

    25% of US households utilize onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for wastewater management. Advanced technologies were designed to overcome the inadequate wastewater treatment by conventional OWTS in critical shallow water table areas, such as coastal zones, in order to protect ground water quality. In addition to the septic tank and soil drainfield that comprise a conventional OWTS, advanced systems claim improved water renovation with the addition of sand filtration, timed dosing controls, and shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. We determined water quality renovation functions under current water table and temperature conditions, in anticipation of an experiment to measure OWTS response to a climate change scenario of 30-cm increase in water table elevation and 4C temperature increase. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used to evaluate the effectiveness of drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone) compared to two types of pressurized, shallow narrow drainfield. Results under steady state conditions indicate complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria, phosphorus and BOD by all soil-based systems. By contrast, removal of total nitrogen inputs was 16% in conventional and 11% for both advanced drainfields. Effluent waters maintained a steady state pH between 3.2 - 3.7 for all technologies. Average DO readings were 2.9mg/L for conventional drainfield effluent and 4.6mg/L for advanced, showing the expected oxygen uptake with shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. The conventional OWTS is outperforming the advanced with respect to nitrogen removal, but renovating wastewater equivalently for all other contaminants of concern. The results of this study are expected to facilitate development of future OWTS regulation and planning guidelines, particularly in coastal zones and in the face of a changing climate.

  3. Quality of life among advanced breast cancer patients with and without distant metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G; Sikorskii, A; Tamkus, D; You, M

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the results of a secondary analysis of data collected during a trial of reflexology that aimed to improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among women with advanced breast cancer in treatment. A comparison of HRQOL (functioning, symptoms, spirituality) of those with (n = 298) and without (n = 87) distant metastasis is presented. Following the intake interview, 385 women were randomised to reflexology, lay foot manipulation or conventional care control, and were interviewed again at weeks 5 and 11. Those with distant metastasis were older, had fewer comorbid conditions, and a smaller proportion were employed. Longitudinal analysis of HRQOL at intake, 5 and 11 weeks revealed that those with distant metastasis had lower functioning and more pain; however, no differences were found on fatigue, nausea, shortness of breath, sleep quality, anxiety, depressive symptoms or spirituality. Despite advanced disease, 56% of all women in this study were below the clinical screening cut-off for depressive symptoms. These findings may indicate that patients with advanced breast cancer have adapted emotionally and spiritually; however, the management of physical symptoms remains a priority. PMID:23252474

  4. Flame Radiation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, R. W.; Humenik, F. M.; Neely, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Spectral and total flame radiation measurements exhibited: (1) that radiant heat flux increases with vision combustor inlet air pressure; (2) the effect of fuel atomization characteristics on radiant heat flux; and (3) that a reduction in fuel hydrogen content produces a significant increase in radiant heat flux primarily at low combustor pressures.

  5. Flame retardant tarpaulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Saiji; Takahashi, Yutaka; Uehara, Hiroshi

    1998-07-28

    A flame retardant tarpaulin is used for protecting equipments upon periodical repairing in places for handling radioactive materials such as a nuclear power plant. It is formed by coating a woven fabric, a knitted fabric or a non-woven fabric with from 100 to 1000% by weight of a composition formed by blending from 3 to 10 parts by weight of red phosphorus and from 7 to 25 parts by weight of melamine sulfate to 100 parts by weight of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer having a vinyl acetate content of from 8 to 28% by weight. Further, it comprises metal hydroxides such as Mg hydroxide and Al hydroxide. Aids such as plasticizers, stabilizers, lubricants and colorants can optionally be blended so long as they do not inhibit the flame retardant effect. It has an excellent flame retardancy, and does not produce poisonous gases or a great amount of ashes when burnt and discarded. It can be processed with satisfactory dimensional accuracy upon cutting and stitching, and has flame-proofness as specified by the fire laws. (T.M.)

  6. Palliative home care intervention to improve the quality of life of women with advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of life is affected frequently observed in women with advanced breast cancer and is considered a leading indicator of effectiveness of palliative care. A descriptive, quasi-experimental study is presented ex-ante / ex-post, by applying open-ended interviews to explore the effects on the processes of adaptation of each patient and a self-administrable scale identified specific dimensions of quality of life, satisfaction with care and overall quality of life. The intervention was performed palliative home care to 52 women, according to the damages identified in the baseline diagnosis. The overall strategy included four steps: clinical and socio-demographic characterization of women; identification of the effects on the processes of adaptation by the theoretical model of Roy and dimensions of quality of life frequently affected, to design individually oriented actions on the drive shaft of Nursing Interventions Classification and evaluation of results intervention. The dimensions achieved higher frequency of involvement were: behavior, physical symptoms, pain interference and leisure activities, social life and family. Data were analyzed with qualitative methodologies and uni and multivariate statistical processing. After the intervention favorable changes in adaptive processes and dimensions of quality of life were observed; well as in the assessment of overall satisfaction with life. It was interesting that the dimensions of satisfaction assessed at the end of the intervention obtained an unfavorable assessment, outcome associated with sociodemographic variables. (author)

  7. Turbulent oxygen flames in type Ia supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Aspden, Andrew; Bell, J.; Woosley, S.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, we examined turbulence-flame interactions in carbon-burning thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae. In this study, we consider turbulence-flame interactions in the trailing oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen flame. Scaling arguments analogous to the carbon flames are presented and then compared agains...

  8. ERCC1, toxicity and quality of life in advanced NSCLC patients randomized in a large multicentre phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, Adam Christian; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2010-01-01

    Excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a promising biomarker in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, current evidence regarding the impact of ERCC1 on toxicity and quality of life (QOL) is limited.......Excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a promising biomarker in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, current evidence regarding the impact of ERCC1 on toxicity and quality of life (QOL) is limited....

  9. Fluctuating functions related to quality of life in advanced Parkinson disease: effects of duodenal levodopa infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isacson, D; Bingefors, K; Sønbø Kristiansen, Ivar

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess fluctuations in quality of life (QoL) and motor performance in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) treated with continuous daytime duodenal levodopa/carbidopa infusion or conventional therapy. METHODS: Of 18 patients completing a 6-week trial (DIREQT), 12 were...... significantly more favourable outcomes compared with conventional treatment for satisfaction with overall functioning, 'off' time and ability to walk, with improved outcomes with PDQ-39. CONCLUSIONS: Relative to conventional treatment, infusion therapy may stabilize and significantly improve motor function and...

  10. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of organophosphate pesticides in filtered water by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Virendra K.; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 pesticide degradates from filtered natural-water samples is described. Seven of these compounds are reported permanently with an estimated concentration because of performance issues. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter, and then 1 liter of filtrate is pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction columns that contain octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the compounds. The C-18 columns are dried with nitrogen gas, and method compounds are eluted from the columns with ethyl acetate. The extract is analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator method detection limits in all three water-matrix samples ranged from 0.004 to 0.012 microgram per liter. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds into three different matrices at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration level in each matrix. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in surface-water samples ranged from 39 to 149 percent and those in ground-water samples ranged from 40 to 124 percent for all pesticides except dimethoate. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in reagent-water samples ranged from 41 to 119 percent for all pesticides except dimethoate. Dimethoate exhibited reduced recoveries (mean of 43 percent in low- and medium-concentration level spiked samples and 20 percent in high-concentration level spiked samples) in all matrices because of incomplete collection on the C-18 column. As a result, concen-trations of dimethoate and six other compounds (based on performance issues) in samples are reported in this method with an estimated remark code.

  11. Advanced river water quality monitoring stations at the Moravica river in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Đ.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is the immediate enhancement of the water quality management in Serbia as an example of excellence for the South East Balkan region. Therefore, close links between the local and regional economy and the Serbian Higher Education sector will be created through technology and knowledge transfer. New technologies like GPRS Technology to realize data transfer from distance hydro measure stations will be introduced in the water quality monitoring management. Outcomes of the project are a measurement program for Advanced River Water Quality Monitoring, a pilot station and operator staff for the realization of the monitoring scheme devices including GPRS-Technology for the monitoring scheme, a monitoring station to conduct a test run, a quality management scheme, training measures for operators of monitoring stations, analyzed data from measurement program and dissemination and networking measures like a final international conference. The project is funded within the scope of the Tempus Program (Tempus Cards Structural and Complementary Projects of the EU.

  12. Vortex/Flame Interactions in Microgravity Pulsed Jet Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, M. Y.; Hegde, U.; Stocker, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of vortex/flame interaction is of fundamental importance to turbulent combustion. These interactions have been studied in normal gravity. It was found that due to the interactions between the imposed disturbances and buoyancy induced instabilities, several overall length scales dominated the flame. The problem of multiple scales does not exist in microgravity for a pulsed laminar flame, since there are no buoyancy induced instabilities. The absence of buoyant convection therefore provides an environment to study the role of vortices interacting with flames in a controlled manner. There are strong similarities between imposed and naturally occurring perturbations, since both can be described by the same spatial instability theory. Hence, imposing a harmonic disturbance on a microgravity laminar flame creates effects similar to those occurring naturally in transitional/turbulent diffusion flames observed in microgravity. In this study, controlled, large-scale, axisymmetric vortices are imposed on a microgravity laminar diffusion flame. The experimental results and predictions from a numerical model of transient jet diffusion flames are presented and the characteristics of pulsed flame are described.

  13. Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitzman, Jerry [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lieuwen, Timothy [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These

  14. Photonic flame effect

    OpenAIRE

    Tcherniega, N. V.; Kudryavtseva, A. D.

    2006-01-01

    We observed new effect which we called photonic flame effect (PFE). Several 3-dimensional photonic crystals (artificial opals) were posed on Cu plate at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77K). Typical distance between them was 1-5 centimeters. Long-continued optical luminescence was excited in one of them by the ruby laser pulse. Analogous visible luminescence manifesting time delay appeared in other samples of the crystals. Experiments were realized for opal crystals and for nanocomposites...

  15. When the flame dies

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Ed; Morris, R

    2012-01-01

    When the flame dies Composer - Ed Hughes Librettist - Roger Morris Video - Will Reynolds & Poppy Burton-Morgan With the voices of Andrew McIntosh (baritone); Lucy Williams (mezzo); Peter Kirk (tenor); Emily Phillips (soprano); Ben Williamson (counter-tenor); also video artist Loren O'Dair. Ensemble - The New Music Players Advisers: Tim Hopkins and David Chandler (Professor of Photography, University of Plymouth). Duration: 70 minutes The unnamed Poet, protagonist of the drama, dreams of the U...

  16. Flame Imaging for Safety Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    Flame detection is important for prevention of spreading of accidental fires. When combustible gas is ignited under daylight conditions, the flame is often difficult to detect by conventional imaging because of the high background radiation. The flame can be visualized by selectively detecting the emission of the OH radical, which is present in hydrocarbon or hydrogen flames. By detecting the OH radical emission in the solar blind region of wavelength below 290 nm, the background radiation can be effectively eliminated. In this study, an experimental device for visualization of flame at wavelength 285 nm was constructed. A combination of two narrowband interference filters was found to be sufficient to eliminate background radiation and selectively image the OH emission. The device could detect butane burner flame under daylight conditions.

  17. Flame image monitoring and analysis in combustion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D. [CEZ, a.s. Elektrarna Detmarovice, Detmarovice (Czech Republic); Huttunen, A.J.; Nihtinen, J.J. [Imatran Voima Oy, IVO Technology Centre, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    When NO{sub x} emissions are reduced with new low-NO{sub x} burners and infurnace modifications in old pulverised fuel boilers, many changes in the firing conditions may occur. Depending on coal quality and the original furnace design, low-NO{sub x} burners, overtire air, low-excess-air firing and other primary modifications in various combinations may cause flame instability, increased slagging, increased minimum load and other difficulties in controlling the burning process. To find and solve these problems quicker, a new type of burner management system for pulverised fuel and oil-fired boilers was developed by Imatran Voima Oy. The DIMAC combustion management system monitors and analyses individually each burner or burner level. There are special software for wall and corner fired boilers. The DIMAC system is comprised of two functional subsystems: flame monitoring and flame analysis. The DIMAC enables the power plant operators to minimise NO{sub x} emissions and optimise the burning efficiency with varying coal qualities and boiler loads at the same time so that slagging, unburnt carbon in fly ash and flame stability stay in acceptable limits. It also guarantees that burners operate in good safety conditions in each burner level. The DIMAC system monitors perpendicularly each individual burner and evaluates flame parameters. Real-time flame monitoring and analysis allows the operator to directly see the effect of changing fuel distribution on flame pattern and flame stability. Based on data from the DIMAC references the system can improve boiler efficiency by 0.2 - 0.5 per cent unit as a result of more efficient control of the burning process. At the same time, the NO{sub x} formation can be reduced by 10 - 20 % 2 refs.

  18. Dynamics of unconfined spherical flames

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, Louis; Dennis, Kadeem; Zhe,; Liang,; Radulescu, Matei I

    2012-01-01

    Using the soap bubble technique, we visualize the dynamics of unconfined hydrogen-air flames using high speed schlieren video. We show that for sufficiently weak mixtures, i.e., low flame speeds, buoyancy effects become important. Flame balls of a critical dimension begin to rise. The experiments are found in very good agreement with the scaling laws proposed by Zingale and Dursi. We report the results in a fluid dynamics video.

  19. DICOM index tracker enterprise: advanced system for enterprise-wide quality assurance and patient safety monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Pavlicek, William; Panda, Anshuman; Langer, Steve G.; Morin, Richard; Fetterly, Kenneth A.; Paden, Robert; Hanson, James; Wu, Lin-Wei; Wu, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    DICOM Index Tracker (DIT) is an integrated platform to harvest rich information available from Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to improve quality assurance in radiology practices. It is designed to capture and maintain longitudinal patient-specific exam indices of interests for all diagnostic and procedural uses of imaging modalities. Thus, it effectively serves as a quality assurance and patient safety monitoring tool. The foundation of DIT is an intelligent database system which stores the information accepted and parsed via a DICOM receiver and parser. The database system enables the basic dosimetry analysis. The success of DIT implementation at Mayo Clinic Arizona calls for the DIT deployment at the enterprise level which requires significant improvements. First, for geographically distributed multi-site implementation, the first bottleneck is the communication (network) delay; the second is the scalability of the DICOM parser to handle the large volume of exams from different sites. To address this issue, DICOM receiver and parser are separated and decentralized by site. To facilitate the enterprise wide Quality Assurance (QA), a notable challenge is the great diversities of manufacturers, modalities and software versions, as the solution DIT Enterprise provides the standardization tool for device naming, protocol naming, physician naming across sites. Thirdly, advanced analytic engines are implemented online which support the proactive QA in DIT Enterprise.

  20. Recent advances in rapid and non-destructive assessment of meat quality using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.

  1. Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for

  2. Continuous Diffusion Flames and Flame Streets in Micro-Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shikhar; Matalon, Moshe

    2015-11-01

    Experiments of non-premixed combustion in micro-channels have shown different modes of burning. Normally, a flame is established along, or near the axis of a channel that spreads the entire mixing layer and separates a region of fuel but no oxidizer from a region with only oxidizer. Often, however, a periodic sequence of extinction and reignition events, termed collectively as ``flame streets'', are observed. They constitute a series of diffusion flames, each with a tribrachial leading edge stabilized along the channel. This work focuses on understanding the underlying mechanism responsible for these distinct observations. Numerical simulations were conducted in the thermo-diffusive limit in order to study the effects of confinement and heat loss on non-premixed flames in three-dimensional micro-channels with low aspect ratios. The three dimensionality of the channel was captured qualitatively through a systematic asymptotic analysis that led to a two dimensional problem with an effective parameter representing heat losses in the vertical direction. There exist three key flame regimes: (1) a stable continuous diffusion flame, (2) an unsteady flame, and (3) a stable ``flame street'' the transition between regimes demarcated primarily by Reynolds and Nusselt numbers.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan part 2 mappings for the ASC software quality engineering practices, version 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaphy, Robert; Sturtevant, Judith E.; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr. (,; .); Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. The plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to Sandia Corporate Requirements CPR001.3.2 and CPR001.3.6 and to a Department of Energy document, ''ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines''. This document also identifies ASC management and software project teams' responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals.

  4. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by

  5. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan. Part 1 : ASC software quality engineering practices version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minana, Molly A.; Sturtevant, Judith E.; Heaphy, Robert; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. Quality is defined in DOE/AL Quality Criteria (QC-1) as conformance to customer requirements and expectations. This quality plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to the SNL Corporate Process Requirements (CPR 1.3.2 and CPR 1.3.6) and the Department of Energy (DOE) document, ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines (GP&G). This quality plan identifies ASC management and software project teams' responsibilities for cost-effective software engineering quality practices. The SNL ASC Software Quality Plan establishes the signatories commitment to improving software products by applying cost-effective software engineering quality practices. This document explains the project teams opportunities for tailoring and implementing the practices; enumerates the practices that compose the development of SNL ASC's software products; and includes a sample assessment checklist that was developed based upon the practices in this document.

  6. Advanced bioimaging technologies in assessment of the quality of bone and scaffold materials. Techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Ling; Leung, Kwok Sui (eds.) [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Traumatology; Genant, H.K. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States); Griffith, J.F. [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Radiology and Organ Imaging

    2007-07-01

    This book provides a perspective on the current status of bioimaging technologies developed to assess the quality of musculoskeletal tissue with an emphasis on bone and cartilage. It offers evaluations of scaffold biomaterials developed for enhancing the repair of musculoskeletal tissues. These bioimaging techniques include micro-CT, nano-CT, pQCT/QCT, MRI, and ultrasound, which provide not only 2-D and 3-D images of the related organs or tissues, but also quantifications of the relevant parameters. The advance bioimaging technologies developed for the above applications are also extended by incorporating imaging contrast-enhancement materials. Thus, this book will provide a unique platform for multidisciplinary collaborations in education and joint R and D among various professions, including biomedical engineering, biomaterials, and basic and clinical medicine. (orig.)

  7. Advanced bioimaging technologies in assessment of the quality of bone and scaffold materials. Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a perspective on the current status of bioimaging technologies developed to assess the quality of musculoskeletal tissue with an emphasis on bone and cartilage. It offers evaluations of scaffold biomaterials developed for enhancing the repair of musculoskeletal tissues. These bioimaging techniques include micro-CT, nano-CT, pQCT/QCT, MRI, and ultrasound, which provide not only 2-D and 3-D images of the related organs or tissues, but also quantifications of the relevant parameters. The advance bioimaging technologies developed for the above applications are also extended by incorporating imaging contrast-enhancement materials. Thus, this book will provide a unique platform for multidisciplinary collaborations in education and joint R and D among various professions, including biomedical engineering, biomaterials, and basic and clinical medicine. (orig.)

  8. Photochemical treatment as an alternative to improve the quality of wastewater after advanced primary treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research contains the photochemical treatment (PCT of residual wastewater effluent derived from an advanced primary treatment process (APT. The application employed an ultraviolet light system, hydrogen peroxide and ozone as a free hydroxyl’s radicals generator; strong oxidants for the organic contaminants mineralization which affects the water quality. The aliquots of the APT and PCT were analyzed by determination of the parameters as the color, turbidity, electric conductivity, COD, UV-Vis spectrometry, anion and cation techniques, enabling the determination of the photo-oxidative wastewater treatment efficiency. The microbiological assays denote the one hundred percent photo-oxidative effectiveness for the removal of undesirable microorganisms. After the treatment, the water is suitable for its reuse, commercialization or spill into a body receptor without any risk for the environment or the health.

  9. The Use of Advanced Hydroelectric Turbines to Improve Water Quality and Fish Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroelectric power contributes about 10 percent of the electrical energy generated in the United States, and nearly 20 percent of the worlds electrical energy. It is a renewable energy source that can contribute significantly to reduction of greenhouse gases by offsetting conventional carbon-based electricity generation. However, rather than growing in importance, hydroelectric generation has actually declined in recent years, often as a consequence of environmental concerns centering around (1) restriction of upstream and downstream fish passage by the dam, and (2) alteration of water quality and river flows by the impoundment. The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System (AHTS) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy is developing turbine technology which would help to maximize global hydropower resources while minimizing adverse environmental effects. Major technical goals for the Program are (1) the reduction of mortality among turbine-passed fish to 2 percent or less, compared to current levels ranging up to 30 percent or greater; and (2) development of aerating turbines that would ensure that water discharged from reservoirs has a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 6 mg/L. These advanced, environmentally friendly turbines would be suitable both for new hydropower installations and for retrofitting at existing dams. Several new turbine designs that have been developed in the initial phases of the AHTS program are described

  10. Impact of Duodopa on Quality of Life in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A UK Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foltynie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment options in advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD include subcutaneous apomorphine, pallidal or subthalamic nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS, or levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG/Duodopa. In this study, we describe the outcome of 12 PD patients with PD related complications started on LCIG, with respect to their quality of life measured by a disease specific validated scale—the PDQ39, together with diaries recording time spent “On,” “Off,” “Dyskinetic,” or “Asleep.” At the time of latest follow up, improvements were observed in both the PDQ39 Summary index as well as diary reports of PD symptom control following introduction of LCIG, supporting its use in well selected patients. The use of a trial period of LCIG via naso-jejunal administration allows objective evaluation of improvement in PD symptom control in advance of the placement of the more invasive percutaneous jejunostomy procedure. The decision to embark on LCIG, apomorphine or DBS should be supported by input from centres with experience of all 3 approaches. Since LCIG is an expensive option, development of the most appropriate future commissioning of this therapy in the absence of Class 1 evidence requires careful scrutiny of the outcomes of its use in a broad range of published series.

  11. Advanced, Environmentally Friendly Hydroelectric Turbines for the Restoration of Fish and Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroelectric power contributes about 10 percent of the electrical energy generated in the United States, and nearly 20 percent of the worlds electrical energy. The contribution of hydroelectric generation has declined in recent years, often as a consequence of environmental concerns centering around (1) restriction of upstream and downstream fish passage by the dam, and (2) alteration of water quality and river flows by the impoundment. The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System (AHTS) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy is developing turbine technology which would help to maximize global hydropower resources while minimizing adverse environmental effects. Major technical goals for the Program are (1) the reduction of mortality among turbine-passed fish to 2 percent or less, compared to current levels ranging up to 30 percent or greater; and (2) development of aerating turbines that would ensure that water discharged from reservoirs has a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 6 mg/L. These advanced, environmentally friendly turbines would be suitable both for new hydropower installations and for retrofitting at existing dams. Several new turbine designs that have been he AHTS program are described

  12. The Moving Flame Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Melvin E.

    2011-01-01

    When a flame is rotated around the outside bottom rim of a cylindrical pan of water initially at rest, D. Fultz has observed that the fluid acquires a net vertical component of angular momentum opposite to the rotation of the heat source. We have repeated this experiment in a cylindrical annulus in order to restrict the radial motions and have found that the same phenomenon occurs. Using a simple model based on the latter experiment we investigate the mechanism by which a fluid can acquire an...

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life after surgery for primary advanced rectal cancer and recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Henriette Vind; Jess, Per; Laurberg, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after surgery for primary advanced or recurrent rectal cancer and to outline proposals for future HRQoL studies in this area. Method: A systematic literature search was undertaken. Only...... studies concerning surgery for primary advanced or recurrent rectal cancer and describing methods used for measuring HRQoL were considered. Results Seven studies were identified including two prospective longitudinal, three cross-sectional and two based on qualitative data. Global quality of life...... time of impaired HRQoL and also if this is different after surgery for locally advanced or recurrent disease than after total mesorectal excision used for earlier tumours.. Conclusion Several aspects of HRQoL are impaired for a variable time after treatment for locally advanced or recurrence of rectal...

  14. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  15. An Overview of Mode of Action and Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Gas Phase Activities of Flame Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The latest techniques used to prove, describe and analyze the gas phase activity of a fire retardant used in polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Classical techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis or microscale combustion calorimetry, as well as complex and advanced analytical techniques, such as modified microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC, molecular beam mass spectroscopy and vacuum ultra violet (VUV photoionization spectroscopy coupled with time of flight MS (TOF-MS, are described in this review. The recent advances in analytical techniques help not only in determining the gas phase activity of the flame-retardants but also identify possible reactive species responsible for gas phase flame inhibition. The complete understanding of the decomposition pathways and the flame retardant activity of a flame retardant system is essential for the development of new eco-friendly-tailored flame retardant molecules with high flame retardant efficiency.

  16. Porosity effects in flame length of the porous burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahadori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Furnaces are the devices for providing heat to the industrial systems like boilers, gas turbines and etc. The main challenge of furnaces is emission of huge air pollutants. However, porous burners produce less contaminant compared to others. The quality of the combustion process in the porous burners depends on the length of flame in the porous medium. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD is used to investigate the porosity effects on the flame length of the combustion process in porous burner. The simulation results demonstrate that increasing the porosity increases the flame length and the combustion zone extends forward. So, combustion quality increases and production of carbon monoxide decrease. It is possible to conclude that temperature distribution in low porosity burner is lower and more uniform than high porosity one. Therefore, by increasing the porosity of the burner, the production of nitrogen oxides increases. So, using an intermediate porosity in the burner appears to be reasonable.

  17. Flame retardant polyphosphazenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Karle, D. W.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Six polyphosphazene compositions were prepared by reaction of three bis-tertiary phosphines with two phenyl-s-triazine derived diazides. All six polyphosphazenes produced were completely characterized, four of them were furthermore subjected to isothermal gravimetric analysis, smoke density measurements, flammability and oxidative thermal degradation testing. The results of the characterization studies indicate that only low molecular weight oligomers, possibly of a cyclic structure, were obtained in the polymerization reactions. Despite this, however, two of the materials showed no weight loss after 96 hr at 200 C, one did not autoignite at 500 C in air, and all four self extinguished when exposed to a flame as soon as contact between flame and resin was lost. The only toxic decomposition products to be concerned about were found to be hydrogen cyanide and benzene. Under the conditions employed it was proven, however, that the quantities of toxic products are greatly reduced if no ignition takes place, e.g., if thermal decomposition proceeds at a sufficiently low rate.

  18. Editorial: Advances in healthcare provider and patient training to improve the quality and safety of patient care

    OpenAIRE

    Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal is dedicated to describing “Advances in Healthcare Provider and Patient Training to Improve the Quality and Safety of Patient Care.” Patient safety is an important and fundamental requirement of ensuring the quality of patient care. Training and education has been identified as a key to improving healthcare provider patient safety competencies especially when working with new technologies such as electronic ...

  19. How People Perceive and Appraise the Quality of Their Lives: Recent Advances in the Study of Happiness and Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Doh Chull

    2015-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed the dawning of a new age for the scientific study of people’s quality of life. For the first time in its history, both scholars from a variety of disciplines and policymakers from national and international government agencies have partnered to develop a new paradigm, and establish new interdisciplines aiming to appraise and prescribe the quality of life from the perspectives of the people who experience it. This paper sought to review major advances made i...

  20. Measuring quality of life: impact of chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. Experience from two recent large phase III trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, H; Palmer, M. K.

    1998-01-01

    When assessing the value of a particular treatment, it is important to consider the impact it may have on the quality of life of those being treated. This is particularly so for cancer patients, whose life expectancy may be short. Patients with advanced colorectal cancer who participated in two international comparative studies of raltitrexed ('Tomudex') vs standard 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus leucovorin (LV) completed previously validated quality-of-life questionnaires (EORTC questionnaire, E...

  1. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NOx recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry into the SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism within the US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency CMAQ model. The results show improved model performance for a range of species compared against aircraft observations from the INTEX-NA/ICARTT 2004 field campaign. We further investigate the key processes in isoprene nitrate chemistry and evaluate the impact of uncertainties in the isoprene nitrate yield, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2 recycling efficiency, dry deposition velocity, and RO2 + HO2 reaction rates. We focus our examination on the southeastern United States, which is impacted by both abundant isoprene emissions and high levels of anthropogenic pollutants. We find that NOx concentrations increase by 4–9% as a result of reduced removal by isoprene nitrate chemistry. O3 increases by 2 ppbv as a result of changes in NOx. OH concentrations increase by 30%, which can be primarily attributed to greater HOx production. We find that the model can capture observed total alkyl and multifunctional nitrates (∑ANs and their relationship with O3 by assuming either an isoprene nitrate yield of 6% and daytime lifetime of 6 hours or a yield of 12% and lifetime of 4 h. Uncertainties in the isoprene nitrates can impact ozone production by 10% and OH concentrations by 6%. The uncertainties in NOx recycling efficiency appear to have larger effects than uncertainties in isoprene nitrate yield and dry deposition velocity. Further progress depends on improved understanding of

  2. The Quality-of-Life Effects of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, Joseph M., E-mail: jherma15@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Narang, Amol K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Reese, Jennifer B. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Gearhart, Susan L. [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Azad, Nolifer S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chan, June; Olsen, Leah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Efron, Jonathan E. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Existing studies that examine the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer on patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Our goals were to prospectively explore acute changes in patient-reported QOL endpoints during and after treatment and to establish a distribution of scores that could be used for comparison as new treatment modalities emerge. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled at 2 institutions. Validated cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-CR30) and colorectal cancer-specific (EORTC QLQ-CR38 and EORTC QLQ-CR 29) QOL questionnaires were administered to patients 1 month before they began CRT, at week 4 of CRT, and 1 month after they had finished CRT. The questionnaires included multiple symptom scales, functional domains, and a composite global QOL score. Additionally, a toxicity scale was completed by providers 1 month before the beginning of CRT, weekly during treatment, and 1 month after the end of CRT. Results: Global QOL showed a statistically significant and borderline clinically significant decrease during CRT (-9.50, P=.0024) but returned to baseline 1 month after the end of treatment (-0.33, P=.9205). Symptoms during treatment were mostly gastrointestinal (nausea/vomiting +9.94, P<.0001; and diarrhea +16.67, P=.0022), urinary (dysuria +13.33, P<.0001; and frequency +11.82, P=.0006) or fatigue (+16.22, P<.0001). These symptoms returned to baseline after therapy. However, sexual enjoyment (P=.0236) and sexual function (P=.0047) remained persistently diminished after therapy. Conclusions: Rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT may experience a reduction in global QOL along with significant gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms during treatment. Moreover, provider-rated toxicity scales may not fully capture this decrease in patient-reported QOL. Although most symptoms are transient

  3. Premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, Kirill A

    2015-01-01

    Analytical treatment of premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes with smooth walls is given. Using the on-shell flame description, equations describing quasi-steady flame with a small but finite front thickness are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that near the limits of inflammability, solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds, and that the effect of gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a theory of partial flame propagation driven by the gravitational field is developed. A complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of limit flames, including dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction. The role of the finite front-thickness effects is discussed in detail. Also, various mechanisms governing flame acceleration in smooth tubes are ide...

  4. Control of the flame front advance in a sintering bed of iron ores; Control del avance del frente de llama en el lecho de sinterizacion de minerales de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cores, A.; Mochon, J.; Ruiz-Bustinza, I.; Parra, R.

    2010-07-01

    A sintering pan of 40 cm cubed is loaded with a mixture of iron ores, limestone and coke weighing 110 kg in a sintering pilot plant. In this sintering pan, a series of thermocouples have been introduced at different depths. Tests have been carried out to study the width of the combustion zone and the maximum temperature of the flame front across the sintering bed. For the analysis of the results, a data acquisition system was used. This consisted of two modules connected in serie, for performing the analogue-digital conversion. The analogue entry point is the exit point of the thermocouples and the digital exit point was the temperature average. A computer was used for conserving and storing the data and for carrying out interpolations, simulating the state and evolution of the flame front across the bed. (Author) 21 refs.

  5. Electrical Aspects of Impinging Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Chien

    This dissertation examines the use of electric fields as one mechanism for controlling combustion as flames are partially extinguished when impinging on nearby surfaces. Electrical aspects of flames, specifically, the production of chemi-ions in hydrocarbon flames and the use of convective flows driven by these ions, have been investigated in a wide range of applications in prior work but despite this fairly comprehensive effort to study electrical aspects of combustion, relatively little research has focused on electrical phenomena near flame extinguishment, nor for flames near impingement surfaces. Electrical impinging flames have complex properties under global influences of ion-driven winds and flow field disturbances from the impingement surface. Challenges of measurements when an electric field is applied in the system have limited an understanding of changes to the flame behavior and species concentrations caused by the field. This research initially characterizes the ability of high voltage power supplies to respond on sufficiently short time scales to permit real time electrical flame actuation. The study then characterizes the influence of an electric field on the impinging flame shape, ion current and flow field of the thermal plume associated with the flame. The more significant further examinations can be separated into two parts: 1) the potential for using electric fields to control the release of carbon monoxide (CO) from surface-impinging flames, and 2) an investigation of controlling electrically the heat transfer to a plate on which the flame impinges. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels and, while CO can be desirable in some syngas processes, it is usually a dangerous emission from forest fires, gas heaters, gas stoves, or furnaces where insufficient oxygen in the core reaction does not fully oxidize the fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Determining how carbon monoxide is released and how heat transfer

  6. Role of buoyant flame dynamics in wildfire spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Mark A; Cohen, Jack D; Forthofer, Jason M; McAllister, Sara S; Gollner, Michael J; Gorham, Daniel J; Saito, Kozo; Akafuah, Nelson K; Adam, Brittany A; English, Justin D

    2015-08-11

    Large wildfires of increasing frequency and severity threaten local populations and natural resources and contribute carbon emissions into the earth-climate system. Although wildfires have been researched and modeled for decades, no verifiable physical theory of spread is available to form the basis for the precise predictions needed to manage fires more effectively and reduce their environmental, economic, ecological, and climate impacts. Here, we report new experiments conducted at multiple scales that appear to reveal how wildfire spread derives from the tight coupling between flame dynamics induced by buoyancy and fine-particle response to convection. Convective cooling of the fine-sized fuel particles in wildland vegetation is observed to efficiently offset heating by thermal radiation until convective heating by contact with flames and hot gasses occurs. The structure and intermittency of flames that ignite fuel particles were found to correlate with instabilities induced by the strong buoyancy of the flame zone itself. Discovery that ignition in wildfires is critically dependent on nonsteady flame convection governed by buoyant and inertial interaction advances both theory and the physical basis for practical modeling. PMID:26183227

  7. High quality coal extraction and environmental remediation of fine coal refuse ponds using advanced cleaning technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that are also considered to be environmentally harmful. Significant amounts of cleanable fine coal generally exist in the refuse ponds due to the inability of conventional technologies to effectively separate the fine coal from the associated gangue particles. In addition, acid generation, generally a result of pyrite oxidation, has potential to adversely affect the surrounding environment. An integrated processing strategy of simultaneously recovering high quality coal and pyrite-rich products from the treatment of a coal refuse pond slurry has been successfully evaluated using an advanced physical cleaning circuit. A clean coal product having ash and pyritic sulfur contents of 10.1% and 0.41% was recovered with a mass yield of nearly 49%. In addition, a pyrite-rich product containing nearly 83% of the coal pyrite particles present in the refuse pond material was generated for neutralization purposes for the environmental remediation of the slurry pond. 4 refs

  8. Advancing the quality of oncology nursing care: Interlink Community Cancer Nurses' model for reflective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D; Pelton, B

    2001-01-01

    Since 1996, Interlink Community Cancer Nurses have been using reflective practice as a team to share knowledge and experience amongst peers. The use of reflective practice enables the nurse to examine decision-making in patient situations and uncover the knowledge and artistry that is embedded in nursing practice. This article describes how reflection is practised by specialist cancer nurses to advance the quality of caregiving. The use of a structured framework for reflection which incorporates ways of knowing in nursing is an essential feature of the Interlink model for reflection. The development of a process for reflection within the Interlink program has at times been challenging. However, the Interlink nurses' experience with reflection is believed to be critical to the ongoing development of the program and the individual nurse. Interlink nurses have found that guided reflection, the creation of an environmental milieu for reflection and personal knowing, and self-evaluation are critical to the process of becoming a self-reflective practitioner. PMID:11842450

  9. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Flame Deflector Protection System Life Cycle Cost Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Trejo, David; Reinschmidt, Ken; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2009-01-01

    A 20-year life cycle cost analysis was performed to compare the operational life cycle cost, processing/turnaround timelines, and operations manpower inspection/repair/refurbishment requirements for corrosion protection of the Kennedy Space Center launch pad flame deflector associated with the existing cast-in-place materials and a newer advanced refractory ceramic material. The analysis compared the estimated costs of(1) continuing to use of the current refractory material without any changes; (2) completely reconstructing the flame trench using the current refractory material; and (3) completely reconstructing the flame trench with a new high-performance refractory material. Cost estimates were based on an analysis of the amount of damage that occurs after each launch and an estimate of the average repair cost. Alternative 3 was found to save $32M compared to alternative 1 and $17M compared to alternative 2 over a 20-year life cycle.

  10. The Quality-of-Life Effects of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Existing studies that examine the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer on patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Our goals were to prospectively explore acute changes in patient-reported QOL endpoints during and after treatment and to establish a distribution of scores that could be used for comparison as new treatment modalities emerge. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled at 2 institutions. Validated cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-CR30) and colorectal cancer-specific (EORTC QLQ-CR38 and EORTC QLQ-CR 29) QOL questionnaires were administered to patients 1 month before they began CRT, at week 4 of CRT, and 1 month after they had finished CRT. The questionnaires included multiple symptom scales, functional domains, and a composite global QOL score. Additionally, a toxicity scale was completed by providers 1 month before the beginning of CRT, weekly during treatment, and 1 month after the end of CRT. Results: Global QOL showed a statistically significant and borderline clinically significant decrease during CRT (−9.50, P=.0024) but returned to baseline 1 month after the end of treatment (−0.33, P=.9205). Symptoms during treatment were mostly gastrointestinal (nausea/vomiting +9.94, P<.0001; and diarrhea +16.67, P=.0022), urinary (dysuria +13.33, P<.0001; and frequency +11.82, P=.0006) or fatigue (+16.22, P<.0001). These symptoms returned to baseline after therapy. However, sexual enjoyment (P=.0236) and sexual function (P=.0047) remained persistently diminished after therapy. Conclusions: Rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT may experience a reduction in global QOL along with significant gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms during treatment. Moreover, provider-rated toxicity scales may not fully capture this decrease in patient-reported QOL. Although most symptoms are

  11. FABRICATION PROCESS AND PRODUCT QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS IN ADVANCED GAS REACTOR UCO KERNELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M Barnes

    2008-09-01

    A major element of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program is developing fuel fabrication processes to produce high quality uranium-containing kernels, TRISO-coated particles and fuel compacts needed for planned irradiation tests. The goals of the AGR program also include developing the fabrication technology to mass produce this fuel at low cost. Kernels for the first AGR test (“AGR-1) consisted of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) microspheres that werre produced by an internal gelation process followed by high temperature steps tot convert the UO3 + C “green” microspheres to first UO2 + C and then UO2 + UCx. The high temperature steps also densified the kernels. Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) fabricated UCO kernels for the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, which went into the Advance Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory in December 2006. An evaluation of the kernel process following AGR-1 kernel production led to several recommendations to improve the fabrication process. These recommendations included testing alternative methods of dispersing carbon during broth preparation, evaluating the method of broth mixing, optimizing the broth chemistry, optimizing sintering conditions, and demonstrating fabrication of larger diameter UCO kernels needed for the second AGR irradiation test. Based on these recommendations and requirements, a test program was defined and performed. Certain portions of the test program were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), while tests at larger scale were performed by B&W. The tests at B&W have demonstrated improvements in both kernel properties and process operation. Changes in the form of carbon black used and the method of mixing the carbon prior to forming kernels led to improvements in the phase distribution in the sintered kernels, greater consistency in kernel properties, a reduction in forming run time, and simplifications to the forming process. Process parameter variation tests in both forming and sintering steps led

  12. On the theory of turbulent flame velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Petchenko, Arkady; 10.1080/00102200600808466

    2012-01-01

    The renormalization ideas of self-similar dynamics of a strongly turbulent flame front are applied to the case of a flame with realistically large thermal expansion of the burning matter. In that case a flame front is corrugated both by external turbulence and the intrinsic flame instability. The analytical formulas for the velocity of flame propagation are obtained. It is demonstrated that the flame instability is of principal importance when the integral turbulent length scale is much larger than the cut off wavelength of the instability. The developed theory is used to analyse recent experiments on turbulent flames propagating in tubes. It is demonstrated that most of the flame velocity increase measured experimentally is provided by the large scale effects like the flame instability, and not by the small-scale external turbulence.

  13. Coupling of wrinkled laminar flames with gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedat, Benoit; Kostiuk, Larry W.; Cheng, Robert K.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objective of our research is to understand flame-gravity coupling processes in laminar and low turbulent Reynolds number, Re(sub l), premixed flames (i.e. wrinkled- laminar flames). The approach we have developed is to compare the flowfields and mean flame properties under different gravitational orientations. Key to our study is the investigation of microgravity (mu g) flames. These mu g experiments provide vital information to reconcile the differences between flames in normal gravity (+g, flame pointing upward) and reverse gravity (-g, flame pointing downwards). Traditionally, gravity effects are assumed to be insignificant or circumvented in the laboratory, therefore, not much is available in the literature on the behavior of -g flames.

  14. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  15. Radiation dose reduction in CT of the brain: can advanced noise filtering compensate for loss of image quality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) of the brain is performed with high local doses due to high demands on low contrast resolution. Advanced algorithms for noise reduction might be able to preserve critical image information when reducing radiation dose. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of advanced noise filtering on image quality in brain CT acquired with reduced radiation dose. Material and Methods: Thirty patients referred for non-enhanced CT of the brain were examined with two helical protocols: normal dose (ND, CTDIvol 57 mGy) and low dose (LD, CTDIvol 40 mGy) implying a 30% radiation dose reduction. Images from the LD examinations were also post processed with a noise reduction software with non-linear filters (SharpView CT), creating filtered low dose images (FLD) for each patient. The three image stacks for each patient were presented side by side in randomized order. Five radiologists, blinded for dose level and filtering, ranked these three axial image stacks (ND, LD, FLD) as best to poorest (1 to 3) regarding three image quality criteria. Measurements of mean Hounsfield units (HU) and standard deviation (SD) of the HU were calculated for large region of interest in the centrum semiovale as a measure for noise. Results: Ranking results in pooled data showed that the advanced noise filtering significantly improved the image quality in FLD as compared to LD images for all tested criteria. No significant differences in image quality were found between ND examinations and FLD. However, there was a notable inter-reader spread of the ranking. SD values were 15% higher for LD as compared to ND and FLD. Conclusion: The advanced noise filtering clearly improves image quality of CT examinations of the brain. This effect can be used to significantly lower radiation dose.

  16. Quality of dying in nursing home residents dying with dementia: does advanced care planning matter? A nationwide postmortem study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Vandervoort

    Full Text Available Advance care planning is considered a central component of good quality palliative care and especially relevant for people who lose the capacity to make decisions at the end of life, which is the case for many nursing home residents with dementia. We set out to investigate to what extent (1 advance care planning in the form of written advance patient directives and verbal communication with patient and/or relatives about future care and (2 the existence of written advance general practitioner orders are related to the quality of dying of nursing home residents with dementia.Cross-sectional study of deaths (2010 using random cluster-sampling. Representative sample of nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. Deaths of residents with dementia in a three-month period were reported; for each the nurse most involved in care, GP and closest relative completed structured questionnaires.We identified 101 deaths of residents with dementia in 69 nursing homes (58% response rate. A written advance patient directive was present for 17.5%, GP-orders for 56.7%. Controlling for socio-demographic/clinical characteristics in multivariate regression analyses, chances of having a higher mean rating of emotional well-being (less fear and anxiety on the Comfort Assessment in Dying with Dementia scale were three times higher with a written advance patient directive and more specifically when having a do-not-resuscitate order (AOR 3.45; CI,1.1-11 than for those without either (AOR 2.99; CI,1.1-8.3. We found no association between verbal communication or having a GP order and quality of dying.For nursing home residents with dementia there is a strong association between having a written advance directive and quality of dying. Where wishes are written, relatives report lower levels of emotional distress at the end of life. These results underpin the importance of advance care planning for people with dementia and beginning this process as early as possible.

  17. Quality Assurance Needs for Modern Image-Based Radiotherapy: Recommendations From 2007 Interorganizational Symposium on 'Quality Assurance of Radiation Therapy: Challenges of Advanced Technology'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the consensus findings and recommendations emerging from 2007 Symposium, 'Quality Assurance of Radiation Therapy: Challenges of Advanced Technology.' The Symposium was held in Dallas February 20-22, 2007. The 3-day program, which was sponsored jointly by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and National Cancer Institute (NCI), included >40 invited speakers from the radiation oncology and industrial engineering/human factor communities and attracted nearly 350 attendees, mostly medical physicists. A summary of the major findings follows. The current process of developing consensus recommendations for prescriptive quality assurance (QA) tests remains valid for many of the devices and software systems used in modern radiotherapy (RT), although for some technologies, QA guidance is incomplete or out of date. The current approach to QA does not seem feasible for image-based planning, image-guided therapies, or computer-controlled therapy. In these areas, additional scientific investigation and innovative approaches are needed to manage risk and mitigate errors, including a better balance between mitigating the risk of catastrophic error and maintaining treatment quality, complimenting the current device-centered QA perspective by a more process-centered approach, and broadening community participation in QA guidance formulation and implementation. Industrial engineers and human factor experts can make significant contributions toward advancing a broader, more process-oriented, risk-based formulation of RT QA. Healthcare administrators need to appropriately increase personnel and ancillary equipment resources, as well as capital resources, when new advanced technology RT modalities are implemented. The pace of formalizing clinical physics training must rapidly increase to provide an adequately trained physics workforce for advanced technology RT. The specific

  18. Effect of Intermittent Androgen Blockade on the Quality of Life of Patients with Advanced Prostate Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of intermittent androgen blockade (IAB) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma (APC).METHODS Investigations on the QOL of 51 APC patients receiving IAB treatment, totaling 3 times, i.e. 6 months before and after, and 12 months after treatment, were perform using the EORTC QLQ-C30 measuring scale and QLQ-PR25 scale.RESULTS Although IAB became an economic burden for the families, it was lessened during the intermission (P<0.05). The overall health status significantly improved 6 months after IAB treatment (P<0.01), especially during the intermission (P<0.05), with a total or local easement of pain (P<0.01) and an improvement of urinary function (P<0.01). Although there was impairment,to various degrees, in many functions of the patients on the 6th month of treatment, such as the physical function (P<0.05), role function (P<0.05), the emotional (P<0.01) and the social functions (P<0.01), with an enhancement of fatigue (P<0.01), these functions gradually recovered by the 12th month as the intermission started. Treatment-related symptoms such as flushing and mammary swelling significantly emerged on the 6th treatment month (P<0.01), and lessened on the 12th (P<0.01). During the treatment period,therewas an notable drop in sexual interest (P<0.01), with a deprivation of sex life, but revived to various degrees during the intermission (P<0.01).CONCLUSION Although IAB treatment of APC patients did impair the physiologic and psychologic status of patients to varying degrees, these were improved and restored during the intermission.

  19. Thin-Filament Pyrometry Developed for Measuring Temperatures in Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    Many valuable advances in combustion science have come from observations of microgravity flames. This research is contributing to the improved efficiency and reduced emissions of practical combustors and is benefiting terrestrial and spacecraft fire safety. Unfortunately, difficulties associated with microgravity have prevented many types of measurements in microgravity flames. In particular, temperature measurements in flames are extremely important but have been limited in microgravity. A novel method of measuring temperatures in microgravity flames is being developed in-house at the National Center for Microgravity Research and the NASA Glenn Research Center and is described here. Called thin-filament pyrometry, it involves using a camera to determine the local gas temperature from the intensity of inserted fibers glowing in a flame. It is demonstrated here to provide accurate measurements of gas temperatures in a flame simultaneously at many locations. The experiment is shown. The flame is a laminar gas jet diffusion flame fueled by methane (CH4) flowing from a 14-mm round burner at a pressure of 1 atm. A coflowing stream of air is used to prevent flame flicker. Nine glowing fibers are visible. These fibers are made of silicon carbide (SiC) and have a diameter of 15 m (for comparison, the average human hair is 75 m in diameter). Because the fibers are so thin, they do little to disturb the flame and their temperature remains close to that of the local gas. The flame and glowing filaments were imaged with a digital black-and-white video camera. This camera has an imaging area of 1000 by 1000 pixels and a wide dynamic range of 12 bits. The resolution of the camera and optics was 0.1 mm. Optical filters were placed in front of the camera to limit incoming light to 750, 850, 950, and 1050 nm. Temperatures were measured in the same flame in the absence of fibers using 50-m Btype thermocouples. These thermocouples provide very accurate temperatures, but they

  20. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. McHenry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the network characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.

  1. Quality of life assessment in advanced cancer patients treated at home, an inpatient unit, and a day care center

    OpenAIRE

    Leppert, Wojciech; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Forycka, Maria; Mess, Eleonora; Zdun-Ryzewska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study To assess quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients treated at home, at an in-patient palliative care unit (PCU), and at a day care center (DCC). Patients and methods QoL was assessed in advanced cancer patients at baseline and after 7 days of symptomatic treatment using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 15-Palliative Care (EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL), the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), and the Karnofsky Perfor...

  2. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi; Masaaki Habara; Hidekazu Ikezazki; Ronggang Chen; Yoshinobu Naito; Kiyoshi Toko

    2010-01-01

    Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic t...

  3. A study of the relationships between perceived pain, social support, coping and quality of life in patients with advanced cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Shelagh

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the implications of perceived pain and social support for coping ability, levels of distress and quality of life in a group of patients with advanced cancer. A total of 98 patients who were undergoing palliative treatment and/or care and were aware of their cancer diagnosis, but not necessarily of their prognosis, consented verbally to participate. A questionnaire was administered to each participant comprised of scales to measure perceived pain intensity an...

  4. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Cross-well bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  5. Advanced Quality Control Theory for Training and Education: A Guide to Optimizing Training and Education Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppler, Brad

    2008-01-01

    This is a book about quality and how to control quality through deliberate actions on the part of the professionals developing and implementing the instances of instruction available at an organization. Quality control theory favors no particular learning philosophy and is only directed towards aspects of how, what, where and when measurements are…

  6. Role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction in nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Yong Ho

    2013-03-01

    This study of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters investigates the important role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction through experimental and numerical analyses. It explores flame stability diagrams mapping the flame extinction response of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames to varying global strain rates in terms of burner diameter, burner gap, and velocity ratio. A critical nitrogen mole fraction exists beyond which the flame cannot be sustained; the critical nitrogen mole fraction versus global strain rate curves have C-shapes for various burner diameters, burner gaps, and velocity ratios. At sufficiently high strain-rate flames, these curves collapse into one curve; therefore, the flames follow the one-dimensional flame response of a typical diffusion flame. Low strain-rate flames are significantly affected by radial conductive heat loss, and therefore flame length. Three flame extinction modes are identified: flame extinction through shrinkage of the outer-edge flame with or without oscillations at the outer-edge flame prior to the extinction, and flame extinction through a flame hole at the flame center. The extinction modes are significantly affected by the behavior of the outer-edge flame. Detailed explanations are provided based on the measured flame-surface temperature and numerical evaluation of the fractional contribution of each term in the energy equation. Radial conductive heat loss at the flame edge to ambience is the main mechanism of extinction through shrinkage of the outer-edge flame in low strain-rate flames. Reduction of the burner diameter can extend the flame extinction mode by shrinking the outer-edge flame in higher strain-rate flames. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Premixed Turbulent Flame Propagation in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, S.; Disseau, M.; Chakravarthy, V. K.; Jagoda, J.

    1997-01-01

    Papers included address the following topics: (1) Turbulent premixed flame propagation in microgravity; (2) The effect of gravity on turbulent premixed flame propagation - a preliminary cold flow study; and (3) Characteristics of a subgrid model for turbulent premixed combustion.

  8. Large-Scale Flow Structure in Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames under Normal- And Low-Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, N. T.; Idicheria, C. A.; Boxx, I. G.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that buoyancy has a major influence on the flow structure of turbulent nonpremixed jet flames. Buoyancy acts by inducing baroclinic torques, which generate large-scale vortical structures that can significantly modify the flow field. Furthermore, some suggest that buoyancy can substantially influence the large-scale structure of even nominally momentum-dominated flames, since the low velocity flow outside of the flame will be more susceptible to buoyancy effects. Even subtle buoyancy effects may be important because changes in the large-scale structure affects the local entrainment and fluctuating strain rate, and hence the structure of the flame. Previous studies that have compared the structure of normal- and micro-gravity nonpremixed jet flames note that flames in microgravity are longer and wider than in normal-gravity. This trend was observed for jet flames ranging from laminar to turbulent regimes. Furthermore, imaging of the flames has shown possible evidence of helical instabilities and disturbances starting from the base of the flame in microgravity. In contrast, these characteristics were not observed in normal-gravity. The objective of the present study is to further advance our knowledge of the effects of weak levels of buoyancy on the structure of transitional and turbulent nonpremixed jet flames. In later studies we will utilize the drop tower facilities at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), but the preliminary work described in this paper was conducted using the 1.25-second drop tower located at the University of Texas at Austin. A more detailed description of these experiments can be found in Idicheria et al.

  9. Cyberinfrastructure for Online Access to High-Quality Data: Advances and Opportunities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, C.

    2010-12-01

    Advanced cyberinfrastructure capabilities are enabling end-to-end management of data flows in observing system networks and online access to very large data archives. We provide an overview of several projects in earth and environmental sciences that have developed and deployed cyberinfrastructure for collecting and organizing field observations and remote sensing data, to make them available to a community of users. The data cyberinfrastructure framework should cover the range from data acquisition, quality control, data archiving, discovery, access, integration, and modeling. Using examples from different earth and environmental science cyberinfrastructure efforts, we will describe the state of the art in data cyberinfrastructure and future directions and challenges. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network (http://teamnetwork.org), which is a network of forested sites—currently consisting of 15 sites, and growing—distributed across Central America, South America, Africa, and Asia. Each site implements a standardized set of data collection protocols, all under the control of a common cyberinfrastructure. The data are available via a portal from a central site, but with appropriate access controls. The TEAM Network is run by Conservation International, in partnership with the Wildlife Conservation Society, Smithsonian Institute, and the Missouri Botanical Gardens, and is funded by the Moore Foundation. The EarthScope Data Portal (portal.earthscope.org) implements a virtual metadata catalog and a data cart to provides a means for simultaneously exploring EarthScope's various instrument networks, as well as seamlessly downloading data from multiple stations and instrument types. The prototype of the US Geoinformatics Information Network (US GIN) project is implementing a federated catalog, using the Catalog Services for Web (CSW) standard. The NSF-funded Opentopography.org—a spinoff of the GEON project, www.geongrid.org—provides online

  10. DOES URINARY DIVERSION IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN OBSTRUCTIVE UROPATHY SECONDARY TO ADVANCED PELVIC MALIGNANCY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankarappa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The incidence of patients presenting with advanced pelvic malignancy with obstructive uropathy is high in our country. Relentless progress of the malignancy will cause deterioration of renal function, aggravation of pain, infection, deterioration of Quality of Life (QOL, uremia and death. Decreased renal function is considered as a contraindication for palliative chemo and radiotherapy. However urinary diversion in these patients will lead to improvement in renal function and may help in administration of palliative therapy and thus, improve the quality of life of these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study includes the obstructive uropathy patients secondary to pelvic malignancy referred to our institution for urinary diversion between Jan 2010 to Dec 2014. Total 40 patients were included, of which, 25 patients underwent PCN, 9 patients retrograde DJ stenting, 4 patients refused the treatment, 2 patients were not fit for any intervention due to coagulopathy & comorbid conditions. Of 34 treated patients, 30 were female patients and 4 were male patients. All the patients were explained about the procedure and proper consent taken. Laboratory investigations like CBC, coagulation profile, LFT, routine urine analysis, urine C&S and serum electrolytes were carried out. Haemodialysis was done for 10 patients whose serum creatinine was >6mg% & potassium >6meq. USG guided PCN insertion was done in 8 patients, and in those who failed in this procedure, fluoroscopic C-ARM guided PCN insertion done in 17 patients. Post operatively RFT and serum electrolytes were assessed on 3, 7, 15, & 30th day. PCN catheter was changed once in 3 months. RESULTS 8 patients succeeded in USG guided PCN insertion and 17 patients who failed USG PCN insertion, was done under C–Arm guidance. 3 patients received blood transfusion. No deaths were seen during or post procedure in the hospital. Renal functions improved and normalised in most of the

  11. Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    The theory of turbulent premixed flames is based on acharacterization of the flame as a discontinuous surface propagatingthrough the fluid. The displacement speed, defined as the local speed ofthe flame front normal to itself, relative to the unburned fluid,provides one characterization of the burning velocity. In this paper, weintroduce a geometric approach to computing displacement speed anddiscuss the efficacy of the displacement speed for characterizing aturbulent flame.

  12. Self-turbulizing flame fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavin, P.; Searby, G.

    A heuristic derivation of a flame front model is presented that takes into account the effects of gravity, nonlinear effects introduced by advection of the front, and gradients in the tangential component of the flow. A local equation is defined to relate the normal flame speed to the upstream gas flow characteristics. Jump conditions are obtained from an asymptotic analysis of the local structure of the wrinkled flame in order to address the hydrodynamic problem possed by the front being treated as a free boundary between fresh and burnt gases. The expression for the jump conditions is defined in Fourier space. The model extends the equations defined in Fourier space. The model extends the equations defined by Sivashinsky (1977) to cover the effects of gas expansion.

  13. Advanced methods of process/quality control in nuclear reactor fuel manufacture. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel plays an essential role in ensuring the competitiveness of nuclear energy and its acceptance by the public. The economic and market situation is not favorable at present for nuclear fuel designers and suppliers. The reduction in fuel prices (mainly to compete with fossil fuels) and in the number of fuel assemblies to be delivered to customers (mainly due to burnup increase) has been offset by the rising number of safety and other requirements, e.g. the choice of fuel and structural materials and the qualification of equipment. In this respect, higher burnup and thermal rates, longer fuel cycles and the use of MOX fuels are the real means to improve the economics of the nuclear fuel cycle as a whole. Therefore, utilities and fuel vendors have recently initiated new research and development programmes aimed at improving fuel quality, design and materials to produce robust and reliable fuel for safe and reliable reactor operation more demanding conditions. In this connection, improvement of fuel quality occupies an important place and this requires continuous effort on the part of fuel researchers, designers and producers. In the early years of commercial fuel fabrication, emphasis was given to advancements in quality control/quality assurance related mainly to the product itself. Now, the emphasis is transferred to improvements in process control and to implementation of overall total quality management (TQM) programmes. In the area of fuel quality control, statistical methods are now widely implemented, replacing 100% inspection. The IAEA, recognizing the importance of obtaining and maintaining high standards in fuel fabrication, has paid particular attention to this subject. In response to the rapid progress in development and implementation of advanced methods of process/quality control in nuclear fuel manufacture and on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology, the IAEA conducted a

  14. Model flames in a hydrostatic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres Calleja, Alvaro

    A model flame system based on the advection-diffusion-reaction method is defined and used to numerically study the problem of a flame propagating up an initially hydrostatic atmosphere, in 2-D. We identify and characterize the flame's steady states over a range of parameters, in the case where the gravitational scale height is much greater than the size of the flame, which itself is much greater than the flame's laminar width. We observe both laminar and turbulent steady flames and verify that, for strong enough gravity G, the turbulent flame speed is independent of the laminar flame speed and scales like the square root of GL, where L is the size of our domain. As this scaling law is commonly used to implement flame subgrid models, one of the aims of this thesis is to understand its robustness. We describe the flame geometry and discuss its relationship with the flame speed. The flow statistics inside turbulent flames are measured and found to be gaussian and isotropic, corresponding to strong mixing.

  15. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue;

    2004-01-01

    Membranes consisting of one or more metal oxides can be synthesized by flame pyrolysis. The general principle behind flame pyrolysis is the decomposition and oxidation of evaporated organo-metallic precursors in a flame, thereby forming metal oxide monomers. Because of the extreme supersaturation...

  16. Premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Kirill A.

    2016-04-01

    Analytical treatment of the premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes with smooth walls is given. Using the on-shell flame description, equations for a quasi-steady flame with a small but finite front thickness are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that near the limits of inflammability, solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds and that the effect of gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a theory of partial flame propagation driven by a strong gravitational field is developed. A complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of limit flames, including dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction. The role of the finite front-thickness effects is discussed in detail. Also, various mechanisms governing flame acceleration in smooth tubes are identified. Acceleration of methane-air flames in open tubes is shown to be a combined effect of the hydrostatic pressure difference produced by the ambient cold air and the difference of dynamic gas pressure at the tube ends. On the other hand, a strong spontaneous acceleration of the fast methane-oxygen flames at the initial stage of their evolution in open-closed tubes is conditioned by metastability of the quasi-steady propagation regimes. An extensive comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data is made.

  17. Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2014-06-26

    This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary from 8.3 to 66.5. Starting from Vr = 20.7, the flame is commonly characterized by three distinct zones. The length of the lower fuel entrainment region is inversely proportional to Vr. The flames investigated resemble a string shear layer confining this zone, and converging into the second distinct region, the flame neck zone. The third region is the rest of the flame, which spreads in a jet-like manner. The inverse diffusion flames exhibit varying degrees of partial premixing, depending upon on the velocity ratio Vr, and this region of partial premixing evolves into a well-mixed reaction zone along the flame centerline. The OH distribution correlated with the changes in the mean characteristics of the flow through reduction in the local Reynolds number due to heat release. The existence of a flame suppresses or laminarizes the turbulence at early axial locations and promotes fluctuations at the flame tip for flames with Vr < 49.8. In addition, the flame jet width can be correlated to the OH distribution. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks in OH are counterbalanced by flame closures and are governed by edge flame propagation. These local extinctions were found to occur at locations where large flow structures were impinging on the flame and are associated with a locally higher strain rate or correlated to the local high strain rates at the flame hole edges without this flow impinging. Another contributor to re-ignition was found to be growing flame kernels. As the flames approach global blow-off, these kernels become the main mechanism for re-ignition further downstream of the flames. At low Vr, laminarization within the early regions of the flame provides an effective shield, preventing the jet flow from

  18. Classifying glitches and improving data quality of Advanced LIGO gravitational-wave searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Powell, Jade; Trifiro, Daniele; Heng, Ik Siong; LIGO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Noise of non-astrophysical origin contaminates science data taken by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Characterization of instrumental and environmental noise transients has proven critical in identifying false positives in the first aLIGO observing run O1. In this talk, we present three algorithms designed for the automatic classification of non-astrophysical transients in advanced detectors. Principal Component Analysis for Transients (PCAT) and an adaptation of LALInference Burst (LIB) are based on Principal Component Analysis. The third algorithm is a combination of a glitch finder called Wavelet Detection Filter (WDF) and machine learning techniques for classification. PCAT was used in O1 and earlier engineering runs to identify and characterize observed noise transients in aLIGO data. LIB and WDF are expected to join the quest in the upcoming aLIGO-Advanced Virgo observing run O2. NSF PHY-1404139.

  19. Organ function and quality of life after transoral laser microsurgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olthoff, Arno; Hess, Clemens F. [Dept. of Phoniatrics and Pedaudiology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Ewen, Andreas; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Hermann, Robert Michael; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Christiansen, Hans [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Roedel, Ralph; Steiner, Wolfgang [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Cancerology, CHU Morvan, Brest (France)

    2009-05-15

    Background and purpose: transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and adjuvant radiotherapy are an established therapy regimen for locally advanced laryngeal cancer at our institution. Aim of the present study was to assess value of quality of life (QoL) data with special regard to organ function under consideration of treatment efficacy in patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer treated with larynx-preserving TLM and adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients and methods: from 1994 to 2006, 39 patients (ten UICC stage III, 29 UICC stage IVA/B) with locally advanced laryngeal carcinomas were treated with TLM and adjuvant radiotherapy. Data concerning treatment efficacy, QoL (using the VHI [Voice Handicap Index], the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H and N35 questionnaires) and organ function (respiration, deglutition, voice quality) were obtained for ten patients still alive after long-term follow-up. Correlations were determined using the Spearman rank test. Results: after a median follow-up of 80.8 months, the 5-year overall survival rate was 46.8% and the locoregional control rate 76.5%, respectively. The larynx preservation rate was 89.7% for all patients and 100% for patients still alive after follow-up. Despite some verifiable problems in respiration, speech and swallowing, patients showed a subjectively good QoL. Conclusion: TLM and adjuvant radiotherapy is a curative option for patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer and an alternative to radical surgery. Even if functional deficits are unavoidable in the treatment of locally advanced laryngeal carcinomas, larynx preservation is associated with a subjectively good QoL. (orig.)

  20. KSC Launch Pad Flame Trench Environment Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes conditions in the Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) flame trenches during a Space Shuttle Launch, as they have been measured to date. Instrumentation of the flame trench has been carried out by NASA and United Space Alliance for four Shuttle launches. Measurements in the flame trench are planned to continue for the duration of the Shuttle Program. The assessment of the launch environment is intended to provide guidance in selecting appropriate test methods for refractory materials used in the flame trench and to provide data used to improve models of the launch environment in the flame trench.

  1. An Improved Calcium Flame Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Indicates that the true red color of calcium can be obtained (using the procedure described by Sorm and Logowski) if the calcium ion solution is mixed with an equal volume of saturated ammonium bromide solution. Suggestions for flame tests of other elements are also noted. (JN)

  2. The VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Evans; W. Taylor; H. Sana; V. Hénault-Brunet; T. Bagnoli; N. Bastian; J. Bestenlehner; A. Bonanos; E. Bressert; I. Brott; M. Campbell; M. Cantiello; G. Carraro; S. Clark; E. Costa; P. Crowther; A. de Koter; S. de Mink; E. Doran; P. Dufton; P. Dunstall; M. Garcia; M. Gieles; G. Gräfener; A. Herrero; I. Howarth; R. Izzard; K. Köhler; N. Langer; D. Lennon; J. Maíz Apellániz; N. Markova; P. Najarro; J. Puls; O. Ramirez; C. Sabín-Sanjulián; S. Simón-Díaz; S. Smartt; V. Stroud; J. van Loon; J.S. Vink; N. Walborn

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey, an ESO Large Programme from which we have obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the spectacular 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A key feature is the use of multi-epoch observations to provide strong constraints on th

  3. Improvements of natural rubber for flame resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orasa Patarapaiboolchai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present invention provides a process for treating natural rubber to increase its flame retardant capability. Theprocess comprises a mixture of a natural rubber with, (a halogenated free flame retardant agent (zinc hydroxystannate;STORFLAM ZHS and (b halogenated flame retardant agent (decabromodiphenyl; Great Lake DE-83R and chlorinatedparaffins; Plastoil 152 and another material like antimony trioxide and aluminium hydroxide in appropriate amount, with ratio of halogenated flame retardant agent: antimony trioxide 3:1. In the resulting product with halogen flame retardant showed a more efficient flame retardant property than halogen free flame retardant, i.e. brominated flame retardant provide higher efficiency than chlorinated and ZHS, respectively. The minimum requirement ratio for being flame retardant of antimonytrioxide: brominated or chlorinated agent is 7:21 or 10:30 phr while aluminium hydroxide: ZHS is 10: 150 phr. It was found thatburning rate was zero for brominated and chlorinated agent used but not for zinc hydroxyl stannate system. Average time of burning (ATB was 135, 118 and 41 second for brominated, chlorinated and ZHS flame retardant, respectively. Average extent of burning (AEB was 24, 19 and 14 millimeters, respectively. An advantage of this invention is that chemicals (antimony trioxide and either brominated or chlorinated agent added to natural rubber have the effect of rendering the natural rubber flame-resistant like synthetic rubbers, chloroprene.

  4. Flame Reconstruction Using Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Preston; Tree, Dale; Truscott, Tadd

    2011-01-01

    Flames can be formed by burning methane (CH4). When oxygen is scarce, carbon particles nucleate into solid particles called soot. These particles emit photons, making the flame yellow. Later, methane is pre-mixed with air forming a blue flame; burning more efficiently, providing less soot and light. Imaging flames and knowing their temperature are vital to maximizing efficiency and validating numerical models. Most temperature probes disrupt the flame and create differences leading to an inaccurate measurement of the flame temperature. We seek to image the flame in three dimensions using synthetic aperture imaging. This technique has already successfully measured velocity fields of a vortex ring [1]. Synthetic aperture imaging is a technique that views one scene from multiple cameras set at different angles, allowing some cameras to view objects that are obscured by others. As the resulting images are overlapped different depths of the scene come into and out of focus, known as focal planes, similar to tomogr...

  5. Clinical observation on scores of anxiety, depression and quality of life for advanced gastrointestinal carcinoma patients with palliation intervention therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of palliative intervention therapy on advanced gastrointestinal carcinoma patients with depression and anxiety before and after the treatment. Methods: 56 advanced gastrointestinal carcinoma patients were selected and treated with intra-arterial perfusion chemotherapy or intra-arterial perfusion chemotherapy with embolization. Curative effects were assessed with the SDS, SAS and FACT-G before and after the treatment. In addition, all patients took self-assessment with SCL-90, comparing with the Chinese norms. Results: SCL-90 scores including the somatization agent, depression agent, and anxiety agent scores of the advanced gastrointestinal carcinoma were higher than those of Chinese norms, with significant difference (P<0.05). After palliative intervention therapy, the scores of SDS and SAS were lower than those before the palliative intervention therapy with significant difference (P< 0.05); and furthermore with an obvious improvement in the scores of FACT-G (P<0.05). Conclusion: Palliative intervention therapy for advanced gastrointestinal carcinoma patients can improve the complaints of depression anxiety and quality of life. (authors)

  6. Patient, carer and professional perspectives on barriers and facilitators to quality care in advanced heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Browne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Those with advanced heart failure (HF experience high levels of morbidity and mortality, similar to common cancers. However, there remains evidence of inequity of access to palliative care services compared to people with cancer. This study examines patient, carer, and professional perspectives on current management of advanced HF and barriers and facilitators to improved care. METHODS: Qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups with advanced HF patients (n = 30, carers (n = 20, and professionals (n = 65. Data analysed using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT as the underpinning conceptual framework. FINDINGS: Uncertainty is ubiquitous in accounts from advanced HF patients and their caregivers. This uncertainty relates to understanding of the implications of their diagnosis, appropriate treatments, and when and how to seek effective help. Health professionals agree this is a major problem but feel they lack knowledge, opportunities, or adequate support to improve the situation. Fragmented care with lack of coordination and poor communication makes life difficult. Poor understanding of the condition extends to the wider circle of carers and means that requests for help may not be perceived as legitimate, and those with advanced HF are not prioritised for social and financial supports. Patient and caregiver accounts of emergency care are uniformly poor. Managing polypharmacy and enduring concomitant side effects is a major burden, and the potential for rationalisation exists. This study has potential limitations because it was undertaken within a single geographical location within the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: Little progress is being made to improve care experiences for those with advanced HF. Even in the terminal stages, patients and caregivers are heavily and unnecessarily burdened by health care services that are poorly coordinated and offer fragmented care. There is evidence that these poor

  7. Advancing the Value and Quality of Occupational Therapy in Health Service Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Leland, Natalie E.; Crum, Karen; Phipps, Shawn; Roberts, Pamela; Gage, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The authors set forth a foundation on which to build further dialogue and evidence to highlight occupational therapy’s distinctive contribution, significance, and viability as health care policies shift to focus on quality and value.

  8. Studies on fibre quality of a long staple cotton variety using high volume instrument and advanced fibre information system for fibre quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Manickam and S Venkatakrishnan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibre quality parameters of 20 plants of a long staple cotton variety Suraj were analyzed using High Volume Instrument (HVI and Advanced Fibre Information System (AFIS and were compared. From AFIS data, narrow range of coefficient of variability (of less than 10 % was noticed in characters like length (by weight, upper quartile length (by weight, length (by number, 5 % length (by number, fineness (mtex, maturity ratio and fibre neps. Comparatively larger extent of variability was noticed (of more than 10 % for short fibre content (both by weight and by number, immature fibre content, fibre neps – count/g, seed coat neps – count/g and for seed coat neps – mean size. However, the coefficient of variability for 2.5 % span length (mm, uniformity ratio (%, micronaire (μg/inch and tenacity at 3.2 mm gauge (g/tex was low when the fibre quality data was generated in HVI. This shows that variability estimates were narrow in the selected plants when fibre quality was analysed in HVI and exposes inherent weakness in analysing the fibre quality with HVI in breeders’ perspective. Correlation coefficients between immature fibre content and short fibre content, both by number (r = 0.89 and by weight (r = 0.84 were very high indicating that by reducing short fibre content the immature fibre content can be reduced drastically. Further, the correlation between immature fibre content and tenacity at 3.2 mm gauge was negative and was high (-0.91. Plants with ideal combination of yield and fibre quality parameters were identified for further exploitation.

  9. The applicability of advanced treatment processes in the management of deteriorating water quality in the Mid-Vaal river system / Zelda Hudson

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Zelda

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of advanced water treatment processes namely granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, ultraviolet (UV) light disinfectant and ozone in the management of deteriorating water quality in the Mid-Vaal River system for drinking purposes. Both the scarcity and the deteriorating quality of water in South Africa can be addressed by investigating advanced water treatment processes such as GAC adsorption, UV light disinfectant and o...

  10. Photodiode-based sensor for flame sensing and combustion-process monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Luis; Torres, Sergio; Sbarbaro, Daniel; Farias, Oscar

    2008-10-10

    A nonintrusive low-cost sensor based on silicon photodiode detectors has been designed to analyze the formation and behavior of excited CH(*) and C(2)(*) radicals in the combustion process by sensing the spectral emission of hydrocarbon flames. The sensor was validated by performing two sets of experiments for both nonconfined and confined flames. For a nonconfined oil flame, the sensor responses for the axial intensity were highly correlated with the measurements obtained with a radiometer. For confined gas flames the ratio between the signal corresponding to C(2)(*) and CH(*) was successfully correlated with the CO pollutant emissions and the combustion efficiency. These results give additional insight on how to prevent an incomplete combustion using spectral information. The fast response, the nonintrusive character, and the instantaneous measurement of the needed spectral information makes the proposed optical sensor a key element in the development of advanced control strategies for combustion processes. PMID:18846197

  11. Methods for assessing quality characteristics of non-grain starch staples. (Part 4. Advanced methods.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Z.; Tomlins, K.; Wellings, K; Westby, A.

    1996-01-01

    This manual sets out in a four-part publication the main methods necessary to evaluate the quality characteristics of nongrain starch staple (NGSS) food crops (cassava, sweet potato, banana, plantain, yam and cocoyam) and their processed products. It is designed to be a reference source and laboratory guide for food analysis laboratories and those concerned with the quality of NGSS. It is hoped that the provision of this manual and its active promotion through workshops will assist in the upt...

  12. CFD simulation of vented explosion and turbulent flame propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulach Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very rapid physical and chemical processes during the explosion require both quality and quantity of detection devices. CFD numerical simulations are suitable instruments for more detailed determination of explosion parameters. The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vented explosion and turbulent flame spread with use of ANSYS Fluent software. The paper is focused on verification of preciseness of calculations comparing calculated data with the results obtained in realised experiments in the explosion chamber.

  13. CFD simulation of vented explosion and turbulent flame propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Tulach Aleš; Mynarz Miroslav; Kozubková Milada

    2015-01-01

    Very rapid physical and chemical processes during the explosion require both quality and quantity of detection devices. CFD numerical simulations are suitable instruments for more detailed determination of explosion parameters. The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vented explosion and turbulent flame spread with use of ANSYS Fluent software. The paper is focused on verification of preciseness of calculations comparing calculated data with the results obtained in realised experiments...

  14. CFD simulation of vented explosion and turbulent flame propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulach, Aleš; Mynarz, Miroslav; Kozubková, Milada

    2015-05-01

    Very rapid physical and chemical processes during the explosion require both quality and quantity of detection devices. CFD numerical simulations are suitable instruments for more detailed determination of explosion parameters. The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vented explosion and turbulent flame spread with use of ANSYS Fluent software. The paper is focused on verification of preciseness of calculations comparing calculated data with the results obtained in realised experiments in the explosion chamber.

  15. Editorial: Advances in healthcare provider and patient training to improve the quality and safety of patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Borycki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal is dedicated to describing “Advances in Healthcare Provider and Patient Training to Improve the Quality and Safety of Patient Care.” Patient safety is an important and fundamental requirement of ensuring the quality of patient care. Training and education has been identified as a key to improving healthcare provider patient safety competencies especially when working with new technologies such as electronic health records and mobile health applications. Such technologies can be harnessed to improve patient safety; however, if not used properly they can negatively impact on patient safety. In this issue we focus on advances in training that can improve patient safety and the optimal use of new technologies in healthcare. For example, use of clinical simulations and online computer based training can be employed both to facilitate learning about new clinical discoveries as well as to integrate technology into day to day healthcare practices. In this issue we are publishing papers that describe advances in healthcare provider and patient training to improve patient safety as it relates to the use of educational technologies, health information technology and on-line health resources. In addition, in the special issue we describe new approaches to training and patient safety including, online communities, clinical simulations, on-the-job training, computer based training and health information systems that educate about and support safer patient care in real-time (i.e. when health professionals are providing care to patients. These educational and technological initiatives can be aimed at health professionals (i.e. students and those who are currently working in the field. The outcomes of this work are significant as they lead to safer care for patients and their family members. The issue has both theoretical and applied papers that describe advances in patient

  16. Comparison of Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) Measure Adherence Between Oncology Fellows, Advanced Practice Providers, and Attending Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jason; Zhang, Tian; Shah, Radhika; Kamal, Arif H; Kelley, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Quality improvement measures are uniformly applied to all oncology providers, regardless of their roles. Little is known about differences in adherence to these measures between oncology fellows, advance practice providers (APP), and attending physicians. We investigated conformance across Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) measures for oncology fellows, advance practice providers, and attending physicians at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC). Using data collected from the Spring 2012 and 2013 QOPI cycles, we abstracted charts of patients and separated them based on their primary provider. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were calculated for each QOPI measure between fellows, advanced practice providers (APPs), and attending physicians. A total of 169 patients were reviewed. Of these, 31 patients had a fellow, 39 had an APP, and 99 had an attending as their primary oncology provider. Fellows and attending physicians performed similarly on 90 of 94 QOPI metrics. High-performing metrics included several core QOPI measures including documenting consent for chemotherapy, recommending adjuvant chemotherapy when appropriate, and prescribing serotonin antagonists when prescribing emetogenic chemotherapies. Low-performing metrics included documentation of treatment summary and taking action to address problems with emotional well-being by the second office visit. Attendings documented the plan for oral chemotherapy more often (92 vs. 63%, P=0.049). However, after the chart audit, we found that fellows actually documented the plan for oral chemotherapy 88% of the time (p=0.73). APPs and attendings performed similarly on 88 of 90 QOPI measures. The quality of oncology care tends to be similar between attendings and fellows overall; some of the significant differences do not remain significant after a second manual chart review, highlighting that the use of manual data collection for QOPI analysis is an imperfect system, and there may

  17. A flame particle tracking analysis of turbulence–chemistry interaction in hydrogen–air premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.

    2015-11-21

    Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.

  18. Modelling thermal radiation and soot formation in buoyant diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiative heat transfer plays an important role in fire problems since it is the dominant mode of heat transfer between flames and surroundings. It controls the pyrolysis, and therefore the heat release rate, and the growth rate of the fire. In the present work a numerical study of buoyant diffusion flames is carried out, with the main objective of modelling the thermal radiative transfer and the soot formation/destruction processes. In a first step, different radiative property models were tested in benchmark configurations. It was found that the FSCK coupled with the Modest and Riazzi mixing scheme was the best compromise in terms of accuracy and computational requirements, and was a good candidate to be implemented in CFD codes dealing with fire problems. In a second step, a semi-empirical soot model, considering acetylene and benzene as precursor species for soot nucleation, was validated in laminar co flow diffusion flames over a wide range of hydrocarbons (C1-C3) and conditions. In addition, the optically-thin approximation was found to produce large discrepancies in the upper part of these small laminar flames. Reliable predictions of soot volume fractions require the use of an advanced radiation model. Then the FSCK and the semi-empirical soot model were applied to simulate laboratory-scale and intermediate-scale pool fires of methane and propane. Predicted flame structures as well as the radiant heat flux transferred to the surroundings were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental data. Finally, the interaction between radiation and turbulence was quantified. (author)

  19. Flame extinction of oxy-syngas nonpremixed jet flames

    OpenAIRE

    Ranga Dinesh, K. K. J.; Luo, K.H.; van Oijen, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Interest in carbon capture relevant to syngas based oxy-fuel combustion has inspired an extension of the high-resolution direct numerical simulation (DNS) to investigate the comprehensive nature of oxy-syngas combustion. The current research was motivated by two observations: (1) the local flame extinction of CO2-diluted oxy-syngas combustion has not been fully understood; (2) there is a lack of high resolution numerical data to gain new physical insights and to facilitate model development f...

  20. EMMA model: an advanced operational mesoscale air quality model for urban and regional environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoscale air quality models are an important tool to forecast and analyse the air quality in regional and urban areas. In recent years an increased interest has been shown by decision makers in these types of software tools. The complexity of such a model has grown exponentially with the increase of computer power. Nowadays, medium workstations can run operational versions of these modelling systems successfully. Presents a complex mesoscale air quality model which has been installed in the Environmental Office of the Madrid community (Spain) in order to forecast accurately the ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide air concentrations in a 3D domain centred on Madrid city. Describes the challenging scientific matters to be solved in order to develop an operational version of the atmospheric mesoscale numerical pollution model for urban and regional areas (ANA). Some encouraging results have been achieved in the attempts to improve the accuracy of the predictions made by the version already installed. (Author)

  1. Advanced Water Quality Modelling in Marine Systems: Application to the Wadden Sea, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, J.; Smits, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for knowledge and models that arise from water management in relation to water quality, sediment quality (ecology) and sediment accumulation (ecomorphology). Recently, models for sediment diagenesis and erosion developed or incorporated by Delft Hydraulics integrates the relevant physical, (bio)chemical and biological processes for the sediment-water exchange of substances. The aim of the diagenesis models is the prediction of both sediment quality and the return fluxes of substances such as nutrients and micropollutants to the overlying water. The resulting so-called DELWAQ-G model is a new, generic version of the water and sediment quality model of the DELFT3D framework. One set of generic water quality process formulations is used to calculate process rates in both water and sediment compartments. DELWAQ-G involves the explicit simulation of sediment layers in the water quality model with state-of-the-art process kinetics. The local conditions in a water layer or sediment layer such as the dissolved oxygen concentration determine if and how individual processes come to expression. New processes were added for sulphate, sulphide, methane and the distribution of the electron-acceptor demand over dissolved oxygen, nitrate, sulphate and carbon dioxide. DELWAQ-G also includes the dispersive and advective transport processes in the sediment and across the sediment-water interface. DELWAQ-G has been applied for the Wadden Sea. A very dynamic tidal and ecologically active estuary with a complex hydrodynamic behaviour located at the north of the Netherlands. The predicted profiles in the sediment reflect the typical interactions of diagenesis processes.

  2. Fully Modulated Turbulent Diffusion Flames in Microgravity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangras, Ravikiran; Hermanson, James C.; Johari, Hamid; Stocker, Dennis P.; Hegde, Uday G.

    2001-11-01

    Fully modulated, turbulent diffusion flames are studied in microgravity in 2.2 s drop-tower tests with a co-flow combustor. The fuel consists of pure ethylene or a 50/50 mixture with nitrogen; the oxidizer is either normal air or up to 40% oxygen in nitrogen. A fast solenoid valve is used to fully modulate (completely shut off) the fuel flow. The injection times range from 5 to 400 ms with a duty-cycle of 0.1 - 0.5. The fuel nozzle is 2 mm in diameter with a jet Reynolds number of 5000. The shortest injection times yield compact puffs with a mean flame length as little as 20% of that of the steady-state flame. The reduction in flame length appears to be somewhat greater in microgravity than in normal gravity. As the injection time increases, elongated flames result with a mean flame length comparable to that of a steady flame. The injection time for which the steady-state flame length is approached is shorter for lower air/fuel ratios. For a given duty-cycle, the separation between puffs is greater in microgravity than in normal gravity. For compact puffs, increasing the duty-cycle appears to increase the flame length more in microgravity than in normal gravity. The microgravity flame puffs do not exhibit the vortex-ring-like structure seen in normal gravity.

  3. Effects of Buoyancy on Lean Premixed V-Flames Part I: Laminar and Turblent Flame Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Robert K.; Bedat, Benoit; Kostiuk, Larry W.

    1998-01-01

    Laser schlieren and planar laser-induced fluorescence techniques have been used to investigate laminar and turbulent v-flames in +g, -g, and micro g under flow conditions that span the regimes of momentum domination (Ri buoyancy domination (Ri > 0.1). Overall flame features shown by schlieren indicate that buoyancy dominates the entire flow field for conditions close to Ri = 1. With decreasing Ri, buoyancy effects are observed only in the far-field regions. Analyses of the mean flame angles demonstrate that laminar and turbulent flames do not have similar responses to buoyancy. Difference in the laminar +g and -g flame angles decrease with Ri (i.e., increasing Re) and converge to the microgravity flame angle at the momentum limit (Ri - 0). This is consistent with the notion that the effects of buoyancy diminish with increasing flow momentum. The +g and -g turbulent flame angles, however, do not converge at Ri = 0. As shown by OH-PLIF images, the inconsistency in +g and -g turbulent flame angles is associated with the differences in flame wrinkles. Turbulent flame wrinkles evolve more slowly in +g than in -g. The difference in flame wrinkle structures, however, cannot be explained in terms of buoyancy effects on flame instability mechanisms. It seems to be associated with the field effects of buoyancy that stretches the turbulent flame brushes in +g and compresses the flame brush in -g. Flame wrinkling offers a mechanism through which the flame responds to the field effects of buoyancy despite increasing flow momentum. These observations point to the need to include both upstream and downstream contributions in theoretical analysis of flame turbulence interactions.

  4. In-flight Quality and Accuracy of Attitude Measurements from the CHAMP Advanced Stellar Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz;

    2005-01-01

    The German geo-observations satellite CHAMP carries highly accurate vector instruments. The orientation of these relative to the inertial reference frame is obtained using star trackers. These advanced stellar compasses (ASC) are fully autonomous units, which provide, in real time, the absolute...... with modeling external noise sources often arise. The special CHAMP configuration with two star tracker cameras mounted fixed together provides an excellent opportunity to determine the AIA in-flight using the inter boresight angle....

  5. Prospective clinical study on long-term swallowing function and voice quality in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and preventive swallowing exercises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A.C. Kraaijenga; L. van der Molen; I. Jacobi; O. Hamming-Vrieze; F.J.M. Hilgers; M.W.M. van den Brekel

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with substantial early and late side effects, most notably regarding swallowing function, but also regarding voice quality and quality of life (QoL). Despite increased awareness/knowledge on acute dysphagia in

  6. Quality of life of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer: anterior rectal resection with colorectal anastomosis versus abdominoperineal excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Gabriela Aniţei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in neoadjuvant treatment, rectal resection remains the gold-standard treatment for rectal cancer. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the benefits of anal sphincter preservation and to compare the quality of life in terms of functional outcome in long term survivors who underwent low (or ultra low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision to patients with abdominoperineal excision for locally advanced rectal cancer with neoadjuvant therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 319 patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer from 2006 to 2011. Quality of life in 69 eligible patients with preoperative treatment and rectal resection with total mesorectal excision was assessed using the EORTC QLQ C 30 and EORTC QLQ CR29 questionnaires. We evaluated the overall status of quality of life and functional status of these patients symptoms scale. High score for functional scores shows better function whereas high symptom score shows more problems. Results were compared for patients with anal sphincter preservation (SP, 20 patients versus abdominoperineal excision (APE, 49 patients using t-Student test for independent samples. RESULTS: The median follow up in 69 patients was 32 months (range 11-74 months, 32±2,3SD. Quality of life for our group is significantly higher than the reference EORTC population (P < 0.001. Physical functioning (P = 0.050, cognitive functioning (P = 0.039, emotional functioning (P = 0.006, physical and social functioning (P = 0.005, constipation (P = 0.018, body image (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.004, embarrassment (P = 0.003 were significantly better for patients with SP. There was no significant differences in the general symptoms of the radiochemotherapy treatment (mouth dryness, hair loss, flavor. Most of the symptom scales like sexual interest, impotence, dyspareunia, diarrhoea did not differ. APE patients suffered more from anxiety (P = 0

  7. Advances in wine aging technologies for enhancing wine quality and accelerating wine aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; García, Juan Francisco; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Wine aging is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel aging systems. However, due to the disadvantages of the traditional aging technology, such as lengthy time needed, high cost, etc., innovative aging technologies have been developed. These technologies involve aging wines using wood fragments, application of micro-oxygenation, aging on lees, or application of some physical methods. Moreover, wine bottling can be regarded as the second phase of wine aging and is essential for most wines. Each technology can benefit the aging process from different aspects. Traditional oak barrel aging technology is the oldest and widely accepted technology. The application of wood fragments and physical methods are promising in accelerating aging process artificially, while application of micro-oxygenation and lees is reliable to improve wine quality. This paper reviews recent developments of the wine aging technologies. The impacts of operational parameters of each technology on wine quality during aging are analyzed, and comparisons among these aging technologies are made. In addition, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short aging period are also proposed. PMID:24345051

  8. "Advances in Coupled Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry to address bidirectional ammonia flux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cropland farm management modeling system for regional air quality and field-scale applications of bi-directional ammonia exchange was presented at ITM XXI. The goal of this research is to improve estimates of nitrogen deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and ambien...

  9. Flame Propagation Through Concentration Gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunyaIINO; MitsuakiTANABE; 等

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in homogeneous propane-air mixture and in several concentration gradient of mixture.Igniter is put on the upper side of the combustion chamber,In concentration gradient experiment.ixture was ignited from lean side.An experimental study was conducted in a combustion chamber.The combustion chamber has glass windows for optical measurements at any side.For the measurement of distribution of fuel concentration,infraed absorption method using 3.39μm He-Ne laser was used,and for the observation of proagating flams,Schlieren method was employed.As a measurment result of flame propagation velocity and flammable limit,for a mixture of an identical local equivalence ratio.flame propagation velocity in concentration gradient is faster than that in homogeneous mixture,and rich flammable limit in concentration gradient shows a tendency to be higher than that in homogeneous mixture.

  10. Numerical investigations of gaseous spherical diffusion flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoustre, Vivien R.

    Spherical diffusion flames have several unique characteristics that make them attractive from experimental and theoretical perspectives. They can be modeled with one spatial dimension, which frees computational resources for detailed chemistry, transport, and radiative loss models. This dissertation is a numerical study of two classes of spherical diffusion flames: hydrogen micro-diffusion flames, emphasizing kinetic extinction, and ethylene diffusion flames, emphasizing sooting limits. The flames were modeled using a one-dimensional, time-accurate diffusion flame code with detailed chemistry and transport. Radiative losses from products were modeled using a detailed absorption/emission statistical narrow band model and the discrete ordinates method. During this work the code has been enhanced by the implementation of a soot formation/oxidation model using the method of moments. Hydrogen micro-diffusion flames were studied experimentally and numerically. The experiments involved gas jets of hydrogen. At their quenching limits, these flames had heat release rates of 0.46 and 0.25 W in air and in oxygen, respectively. These are the weakest flames ever observed. The modeling results confirmed the quenching limits and revealed high rates of reactant leakage near the limits. The effects of the burner size and mass flow rate were predicted to have a significant impact on the flame chemistry and species distribution profiles, favoring kinetic extinction. Spherical ethylene diffusion flames at their sooting limits were also examined. Seventeen normal and inverse spherical flames were considered. Initially sooty, these flames were experimentally observed to reach their sooting limits 2 s after ignition. Structure of the flames at 2 s was considered, with an emphasis on the relationships among local temperature, carbon to oxygen atom ratio (C/O), and scalar dissipation rate. A critical C/O ratio was identified, along with two different sooting limit regimes. Diffusion flames

  11. Heat and mass transfer in flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Heat- and mass-transfer processes in turbulent diffusion flames are discussed, considering turbulent mixing and the structure of single-phase flames, drop processes in spray flames, and nonluminous and luminous flame radiation. Interactions between turbulence and other phenomena are emphasized, concentrating on past work of the author and his associates. The conserved-scalar formalism, along with the laminar-flamelet approximation, is shown to provide reasonable estimates of the structure of gas flames, with modest levels of empiricism. Extending this approach to spray flames has highlighted the importance of drop/turbulence interactions; e.g., turbulent dispersion of drops, modification of turbulence by drops, etc. Stochastic methods being developed to treat these phenomena are yielding encouraging results.

  12. Extinction of corrugated hydrogen/air flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies on flammability limits reveal the importance of flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and molecular and thermal diffusivities in determining the extinguishability and the associated limits of premixed fuel/air flames. In particular, it is found that conditions which favor extinction of a lean flame may cause intensification of a rich flame. In the present study the authors have experimentally determined the extinction characteristics and limits of highly curved hydrogen/air flames as represented by the opening of bunsen flame tips. Results show that the tip opens at a constant fuel equivalence ratio of phi = 1.15, regardless of the velocity and uniformity of the upstream flow. This critical mixture concentration, while being rich, is still on the lean side of that corresponding to the maximum burning velocity (phi = 1.8), implying that for highly diffusive systems, the relevant reference concentration is that for maximum burning velocity instead of stoichiometry

  13. Numerical study of effects of the intermediates and initial conditions on flame propagation in a real homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The premixed flame speed under a small four stock homogeneous charge compression ignition engine, fueled with dimethyl ether, was investigated. The effects of intermediate species, initial temperature, initial pressure, exhaust gas recirculation, and equivalence ratio were studied and compared to the baseline condition. Results show that, under all conditions, the flame speeds calculated without intermediates are higher than those which took the intermediates in consideration. Flame speeds increase with the increase of crank angle. The increase rate is divided into three regions and the increase rate is obviously high in the event of low temperature heat release. Initial temperature and pressure only affect the crank angle of flame speed, but have little influence on its value. Equivalence ratio and exhaust gas recirculation ratio do not only distinctly decrease the flame speed, but also advance the crank angle of flame speed.

  14. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  15. [Advances in psychosocial interventions on quality of life of cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuefen; Wang, Jiwei; Gong, Xiaohuan; Yu, Jinming

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of psychosocial interventions' studies on quality of life in cancer survivors because of improving cancer survival rate. This paper was an integrative literatures review of various psychosocial interventions including cognitive behavioral therapy, group-based supportive therapy, counseling or psychotherapy, education or psychoeducation and music therapy et al, and analyzing the complexity of psychosocial interventions' RCTs in oncology and the current characteristic of these studies in China. PMID:26081409

  16. Microgravity Turbulent Gas-Jet Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A gas-jet diffusion flame is similar to the flame on a Bunsen burner, where a gaseous fuel (e.g., propane) flows from a nozzle into an oxygen-containing atmosphere (e.g., air). The difference is that a Bunsen burner allows for (partial) premixing of the fuel and the air, whereas a diffusion flame is not premixed and gets its oxygen (principally) by diffusion from the atmosphere around the flame. Simple gas-jet diffusion flames are often used for combustion studies because they embody the mechanisms operating in accidental fires and in practical combustion systems. However, most practical combustion is turbulent (i.e., with random flow vortices), which enhances the fuel/air mixing. These turbulent flames are not well understood because their random and transient nature complicates analysis. Normal gravity studies of turbulence in gas-jet diffusion flames can be impeded by buoyancy-induced instabilities. These gravitycaused instabilities, which are evident in the flickering of a candle flame in normal gravity, interfere with the study of turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. By conducting experiments in microgravity, where buoyant instabilities are avoided, we at the NASA Lewis Research Center hope to improve our understanding of turbulent combustion. Ultimately, this could lead to improvements in combustor design, yielding higher efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Gas-jet diffusion flames are often researched as model flames, because they embody mechanisms operating in both accidental fires and practical combustion systems (see the first figure). In normal gravity laboratory research, buoyant air flows, which are often negligible in practical situations, dominate the heat and mass transfer processes. Microgravity research studies, however, are not constrained by buoyant air flows, and new, unique information on the behavior of gas-jet diffusion flames has been obtained.

  17. Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: Water costs and scope for advanced treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce child mortality and improve health in Ghana boreholes and wells are being installed across the country by the private sector, NGO's and the Ghanaian government. Water quality is not generally monitored once a water source has been improved. Water supplies were sampled across Ghana from mostly boreholes, wells and rivers as well as some piped water from the different regions and analysed for the chemical quality. Chemical water quality was found to exceed the WHO guidelines in 38% of samples, while pH varied from 3.7 to 8.9. Excess levels of nitrate (NO3-) were found in 21% of the samples, manganese (Mn) and fluoride (F-) in 11% and 6.7%, respectively. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and uranium (U) were localised to mining areas. Elements without health based guideline values such as aluminium (Al, 95%) and chloride (Cl, 5.7%) were found above the provisional guideline value. Economic information was gathered to identify water costs and ability to pay. Capital costs of wells and boreholes are about Pounds 1200 and Pounds 3800 respectively. The majority of installation costs are generally paid by the government or NGO's, while the maintenance is expected to be covered by the community. At least 58% of the communities had a water payment system in place, either an annual fee/one-off fee or 'pay-as-you-fetch'. The annual fee was between Pounds 0.3-21, while the boreholes had a water collection fee of Pounds 0.07-0.7/m3, many wells were free. Interestingly, the most expensive water ( Pounds 2.9-3.5/m3) was brought by truck. Many groundwater sources were not used due to poor chemical water quality. Considering the cost of unsuccessful borehole development, the potential for integrating suitable water treatment into the capital and maintenance costs of water sources is discussed. Additionally, many sources were not in use due to lack of water capacity, equipment malfunction or lack of economic resources to repair and maintain equipment. Those

  18. Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: Water costs and scope for advanced treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossiter, Helfrid M.A. [School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Owusu, Peter A.; Awuah, Esi [Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); MacDonald, Alan M. [British Geological Survey, Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3LA (United Kingdom); Schaefer, Andrea I., E-mail: Andrea.Schaefer@ed.ac.uk [School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-01

    To reduce child mortality and improve health in Ghana boreholes and wells are being installed across the country by the private sector, NGO's and the Ghanaian government. Water quality is not generally monitored once a water source has been improved. Water supplies were sampled across Ghana from mostly boreholes, wells and rivers as well as some piped water from the different regions and analysed for the chemical quality. Chemical water quality was found to exceed the WHO guidelines in 38% of samples, while pH varied from 3.7 to 8.9. Excess levels of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) were found in 21% of the samples, manganese (Mn) and fluoride (F{sup -}) in 11% and 6.7%, respectively. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and uranium (U) were localised to mining areas. Elements without health based guideline values such as aluminium (Al, 95%) and chloride (Cl, 5.7%) were found above the provisional guideline value. Economic information was gathered to identify water costs and ability to pay. Capital costs of wells and boreholes are about Pounds 1200 and Pounds 3800 respectively. The majority of installation costs are generally paid by the government or NGO's, while the maintenance is expected to be covered by the community. At least 58% of the communities had a water payment system in place, either an annual fee/one-off fee or 'pay-as-you-fetch'. The annual fee was between Pounds 0.3-21, while the boreholes had a water collection fee of Pounds 0.07-0.7/m{sup 3}, many wells were free. Interestingly, the most expensive water ( Pounds 2.9-3.5/m{sup 3}) was brought by truck. Many groundwater sources were not used due to poor chemical water quality. Considering the cost of unsuccessful borehole development, the potential for integrating suitable water treatment into the capital and maintenance costs of water sources is discussed. Additionally, many sources were not in use due to lack of water capacity, equipment malfunction or lack of economic

  19. 33 CFR 154.822 - Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detonation arresters, flame... BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.822 Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. (a) Each detonation arrester required by this part must: (1) Be capable of arresting a detonation from either side...

  20. Visible structure of buoyant diffusion flames

    OpenAIRE

    Zukoski, E. E.; Cetegen, B. M.; Kubota, T.

    1985-01-01

    Natural gas diffusion flames stabilized on 0.10, 0.19 and 0.50 m. diameter porous bed burners have been studied for heat release rates ranging from 10 to 200 kW. Flame heights were measured from video tape recordings and by eye averaged techniques. The dependence of flame height on a dimensionless heat addition parameter shows a transition for values of the parameter around unity. For flames taller than three burner diameters, the initial diameter of the fire does not affect the length of the...

  1. Laser Ionization Studies of Hydrocarbon Flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jeffrey Scott

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) are applied as laser based flame diagnostics for studies of hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. rm CH_4/O_2, C _2H_4/O_2, and rm C_2H_6/O_2 low pressure ( ~20 Torr), stoichiometric burner stabilized flat flames are studied. Density profiles of intermediate flame species, existing at ppm concentrations, are mapped out as a function of distance from the burner head. Profiles resulting from REMPI and LIF detection are obtained for HCO, CH_3, H, O, OH, CH, and CO flame radicals. The above flame systems are computer modeled against currently accepted combustion mechanisms using the Chemkin and Premix flame codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The modeled profile densities show good agreement with the experimental results of the CH_4/O_2 flame system, thus confirming the current C1 kinetic flame mechanism. Discrepancies between experimental and modeled results are found with the C2 flames. These discrepancies are partially amended by modifying the rate constant of the rm C_2H_3+rm O_2 to H_2CO + HCO reaction. The modeled results computed with the modified rate constant strongly suggest that the kinetics of several or possibly many reactions in the C2 mechanism need refinement.

  2. Atomic absorption spectroscopy with high temperature flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, J B

    1968-07-01

    An account is given of the history of the development of high temperature flames for the atomic absorption measurement of metals forming refractory oxides. The principles governing the design of premix burners for such flames, and the relative merits of different types of nebulizer burner systems are described. After a brief account of the structure and emission characteristics of the premixed oxygen-acetylene and nitrous oxide-acetylene flames, the scope and limitations of the latter flame in chemical analysis are discussed. PMID:20068790

  3. Imaging of premixed flames in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, L. W.; Cheng, R. K.

    1994-12-01

    A laser schlieren system which uses video recording and digital images analysis has been developed and applied successfully to microgravity combustion experiments performed in a drop-tower. The optical system and the experiment are installed within a small package which is subjected to free-fall. The images are recorded on video tape and are digitized and analyzed by a computer-controlled image processor. The experimental results include laminar and turbulent premixed conical flames in microgravity, normal positive gravity (upward), and reverse gravity (downward). The procedures to extract frequency information from the digitized images are described. Many gross features of the effects of gravity on premixed conical flames are found. Flames that ignite easily in normal gravity fail to ignite in microgravity. Buoyancy driven instabilities associated with an interface formed between the hot products and the cold surrounding air is the mechanism through which gravity influences premixed laminar and turbulent flames. In normal gravity, this causes the flame to flicker. In reverse gravity, - g, and microgravity, μg, the interface is stable and flame flickering ceases. The flickering frequencies of + g flames vary with changing upstream boundary conditions. The absence of flame flickering in μg suggest that μg flames would be less sensitive to these changes.

  4. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  5. Advanced industrial fluorescence metrology used for qualification of high quality optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Axel; Becker, Hans-Juergen; Sohr, Oliver; Haspel, Rainer; Rupertus, Volker

    2003-11-01

    Schott Glas is developing and producing the optical material for various specialized applications in telecommunication, biomedical, optical, and micro lithography technology. The requirements on quality for optical materials are extremely high and still increasing. For example in micro lithography applications the impurities of the material are specified to be in the low ppb range. Usually the impurities in the lower ppb range are determined using analytical methods like LA ICP-MS and Neutron Activation Analysis. On the other hand absorption and laser resistivity of optical material is qualified with optical methods like precision spectral photometers and in-situ transmission measurements having UV lasers. Analytical methods have the drawback that they are time consuming and rather expensive, whereas the sensitivity for the absorption method will not be sufficient to characterize the future needs (coefficient much below 10-3 cm-1). In order to achieve the current and future quality requirements a Jobin Yvon FLUOROLOG 3.22 fluorescence spectrometer is employed to enable fast and precise qualification and analysis. The main advantage of this setup is the combination of highest sensitivity (more than one order of magnitude higher sensitivity that state of the art UV absorption spectroscopy) and fast measurement and evaluation cycles (several minutes compared to several hours necessary for chemical analytics). An overview is given for spectral characteristics and using specified standards. Moreover correlations to the material qualities are shown. In particular we have investigated the elementary fluorescence and absorption of rare earth element impurities as well as defects induced luminescence originated by impurities.

  6. Challenges, Solutions, and Quality Metrics of Personal Genome Assembly in Advancing Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though each of us shares more than 99% of the DNA sequences in our genome, there are millions of sequence codes or structure in small regions that differ between individuals, giving us different characteristics of appearance or responsiveness to medical treatments. Currently, genetic variants in diseased tissues, such as tumors, are uncovered by exploring the differences between the reference genome and the sequences detected in the diseased tissue. However, the public reference genome was derived with the DNA from multiple individuals. As a result of this, the reference genome is incomplete and may misrepresent the sequence variants of the general population. The more reliable solution is to compare sequences of diseased tissue with its own genome sequence derived from tissue in a normal state. As the price to sequence the human genome has dropped dramatically to around $1000, it shows a promising future of documenting the personal genome for every individual. However, de novo assembly of individual genomes at an affordable cost is still challenging. Thus, till now, only a few human genomes have been fully assembled. In this review, we introduce the history of human genome sequencing and the evolution of sequencing platforms, from Sanger sequencing to emerging “third generation sequencing” technologies. We present the currently available de novo assembly and post-assembly software packages for human genome assembly and their requirements for computational infrastructures. We recommend that a combined hybrid assembly with long and short reads would be a promising way to generate good quality human genome assemblies and specify parameters for the quality assessment of assembly outcomes. We provide a perspective view of the benefit of using personal genomes as references and suggestions for obtaining a quality personal genome. Finally, we discuss the usage of the personal genome in aiding vaccine design and development, monitoring host

  7. BALANCED SCORECARD AS AN ADVANCED MANAGEMENT CONCEPT WITHIN THE INTEGRATED QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Zivojinovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of >Integratedquality management< (IQM model, originating form St.Gallen-model, is reflected in the need for synergic application of new and advanced concepts of management theory and practise. Balanced score card (BSC within IQM model becomes a catalyst of business success for a modern organization by focusing on organizational variables-business strategy, organization structure and corporate culture. BSC is the leading system of performance tracking and strategy implementation, consistent with other management concepts and methods for managing process improvement. Through BSC, IQM processes' activities correlate with organization business results. BSC management processes enable integration of all decision-making levels, from institutional via strategic to operative, in the process starting from planing, i.e. formulating and implementation of strategy, to feed back by performance measurement and control.

  8. Experimental studies of flame stability limits of biogas flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Premixed biogas flame stability for RTBs was studied on different conditions. ► An unusual “float off” phenomenon was observed. ► Decrease of port diameter or gas temperature or methane content motivates lifting. ► Increase of methane content or gas temperature or port diameter motivates yellow tipping. ► Lifting curves become straight lines when semi-logarithmic graph paper is applied. - Abstract: Flame stability of premixed biogas flame for Reference Test Burner (RTB) was investigated. In this study, six kinds of test gases were used to simulate biogas in which CO2 volume fraction varied from 30% to 45%. A series of experiments were conducted on two RTBs with different port diameters and at different outlet unburned mixture temperatures. It was found that the lifting and yellow tipping limits show similar trends regardless of the biogas components, port diameters and mixture temperatures. A “float off” phenomenon could be observed at low gas flow rate and low primary air ratio. Low mixture temperature, small ports and high CO2 concentration in biogas can lead to the unstable condition of “float off”. The lifting limits are enhanced with an increase of port diameter or mixture temperature and with a decrease of CO2 concentration. The yellow tipping limits are extended with an increase of CO2 concentration and with a decrease of mixture temperature or port diameter. In addition, the lifting limit curve becomes a straight line when semi-logarithmic graph paper is applied. The intercept increases with a decrease of the CO2 concentration in biogas and with an increase of port diameter or gas temperature.

  9. OH radical imaging in a DI diesel engine and the structure of the early diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, J.E.; Coy, E.B.

    1996-03-01

    Laser-sheet imaging studies have considerably advanced our understanding of diesel combustion; however, the location and nature of the flame zones within the combusting fuel jet have been largely unstudied. To address this issue, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical has been applied to the reacting fuel jet of a direct-injection diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class, modified for optical access. An Nd:YAG-based laser system was used to pump the overlapping Q{sub 1}9 and Q{sub 2}8 lines of the (1,0) band of the A{yields}X transition at 284.01 nm, while the fluorescent emission from both the (0,O) and (1, I) bands (308 to 320 nm) was imaged with an intensified video camera. This scheme allowed rejection of elastically scattered laser light, PAH fluorescence, and laser-induced incandescence. OH PLIF is shown to be an excellent diagnostic for diesel diffusion flames. The signal is strong, and it is confined to a narrow region about the flame front because the threebody recombination reactions that reduce high flame-front OH concentrations to equilibrium levels occur rapidly at diesel pressures. No signal was evident in the fuel-rich premixed flame regions where calculations and burner experiments indicate that OH concentrations will be below detectable limits. Temporal sequences of OH PLIF images are presented showing the onset and development of the early diffusion flame up to the time that soot obscures the images. These images show that the diffusion flame develops around the periphery of the-downstream portion of the reacting fuel jet about half way through the premixed burn spike. Although affected by turbulence, the diffusion flame remains at the jet periphery for the rest of the imaged sequence.

  10. Advances in a study of sky quality for astronomical observations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, D.; Pinzón, G.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the sky quality in Colombia for astronomical observations in the optic. About 10,000 images in infrared (6.7 mu m and 10.7 mu m) were analyzed from the GOES meteorological satellites in three night times taken during a period of five years (2008 to 2014). A novel methodology was followed to determine how clear or covered was the sky in a given image. Meteorological data also were used from the weather stations network of the national meteorological institute, IDEAM. A correlation between threshold temperature and altitude was found for a historical data series of about 30 years. The results of the average percentage of nights with clear skies per year or clear sky fraction (CSF) were validated with the reports on the number of hours of astronomical observation from the logbooks of Llano del Hato Observatory in Merida-Venezuela, obtaining a cumulative percentage difference during the five years less than 10%. Annual cloud covering was computed over the whole country and it was classified the nights as clear or usable based on the definition of a quality factor.

  11. Interaction of Two Micro-slot Flames: Heat Release Rate and Flame Shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the interaction between two identical micro-slot diffusion flames. Here, we define a micro-slot flame as a slot flame of which the slot width is less than about 1 mm. Because of its smallness, a micro-slot flame has a high heating density and can be used as a small heat source. However, the heat release rate of a single micro-slot flame is limited, and therefore, multiple micro-slot flames may be used to increase total heat release rate. As a first step, this paper considers a situation in which two micro-slot flames are used with certain burner spacing. When two diffusion flames are placed closely, flame shape changes from that of an isolated flame. Studying such flame shape change and resultant change in total heat release rate is the topic of this paper. Experiment is conducted and total heat release rate is measured by integrating CH* chemiluminescence recorded using a CCD camera and an optical filter of the wavelength of 430 nm. Two different burner materials, copper and glass, are tested to study the effect of heat loss to burners. An analytical model is applied to predict flame shape. In addition to the classical Burke-Schumann assumptions, two slot flames are modeled as line sources with zero width, enabling a simple analytical solution for the critical burner spacing at which two flames touch each other. The critical burner spacing is a key parameter that characterizes the interaction between two micro-slot flames. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are then conducted to test the validity of the present theory. CFD results are favorably compared with the theoretical prediction

  12. Content and quality of websites supporting self-management of chronic breathlessness in advanced illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tim; Disler, Rebecca; Hosie, Annmarie; Johnson, Miriam; Davidson, Patricia; Currow, David; Sumah, Anthony; Phillips, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic breathlessness is a common, burdensome and distressing symptom in many advanced chronic illnesses. Self-management strategies are essential to optimise treatment, daily functioning and emotional coping. People with chronic illness commonly search the internet for advice on self-management. A review was undertaken in June 2015 to describe the content and quality of online advice on breathlessness self-management, to highlight under-served areas and to identify any unsafe content. Google was searched from Sydney, Australia, using the five most common search terms for breathlessness identified by Google Trends. We also hand-searched the websites of national associations. Websites were included if they were freely available in English and provided practical advice on self-management. Website quality was assessed using the American Medical Association Benchmarks. Readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid grades, with grade 8 considered the maximum acceptable for enabling access. Ninety-one web pages from 44 websites met the inclusion criteria, including 14 national association websites not returned by Google searches. Most websites were generated in the USA (n=28, 64%) and focused on breathing techniques (n=38, 86%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=27, 61%). No websites were found to offer unsafe advice. Adherence to quality benchmarks ranged from 9% for disclosure to 77% for currency. Fifteen (54%) of 28 written websites required grade ⩾9 reading level. Future development should focus on advice and tools to support goal setting, problem solving and monitoring of breathlessness. National associations are encouraged to improve website visibility and comply with standards for quality and readability. PMID:27225898

  13. Quality of life assessment in advanced cancer patients treated at home, an inpatient unit, and a day care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppert W

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wojciech Leppert,1 Mikolaj Majkowicz,2 Maria Forycka,1 Eleonora Mess,3 Agata Zdun-Ryzewska2 1Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2Department of Quality of Life Research, Gdansk Medical University, Gdansk, Poland; 3Palliative Care Nursing Department, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Aim of the study: To assess quality of life (QoL in cancer patients treated at home, at an in-patient palliative care unit (PCU, and at a day care center (DCC. Patients and methods: QoL was assessed in advanced cancer patients at baseline and after 7 days of symptomatic treatment using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 15-Palliative Care (EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS, and the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS scale. Results: A total of 129 patients completed the study, with 51 patients treated at home, 51 patients treated at the PCU, and 27 patients at DCC. In the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, improvement in functional and symptom scales was observed except in physical functioning and fatigue levels; patients at DCC had a better physical functioning, global QoL, appetite, and fatigue levels. In the ESAS, improvement in all items was found except for drowsiness levels, which was stable in patients treated at DCC and deteriorated in home and PCU patients. Higher activity, better appetite and well-being, and less drowsiness were observed in patients treated at DCC. KPS was better in DCC patients compared to those treated at home and at the PCU; the latter group deteriorated. Conclusions: QoL improved in all patient groups, with better results in DCC patients and similar scores in those staying at home and at the PCU. Along with clinical assessment, baseline age, KPS, physical and emotional functioning may be considered when assigning patients to care at a DCC, PCU, or at home. Keywords: oncology, patient care

  14. Flame dynamics of a meso-scale heat recirculating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The dynamics of premixed propane-air flame in a meso-scale ceramic combustor has been examined here. The flame characteristics in the combustor were examined by measuring the acoustic emissions and preheat temperatures together with high-speed cinematography. For the small-scale combustor, the volume to surface area ratio is small and hence the walls have significant effect on the global flame structure, flame location and flame dynamics. In addition to the flame-wall thermal coupling there is a coupling between flame and acoustics in the case of confined flames. Flame-wall thermal interactions lead to low frequency flame fluctuations ({proportional_to}100 Hz) depending upon the thermal response of the wall. However, the flame-acoustic interactions can result in a wide range of flame fluctuations ranging from few hundred Hz to few kHz. Wall temperature distribution is one of the factors that control the amount of reactant preheating which in turn effects the location of flame stabilization. Acoustic emission signals and high-speed flame imaging confirmed that for the present case flame-acoustic interactions have more significant effect on flame dynamics. Based on the acoustic emissions, five different flame regimes have been identified; whistling/harmonic mode, rich instability mode, lean instability mode, silent mode and pulsating flame mode. (author)

  15. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets.

  16. Assessing the quality of a deliberative democracy mini-public event about advanced biofuel production and development in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Holly; Secko, David M

    2016-02-01

    The importance of evaluating deliberative public engagement events is well recognized, but such activities are rarely conducted for a variety of theoretical, political and practical reasons. In this article, we provide an assessment of the criteria presented in the 2008 National Research Council report on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making (NRC report) as explicit indicators of quality for the 2012 'Advanced Biofuels' deliberative democracy event. The National Research Council's criteria were selected to evaluate this event because they are decision oriented, are the products of an exhaustive review of similar past events, are intended specifically for environmental processes and encompass many of the criteria presented in other evaluation frameworks. It is our hope that the results of our study may encourage others to employ and assess the National Research Council's criteria as a generalizable benchmark that may justifiably be used in forthcoming deliberative events exploring different topics with different audiences. PMID:25164558

  17. An experimental and numerical study of gas jet diffusion flames enveloped by a cascade of venturis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qubbaj, Ala Rafat

    1999-06-01

    species, respectively, along with 11% drop in soot precursors (PAR), from their baseline values. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The CO and NO concentrations were determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The final simulated results were compared with the experimental data. Good agreement was found in the near-burner region. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. Automated, Miniaturized and Integrated Quality Control-on-Chip (QC-on-a-Chip) for Advanced Cell Therapy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartmann, David; Rothbauer, Mario; Kuten, Olga; Barresi, Caterina; Visus, Carmen; Felzmann, Thomas; Ertl, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The combination of microfabrication-based technologies with cell biology has laid the foundation for the development of advanced in vitro diagnostic systems capable of evaluating cell cultures under defined, reproducible and standardizable measurement conditions. In the present review we describe recent lab-on-a-chip developments for cell analysis and how these methodologies could improve standard quality control in the field of manufacturing cell-based vaccines for clinical purposes. We highlight in particular the regulatory requirements for advanced cell therapy applications using as an example dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines to describe the tangible advantages of microfluidic devices that overcome most of the challenges associated with automation, miniaturization and integration of cell-based assays. As its main advantage lab-on-a-chip technology allows for precise regulation of culturing conditions, while simultaneously monitoring cell relevant parameters using embedded sensory systems. State-of-the-art lab-on-a-chip platforms for in vitro assessment of cell cultures and their potential future applications for cell therapies and cancer immunotherapy are discussed in the present review.

  19. Ultra Stable, Industrial Green Tailored Pulse Fiber Laser with Diffraction-limited Beam Quality for Advanced Micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deladurantaye, P; Roy, V; Desbiens, L; Drolet, M; Taillon, Y; Galarneau, P, E-mail: pascal.deladurantaye@ino.ca [INO, 2740 rue Einstein, Quebec City, QC, G1P 4S4 (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    We report on a novel pulsed fiber laser platform providing pulse shaping agility at high repetition rates and at a wavelength of 532 nm. The oscillator is based on the direct modulation of a seed laser diode followed by a chain of fiber amplifiers. Advanced Large Mode Area (LMA) fiber designs as well as proprietary techniques to mitigate non-linear effects enable output energy per pulse up to 100 {mu}J at 1064 nm with diffraction-limited beam quality and narrow line widths suitable for efficient frequency conversion. Ultra stable pulses with tailored pulse shapes were demonstrated in the green region of the spectrum at repetition rates higher than 200 kHz. Pulse durations between 2.5 ns and 640 ns are available, as well as pulse to pulse dynamic shape selection at repetition rates up to 1 MHz. The pulse energy stability at 532 nm is better than {+-} 1.5%, 3{sigma}, over 10 000 pulses. Excellent beam characteristics were obtained. The M{sup 2} parameter is lower than 1.05, the beam waist astigmatism and beam waist asymmetry are below 10% and below 8% respectively, with high stability over time. We foresee that the small spot size, high repetition rate and pulse tailoring capability of this platform will provide advantages to practitioners who are developing novel, advanced processes in many industrially important applications.

  20. Symptom burden and quality of life in advanced head and neck cancer patients: AIIMS study of 100 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Kumar Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Head and neck cancers (HNCa are the most common cancers among males in India and 70-80% present in advanced stage. The study aims to assess symptom burden and quality of life (QOL in advanced incurable HNCa patients at presentation. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients were asked to fill EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL questionnaire, which consisted of Global QOL, physical functioning (PF, emotional functioning (EF, fatigue (FA, nausea-vomiting (NV, pain (PA, dyspnea (DY, sleep (SL, appetite (AP, and constipation (CO. Additional questions pertaining to swallowing (SW, hoarseness (HO, cough (CG, weight loss (WL, using pain killers (PK, taste (TA, bleeding (BL, hearing (HE, pain in neck lump (PALMP, opening mouth (OM, and oral secretions (OS were asked based on a modified EORTC-HN35 questionnaire. Scoring was according to EORTC scoring manual. Mean, median and range were calculated for each item for the entire cohort. Results: The female:male ratio was 17:83.42% of them were ≥60 years of age. Sixty-six patients had T4, 25 had T3, 36 had N2, and 33 had N3 disease. Median QOL was 50 (range 0-83.33 and PF was 77.78 (0-100. Median score for EF and FA was 50. Median score for PA, PK, and SL was 66.67 while that for AP was 33.33. Median value for SW, HO, WL, BL, PALMP, OM, and OS was 33.33 (100-0 while TA, CG, NV, DY, and HE had a median score of 0.00. Conclusion: Advanced HNCa has a significant burden of symptoms. These results would help in giving patients better symptom directed therapies and improve their QOL.

  1. Impact of flame-wall interaction on premixed flame dynamics and transfer function characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate the response of a perforated-plate stabilized laminar methane-air premixed flame to imposed inlet velocity perturbations. A flame model using detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is applied and heat exchange between the burner plate and the gas mixture is incorporated. Linear transfer functions, for low mean inlet velocity oscillations, are analyzed for different equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, plate thermal conductivity and distance between adjacent holes. The oscillations of the heat exchange rate at the top of the burner surface plays a critical role in driving the growth of the perturbations over a wide range of conditions, including resonance. The flame response to the perturbations at its base takes the form of consumption speed oscillations in this region. Flame stand-off distance increases/decreases when the flame-wall interaction strengthens/weakens, impacting the overall dynamics of the heat release. The convective lag between the perturbations and the flame base response govern the phase of heat release rate oscillations. There is an additional convective lag between the perturbations at the flame base and the flame tip which has a weaker impact on the heat release rate oscillations. At higher frequencies, the flame-wall interaction is weaker and the heat release oscillations are driven by the flame area oscillations. The response of the flame to higher amplitude oscillations are used to gain further insight into the mechanisms. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Premixed Flame Response and Rayleigh Criterion through a Novel Flame Transfer Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Vijaya Krishna; Rani, Sarma

    2015-11-01

    Linear modal analysis of combustion instabilities requires a flame transfer function which describes the flame heat-release response to acoustic perturbations. In this study, a novel flame transfer function (FTF) is developed that provides an explicit relationship between heat-release and pressure fluctuations for laminar premixed flames. While the FTF is generalized for any mean flame shape, a triangular mean flame stabilized at the cross-sectional interface of a dump combustor is analyzed. For this flame, the effects on the FTF magnitude and phase of the acoustic frequency, location (on the mean flame), modal index, and the mean Mach number are investigated. To illustrate and analyze the Rayleigh's criterion, the spatio-temporal integral of the correlation of pressure and heat-release fluctuations is calculated. It is found that the magnitude of the FTF shows harmonic-like oscillations whose amplitude decreases with frequency, suggesting that the flame shows preferential response to certain frequencies than others. The oscillatory behavior becomes increasingly prominent as one moves away from the flame anchoring point(s). Finally, evaluation of the Rayleigh integral clearly demonstrates the flame-acoustic phase shifts at which combustion instability may arise.

  3. Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes

  4. Flame Imaging of Gas-Turbine Relight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Robert; Rogerson, J.W.; Hochgreb, S.

    2010-01-01

    . The motion of hot gases during the early stages of relight is recorded using a high-speed camera. An algorithm is developed to track the flame movement and breakup, revealing important characteristics of the flame development process, including stabilization timescales, spatial trajectories, and typical...

  5. Flaming in CMC: Prometheus' Fire or Inferno's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Zsuzsanna Ittzes

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a descriptive study with 75 intermediate college learners of German participating in two sessions of synchronous computer mediated communication during the course of a semester that investigated students' flaming behavior--aggressive interpersonal language and rude behavior. Shows that not only is flaming a very infrequent occurrence,…

  6. Active control for turbulent premixed flame simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

    2004-03-26

    Many turbulent premixed flames of practical interest are statistically stationary. They occur in combustors that have anchoring mechanisms to prevent blow-off and flashback. The stabilization devices often introduce a level of geometric complexity that is prohibitive for detailed computational studies of turbulent flame dynamics. As a result, typical detailed simulations are performed in simplified model configurations such as decaying isotropic turbulence or inflowing turbulence. In these configurations, the turbulence seen by the flame either decays or, in the latter case, increases as the flame accelerates toward the turbulent inflow. This limits the duration of the eddy evolutions experienced by the flame at a given level of turbulent intensity, so that statistically valid observations cannot be made. In this paper, we apply a feedback control to computationally stabilize an otherwise unstable turbulent premixed flame in two dimensions. For the simulations, we specify turbulent in flow conditions and dynamically adjust the integrated fueling rate to control the mean location of the flame in the domain. We outline the numerical procedure, and illustrate the behavior of the control algorithm. We use the simulations to study the propagation and the local chemical variability of turbulent flame chemistry.

  7. Chemical processes in the HNF flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ermolin, N.E.; Zarko, V.E.; Keizers, H.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of modeling the HNF flame structure are presented. From an analysis of literature data on the thermal decomposition and combustion of HNF, it is concluded that the dissociative vaporization of HNF proceeds via the route HNFliq → (N2H4)g + (HC(NO 2)3)g. The flame structure is modeled using a

  8. Reverse-Engineering of the Cryptanalytic Attack Used in the Flame Super-Malware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, M.J.; Stevens, M.M.J.; Iwata, T.; Cheon, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    In May 2012, a highly advanced malware for espionage dubbed Flame was found targeting the Middle-East. As it turned out, it used a forged signature to infect Windows machines by MITM-ing Windows Update. Using counter-cryptanalysis, Stevens found that the forged signature was made possible by a chos

  9. Advances in the cryopreservation of sea-urchin embryos: Potential application in marine water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Juan; Paredes, Estefanía

    2011-06-01

    Among the most widely used biological techniques in marine pollution assessment, the sea-urchin embryo-larval bioassay is in an advanced developmental stage. Cryopreservation might help to overcome the problem of the spawning seasonality and therefore strengthen the use of those embryo-larval bioassays. This work investigates different factors influencing cryopreservation of sea-urchin embryos, including the cooling rates and holding temperatures, the seeding, or the impact of plunging into liquid nitrogen. The blastula stage yielded better results than the fertilised egg, and the most effective cryoprotectants combination was dimethyl sulfoxide 1.5M plus trehalose 0.04M. The optimised protocol developed begins with an initial hold at 4°C for 2min, followed by cooling at -1°Cmin(-1) to -12°C. At this point a seeding step was incorporated with a 2min hold, followed by a second cooling at -1°Cmin(-1) to -80°C. After a final hold of 2min the cryovials are transferred into liquid nitrogen for storage. Although the cryopreservation processes might cause a delay in the development of sea-urchin embryos, high larval growth (71-98% of controls) was obtained when cryopreserved blastulae were further incubated for 72-96h in artificial seawater. We conclude that embryo-larval bioassays with cryopreserved sea-urchin blastulae are suitable for use in marine pollution monitoring programs and may be considered as an acceptable solution to the reproductive seasonality of sea-urchin species. PMID:21338597

  10. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  11. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization

  12. Self-reported health-related quality of life is an independent predictor of chemotherapy treatment benefit and toxicity in women with advanced breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C. K.; Stockler, M R; Coates, A. S.; Gebski, V.; Lord, S J; Simes, R J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Baseline health-related quality of life (QL) is associated with survival in advanced breast cancer. We sought to identify patients who were less likely to respond to chemotherapy and at greater risk of toxicity on the basis of their QL. Methods: We used data from three advanced breast cancer trials in which patients (n=378) were treated with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluouracil. Patients self-rated their QL using LASA scales for physical well-being (PWB), mood, pain, na...

  13. Effects of gravity on turbulent nonpremixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghobashi, S.; Zhong, R.; Boratav, O.

    1999-10-01

    The paper examines the effects of buoyancy on the behavior of turbulent nonpremixed flames using the method of direct numerical simulation. We examine the effects of the interactions between turbulence, chemical reaction, and buoyancy on the fields of vorticity, turbulence kinetic energy, scalar dissipation, and reaction rate. In the buoyant flame, the baroclinic torque creates strong counter-rotating vortices saddling the flame surface. These vortices result in a significantly more wrinkled flame surface than in the nonbuoyant case. One of the effects of wrinkling is that it reduces the distances between the isosurfaces of the mixture fraction F, thus augmenting the local ∇F and the scalar dissipation ɛF, and consequently the reaction rate ṙT. The zones of maximum ṙT coincide with those of maximum tangential extensional strain. Our results show a direct correlation between ɛF and ṙT for both the buoyant and nonbuoyant flames.

  14. Propagation Regime of Iron Dust Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Francois-David; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    A flame propagating through an iron-dust mixture can propagate in two asymptotic regimes. When the characteristic time of heat transfer between particles is much smaller than the characteristic time of particle combustion, the flame propagates in the continuum regime where the heat released by reacting particles can be modelled as a space-averaged function. In contrast, when the characteristic time of heat transfer is much larger than the particle reaction time, the flame can no longer be treated as a continuum due to dominating effects associated with the discrete nature of the particle reaction. The discrete regime is characterized by weak dependence of the flame speed on the oxygen concentration compared to the continuum regime. The discrete regime is observed in flames propagating through an iron dust cloud within a gas mixture containing xenon, while the continuum regime is obtained when xenon is substituted with helium.

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor Unstable Flames -- Fast or Faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, E. P.

    2015-04-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable flames play a key role in the explosions of supernovae Ia. However, the dynamics of these flames are still not well understood. RT unstable flames are affected by both the RT instability of the flame front and by RT-generated turbulence. The coexistence of these factors complicates the choice of flame speed subgrid models for full-star Type Ia simulations. Both processes can stretch and wrinkle the flame surface, increasing its area and, therefore, the burning rate. In past research, subgrid models have been based on either the RT instability or turbulence setting the flame speed. We evaluate both models, checking their assumptions and their ability to correctly predict the turbulent flame speed. Specifically, we analyze a large parameter study of 3D direct numerical simulations of RT unstable model flames. This study varies both the simulation domain width and the gravity in order to probe a wide range of flame behaviors. We show that RT unstable flames are different from traditional turbulent flames: they are thinner rather than thicker when turbulence is stronger. We also show that none of the several different types of turbulent flame speed models accurately predicts measured flame speeds. In addition, we find that the RT flame speed model only correctly predicts the measured flame speed in a certain parameter regime. Finally, we propose that the formation of cusps may be the factor causing the flame to propagate more quickly than predicted by the RT model.

  16. DOE ARM Climate Research Facility - Providing Research Quality Data Products for Climate Model Evaluation and Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyles, J.; Mather, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    a third Mobile Facility will be deployed at Oliktok Point, Alaska. The new array of ARM instruments and sites are intended to build upon the existing ARM capabilities to better study the interactions among aerosol, clouds, and precipitation. Data from these instruments are now available and the development of advanced data products is underway.

  17. The flaming gypsy skirt injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, S C L; Emecheta, I E; James, M I

    2007-01-01

    On review of admissions over a 12-month period, we noted a significant number of women presenting with gypsy skirt burns. We describe all six cases to highlight the unique distribution of the wounds and the circumstances in which the accidents occurred. Four skirts were ignited by open fire heaters: two skirts ignited whilst the women were standing nearby, distracted with a telephone conversation; one brushed over the flame as she was walking past the heater; other whilst dancing in the lounge. One skirt was ignited by decorative candles placed on the floor during a social gathering. Another skirt was set alight by cigarette ember, whilst smoking in the toilet. Percentage surface area burned, estimated according to the rule of nines, showed that gypsy skirt burns were significant ranging from 7 to 14% total body surface area (TBSA) and averaging 9% TBSA. Two patients required allogenic split-skin grafts. Common sense care with proximity to naked flame is all that is needed to prevent this injury. PMID:17081546

  18. Flame Structure and Emissions of Strongly-Pulsed Turbulent Diffusion Flames with Swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Hao

    This work studies the turbulent flame structure, the reaction-zone structure and the exhaust emissions of strongly-pulsed, non-premixed flames with co-flow swirl. The fuel injection is controlled by strongly-pulsing the fuel flow by a fast-response solenoid valve such that the fuel flow is completely shut off between pulses. This control strategy allows the fuel injection to be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions, allowing the flame structure to range from isolated fully-modulated puffs to interacting puffs to steady flames. The swirl level is controlled by varying the ratio of the volumetric flow rate of the tangential air to that of the axial air. For strongly-pulsed flames, both with and without swirl, the flame geometry is strongly impacted by the injection time. Flames appear to exhibit compact, puff-like structures for short injection times, while elongated flames, similar in behaviors to steady flames, occur for long injection times. The flames with swirl are found to be shorter for the same fuel injection conditions. The separation/interaction level between flame puffs in these flames is essentially governed by the jet-off time. The separation between flame puffs decreases as swirl is imposed, consistent with the decrease in flame puff celerity due to swirl. The decreased flame length and flame puff celerity are consistent with an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. The highest levels of CO emissions are generally found for compact, isolated flame puffs, consistent with the rapid quenching due to rapid dilution with excess air. The imposition of swirl generally results in a decrease in CO levels, suggesting more rapid and complete fuel/air mixing by imposing swirl in the co-flow stream. The levels of NO emissions for most cases are generally below the steady-flame value. The NO levels become comparable to the steady-flame value for sufficiently short jet-off time. The swirled co-flow air can, in some cases, increase the NO

  19. Advanced biosensing methodologies developed for evaluating performance quality and safety of emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilev, Ilko K.; Walker, Bennett; Calhoun, William; Hassan, Moinuddin

    2016-03-01

    Biophotonics is an emerging field in modern biomedical technology that has opened up new horizons for transfer of state-of-the-art techniques from the areas of lasers, fiber optics and biomedical optics to the life sciences and medicine. This field continues to vastly expand with advanced developments across the entire spectrum of biomedical applications ranging from fundamental "bench" laboratory studies to clinical patient "bedside" diagnostics and therapeutics. However, in order to translate these technologies to clinical device applications, the scientific and industrial community, and FDA are facing the requirement for a thorough evaluation and review of laser radiation safety and efficacy concerns. In many cases, however, the review process is complicated due the lack of effective means and standard test methods to precisely analyze safety and effectiveness of some of the newly developed biophotonics techniques and devices. There is, therefore, an immediate public health need for new test protocols, guidance documents and standard test methods to precisely evaluate fundamental characteristics, performance quality and safety of these technologies and devices. Here, we will overview our recent developments of novel test methodologies for safety and efficacy evaluation of some emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices. These methodologies are based on integrating the advanced features of state-of-the-art optical sensor technologies and approaches such as high-resolution fiber-optic sensing, confocal and optical coherence tomography imaging, and infrared spectroscopy. The presentation will also illustrate some methodologies developed and implemented for testing intraocular lens implants, biochemical contaminations of medical devices, ultrahigh-resolution nanoscopy, and femtosecond laser therapeutics.

  20. Impact of increasing levels of advanced iterative reconstruction on image quality in low-dose cardiac CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of an advanced iterative reconstruction (IR) technique on subjective and objective image quality (IQ) in low-dose cardiac CT angiography (CCTA). Materials and Methods: 30 datasets of prospectively triggered 'step-and-shoot' CCTA scans acquired on a 256-slice CT scanner with optimized exposure settings were processed on a prototype IR system using filtered back-projection (FBP) and 4 levels of advanced IR (iDose4, Philips) providing incremental rates of IR (level 2, 4, 6, 7). In addition, the effects of different reconstruction kernels (semi-smooth [CB], standard with edge-enhancement [XCB]) and a 'multi-resolution' feature [MR] to preserve the noise power spectrum were evaluated resulting in a total of n = 480 image sets. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were computed from regions of interest at 9 coronary locations. The subjective IQ was rated on a 4-point-scale with 'classic' image appearance and noise-related artifacts as main criteria. Results: At an effective dose of 1.7 ± 0.7 mSv, the CNR significantly improved with every increasing level of IR (range: 14.2-27.8; p < 0.001) with the best objective IQ at the highest level of IR (level 7). The subjective IQ, however, was rated best at the medium level of IR (level 4) with minimal artifacts and a more 'classic' image appearance when compared to higher IR levels. The XCB kernel provided better subjective ratings than CB (p < 0.05) and the MR feature further increased the IQ at a high level of IR. Conclusion: The objective IQ of low-dose CCTA progressively improves with an increasing level of IR. The best subjective IQ, however, is reached at medium levels of IR combined with an edge-enhancing kernel allowing for preservation of a 'classic' image appearance suggesting application in the clinical routine. (orig.)

  1. Progress and challenges in swirling flame dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Sébastien; Durox, Daniel; Schuller, Thierry; Palies, Paul; Bourgouin, Jean-François; Moeck, Jonas P.

    2012-11-01

    In many continuous combustion processes the flame is stabilized by swirling the injected flow. This is the case for example in aeroengine combustors or in gas turbines where aerodynamic injectors impart a rotating component to the flow to create a central recirculation zone which anchors the flame. Swirling flame dynamics is of technical interest and also gives rise to interesting scientific issues. Some of the recent progress in this field will be reviewed. It is first shown that the swirler response to incident acoustic perturbations generates a vorticity wave which is convected by the flow. A result of this process is that the swirl number fluctuates. It is then shown that the flame response is defined by a combination of heat release rate fluctuations induced by the incoming acoustic and convective perturbations. This is confirmed by experimental measurements and by large eddy simulations of the reactive flow. Measured flame describing functions (FDFs) are then used to characterize the nonlinear response of swirling flames to incident perturbations and determine the regimes of instability of a generic system comprising an upstream manifold, an injector equipped with a swirler and a combustion chamber confining the flame. The last part of this article is concerned with interactions of the precessing vortex core (PVC) with incoming acoustic perturbations. The PVC is formed at high swirl number and this hydrodynamic helical instability gives rise to some interesting nonlinear interactions between the acoustic frequency, the PVC frequency and their difference frequency.

  2. Fluid-Plasma Coupling in Hydrogen Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Luca; Retter, Jonathan; Glumac, Nick; Elliot, Gregg; Freund, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments show that hydrogen diffusion flames at low Reynolds number can be markedly affected by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The flame surface deforms and flattens, and light emissions increase. We develop a simulation model to analyze the mechanisms that causes these changes, and apply it to numerical calculations of axisymmetric flames with co-annular DBD, matching the corresponding experiments. Body forces due to charge sheaths are found to be the main mechanism, with radicals produced by plasma excitation playing a secondary role for the present conditions. The non-actuated flame flickers at approximately 10 Hz, in good agreement with the experiments. As the DBD voltage is increased, the flame flattens and oscillations decrease, eventually ceasing above a threshold value. The fully flattened case has a stoichiometric surface lying flat across the fuel orifice, with flame temperature exceeding significantly the adiabatic flame value. A force based on a linearized plasma sheath model, calibrated against air experiments, reproduces the main features of the experiments and provides a good estimate for the threshold flattening potential. In faster flowing regimes, radical production by the plasma becomes more important.

  3. Particle clustering in turbulent premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    F, Battista; F, Picano; G, Troiani; M, Casciola C.

    2011-12-01

    Transport of inertial particles in turbulent reacting flows is frequent in a number of engineering and natural systems. Aim of this work is to illustrate the effect of the fluctuating instantaneous flame front on the particle spatial distribution. To this purpose a Direct Numerical Simulation of a Bunsen premixed flame seeded with small inertial particles is performed. The flamelet Stokes number Stfl, defined as the ratio between the particle relaxation time and the flame front time scale, is found to be the proper parameter to characterize the particle dynamics in a premixed flame. Clustering of inertial particles is apparent, especially beyond the flame front. The amount of particle segregation is here quantified by the clustering index and two distinct contributions are found to interplay. The first is independent of the particle inertia and affects also tracers. Actually it is associated to the abrupt variation of the particle concentration induced by the fluid expansion across the flame front. The second effect is mainly due to the time lag associated to the particle inertia that, in proximity of the front, affects both the mean and the fluctuation of the particle number in a fixed volume. The global effect results in an intense clustering of the inertial particles in the flame brush region with a maximum for particles with flamelet Stokes number: Stfl = Script O(1).

  4. Combustion characteristics of Mg−CO2 counterflow diffusion flames

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuchi, Aporo; Kawashima, Masaru; Yuasa, Saburo

    1996-01-01

    To examine the details of the Mg−CO2 combustion consisting of the gas-phase reactions and the surface reactions, we tried to separate the Mg−CO2 flame from the surface reactions. For this purpose, we formed a stable Mg−CO2 counterflow diffusion flame between the Mg vapor and a CO2 stream by using a Mg vaporizer with many small ejection holes.The Mg−CO2 counterflow diffusion flames contained two types of flames: the luminous flame and the dark flame. In the luminous flame, the homogeneous reac...

  5. Role of compressibility in moderating flame acceleration in tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Akkerman, V'yacheslav; Valiev, Damir; Law, Chung K

    2010-02-01

    The effect of gas compression on spontaneous flame acceleration leading to deflagration-to-detonation transition is studied theoretically for small Reynolds number flame propagation from the closed end of a tube. The theory assumes weak compressibility through expansion in small Mach number. Results show that the flame front accelerates exponentially during the initial stage of propagation when the Mach number is negligible. With continuous increase in the flame velocity with respect to the tube wall, the flame-generated compression waves subsequently moderate the acceleration process by affecting the flame shape and velocity, as well as the flow driven by the flame. PMID:20365653

  6. The FLAME project in Atomki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Eleven regions of eight Central European countries have launched the FLAME Project in 2010 (Future Laboratory for the diffusion and Application of innovation in Material Sciences and Engineering) to start and manage a new initiative of a network for innovation activities in the MS and E sector. The project aimed at supporting actors in the field of materials science and exploiting their research and commercial potentials. FLAME partners encourage trans-regional cooperation between R and D centres, universities, start-ups and SMEs by helping companies to distribute their innovations and supporting research in transferring results to the market. The project will implement a new cooperation model: the 'Future Lab', where duly trained 'regional facilitation coaches' will assist SMEs in accessing the whole Central European MS and E market and research potential. Each Future Lab will be specialized on thematic fields and help to make efficient use of local and regional potentials. The three Future Labs will be hosted by the Austrian, Italian and Slovenian partner organizations. Figure 1. Competence and innovation landscape on the FLAME website. Source: http://www.flameurope.eu/mse-actors-145.html As the first step of project implementation in 2011 the competence and innovation maps within the participating regions were elaborated in order to list the relevant actors in the MS and E sector (Figure 1). In 2011, each project partner delegated two regional professionals as facilitation coaches to attend four training weeks across Europe. The facilitation coaches play an active role in the exchange of information and in motivating collaboration between research institutions and enterprises on technology based projects. The training sessions were located at four of the project partners: Kapfenberg/Austria (lead partner - Area m Styria); Warsaw/Poland (PP2 - Warsaw University of Technology); Debrecen/Hungary (PP5 - Atomki); Milan/Italy (PP

  7. Flame Acceleration Tests with Hydrogen Combustions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the domestic and foreign regulations, a detonation or DDT (deflagration to detonation transition) by a hydrogen combustion should be prohibited to occur in a containment of a nuclear power plant. A hydrogen control in the IRWST(Incontainment Refueling Water Storage Tank) under a severe accident still remains a debatable issue to be solved in APR1400. The characteristics of the hydrogen flame in the IRWST expected during the station black-out (SBO) and total loss of feed water (LOFW) accidents have been evaluated based on a sigma-lambda criteria from the simulation results by the numerical codes such as GASFLOW. And it was found that hydrogen mixture was non-flammable most of the accident time when the non-condensed steam was released into the free volume of the IRWST, but there existed a small period of time with a high possibility of a flame acceleration during the SBO accident because most of the steam discharged from sparger was well condensed. Therefore, detail analysis and experiment of the hydrogen flame should be required to fix a DDT possibility by the hydrogen combustion in the IRWST of the APR1400. Most experiments on the hydrogen combustion have been limited only to straight pipes or channels. However, the hydrogen flame acceleration phenomena in the IRWST with a closed annular path may be different from those in the straight path in respect to a centrifugal force and degree of freedom in flame propagation etc. So, an experiment of hydrogen combustion in a closed annular chamber is needed to find out the geometrical effect on the flame propagation and to validate the numerical results. KAERI has been performing the experiments of the hydrogen combustion in the IRWST. As the fist stage, flame acceleration tests with the hydrogen combustions are studied preliminarily for a circular straight pipe to confirm the characteristics hydrogen flame propagation, and to evaluate flame detection systems

  8. Prediction of flame formation in highly preheated air combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental information about the ignition position and shape of a flame in highly preheated air combustion was obtained, and the suitability of the suggested reduced kinetic mechanism that reflects the characteristics of the highly preheated air combustion was demonstrated. Flame lift height and flame length with variations of premixed air temperature and oxygen concentration were measured by CH chemiluminescence intensity, and were computed with a reduced kinetic mechanism. Flame attached near a fuel nozzle started to lift when preheated air temperature became close to auto-ignition temperature and/or oxygen concentration reduced. The flame lift height increased but the flame length decreased with decreasing preheated air temperature and flame length reversed after a minimum value. Calculated results showed good agreement with those of experiment within tolerable error. Flame shape shifted from diffusion flame shape to partial premixed flame shape with increasing lift height and this tendency was also observed in the computation results

  9. Decay in chest compression quality due to fatigue is rare during prolonged advanced life support in a manikin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørshol Conrad A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to measure chest compression decay during simulated advanced life support (ALS in a cardiac arrest manikin model. Methods 19 paramedic teams, each consisting of three paramedics, performed ALS for 12 minutes with the same paramedic providing all chest compressions. The patient was a resuscitation manikin found in ventricular fibrillation (VF. The first shock terminated the VF and the patient remained in pulseless electrical activity (PEA throughout the scenario. Average chest compression depth and rate was measured each minute for 12 minutes and divided into three groups based on chest compression quality; good (compression depth ≥ 40 mm, compression rate 100-120/minute for each minute of CPR, bad (initial compression depth 120/minute or decay (change from good to bad during the 12 minutes. Changes in no-flow ratio (NFR, defined as the time without chest compressions divided by the total time of the ALS scenario over time was also measured. Results Based on compression depth, 5 (26%, 9 (47% and 5 (26% were good, bad and with decay, respectively. Only one paramedic experienced decay within the first two minutes. Based on compression rate, 6 (32%, 6 (32% and 7 (37% were good, bad and with decay, respectively. NFR was 22% in both the 1-3 and 4-6 minute periods, respectively, but decreased to 14% in the 7-9 minute period (P = 0.002 and to 10% in the 10-12 minute period (P Conclusions In this simulated cardiac arrest manikin study, only half of the providers achieved guideline recommended compression depth during prolonged ALS. Large inter-individual differences in chest compression quality were already present from the initiation of CPR. Chest compression decay and thereby fatigue within the first two minutes was rare.

  10. Methane Formation by Flame-Generated Hydrogen Atoms in the Flame Ionization Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1996-01-01

    The precombustion degradation of organic compounds in the flame ionization detector has been studied (1) by heating the additives in hydrogen in a quartz capillary and analyzing the reaction products by GC and (2) by following the degradation of the additives in a hydrogen flame, by means of a thin...... fused silica probe inserted from the bottom of the flame and connected to the ion source of a mass spectrometer. The results show that the thermic hydrogenolysis of hydrocarbons at flame temperatures produces mixtures of methane, ethene, and ethyne. In the flame, however, ethyne, benzene, isobutane...... atoms, which are formed in the burning hydrogen and which diffuse into the inner core of the flame. The quantitative formation of methane appears to explain the "equal per carbon" rule for the detector response of hydrocarbons, since all carbons are "exchanged" for methane molecules....

  11. Modeling studies of a turbulent pulsed jet flame using LES/PDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei; Wang, Haifeng

    2015-11-01

    The combustion field in a pulsed turbulent piloted jet flame is studied using an advanced large eddy simulation (LES) / probability density function (PDF) method. Measurement data with a joint OH-PLIF/OH* chemiluminescence/LDV system are available including the temporal series of the axial velocity and planar OH images. A time-dependent inflow condition is specified based on the measurement data. A direct comparison of the mean and rms velocities from the calculations and from the measurement shows a satisfactory prediction of the flow fields by using the employed modeling methods. The predicted OH mass fractions are compared qualitatively with the measured OH images at selected temporal and spatial locations. The comparison shows a good agreement. Conditional quantities and flame index are extracted from the simulations to examine the bimodal and multi-regime combustion dynamics in the flame. This paper is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1336075.

  12. Flaming alcoholic drinks: flirting with danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Alethea; Frew, Quentin; Yousif, Ali; Ueckermann, Nicola; Dziewulksi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related burn injuries carry significant mortality and morbidity rates. Flaming alcoholic beverages served in trendy bars and clubs are becoming increasingly popular. The dangers associated with an ignited alcoholic drink are often underestimated by party goers whose risk assessment ability is already impaired by heavy alcohol consumption. The authors present two cases demonstrating the varied severity of burn injuries associated with flaming alcoholic drinks, and their clinical management. Consumption of flaming alcoholic drinks poses potential risks for burn injuries. Further support is required to enable national and local agencies to implement effective interventions in drinking environments. PMID:24043236

  13. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  14. Numerical simulation of autoigniting flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Rajapandiyan; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2012-11-01

    Autoignition is highly sensitive to temperature and mixing. A density based method for DNS/LES of compressible chemically reacting flows is proposed with an explicit predictor step for advection and diffusion terms, and a semi-implicit corrector step for stiff chemical source terms. This segregated approach permits independent modification of the Navier-Stokes solver and the time integration algorithm for the chemical source term. The algorithm solves the total chemical and sensible energy equation and heat capacities of species are obtained from thermodynamic tables. Chemical mechanisms in the Chemkin format is parsed and source terms are automatically linearized allowing the ability to simulate multiple fuels with minimal effort. Validation of the algorithm is presented and results from autoigniting non-premixed flames in vitiated coflow with different fuels are discussed.

  15. Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed ethylene-air flames: Local flame extinction criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Lecoustre, Vivien R.

    2014-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of ethylene/air diffusion flame extinctions in decaying two-dimensional turbulence were performed. A Damköhler-number-based flame extinction criterion as provided by classical large activation energy asymptotic (AEA) theory is assessed for its validity in predicting flame extinction and compared to one based on Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis (CEMA) of the detailed chemistry. The DNS code solves compressible flow conservation equations using high order finite difference and explicit time integration schemes. The ethylene/air chemistry is simulated with a reduced mechanism that is generated based on the directed relation graph (DRG) based methods along with stiffness removal. The numerical configuration is an ethylene fuel strip embedded in ambient air and exposed to a prescribed decaying turbulent flow field. The emphasis of this study is on the several flame extinction events observed in contrived parametric simulations. A modified viscosity and changing pressure (MVCP) scheme was adopted in order to artificially manipulate the probability of flame extinction. Using MVCP, pressure was changed from the baseline case of 1 atm to 0.1 and 10 atm. In the high pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame is extinction-free, whereas in the low pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame features frequent extinction events and is close to global extinction. Results show that, despite its relative simplicity and provided that the global flame activation temperature is correctly calibrated, the AEA-based flame extinction criterion can accurately predict the simulated flame extinction events. It is also found that the AEA-based criterion provides predictions of flame extinction that are consistent with those provided by a CEMA-based criterion. This study supports the validity of a simple Damköhler-number-based criterion to predict flame extinction in engineering-level CFD models. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  16. The impact of groundwater quality on the removal of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) using advanced oxidation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawabini, B; Fayad, N; Morsy, M

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the removal of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from contaminated groundwater using advanced oxidation technology was investigated. The UV/H(2)O(2) treatment process was applied to remove MTBE from two Saudi groundwater sources that have different quality characteristics with regard to their contents of inorganic species such as chloride, bromide, sulfates and alkalinity. MTBE was spiked into water samples collected from the two sources to a concentration level of about 250 microg/L. A 500 mL bench-scale forced-liquid circulation photoreactor was used to conduct the experiments. Two different UV lamps were utilized: 15 Watt low pressure (LP) and 150 Watt medium pressure (MP). Results of the study showed that the UV/H(2)O(2) process removed more than 90% of MTBE in 20 minutes when the MP lamp was used at an MTBE/H(2)O(2) molar ratio of 1:200. The results also showed that groundwater sources with higher levels of radical scavengers such as alkalinity, bromide, nitrate and sulfate showed lower rate of MTBE removal. PMID:19844063

  17. Quality of life assessment with different radiotherapy schedules in palliative management of advanced carcinoma esophagus: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaveta Mehta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the quality of life (QOL of patients with advanced carcinoma esophagus treated with different palliative radiation schedules. Methods: Sixty-two consecutive patients with inoperable, non-metastatic carcinoma of the esophagus were randomly allocated to Arm-A (external radiotherapy 30 Gy/10 fractions + brachytherapy 12 Gy/two sessions, Arm-B (external radiotherapy 30 Gy /10 fractions and Arm-C (external radiotherapy 20Gy /five fractions. The QOL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire at presentation, after treatment and at 3 months follow-up. Results: The mean QOL score improved, in arm-A from 38 to 52 after treatment and 56 at 3 months, in arm-B from 30 to 44 after treatment and 55 at 3 months and in arm-C from 24 to 40 after treatment but decreased to 37 at 3 months. Improvement in dysphagia scores at the first follow-up was 46.1% in arm-A, 25.0% in arm-B and 22.6% in arm-C. The difference was maintained at 3 months, with maximum improvement in arm-A (57.6%. No significant differences were found between the three arms with regard to complications and additional procedures needed for relief of dysphagia. Conclusion: In comparison with external radiotherapy alone, external radiotherapy with intraluminal brachytherapy has shown a trend toward better QOL and consistent dysphagia relief without significant difference in adverse effects.

  18. Time resolved three-dimensional flamebase imaging of a lifted jet flame by laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinkauff, J.; Greifenstein, M.; Dreizler, A.; Böhm, B.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of flame surface evolution in both space and time is necessary for the advancement of knowledge concerning the physical processes contributing to lifted jet flame stabilisation. Previous studies either reproduce the flame front accurately in three-dimensional space or in time. In this study a measurement system capable of both is presented. Based on the Mie-scattering of oil droplets added to the jet flow, the system reconstructs the volumetric surface at the base of a lifted jet flame from a series of two-dimensional slices. The slices are created using a pulsed high-speed laser and a polygonal laser scanner unit which serves to sweep the laser beam through the measurement volume. A single high-speed camera is used for recording the subsequent measurement slices. The achieved temporal and spatial resolution as well as the accuracy and precision of the sheet placement are discussed in respect to the flames’ scales. The first results of the reconstruction of the lifted jet flame at its stabilisation point show the potential of such measurements to avoid the ambiguities in interpreting conventional 2D-data.

  19. Time resolved three-dimensional flamebase imaging of a lifted jet flame by laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of flame surface evolution in both space and time is necessary for the advancement of knowledge concerning the physical processes contributing to lifted jet flame stabilisation. Previous studies either reproduce the flame front accurately in three-dimensional space or in time. In this study a measurement system capable of both is presented. Based on the Mie-scattering of oil droplets added to the jet flow, the system reconstructs the volumetric surface at the base of a lifted jet flame from a series of two-dimensional slices. The slices are created using a pulsed high-speed laser and a polygonal laser scanner unit which serves to sweep the laser beam through the measurement volume. A single high-speed camera is used for recording the subsequent measurement slices. The achieved temporal and spatial resolution as well as the accuracy and precision of the sheet placement are discussed in respect to the flames’ scales. The first results of the reconstruction of the lifted jet flame at its stabilisation point show the potential of such measurements to avoid the ambiguities in interpreting conventional 2D-data. (paper)

  20. Premixed flame response to pressure fluctuations using an implicit solver with detailed chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Nadeem

    2015-11-01

    A major challenge in combustion research is the coupling of the compressible flow field to the detailed thermochemistry. Recent advances in numerical solvers has met this challenge within an implicit numerical framework, retaining the full stiffness of the realistic comprehensive chemistry and multicomponent transport properties in the system. Here, the solver TARDIS (Transient Advection Reaction Diffusion Implicit Simulations) is demonstrated, first, by investigating the laminar flame speed in stoichiometric H2/air and CH4/air flames as a function of the flame curvature and found to follow non-linear regimes, contrary to previous thinking. Second, planar and curved laminar flames are subjected to pressure and equivalence ratio oscillations and found to respond through a spectrum of time and length scales. TARDIS has the potential to elucidate fundamental aspects of flame structure and thermochemistry, and could be the basis for a new generation of implicit DNS solvers. The author acknowledge financial support from SABIC, #SB101018, through the Dean of Scientific Research at KFUPM.

  1. The correspondence concerning fire protection regulation for operating reactors (flame test of non-flame-resistant cables)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is required that a flame-resistant cable should be used in the fire protection regulation demanded by the regulation about the nuclear power plant enforced in July, 2013. When we are using non-flame-resistant cables in a nuclear power plant, we need to show that it has fire-resistant capability equivalent to the capability of flame-resistant cables. For this reason, we did the vertical tray flame test and the vertical flame test using non-flame-resistant cables which applied flame-retardant coating. As a result, we checked that non-flame-resistant cables which applied flame-retardant coating had fire-resistant capability equivalent to flame-resistant cables. (author)

  2. Laminar Diffusion Flame Studies (Ground- and Space-Based Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Laminar diffusion flames are of interest because they provide model flame systems that are far more tractable for analysis and experiments than more practical turbulent diffusion flames. Certainly, understanding flame processes within laminar diffusion flames must precede understanding these processes in more complex turbulent diffusion flames. In addition, many properties of laminar diffusion flames are directly relevant to turbulent diffusion flames using laminar flamelet concepts. Laminar jet diffusion flame shapes (luminous flame boundaries) have been of particular interest since the classical study of Burke and Schumann because they are a simple nonintrusive measurement that is convenient for evaluating flame structure predictions. Thus, consideration of laminar flame shapes is undertaken in the following, emphasizing conditions where effects of gravity are small, due to the importance of such conditions to practical applications. Another class of interesting properties of laminar diffusion flames are their laminar soot and smoke point properties (i.e., the flame length, fuel flow rate, characteristic residence time, etc., at the onset of soot appearance in the flame (the soot point) and the onset of soot emissions from the flame (the smoke point)). These are useful observable soot properties of nonpremixed flames because they provide a convenient means to rate several aspects of flame sooting properties: the relative propensity of various fuels to produce soot in flames; the relative effects of fuel structure, fuel dilution, flame temperature and ambient pressure on the soot appearance and emission properties of flames; the relative levels of continuum radiation from soot in flames; and effects of the intrusion of gravity (or buoyant motion) on emissions of soot from flames. An important motivation to define conditions for soot emissions is that observations of laminar jet diffusion flames in critical environments, e.g., space shuttle and space station

  3. Dynamics and structure of turbulent premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, R. W.; Swaminathan, N.; Ruetsch, G. R.; Smith, N. S. A.

    1995-01-01

    In earlier work (Mantel & Bilger, 1994) the structure of the turbulent premixed flame was investigated using statistics based on conditional averaging with the reaction progress variable as the conditioning variable. The DNS data base of Trouve and Poinsot (1994) was used in this investigation. Attention was focused on the conditional dissipation and conditional axial velocity in the flame with a view to modeling these quantities for use in the conditional moment closure (CMC) approach to analysis of kinetics in premixed flames (Bilger, 1993). Two remarkable findings were made: there was almost no acceleration of the axial velocity in the flame front itself; and the conditional scalar dissipation remained as high, or higher, than that found in laminar premixed flames. The first finding was surprising since in laminar flames all the fluid acceleration occurs through the flame front, and this could be expected also for turbulent premixed flames at the flamelet limit. The finding gave hope of inventing a new approach to the dynamics of turbulent premixed flames through use of rapid distortion theory or an unsteady Bernoulli equation. This could lead to a new second order closure for turbulent premixed flames. The second finding was contrary to our measurements with laser diagnostics in lean hydrocarbon flames where it is found that conditional scalar dissipation drops dramatically below that for laminar flamelets when the turbulence intensity becomes high. Such behavior was not explainable with a one-step kinetic model, even at non-unity Lewis number. It could be due to depletion of H2 from the reaction zone by preferential diffusion. The capacity of the flame to generate radicals is critically dependent on the levels of H2 present (Bilger, et al., 1991). It seemed that a DNS computation with a multistep reduced mechanism would be worthwhile if a way could be found to make this feasible. Truly innovative approaches to complex problems often come only when there is the

  4. Distribution of electric potential in hydrocarbon flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, B.S.; Shcherbakov, N.D.; Plitsyn, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    A study was made of the distribution of electrical potential and temperatures in laminar methane and propane--butane flames when the excess air coefficient in the mixture is changed from 0 to 1.2. 7 references, 3 figures.

  5. Theory of DDT in unconfined flames

    CERN Document Server

    Khokhlov, A M; Wheeler, J C; Wheeler, J Craig

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical approach for predicting the onset of detonation in unconfined turbulent flames which is relevant both to problems of terrestrial combustion and to thermonuclear burning in Type Ia supernovae. Two basic assumuptions are made: 1) the gradient mechanism is the inherent mechanism that leads to DDT in unconfined conditions, and 2) the sole mechanism for preparing the gradient in induction time is by turbulent mixing and local flame quenching. The criterion for DDT is derived in terms of the one-dimensional detonation wave thickness, the laminar flame speed, and the laminar flame thickness in the reactive gas. This approach gives a lower-bound criterion for DDT for conditions where shock preheating, wall effects, and interactions with obstacles are absent. Regions in parameter space where unconfined DDT can and cannot occur are determined. A subsequent paper will address these issues specifically in the astrophysical context.

  6. Flame resistant fibrous materials. [developed from chlorofluoropolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Four chlorofluoropolymer systems were developed that satisfactorily met the criteria for classification as self-extinguishing. Three of these systems consisted of Halar (a copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and ethylene) and tin-based flame retardants. The fourth system was a copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and tetrafluoroethylene with no flame retardants added. Production of fibers from all four candidates, by melt extrusion, was demonstrated. Fibers produced from the chlorotrifluoroethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer showed the most promise.

  7. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Eric [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  8. Quantitative Species Measurements In Microgravity Combustion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shin-Juh; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Silver, Joel A.; Piltch, Nancy D.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of models and theories to accurately predict and describe the behavior of low gravity flames can only be verified by quantitative measurements. Although video imaging, simple temperature measurements, and velocimetry methods have provided useful information in many cases, there is still a need for quantitative species measurements. Over the past decade, we have been developing high sensitivity optical absorption techniques to permit in situ, non-intrusive, absolute concentration measurements for both major and minor flames species using diode lasers. This work has helped to establish wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) as an important method for species detection within the restrictions of microgravity-based measurements. More recently, in collaboration with Prof. Dahm at the University of Michigan, a new methodology combining computed flame libraries with a single experimental measurement has allowed us to determine the concentration profiles for all species in a flame. This method, termed ITAC (Iterative Temperature with Assumed Chemistry) was demonstrated for a simple laminar nonpremixed methane-air flame at both 1-g and at 0-g in a vortex ring flame. In this paper, we report additional normal and microgravity experiments which further confirm the usefulness of this approach. We also present the development of a new type of laser. This is an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) which has the unique capability of high frequency modulation as well as a very wide tuning range. This will permit the detection of multiple species with one laser while using WMS detection.

  9. Sensing flame structure by process tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Shi; Zhou, Wanting; Qi, Xin; Lei, Jing; Mu, Huaiping

    2016-06-28

    Non-intrusive visualization of the structure of flames can offer us many advantages in studying the reaction mechanisms of combustion and observing special distributions of the parameters required for the development of equipment such as jet engines and gas turbines. Process tomography is a relatively new technique for such a task, but is useful owing to its fast speed and capability of detecting signals related to ionizations caused by chemical reactions and thermal effects. Electric capacitance tomography (ECT) is one of the process tomographic techniques. ECT usually comprises a sensor array of electrodes that detect permittivity variations in the measuring zone, a data-logging device and a computer that controls data acquisition and carries out image reconstruction. There have been studies on ECT imaging of flames; however, ECT has not been exploited sufficiently to reveal the inner structure of the flames. In this study, a sensor with planar electrodes is created, and the associated three-dimensional sensitivity map is generated by the finite-element method to detect flame structure. A series of experiments are carried out covering a range of feed rates of fuel and air. Data are collected by the ECT sensor and hardware. The results of the ECT reconstruction show good agreement with actual features, and the structure of the flame is found. This opens up a new route for the study of flames. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185962

  10. On-Shell Description of Stationary Flames

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, K A

    2004-01-01

    The problem of non-perturbative description of stationary flames with arbitrary gas expansion is considered. On the basis of the Thomson circulation theorem an implicit integral of the flow equations is constructed. With the help of this integral, a simple explicit expression for the vortex mode of the burnt gas flow near the flame front is obtained. Furthermore, a dispersion relation for the potential mode at the flame front is written down, thus reducing the initial system of bulk equations and jump conditions for the flow variables to a set of integro-differential equations for the flame front position and the flow velocity at the front. The developed approach is applied to the case of zero-thickness flames. An equation accounting the transfer processes in the flame front is also obtained. Finally, an asymptotic expansion of the derived equations is carried out in the case \\theta\\to 1 where \\theta is the gas expansion coefficient, and a single equation for the front position is obtained in the first post-S...

  11. Quantitative Species Measurements in Microgravity Combustion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Joel A.; Wood, William R.; Chen, Shin-Juh; Dahm, Werner J. A.; Piltch, Nancy D.

    2001-01-01

    Flame-vortex interactions are canonical configurations that can be used to study the underlying processes occurring in complicated turbulent reacting flows. The elegant simplicity of the flame-vortex interaction permits the study of these complex interactions under relatively controllable experimental configurations, in contrast to direct measurements in turbulent flames. The ability to measure and model the fundamental phenomena that occur in a turbulent flame, but with time and spatial scales which are amenable to our diagnostics, permits significant improvements in the understanding of turbulent combustion under both normal and reduced gravity conditions. In this paper, we report absolute mole fraction measurements of methane in a reacting vortex ring. These microgravity experiments are performed in the 2.2-sec drop tower at NASA Glenn Research Center. In collaboration with Drs. Chen and Dahm at the University of Michigan, measured methane absorbances are incorporated into a new model from which the temperature and concentrations of all major gases in the flame can be determined at all positions and times in the development of the vortex ring. This is the first demonstration of the ITAC (Iterative Temperature with Assumed Chemistry) approach, and the results of these computations and analyses are presented in a companion paper by Dahm and Chen at this Workshop. We believe that the ITAC approach will become a powerful tool in understanding a wide variety of combustion flames under both equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions.

  12. NO concentration imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The importance of NO as a pollutant species is well known. An understanding of the formation characteristics of NO in turbulent hydrocarbon flames is important to both the desired reduction of pollutant emissions and the validation of proposed models for turbulent reacting flows. Of particular interest is the relationship between NO formation and the local flame zone, in which the fuel is oxidized and primary heat release occurs. Planar imaging of NO provides the multipoint statistics needed to relate NO formation to the both the flame zone and the local turbulence characteristics. Planar imaging of NO has been demonstrated in turbulent flames where NO was seeded into the flow at high concentrations (2000 ppm) to determine the gas temperature distribution. The NO concentrations in these experiments were significantly higher than those expected in typical hydrocarbon-air flames, which require a much lower detectability limit for NO measurements. An imaging technique based on laser-induced fluorescence with sufficient sensitivity to study the NO formation mechanism in the stabilization region of turbulent lifted-jet methane flames.

  13. Flame four-dimensional deflection tomography with compressed-sensing-revision reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Minmin; Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Zhaohang

    2016-08-01

    Deflection tomography with limited angle projections was investigated to visualize a premixed flame. A projection sampling system for deflection tomography was used to obtain chronological deflectogram arrays at six view angles with only a pair of gratings. A new iterative reconstruction algorithm with deflection angle compressed-sensing revision was developed to improve reconstruction-distribution quality from incomplete projection data. Numerical simulation and error analysis provided a good indication of algorithm precision and convergence. In the experiment, 150 fringes were processed, and temperature distributions in 20 cross-sections were reconstructed from projection data in four instants. Four-dimensional flame structures and temperature distributions in the flame interior were visualized using the visualization toolkit. The experimental reconstruction was then compared with the result obtained from computational fluid dynamic analysis.

  14. Impact of increasing levels of advanced iterative reconstruction on image quality in low-dose cardiac CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroepil, P.; Antoch, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Bigdeli, A.H.; Cohnen, M. [Staedtische Kliniken Neuss Lukaskrankenhaus GmbH, Neuss (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology; Nagel, H.D. [Dr. HD Nagel, Buchholz (Germany). Science and Technology for Radiology

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of an advanced iterative reconstruction (IR) technique on subjective and objective image quality (IQ) in low-dose cardiac CT angiography (CCTA). Materials and Methods: 30 datasets of prospectively triggered 'step-and-shoot' CCTA scans acquired on a 256-slice CT scanner with optimized exposure settings were processed on a prototype IR system using filtered back-projection (FBP) and 4 levels of advanced IR (iDose4, Philips) providing incremental rates of IR (level 2, 4, 6, 7). In addition, the effects of different reconstruction kernels (semi-smooth [CB], standard with edge-enhancement [XCB]) and a 'multi-resolution' feature [MR] to preserve the noise power spectrum were evaluated resulting in a total of n = 480 image sets. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were computed from regions of interest at 9 coronary locations. The subjective IQ was rated on a 4-point-scale with 'classic' image appearance and noise-related artifacts as main criteria. Results: At an effective dose of 1.7 ± 0.7 mSv, the CNR significantly improved with every increasing level of IR (range: 14.2-27.8; p < 0.001) with the best objective IQ at the highest level of IR (level 7). The subjective IQ, however, was rated best at the medium level of IR (level 4) with minimal artifacts and a more 'classic' image appearance when compared to higher IR levels. The XCB kernel provided better subjective ratings than CB (p < 0.05) and the MR feature further increased the IQ at a high level of IR. Conclusion: The objective IQ of low-dose CCTA progressively improves with an increasing level of IR. The best subjective IQ, however, is reached at medium levels of IR combined with an edge-enhancing kernel allowing for preservation of a 'classic' image appearance suggesting application in the clinical routine. (orig.)

  15. The Linear Instability of Astrophysical Flames in Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Dursi, L J

    2004-01-01

    Supernovae of Type Ia are used as standard candles for cosmological observations despite the as yet incomplete understanding of their explosion mechanism. In one model, these events are thought to result from subsonic burning in the core of an accreting Carbon/Oxygen white dwarf that is accelerated through flame wrinkling and flame instabilities. Many such white dwarfs have significant magnetic fields. Here we derive the linear effects of such magnetic fields on one flame instability, the well-known Landau-Darrieus instability. When the magnetic field is strong enough that the flame is everywhere sub-Alfvenic, the instability can be greatly suppressed. Super-Alfvenic flames are much less affected by the field, with flames propagating parallel to the field somewh at destabilized, and flames propagating perpendicular to the field somewhat stabili zed. Trans-Alfvenic parallel flames, however, like trans-Alfvenic parallel shocks, are seen to be non-evolutionary; understanding the behavior of these flames will req...

  16. Laminar and Turbulent Gaseous Diffusion Flames. Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent measurements and predictions of the properties of homogeneous (gaseous) laminar and turbulent non-premixed (diffusion) flames are discussed, emphasizing results from both ground- and space-based studies at microgravity conditions. Initial considerations show that effects of buoyancy not only complicate the interpretation of observations of diffusion flames but at times mislead when such results are applied to the non-buoyant diffusion flame conditions of greatest practical interest. This behavior motivates consideration of experiments where effects of buoyancy are minimized; therefore, methods of controlling the intrusion of buoyancy during observations of non-premixed flames are described, considering approaches suitable for both normal laboratory conditions as well as classical microgravity techniques. Studies of laminar flames at low-gravity and microgravity conditions are emphasized in view of the computational tractability of such flames for developing methods of predicting flame structure as well as the relevance of such flames to more practical turbulent flames by exploiting laminar flamelet concepts.

  17. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  18. A Computational Investigation of Sooting Limits of Spherical Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoustre, V. R.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.; Axelbaum, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Limiting conditions for soot particle inception in spherical diffusion flames were investigated numerically. The flames were modeled using a one-dimensional, time accurate diffusion flame code with detailed chemistry and transport and an optically thick radiation model. Seventeen normal and inverse flames were considered, covering a wide range of stoichiometric mixture fraction, adiabatic flame temperature, and residence time. These flames were previously observed to reach their sooting limits after 2 s of microgravity. Sooting-limit diffusion flames with residence times longer than 200 ms were found to have temperatures near 1190 K where C/O = 0.6, whereas flames with shorter residence times required increased temperatures. Acetylene was found to be a reasonable surrogate for soot precursor species in these flames, having peak mole fractions of about 0.01.

  19. The Effects of Gravity on Wrinkled Laminar Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Larry W.; Zhou, Liming; Cheng, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of gravity are significant to the dynamics of idealized unconfined open premixed flames. Moderate to low turbulence Reynolds number flames, i.e., wrinkled laminar flames, of various unconfined geometries have been used extensively for investigating fundamental processes of turbulent flame propagation and to validate theoretical models. Without the wall constraints, the flames are free to expand and interact with surrounding ambient air. The flow field in which the flame exists is determined by a coupling of burner geometry, flame orientation and the gravity field. These complex interactions raise serious questions regarding the validity of comparing the experimental data of open flames with current theoretical and numerical models that do not include the effects of gravity nor effects of the larger aerodynamic flowfield. Therefore, studies of wrinkled laminar flame in microgravity are needed for a better understanding of the role of gravity on flame characteristics such as the orientation, mean aerodynamics stretch, flame wrinkle size and burning rate. Our approach to characterize and quantify turbulent flame structures under microgravity is to exploit qualitative and quantitative flow visualization techniques coupled with video recording and computer controlled image analysis technologies. The experiments will be carried out in the 2.2 second drop tower at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The longest time scales of typical wrinkled laminar flames in the geometries considered here are in the order of 10 msec. Hence, the duration of the drop is sufficient to obtain the amount of statistical data necessary for characterize turbulent flame structures.

  20. Gravitational effects on the structure and propagation of premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamins, A.; Heitor, M.; Libby, P. A.

    The influence of gravity on the propagation velocity and shape of premixed laminar flames is studied experimentally over the entire flammability range of methane-air mixtures. In the experiments reported here a vertical tube 10 cm dia, closed on both ends and open in the middle is filled with reactants and ignited in its central plane so that flames propagate in both the upward and downward directions. Additional experiments are made in a vertical tube 5 cm dia with flames propagating from an open towards a closed end. Steady flame propagation is achieved over the entire range of equivalence ratios by locating a series of holes along the length of the tubes covered with a thin film which is vaporized by the passage of the flame. Measurements in the larger tube indicate that gravity affects both rich and lean laminar flames in that upward propagating flames are faster than downward. The shape of the flames is complex with the former roughly hemispherical, the latter flat but with a cellular structure. In near stoichiometric mixtures the flames are oscillatory, are unaffected by gravity and correspond to weakly turbulent flames. The results in the smaller tube indicate that upward moving flames propagate faster than downward moving flames over the entire range of equivalence ratios studied and that the flame shape is always hemispherical. The preliminary results for turbulent premixed flames propagating upward and downward are discussed.

  1. Effect of Dimethyl Ether Mixing on Soot Size Distribution in Premixed Ethylene Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zepeng

    2016-04-21

    As a byproduct of incomplete combustion, soot attracts increasing attentions as extensive researches exploring serious health and environmental effects from soot particles. Soot emission reduction requires a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and of soot formation and aging processes. Therefore, advanced experimental techniques and numerical simulations have been conducted to investigate this procedure. In order to investigate the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) mixing on soot particle size distribution functions (PSDFs), DME was mixed in premixed ethylene/oxygen/argon at flames at the equivalence ratio of 2.0 with a range of mixing ratio from 0% to 30% of the total carbon fed. Two series of atmospheric pressure flames were tested in which cold gas velocity was varied to obtain different flame temperatures. The evolution of PSDFs along the centerline of the flame was determined by burner stabilized stagnation probe and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) techniques, yielding the PSDFs for various separation distances above the burner surface. Meanwhile, the flame temperature profiles were carefully measured by a thermocouple and the comparison to that of simulated laminar premixed burner-stabilized stagnation flame was satisfactory. Additionally, to understand the chemical role of DME mixing in soot properties, characterization measurements were conducted on soot samples using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (EA). Results of the evolution of PSDFs and soot volume fraction showed that adding DME into ethylene flame could reduce soot yield significantly. The addition of DME led to the decrease of both the soot nucleation rate and the particle mass growth rate. To explain the possible mechanism for the observation, numerical simulations were performed. Although DME addition resulted in the slight increase of methyl radicals from pyrolysis, the decrease in acetylene and propargyl radicals

  2. Effects of advanced treatment of municipal wastewater on the White River near Indianapolis, Indiana; trends in water quality, 1978-86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wangsness, David J.

    1993-01-01

    The City of Indianapolis has constructed state-of-the-art advanced municipal wastewater-treatment systems to enlarge and upgrade the existing secondary-treatment processes at its Belmont and Southport treatment plants. These new advanced-wastewater-treatment plants became operational in 1983. A nonparametric statistical procedure--a modified form of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test--was used to test for trends in time-series water-quality data from four sites on the White River and from the Belmont and Southport wastewater-treatment plants. Time-series data representative of pre-advanced- (1978-1980) and post-advanced- (1983--86) wastewater-treatment conditions were tested for trends, and the results indicate substantial changes in water quality of treated effluent and of the White River downstream from Indianapolis after implementation of advanced wastewater treatment. Water quality from 1981 through 1982 was highly variable due to plant construction. Therefore, this time period was excluded from the analysis. Water quality at sample sites located upstream from the wastewater-treatment plants was relatively constant during the period of study (1978-86). Analysis of data from the two plants and downstream from the plants indicates statistically significant decreasing trends in effluent concentrations of total ammonia, 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand, fecal-coliform bacteria, total phosphate, and total solids at all sites where sufficient data were available for testing. Because of in-plant nitrification, increases in nitrate concentration were statistically significant in the two plants and in the White River. The decrease in ammonia concentrations and 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand in the White River resulted in a statistically significant increasing trend in dissolved-oxygen concentration in the river because of reduced oxygen demand for nitrification and biochemical oxidation processes. Following implementation of advanced wastewater treatment, the

  3. Recent advances in the development of quality protein maize germplasm at the Centro International de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews past difficulties in the acceptance of quality protein maize (QPM) materials by farmers because of several crucial problems plaguing these materials. The breeding strategy used at the Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) over the past several years is described in detail. The strategy is based on the combined use of two genetic systems involving the opaque-2 gene and genetic modifiers. Inheritance of modifiers, some considerations in the exploitation and their role in circumventing the problems facing QPM materials are discussed. Progress is reported in overcoming the problems of yield, seed appearance, ear rot and the dry-down ability in QPM materials. Using hard endosperm QPM donor stocks, a wide array of QPM germplasm has been developed through the conversion programme and the development of QPM gene pools. To make the best use of available QPM germplasm, the current efforts in the management and handling of the germplasm are outlined. In the back-up stages, eight tropical and six subtropical QPM pools will be handled. In addition, six tropical and four subtropical advanced QPM populations were formed. These will be subjected to a rigorous international progency testing programme for improved yield, general adaptation and the stability of modifiers. Experimental data from international tests are presented, indicating the superior performance of several QPM materials. The objectives of some exploratory projects in QPM research are explained. Renewed interest in QPM research is being shown and the outlook for commercial exploitation of QPM materials in some countries seems very promising. (author)

  4. Characteristics of Non-Premixed Turbulent Flames in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, U.; Yuan, Z. G.; Stocker, D. P.; Bahadori, M. Y.

    2001-01-01

    This project is concerned with the characteristics of turbulent hydrocarbon (primarily propane) gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity. A microgravity environment provides the opportunity to study the structure of turbulent diffusion flames under momentum-dominated conditions (large Froude number) at moderate Reynolds number which is a combination not achievable in normal gravity. This paper summarizes progress made since the last workshop. Primarily, the features of flame radiation from microgravity turbulent jet diffusion flames in a reduced gravity environment are described. Tests were conducted for non-premixed, nitrogen diluted propane flames burning in quiescent air in the NASA Glenn 5.18 Second Zero Gravity Facility. Measured flame radiation from wedge-shaped, axial slices of the flame are compared for microgravity and normal gravity flames. Results from numerical computations of the flame using a k-e model for the turbulence are also presented to show the effects of flame radiation on the thermal field. Flame radiation is an important quantity that is impacted by buoyancy as has been shown in previous studies by the authors and also by Urban et al. It was found that jet diffusion flames burning under microgravity conditions have significantly higher radiative loss (about five to seven times higher) compared to their normal gravity counterparts because of larger flame size in microgravity and larger convective heat loss fraction from the flame in normal gravity. These studies, however, were confined to laminar flames. For the case of turbulent flames, the flame radiation is a function of time and both the time-averaged and time-dependent components are of interest. In this paper, attention is focused primarily on the time-averaged level of the radiation but the turbulent structure of the flame is also assessed from considerations of the radiation power spectra.

  5. On the dynamics of flame edges in diffusion-flame/vortex interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanns, Miguel; Linan, Amable [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Pza. Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vera, Marcos [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    We analyze the local flame extinction and reignition of a counterflow diffusion flame perturbed by a laminar vortex ring. Local flame extinction leads to the appearance of flame edges separating the burning and extinguished regions of the distorted mixing layer. The dynamics of these edges is modeled based on previous numerical results, with heat release effects fully taken into account, which provide the propagation velocity of triple and edge flames in terms of the upstream unperturbed value of the scalar dissipation. The temporal evolution of the mixing layer is determined using the classical mixture fraction approach, with both unsteady and curvature effects taken into account. Although variable density effects play an important role in exothermic reacting mixing layers, in this paper the description of the mixing layer is carried out using the constant density approximation, leading to a simplified analytical description of the flow field. The mathematical model reveals the relevant nondimensional parameters governing diffusion-flame/vortex interactions and provides the parameter range for the more relevant regime of local flame extinction followed by reignition via flame edges. Despite the simplicity of the model, the results show very good agreement with previously published experimental results. (author)

  6. Combustion Synthesis of Nanomaterials Using Various Flame Configurations

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed Anwar

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an important semiconducting metal oxide and is expected to play an important role in future applications related to photonic crystals, energy storage, and photocatalysis. Two aspects regarding the combustion synthesis have been investigated; scale-up in laboratory synthesis and advanced nanoparticle synthesis. Concerning the scale-up issue, a novel curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner was designed for flame synthesis. This was achieved by injecting precursors of TiO2 through a central port into different flames zones that were stabilized by supplying fuel/air mixtures as an annular-inward jet over the curved wall. This provides a rapid mixing of precursors in the reaction zone with hot products. In order to increase the contact surface between the precursor and reactants as well as its residence time within the hot products, we proposed two different modifications. The CWJ burner was modified by adding a poppet valve on top of the central port to deliver the precursor tangentially into the recirculating flow upstream within the recirculation zone. Another modification was made by adopting double-slit curved wall-jet (DS-CWJ) configuration, one for the reacting mixture and the other for the precursor instead of the central port. Particle growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and their phases were investigated. Ethylene (C2H4), propane (C3H8), and methane (CH4) were used with varying equivalence ratio and Reynolds number and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was the precursor. Flow field and flame structure were quantified using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques, respectively. TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, and BET nitrogen adsorption for surface area analysis. The flow field quantified by PIV consisted of a wall-jet region leading to a recirculation zone, an

  7. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  8. Quality of life as predictor of survival: A prospective study on patients treated with combined surgery and radiotherapy for advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: The relation between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival was investigated at baseline and 6 months in 80 patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal cancer after microvascular reconstructive surgery and (almost all) adjuvant radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Multivariate Cox regression analyses of overall and disease-specific survival were performed including sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, comorbidity), and clinical (tumor stage and site, radical surgical, metastasis, radiotherapy) parameters, and HRQOL (EORTC QLQ-C30 global quality of life scale). Results: Before treatment, younger age and having a partner were predictors of disease-specific survival; younger age predicted overall survival. At 6 months post-treatment, disease-specific and overall survival was predicted by (deterioration of) global quality of life solely. Global health-related quality of life after treatment was mainly influenced by emotional functioning. Conclusion: Deterioration of global quality of life after treatment is an independent predictor of survival in patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal cancer.

  9. Gravity Effects Observed In Partially Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Gauguly, Ranjan; Hegde, Uday

    2003-01-01

    Partially premixed flames (PPFs) contain a rich premixed fuel air mixture in a pocket or stream, and, for complete combustion to occur, they require the transport of oxidizer from an appropriately oxidizer-rich (or fuel-lean) mixture that is present in another pocket or stream. Partial oxidation reactions occur in fuel-rich portions of the mixture and any remaining unburned fuel and/or intermediate species are consumed in the oxidizer-rich portions. Partial premixing, therefore, represents that condition when the equivalence ratio (phi) in one portion of the flowfield is greater than unity, and in another section its value is less than unity. In general, for combustion to occur efficiently, the global equivalence ratio is in the range fuel-lean to stoichiometric. These flames can be established by design by placing a fuel-rich mixture in contact with a fuel-lean mixture, but they also occur otherwise in many practical systems, which include nonpremixed lifted flames, turbulent nonpremixed combustion, spray flames, and unwanted fires. Other practical applications of PPFs are reported elsewhere. Although extensive experimental studies have been conducted on premixed and nonpremixed flames under microgravity, there is a absence of previous experimental work on burner stabilized PPFs in this regard. Previous numerical studies by our group employing a detailed numerical model showed gravity effects to be significant on the PPF structure. We report on the results of microgravity experiments conducted on two-dimensional (established on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner) and axisymmetric flames (on a coannular burner) that were investigated in a self-contained multipurpose rig. Thermocouple and radiometer data were also used to characterize the thermal transport in the flame.

  10. Effectiveness of the "Cancer Home-Life Intervention" on everyday activities and quality of life in people with advanced cancer living at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Åse; Pilegaard, Marc Sampedro; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen;

    2016-01-01

    Background During the past decade an increasing number of people live with advanced cancer mainly due to improved medical treatment. Research has shown that many people with advanced cancer have problems with everyday activities, which have negative impact on their quality of life, and that they...... spend a considerable part of their time at home. Still, research on interventions to support the performance of and participation in everyday activities is only scarcely available. Therefore, the occupational therapy-based “Cancer Home-Life Intervention” consisting of tailored adaptive interventions...... applied in the participant’s home environment was developed. The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Cancer Home-Life Intervention compared to usual care on the performance of and participation in everyday activities and quality of life in people with...

  11. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  12. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  13. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  14. Assessment of quality of life in patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma treated with a combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Uanne Resende Avelino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, palliative chemotherapy therefore being the only treatment option. This study was aimed at evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of advanced-stage NSCLC patients receiving palliative chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. METHODS: This was a multiple case study of advanced-stage NSCLC outpatients receiving chemotherapy at a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire was used in conjunction with its supplemental lung cancer-specific module in order to assess HRQoL. RESULTS: Physical and cognitive functioning scale scores differed significantly among chemotherapy cycles, indicating improved and worsened HRQoL, respectively. The differences regarding the scores for pain, loss of appetite, chest pain, and arm/shoulder pain indicated improved HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy was found to improve certain aspects of HRQoL in patients with advanced-stage NSCLC.

  15. Distributed Flames in Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Aspden, A J; Woosley, S E; 10.1088/0004-637X/710/2/1654

    2011-01-01

    In the distributed burning regime, turbulence disrupts the internal structure of the flame, and so the idea of laminar burning propagated by conduction is no longer valid. The nature of the burning depends on the turbulent Damkohler number (Da), which steadily declines from much greater than one to less that one as the density decreases to a few 10^6 g/cc. Scaling arguments predict that the turbulent flame speed s, normalized by the turbulent intensity u, follows s/u=Da^1/2 for Da1, and that localized excursions to as much as five times u can occur. The lambda-flame speed and width can be predicted based on the turbulence in the star and the turbulent nuclear burning time scale of the fuel. We propose a practical method for measuring these based on the scaling relations and small-scale computationally-inexpensive simulations. This suggests that a simple turbulent flame model can be easily constructed suitable for large-scale distributed supernovae flames.

  16. Chaotic radiation/turbulence interactions in flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.

    1998-11-01

    In this paper, the authors present a review of their recent efforts to model chaotic radiation-turbulence interactions in flames. The main focus is to characterize soot volume fraction fluctuations in turbulent diffusion flames, as they strongly contribute to these interaction. The approach is based on the hypothesis that the fluctuations of properties in turbulent flames are deterministic in nature, rather than random. The authors first discuss the theoretical details and then they briefly outline the experiments conducted to measure the scattered light signals from fluctuating soot particles along the axis of an ethylene-air diffusion flame. They compare the power spectra and time series obtained from experiments against the ad-hoc and rigorous models derived using a series of logistic maps. These logistic maps can be used in simulation of the fluctuations in these type of flames, without extensive computational effort or sacrifice of physical detail. Availability of accurate models of these kinds allows investigation of radiation-turbulence interactions at a more fundamental level than it was previously possible.

  17. Advanced reactors and novel reactions for the conversion of triglyceride based oils into high quality renewable transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Michael James

    Sustainable energy continues to grow more important to all societies, leading to the research and development of a variety of alternative and renewable energy technologies. Of these, renewable liquid transportation fuels may be the most visible to consumers, and this visibility is further magnified by the long-term trend of increasingly expensive petroleum fuels that the public consumes. While first-generation biofuels such as biodiesel and fuel ethanol have been integrated into the existing fuel infrastructures of several countries, the chemical differences between them and their petroleum counterparts reduce their effectiveness. This gives rise to the development and commercialization of second generation biofuels, many of which are intended to have equivalent properties to those of their petroleum counterparts. In this dissertation, the primary reactions for a second-generation biofuel process, known herein as the University of North Dakota noncatalytic cracking process (NCP), have been studied at the fundamental level and improved. The NCP is capable of producing renewable fuels and chemicals that are virtually the same as their petroleum counterparts in performance and quality (i.e., petroleum-equivalent). In addition, a novel analytical method, FIMSDIST was developed which, within certain limitations, can increase the elution capabilities of GC analysis and decrease sample processing times compared to other high resolution methods. These advances are particularly useful for studies of highly heterogeneous fuel and/or organic chemical intermediates, such as those studied for the NCP. However the data from FIMSDIST must be supplemented with data from other methods such as for certain carboxylic acid, to provide accurate, comprehensive results, From a series of TAG cracking experiments that were performed, it was found that coke formation during cracking is most likely the result of excessive temperature and/or residence time in a cracking reactor. Based on this

  18. Pulsating instability and self-acceleration of fast turbulent flames

    CERN Document Server

    Poludnenko, A Y

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) A series of three-dimensional numerical simulations is used to study the intrinsic stability of high-speed turbulent flames. Calculations model the interaction of a fully-resolved premixed flame with a highly subsonic, statistically steady, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. We consider a wide range of turbulent intensities and system sizes, corresponding to the Damk\\"ohler numbers Da = 0.1-6.0. These calculations show that turbulent flames in the regimes considered are intrinsically unstable. In particular, we find three effects. 1) Turbulent flame speed develops pulsations with the observed peak-to-peak amplitude > 10 and a characteristic time scale close to a large-scale eddy turnover time. Such variability is caused by the interplay between turbulence, which continuously creates the flame surface, and highly intermittent flame collisions, which consume the flame surface. 2) Unstable burning results in the periodic pressure build-up and the formation of pressure waves or shocks, when the flame s...

  19. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  20. MODELING OF TURBULENT FLAME VELOCITY FOR SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASHID ALI,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present model reported a comprehensive theoretical study on flame velocity in spark ignition engine for iso-octane air mixture. The present model developed is a zero-dimensional thermodynamicmodel. Computer simulations have been performed for the turbulent flame velocity of premixed flame. The comparison has been made between the flame velocity obtained from the present model to thetheoretical and experimental flame velocities that are available in the literature for the wide range of engine operating parameters such as clearance height, density ratio, equivalence ratio, flame radius,engine speed and unburnt mixture temperature. The comparison shows a good agreement between the flame velocity obtained from the present model with the experimental and theoretical flame velocity of Cakir.

  1. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  2. Point-to-plane pulsed discharge initiated flame structure modification in propane-air flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a point-to-plane pulsed discharge on a propane/air flame has been investigated by phase-locked simultaneous measurements of the change in gas temperature and OH planar laser-induced-fluorescence (PLIF). Phase-locked simultaneous measurement of gas temperature through spontaneous Raman scattering and OH PLIF with the variation of pulsed plasma energy and plasma generation location with respect to the flame holder and flame reaction zone have been performed. A fast rise time (15 ns) and a slower rise time (150 ns) high voltage pulsers are used to produce OH radical densities 50% greater than the ambient flame produced OH radicals in both lean and rich premixed flames. The excess OH radical densities were found to decay to the 50% level with time constants greater than 100 µs in the burnt gas regions with gas temperatures greater than 1000 K. The flame perturbation was dependent on the pulse repetition rates as well as on the pulse rise time for similar energy deposition per pulse. A laser photo-deflection measurement of acoustic pressure pulse generation by the pulsed discharge suggests that flame perturbation by the downstream plasma is caused mostly by flow perturbation. (paper)

  3. The Influences of Electric Fields on Soot Formation and Flame Structure of Diffusion Flames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinXie; TakeyukiKishi; 等

    1993-01-01

    The influences of DC and AC electric fields,at frequencies up to 1.48 MHz and the maximum strength of about 6 kV/cm,on soot formation and flame structure were investigated using a counterflow type acetylene diffusion flame.The distributioons of flame luminosity,soot volume fraction,Flame temperature and OH concentration in flame were measured by non-invasive detection methods.Under the influence of electric fields,the changes in distribution of the soot volume fraction were confirmed.Electric fields of high frequency and high intensity reduced the soot volume fraction.whereas other electric fields increased it.The maximum values of flame temperature and OH concentration decreased.In the relationship between the maximum value of the soot volume fraction and the maximum temperature,the maximum soot volum fraction showed toth increase and decrease with maximum temperatures depending on the frequencies and intensities of the electric fields,and both of them occurred at temperatures lower than 1990 K.The production of the incipient particles seemed to be the dominant process controlling the soot volume fraction due to the electric fields.The luminosity of a sooting diffusion flame was found to depend on the volume fraction and temperature of the soot particles in the flame,As for the behavior of the flame in the electric fields.the ionic wind effect was not found to be dominant in the present work,and the result of the precious simulation based on the ionic wind theory was not consistent with the present experimental results.

  4. The Transition to Turbulence of Rayleigh-Taylor Unstable Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Elizabeth P.; Rosner, R.

    2011-01-01

    Part of the uncertainty surrounding the explosion mechanism of Type 1A supernovae is the extent to which the turbulence created by the flame front can speed the flame up. A premixed flame moving against a sufficiently strong gravitational field becomes deformed and creates vorticity. If gravity is strong enough, this vorticity is shed and deposited behind the flame front. We have completed some two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of this shedding process for various values of the gravitational force. If gravity is weak enough, the flame front remains flat and no vorticity is created. If gravity is slightly stronger, the flame front becomes cusped and creates vorticity; long vortices attach to the flame front and extend behind it. For even larger values of gravity, the far end of these vortices becomes unstable and sheds more vortices. For simulations with increased gravity, the position of the shedding instability moves closer to the flame front. Next, the vortex shedding disturbs the flame front, causing the flame to pulsate. These pulsations lose their left/right symmetry and the period of oscillation doubles. For even higher values of gravity, an additional frequency is introduced into the system as the Rayleigh-Taylor instability begins to dominate over burning. Eventually, the pulsations of the flame become quite complex and the interaction between the flame front and the vortices can't be simply described. We have measured the subsequent wrinkling of the flame front by computing its fractal dimension and the energy spectra behind the flame front. Measurements of the fractal dimension suggest that it saturates, implying that any additional speed up of the flame must be due to large-scale stretching or disruption of the flame front. Our simulations were performed at NERSC which is supported by the Department of Energy.

  5. AC Electric Fields Drive Steady Flows in Flames

    OpenAIRE

    Drews, Aaron M.; Cademartiri, Ludovico; Chemama, Michael Leopold; Brenner, Michael P.; Whitesides, George M.; Bishop, Kyle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We show that time-oscillating electric fields applied to plasmas present in flames create steady flows of gas. Ions generated within the flame move in the field and migrate a distance δ before recombining; the net flow of ions away from the flame creates a time-averaged force that drives the steady flows observed experimentally. A quantitative model describes the response of the flame and reveals how δ decreases as the frequency of the applied field increases. Interestingly, above a critical ...

  6. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive...

  7. Ion structure and sequence of ion formation in acetylene flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionova, I.A.; Fialkov, B.S.; Kalinich, K.YA.; Fialkov, A.B.; Ospanov, B.S.

    1993-06-01

    Results of a study of the ion composition of acetylene-air flames burning at low pressures are reported. Data on ion formation are compared for flames of saturated hydrocarbons, oxygen-containing fuels, and acetylene. It is shown that the characteristics of ion formation in the flame front and directly ahead of it are similar to those observed in flames of other fuels. These characteristics, however, are different in the low-temperature region. 9 refs.

  8. Annealing effect and stability of carbon nanotubes in hydrogen flame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Annealing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by the hydrogen flame in air was investigated in this study. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the products. The peak width of Raman spectra decreased with the increase in the annealing time. The CNTs were not stable in the hydrogen flame and the etching rate of the CNTs by hydrogen flame was very high. The hydrogen flame annealing had some effects on improving the crystallinity of CNTs.

  9. Quality of life and management project for patients with advanced lung cancer%晚期肺癌生活质量与治疗方案选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Compared with best supportive care,chemotherapy can prolong survival and improve quality of life,and symptoms associated with society activities and disease.Chemotherapy can improve quality of life of patients with effective treatment and stable treatment. Treatment benefit was often underestimated using clinical relief rate,so which should not chosen as index for evaluating effect of palliative treatment. So for patients with poor status ,and objective of relieving symptoms,short term,low dose chemotherapy should be suggested due to its characteristic of low cost,short inhospitalization time,and favorable improvement of quality of life. For patients with good condition in limited advanced stage,radical treatment is objective,and hence single chemotherapy of standard dose or chemotherapy combining radiotherapy should be suggested.

  10. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2015-10-20

    This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2015.1090018. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  11. STUDIES OF PHYSICAL MECHANISMS IN LASER ENHANCED IONIZATION IN FLAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, P.; Travis, J.; Turk, G

    1983-01-01

    Laser enhanced ionization (LEI) mechanisms which result in locally large neutral atom depletions in flames are discussed. In addition, this results in a locally large perturbation of the ionization rate of the flame can be observed by an imaging technique. Two theoretical models of the physical motion of the LEI electrons and ions in the flame and their applicability to experimental observations are discussed.

  12. Pdf prediction of supersonic hydrogen flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, P.; Kollmann, W.

    1993-01-01

    A hybrid method for the prediction of supersonic turbulent flows with combustion is developed consisting of a second order closure for the velocity field and a multi-scalar pdf method for the local thermodynamic state. It is shown that for non-premixed flames and chemical equilibrium mixture fraction, the logarithm of the (dimensionless) density, internal energy per unit mass and the divergence of the velocity have several advantages over other sets of scalars. The closure model is applied to a supersonic non-premixed flame burning hydrogen with air supplied by a supersonic coflow and the results are compared with a limited set of experimental data.

  13. Computatonal and experimental study of laminar flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smooke, M.D.; Long, M.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in counterflow, cylindrical and coflowing axisymmetric configurations. The authors have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the one and two-dimensional nonlinear boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. In particular, spontaneous Raman scattering and laser induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles.

  14. Adiabatic Flame Temperature for Combustion of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Pupo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project calculated the adiabatic flame temperature of a combustion reaction of pure methane and oxygen, assuming that all of the heat liberated by the combustion reaction goes into heating the resulting mixture. Mole fractions of methane to oxygen were computed from 0.05 to 0.95, in increments of 0.05, and then an integral was computed was computed with respect to temperature using the moles of product produced or leftover moles of reactants from the starting mole fraction times the specific heat of each respective gas. The highest adiabatic flame temperature evaluated, occurred at a mole fraction of 0.35.

  15. Flame-Retardant Paper from Wood Fibers Functionalized via Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köklükaya, Oruç; Carosio, Federico; Grunlan, Jaime C; Wågberg, Lars

    2015-10-28

    The highly flammable character of cellulose-rich fibers from wood limits their use in some advanced materials. To suppress the flammability and introduce flame-retardant properties to individual pulp fibers, we deposited nanometer thin films consisting of cationic chitosan (CH) and anionic poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) on fibers using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The buildup of the multilayer film was investigated in the presence and absence of salt (NaCl) using model cellulose surfaces and a quartz crystal microbalance technique. Fibers were then treated with the same strategy, and the treated fibers were used to prepare paper sheets. A horizontal flame test (HFT) and cone calorimetry were conducted to evaluate the combustion behavior of paper sheets as a function of the number of bilayers deposited on fibers. In HFT, paper made of fibers coated with 20 CH/PVPA bilayers (BL), self-extinguished the flame, while uncoated fibers were completely consumed. Scanning electron microscopy of charred paper after HFT revealed that a thin shell of the charred polymeric multilayer remained after the cellulose fibers had been completely oxidized. Cone calorimetry demonstrated that the phosphorus-containing thin films (20 BL is ∼25 nm) reduced the peak heat release rate by 49%. This study identifies a unique and highly effective way to impart flame-retardant characteristic to pulp fibers and the papers made from these fibers. PMID:26457504

  16. Gaussian process regression based optimal design of combustion systems using flame images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The digital color images of flames are applied to combustion design. • The combustion with modeling stochastic nature is developed using GP. • GP based uncertainty design is made and evaluated through a real combustion system. - Abstract: With the advanced methods of digital image processing and optical sensing, it is possible to have continuous imaging carried out on-line in combustion processes. In this paper, a method that extracts characteristics from the flame images is presented to immediately predict the outlet content of the flue gas. First, from the large number of flame image data, principal component analysis is used to discover the principal components or combinational variables, which describe the important trends and variations in the operation data. Then stochastic modeling of the combustion process is done by a Gaussian process with the aim to capture the stochastic nature of the flame associated with the oxygen content. The designed oxygen combustion content considers the uncertainty presented in the combustion. A reference image can be designed for the actual combustion process to provide an easy and straightforward maintenance of the combustion process

  17. The Cousins of Stuxnet: Duqu, Flame, and Gauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márk Félegyházi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuxnet was the first targeted malware that received worldwide attention forcausing physical damage in an industrial infrastructure seemingly isolated from the onlineworld. Stuxnet was a powerful targeted cyber-attack, and soon other malware samples were discovered that belong to this family. In this paper, we will first present our analysis of Duqu, an information-collecting malware sharing striking similarities with Stuxnet. Wedescribe our contributions in the investigation ranging from the original detection of Duquvia finding the dropper file to the design of a Duqu detector toolkit. We then continue with the analysis of the Flame advanced information-gathering malware. Flame is unique in thesense that it used advanced cryptographic techniques to masquerade as a legitimate proxyfor the Windows Update service. We also present the newest member of the family, called Gauss, whose unique feature is that one of its modules is encrypted such that it can onlybe decrypted on its target system; hence, the research community has not yet been able to analyze this module. For this particular malware, we designed a Gauss detector serviceand we are currently collecting intelligence information to be able to break its very specialencryption mechanism. Besides explaining the operation of these pieces of malware, wealso examine if and how they could have been detected by vigilant system administrators manually or in a semi-automated manner using available tools. Finally, we discuss lessonsthat the community can learn from these incidents. We focus on technical issues, and avoidspeculations on the origin of these threats and other geopolitical questions.

  18. Measurement of laminar flame speeds and flame stability analysis of tert-butanol-air mixtures at elevated pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → New measured laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths for the tert-butanol-air were provided. → Flame stability is analyzed from the diffusive stability and hydrodynamic stability. → New understanding to the fundamental combustion characteristics of premixed tert-butanol-air mixture is provided. → These data are useful for development and validation of tert-butanol chemical kinetics. - Abstract: Laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths of tert-butanol-air premixed mixtures were measured over a wide range of equivalence ratios at different initial temperatures and pressures by using the spherically propagating flame in a constant volume combustion chamber. Effects of Markstein number, flame thickness and density ratio at two sides of flame front on flame instability were analyzed combined with the schlieren photos. Results show that the unstretched flame propagation speeds and laminar flame speeds of the tert-butanol-air mixtures increase with the increase of initial temperature and decrease with the increase of initial pressure. Peak values of laminar flame speeds present at equivalence ratio of 1.1 regardless of initial pressure and temperature. Markstein length decreases with the increase of initial pressure. Flame front instability increases as equivalence ratio and initial pressure increase. Cellular structure appears at elevated pressure. The combined effect of diffusional-thermal instability and hydrodynamic instability leads to the increase of flame instability as initial pressure increases.

  19. Measurement of flame temperature distribution by IR emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noncontact and nondestructive measurements for determining flame temperature distribution are under investigation. This paper proposes a new method we have called infrared emission computed tomography to measure the temperature distribution in arbitrary transaxial layers of the flame by calculating the infrared radiation intensity emitted from a flame as the projection data. The authors developed an experimental system using an infrared sensor as the detector and applied our method to a laminar flame. They obtained good images of the temperature distribution in a flame. In addition, temperature profiles obtained by this method were in good agreement with the results of the thermocouple probe measurement

  20. Characteristics of transitional and turbulent jet diffusion flames in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Yousef M.; Small, James F., Jr.; Hegde, Uday G.; Zhou, Liming; Stocker, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the ground-based results obtained to date in preparation of a proposed space experiment to study the role of large-scale structures in microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames by investigating the dynamics of vortex/flame interactions and their influence on flame characteristics. The overall objective is to gain an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. Understanding of the role of large-scale structures on the characteristics of microgravity transitional and turbulent flames will ultimately lead to improved understanding of normal-gravity turbulent combustion.

  1. A new full-field digital mammography system with and without the use of an advanced post-processing algorithm: Comparison of image quality and diagnostic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hye Shin; Kim, Sun Mi; Jang, Mi Jung; Yun, Bo La; Kim, Boh Young [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook; Han, Boo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jung Min; Yi, Ann; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hye Young [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To compare new full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with and without use of an advanced post-processing algorithm to improve image quality, lesion detection, diagnostic performance, and priority rank. During a 22-month period, we prospectively enrolled 100 cases of specimen FFDM mammography (Brestige), which was performed alone or in combination with a post-processing algorithm developed by the manufacturer: group A (SMA), specimen mammography without application of {sup M}ammogram enhancement ver. 2.0{sup ;} group B (SMB), specimen mammography with application of {sup M}ammogram enhancement ver. 2.0{sup .} Two sets of specimen mammographies were randomly reviewed by five experienced radiologists. Image quality, lesion detection, diagnostic performance, and priority rank with regard to image preference were evaluated. Three aspects of image quality (overall quality, contrast, and noise) of the SMB were significantly superior to those of SMA (p < 0.05). SMB was significantly superior to SMA for visualizing calcifications (p < 0.05). Diagnostic performance, as evaluated by cancer score, was similar between SMA and SMB. SMB was preferred to SMA by four of the five reviewers. The post-processing algorithm may improve image quality with better image preference in FFDM than without use of the software.

  2. A new full-field digital mammography system with and without the use of an advanced post-processing algorithm: Comparison of image quality and diagnostic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare new full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with and without use of an advanced post-processing algorithm to improve image quality, lesion detection, diagnostic performance, and priority rank. During a 22-month period, we prospectively enrolled 100 cases of specimen FFDM mammography (Brestige), which was performed alone or in combination with a post-processing algorithm developed by the manufacturer: group A (SMA), specimen mammography without application of Mammogram enhancement ver. 2.0; group B (SMB), specimen mammography with application of Mammogram enhancement ver. 2.0. Two sets of specimen mammographies were randomly reviewed by five experienced radiologists. Image quality, lesion detection, diagnostic performance, and priority rank with regard to image preference were evaluated. Three aspects of image quality (overall quality, contrast, and noise) of the SMB were significantly superior to those of SMA (p < 0.05). SMB was significantly superior to SMA for visualizing calcifications (p < 0.05). Diagnostic performance, as evaluated by cancer score, was similar between SMA and SMB. SMB was preferred to SMA by four of the five reviewers. The post-processing algorithm may improve image quality with better image preference in FFDM than without use of the software.

  3. Systematic approach based on holographic interferometry measurements to characterize the flame structure of partially premixed flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X; Puri, I K

    2001-02-20

    Partially premixed flames (PPF's) represent a class of hybrid flames that contain multiple reaction zones. A detailed understanding of the temperature distribution in PPF's is important from both practical and scientific considerations. Path-integrated or line-of-sight measurement techniques, such as holographic interferometry (HI), that are based on the change in the optical phase of a light beam can be used to reconstruct the refractive index n in flames and thereafter to infer the temperature distribution. Therefore to describe the flame structure in the context of these measurements requires that a systematic approach be developed that relates the density, the temperature, and the composition to the refractive index. We demonstrate that a conserved scalar xi that transforms the flame structure from a spatial to a generic distribution can be inferred from the refractive-index distribution. Thereafter measurements of the density, the temperature, and the composition in two-dimensional PPF's become feasible. We report the first application, to our knowledge, of this method to HI. Specifically, we used HI to measure the refractive-index distributions in methane-air PPF's. One PPF is a double flame that has two reaction zones, and the other is a triple flame that contains three reaction zones. We have applied the procedure to infer the distribution of the modified mixture fraction and thereafter the local temperature and the local mass fractions. We find the local temperature differences, DT(x, y) = |T[n(x, y)] - T?[xi(x, y)]|, to be relatively small. We conclude that it is possible to use HI to infer the mixture-fraction distribution and thereafter the flame structures by the application of state relations in the case of PPF's. PMID:18357052

  4. Hormonal activities of new brominated flame retardants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezechiáš, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 7 (2012), s. 820-824. ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Brominated flame retardants * 2,4,6-Tribromophenol * Endocrine disruptors Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2012

  5. Radical recombinations in acetylene-air flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, P.J.Th.; Alkemade, C.T.J.

    1965-01-01

    In this paper an analysis is given of the behaviour of excess radical concentrations, H, OH and O as a function of height above the reaction zone in premixed acetylene-air flames at 2–200° to 2400°K and 1 atmosphere pressure. The intensity was measured of the Li resonance line which is related to th

  6. On-Shell Description of Unsteady Flames

    CERN Document Server

    Joulin, Guy; Kazakov, Kirill A

    2007-01-01

    The problem of non-perturbative description of unsteady premixed flames with arbitrary gas expansion is solved in the two-dimensional case. Considering the flame as a surface of discontinuity with arbitrary local burning rate and gas velocity jumps given on it, we show that the front dynamics can be determined without having to solve the flow equations in the bulk. On the basis of the Thomson circulation theorem, an implicit integral representation of the gas velocity downstream is constructed. It is then simplified by a successive stripping of the potential contributions to obtain an explicit expression for the vortex component near the flame front. We prove that the unknown potential component is left bounded and divergence-free by this procedure, and hence can be eliminated using the dispersion relation for its on-shell value (i.e., the value along the flame front). The resulting system of integro-differential equations relates the on-shell fuel velocity and the front position. As limiting cases, these equ...

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C.J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Walborn, N.R.

    2010-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both ste

  8. Synthesis of Nano-Particles in Flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue

    The scope of this work is to investigate the synthesis of aluminum oxide particles in flames from the combustion of an aluminum alkoxide precursor.A general introduction to particles formation in the gas phase is presented with emphasis on the mechanisms that control the particle morphology after...

  9. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.D. Taylor; C.J. Evans; V. Henault-Brunet; N. Bastian; Y. Beletsky; J. Bestenlehner; I. Brott; M. Cantiello; G. Carraro; J.S. Clark; P.A. Crowther; A. de Koter; S.E. de Mink; E. Doran; P.L. Dufton; P. Dunstall; M. Gieles; G. Grafener; A. Herrero; I.D. Howarth; N. Langer; D.J. Lennon; J Maiz-Apellaniz; N. Markova; P. Najarro; J. Puls; H.A.A. Sana; S. Simon-Diaz; S.J. Smartt; V.E. Stroud; J.T. van Loon; J.S. Vink; N.R. Walborn

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both ste

  10. Power-Law Wrinkling Turbulence-Flame Interaction Model for Astrophysical Flames

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Aaron P; Calder, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    We extend a model for turbulence-flame interactions (TFI) to consider astrophysical flames with a particular focus on combustion in type Ia supernovae. The inertial range of the turbulent cascade is nearly always under-resolved in simulations of astrophysical flows, requiring the use of a model in order to quantify the effects of subgrid-scale wrinkling of the flame surface. We provide implementation details to extend a well-tested TFI model to low-Prandtl number flames for use in the compressible hydrodynamics code FLASH. A local, instantaneous measure of the turbulent velocity is calibrated for FLASH and verification tests are performed. Particular care is taken to consider the relation between the subgrid rms turbulent velocity and the turbulent flame speed, especially for high-intensity turbulence where the turbulent flame speed is not expected to scale with the turbulent velocity. Finally, we explore the impact of different TFI models in full-star, three-dimensional simulations of type Ia supernovae.

  11. The flame anchoring mechanism and associated flow structure in bluff-body stabilized lean premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Dan; Shanbhogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We present numerical analysis of a lean premixed flame anchoring on a heat conducting bluff-body. Different mixtures of CH4/H2/air are analyzed in order to systematically vary the burning velocity, adiabatic flame temperature and extinction strain rate. The study was motivated by our experimental measurements in a step combustor which showed that both the recirculation zone length and stability map under acoustically coupled conditions for different fuels and thermodynamic conditions collapse using the extinction strain rate. The model fully resolves unsteady two-dimensional flow with detailed chemistry and species transport, and without artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions. The model includes a low Mach number operator-split projection algorithm, coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and an immersed boundary method for the solid body. Calculations reveal that the recirculation zone length correlates with the flame extinction strain rate, consistent with the experimental evidence. It is found that in the vicinity of the bluff body the flame is highly stretched and its leading edge location is controlled by the reactants combustion characteristics under high strain. Moreover, the flame surface location relative to the shear layer influences the vorticity thus impacting the velocity field and the recirculation zone. The study sheds light on the experimentally observed collapse of the combustor dynamics using the reactants extinction strain rate.

  12. Radiation Heat Transfer in Particle-Laden Gaseous Flame: Flame Acceleration and Triggering Detonation

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, M A; Kiverin, A D

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine influence of the radiation heat transfer on the combustion regimes in the mixture, formed by suspension of fine inert particles in hydrogen gas. The gaseous phase is assumed to be transparent for the thermal radiation, while the radiant heat absorbed by the particles is then lost by conduction to the surrounding gas. The particles and gas ahead of the flame is assumed to be heated by radiation from the original flame. It is shown that the maximum temperature increase due to the radiation preheating becomes larger for a flame with lower velocity. For a flame with small enough velocity temperature of the radiation preheating may exceed the crossover temperature, so that the radiation heat transfer may become a dominant mechanism of the flame propagation. In the case of non-uniform distribution of particles, the temperature gradient formed due to the radiation preheating can initiate either deflagration or detonation ahead of the original flame via the Zel'dovich's gradient mechanism. Th...

  13. Power-law wrinkling turbulence-flame interaction model for astrophysical flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend a model for turbulence-flame interactions (TFI) to consider astrophysical flames with a particular focus on combustion in Type Ia supernovae. The inertial range of the turbulent cascade is nearly always under-resolved in simulations of astrophysical flows, requiring the use of a model in order to quantify the effects of subgrid-scale wrinkling of the flame surface. We provide implementation details to extend a well-tested TFI model to low-Prandtl number flames for use in the compressible hydrodynamics code FLASH. A local, instantaneous measure of the turbulent velocity is calibrated for FLASH and verification tests are performed. Particular care is taken to consider the relation between the subgrid rms turbulent velocity and the turbulent flame speed, especially for high-intensity turbulence where the turbulent flame speed is not expected to scale with the turbulent velocity. Finally, we explore the impact of different TFI models in full-star, three-dimensional simulations of Type Ia supernovae.

  14. Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of cotton textiles based on UV-curable flame retardant coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flame retardant coatings were prepared through UV-curable technique using tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA). Results from FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that flame retardant coatings were successfully coated onto the surface of cotton fabrics. The flame retardancy of the treated fabrics was studied by Micro-scale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC) and limited oxygen index (LOI). The cottons coated flame retardant coatings had the lower peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC), total heat of combustion (THC) and higher LOI value compared with untreated cotton. The results from TGA test showed that the flame retardant coatings lowered the decomposition temperature of treated fabric. The thermal decomposition of cottons was monitored by real time FTIR analysis and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The enhanced flame retardant action might be caused by thermal decomposition of TAEP structure, producing acidic intermediates, which could react with fabrics to alter its thermal decomposition process.

  15. Laser-saturated fluorescence measurements in laminar sooting diffusion flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Changlie

    1993-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical is known to be one of the most important intermediate species in the combustion processes. The hydroxyl radical has also been considered a dominant oxidizer of soot particles in flames. In this investigation the hydroxyl concentration profiles in sooting diffusion flames were measured by the laser-saturated fluorescence (LSF) method. The temperature distributions in the flames were measured by the two-line LSF technique and by thermocouple. In the sooting region the OH fluorescence was too weak to make accurate temperature measurements. The hydroxyl fluorescence profiles for all four flames presented herein show that the OH fluorescence intensities peaked near the flame front. The OH fluorescence intensity dropped sharply toward the dark region of the flame and continued declining to the sooting region. The OH fluorescence profiles also indicate that the OH fluorescence decreased with increasing height in the flames for all flames investigated. Varying the oxidizer composition resulted in a corresponding variation in the maximum OH concentration and the flame temperature. Furthermore, it appears that the maximum OH concentration for each flame increased with increasing flame temperature.

  16. Dynamic response of a pulsed Burke-Schumann diffusion flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Jyh-Cherng; Stocker, Dennis P.; Chen, Lea-Der

    1995-01-01

    Turbulent flames are often envisioned as an ensemble of random vortices interacting with the combustion process. A better understanding of the vortex-flame interactions therefore would be useful in improving the modeling of turbulent diffusion flames. Substantial simplification may be made by investigating controlled interactions in a laminar flame, as opposed to random interactions in a turbulent flame. The general goals of the research project are to improve our understanding of (1) the influence of buoyancy on co-flow diffusion flames and (2) the effects of buoyancy on vortex-flame interactions in co-flow diffusion flames. As a first step toward objective (2), we conducted a joint experimental and numerical investigation of the vortex-flame interaction. Vortices were produced by mechanically pulsing the fuel flow at a low frequency, e.g., 10 Hz. Experiments were conducted using a nonflickering Burke-Schumann flame in both microgravity (mu-g) and normal gravity (1g) as a means of varying the buoyant force without modification of the pressure (i.e., density). The effects of buoyant convection may then be determined by a comparison of the mu-g and 1g results. The mu-g results may also reveal the important mechanisms which are masked or overwhelmed by buoyant convection in 1g. A numerical investigation was conducted using a validated, time-accurate numerical code to study the underlying physics during the flame interaction and to assist the interpretation of the experimental results.

  17. Rayleigh-Taylor Unstable Flames -- Fast or Faster?

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, E P

    2015-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable flames play a key role in the explosions of Type Ia supernovae. However, the dynamics of these flames is still not well-understood. RT unstable flames are affected by both the RT instability of the flame front and by RT-generated turbulence. The coexistence of these factors complicates the choice of flame speed subgrid models for full-star Type Ia simulations. Both processes can stretch and wrinkle the flame surface, increasing its area and, therefore, the burning rate. In past research, subgrid models have been based on either the RT instability or turbulence setting the flame speed. We evaluate both models, checking their assumptions and their ability to correctly predict the turbulent flame speed. Specifically, we analyze a large parameter study of 3D direct numerical simulations of RT unstable model flames. This study varies both the simulation domain width and the gravity in order to probe a wide range of flame behaviors. We show that RT unstable flames are different from tr...

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, premixed flames: the transition to turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Elizabeth; Rosner, Robert

    2010-11-01

    A premixed flame moving against a sufficiently strong gravitational field becomes deformed and creates vorticity. If gravity is strong enough, this vorticity is shed and deposited behind the flame front. We present two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of this vortex shedding process and its effect on the flame front for various values of the gravitational force. The flame and its shed vortices go through the following stages as gravity is increased: no vorticity and a flat flame front; long vortices attached to a cusped flame front; instability of the attached vortices and vortex shedding (Hopf bifurcation); disruption of the flame front by the shed vortices, causing the flame to pulsate; loss of left/right symmetry (period doubling); dominance of Rayleigh-Taylor instability over burning (torus bifurcation); and, finally, complex interactions between the flame front and the vortices. We measure the subsequent wrinkling of the flame front by computing its fractal dimension and also measure mixing behind the flame front by computing the finite-time Lyapunov exponents.

  19. Thermophotovoltaics, wood powder and fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Operational Efficiency; Broman, L.; Jarefors, K. [Solar Energy Research Center, Borlaenge (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    PV cells can be used for electricity production based on other heat sources than the sun. If the temperature of the source is around 1500 K it is possible to get reasonably high conversion efficiency from heat radiation to electricity. This is due to recent advances in low-bandgap PV cells and selectively emitting fibrous emissive burners. There are some different biomass fuels capable of producing this temperature in the flame, especially gas and liquid fuels of different kinds. Wood powder is the only solid wood fuel with a sufficiently stable quality and properties for this high temperature combustion. A joint project between SERC, SLU and National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL in Golden, Colorado, USA aims at building a wood powder fuelled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator for cogeneration of heat and electricity. A stable flame temperature of 1500 K has been achieved in a prototype pilot-scale burner that includes feeder and combustion chamber. Furthermore, a setup for measuring TPV cell efficiency for a wide region of black body emitter temperatures and cell irradiation has been constructed and several 0.6 eV GaInAs TPV cells have been investigated. A setup for testing the chain IR emitter - selectively reflecting filter - TPV cell has been designed. In order to limit the region of filter incident angles, which will make the filter act more efficiently, a special geometry of the internally reflecting tube that transmits the radiation is considered 23 refs, 4 figs

  20. Preliminary study on ECT imaging of flames in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study for the first time investigated the feasibility of tomographic monitoring of flames in porous media, in which the cross-sectional profiles of flames inside a porous medium were imaged by electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). The relationship between the flame ionization and relative permittivity was established as the basis for ECT imaging of flames. Image reconstruction algorithms were discussed and an online iterative method OIOR was selected for image reconstruction. Experimental measurements were carried out and images of the flames were reconstructed. The shape, size and motion of the flames in a porous block were clearly monitored. Also the images correspond clearly to the variations of the combustion intensity. The feasibility of ECT monitoring of flames in porous media is proven by this study

  1. 3D velocity measurements in a premixed flame by tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarev, M. P.; Sharaborin, D. K.; Lobasov, A. S.; Chikishev, L. M.; Dulin, V. M.; Markovich, D. M.

    2015-06-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) has become a standard tool for 3D velocity measurements in non-reacting flows. However, the majority of the measurements in flows with combustion are limited to small resolved depth compared to the size of the field of view (typically 1 : 10). The limitations are associated with inhomogeneity of the volume illumination and the non-uniform flow seeding, the optical distortions and errors in the 3D calibration, and the unwanted flame luminosity. In the present work, the above constraints were overcome for the tomographic PIV experiment in a laminar axisymmetric premixed flame. The measurements were conducted for a 1 : 1 depth-to-size ratio using a system of eight CCD cameras and a 200 mJ pulsed laser. The results show that camera calibration based on the triangulation of the tracer particles in the non-reacting conditions provided reliable accuracy for the 3D image reconstruction in the flame. The modification of the tomographic reconstruction allowed a posteriori removal of unwanted bright objects, which were located outside of the region of interest but affected the reconstruction quality. This study reports on a novel experience for the instantaneous 3D velocimetry in laboratory-scale flames by using tomographic PIV.

  2. Quality of life assessment in advanced cancer patients treated at home, an inpatient unit, and a day care center

    OpenAIRE

    Leppert, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Wojciech Leppert,1 Mikolaj Majkowicz,2 Maria Forycka,1 Eleonora Mess,3 Agata Zdun-Ryzewska2 1Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2Department of Quality of Life Research, Gdansk Medical University, Gdansk, Poland; 3Palliative Care Nursing Department, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Aim of the study: To assess quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients treated at home, at an in-patient palliative care unit (PCU), and at a day care...

  3. [Determination of potassium in sodium by flame atomic emission spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C; Wen, X; Jia, Y; Sun, S

    2001-06-01

    Sodium is used as a coolant in China experiment fast reactor (CEFR). Potassium in sodium has an influence on heat property of reactor. A analytical method has been developed to determinate potassium in sodium by flame atomic emission spectroscopy. Sodium sample is dissolved by ultrasonic humidifier. The working conditions of the instrument and inTerferences from matrix sodium, acid effect and concomitant elements have been studied. Standard addition experiments are carried out with potassium chloride. The percentage recoveries are 94.7%-109.8%. The relative standard deviation is 4.2%. The analytical range accords with sodium quality control standard of CFFR. The precision corresponds to the international analytical method in sodium coolant reactor. PMID:12947670

  4. Assessing oestrogenic effects of brominated flame retardants Hexabromocyclododecane and Tetrabromobisphenol A on MCF-7 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dorosh, Andriy; Děd, Lukáš; Elzeinová, Fatima; Pěknicová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2010), s. 35-39. ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : endocrine disruptors * BRF - brominated flame retardant * MCF-7 cells * TFF1 - trefoil factor Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2010

  5. An evaluation of the total quality management implementation strategy for the advanced solid rocket motor project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. M.S. Thesis - Tennessee Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Sullivan, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) strategy to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Project is presented. The evaluation of the implementation strategy reflected the Civil Service personnel perspective at the project level. The external and internal environments at MSFC were analyzed for their effects on the ASRM TQM strategy. Organizational forms, cultures, management systems, problem solving techniques, and training were assessed for their influence on the implementation strategy. The influence of ASRM's effort was assessed relative to its impact on mature projects as well as future projects at MSFC.

  6. Behaviors of tribrachial edge flames and their interactions in a triple-port burner

    KAUST Repository

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-05-01

    In a triple-port burner, various non-premixed flames have been observed previously. Especially for the case with two lifted flames, such configuration could be suitable in studying interaction between two tribrachial flames. In the present study, the flame characteristics have been investigated numerically by adopting a reduced kinetic mechanism in the triple-port burner. Four different types of flame configurations, including two attached flames, inner lifted/outer attached flames, inner attached/outer lifted flames, and twin lifted flames, were successfully simulated depending on the flow conditions. The representative edge propagation speed of a single lifted flame or an upstream lifted flame in the case of twin lifted flames increased as the liftoff height became higher. In the twin lifted flames, the inner lifted flame was affected appreciably when the other flame was located further upstream such that the lifted flame located further downstream encountered the axial velocity acceleration induced by the gas expansion from the lifted flame located upstream, while thermal effects were not observed since the temperature of the incoming flow toward the lifted flame was not affected. A unique flip-flop behavior between the inner and outer flames, observed experimentally previously, was successfully captured in the simulation such that the inner lifted flame became attached to the nozzle as the liftoff height of the outer lifted flame grew higher with an increase in the outer air velocity.

  7. Gas phase radiative effects in diffusion flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedir, Hasan

    Several radiation models are evaluated for a stagnation point diffusion flame of a solid fuel in terms of accuracy and computational time. Narrowband, wideband, spectral line weighted sum of gray gases (SLWSGG), and gray gas models are included in the comparison. Radiative heat flux predictions by the nongray narrowband, wideband, and SLWSGG models are found to be in good agreement with each other, whereas the gray gas models are found to be inaccurate. The narrowband model, the most complex among the models evaluated, is then applied first to a solid fuel and second to a pure gaseous diffusion flame. A polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) diffusion flame in a stagnation point geometry is solved with the narrowband model with COsb2, Hsb2O, and MMA vapor included in participating species. A detailed account of the emission and absorption from these species as well as the radiative heat fluxes are given as a function of the stretch rate. It is found that at low stretch rate the importance of radiation is increased due to an increase in the optical thickness, and a decrease in the conductive heat flux. Results show that COsb2 is the biggest emitter and absorber in the flame, MMA vapor is the second and Hsb2O is the least important. A pure gaseous flame in an opposed jet configuration is solved with the narrowband radiation model with CO as the fuel, and Osb2 as the oxidizer. Detailed. chemical kinetics and transport are incorporated into the combustion model with the use of the CHEMKIN and TRANSPORT software packages. The governing equations are solved with a modified version of the OPPDIF code. Dry and wet CO flames as well as COsb2 dilution are studied. Comparison of the results with and without the consideration of radiation reveals that the radiation is important for the whole flammable range of dry CO flames and for the low stretch rates of wet flames. Without the consideration of radiation the temperature and the species mole fractions (especially of minor species

  8. Third-generation dual-source 70-kVp chest CT angiography with advanced iterative reconstruction in young children: image quality and radiation dose reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompel, Oliver; Janka, Rolf; Lell, Michael M.; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Gloeckler, Martin; Dittrich, Sven [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Cesnjevar, Robert [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Many technical updates have been made in multi-detector CT. To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of high-pitch second- and third-generation dual-source chest CT angiography and to assess the effects of different levels of advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) in newborns and children. Chest CT angiography (70 kVp) was performed in 42 children (age 158 ± 267 days, range 1-1,194 days). We evaluated subjective and objective image quality, and radiation dose with filtered back projection (FBP) and different strength levels of ADMIRE. For comparison were 42 matched controls examined with a second-generation 128-slice dual-source CT-scanner (80 kVp). ADMIRE demonstrated improved objective and subjective image quality (P <.01). Mean signal/noise, contrast/noise and subjective image quality were 11.9, 10.0 and 1.9, respectively, for the 80 kVp mode and 11.2, 10.0 and 1.9 for the 70 kVp mode. With ADMIRE, the corresponding values for the 70 kVp mode were 13.7, 12.1 and 1.4 at strength level 2 and 17.6, 15.6 and 1.2 at strength level 4. Mean CTDI{sub vol}, DLP and effective dose were significantly lower with the 70-kVp mode (0.31 mGy, 5.33 mGy*cm, 0.36 mSv) compared to the 80-kVp mode (0.46 mGy, 9.17 mGy*cm, 0.62 mSv; P <.01). The third-generation dual-source CT at 70 kVp provided good objective and subjective image quality at lower radiation exposure. ADMIRE improved objective and subjective image quality. (orig.)

  9. Third-generation dual-source 70-kVp chest CT angiography with advanced iterative reconstruction in young children: image quality and radiation dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many technical updates have been made in multi-detector CT. To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of high-pitch second- and third-generation dual-source chest CT angiography and to assess the effects of different levels of advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) in newborns and children. Chest CT angiography (70 kVp) was performed in 42 children (age 158 ± 267 days, range 1-1,194 days). We evaluated subjective and objective image quality, and radiation dose with filtered back projection (FBP) and different strength levels of ADMIRE. For comparison were 42 matched controls examined with a second-generation 128-slice dual-source CT-scanner (80 kVp). ADMIRE demonstrated improved objective and subjective image quality (P <.01). Mean signal/noise, contrast/noise and subjective image quality were 11.9, 10.0 and 1.9, respectively, for the 80 kVp mode and 11.2, 10.0 and 1.9 for the 70 kVp mode. With ADMIRE, the corresponding values for the 70 kVp mode were 13.7, 12.1 and 1.4 at strength level 2 and 17.6, 15.6 and 1.2 at strength level 4. Mean CTDIvol, DLP and effective dose were significantly lower with the 70-kVp mode (0.31 mGy, 5.33 mGy*cm, 0.36 mSv) compared to the 80-kVp mode (0.46 mGy, 9.17 mGy*cm, 0.62 mSv; P <.01). The third-generation dual-source CT at 70 kVp provided good objective and subjective image quality at lower radiation exposure. ADMIRE improved objective and subjective image quality. (orig.)

  10. QA [Quality Assurance] role in advanced energy activities: Towards an /open quotes/orthodox/close quotes/ Quality Program: Canonizing the traditions at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief description of the goal of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) this paper poses and answers three questions related to Quality Assurance (QA) at the Laboratory. First, what is the difference between 'orthodox' and 'unorthodox' QA and is there a place for 'orthodox' QA at a laboratory like Fermilab? Second, are the deeper philosophical and cultural frameworks of high-energy physics acommodating or antagonistic to an 'orthodox' QA Program? Finally, faced with the task of developing an institutional QA program for Fermilab where does one begin? The paper is based on experience with the on-going development and implementation of an institutional QA Program at Fermilab. 10 refs

  11. Investigation of Alien Wavelength Quality in Live Multi-Domain, Multi-Vendor Link Using Advanced Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal; Nuijts, Roeland; Bjorn, Lars Lange

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an advanced optical model for simulation of alien wavelengths in multi-domain and multi-vendor dense wavelength-division multiplexing networks. The model aids optical network planners with a better understanding of the non-linear effects present in dense wavelength-division ......This article presents an advanced optical model for simulation of alien wavelengths in multi-domain and multi-vendor dense wavelength-division multiplexing networks. The model aids optical network planners with a better understanding of the non-linear effects present in dense wavelength......-division multiplexing systems and better utilization of alien wavelengths in future applications. The limiting physical effects for alien wavelengths are investigated in relation to power levels, channel spacing, and other factors. The simulation results are verified through experimental setup in live multi...

  12. Investigation of quality of life in the treatment of locally advanced and recurrent oropharyngeal cancer: State-of the-art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sikorsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postsurgical survival is considered to be indicators of treatment efficiency in most cases. However, the sociomedical rehabilitation of patients in this group is no less important; not only life expectancy, but also functional rehabilitation and quality of life are in the lead in patients with Stage III–IVA due to their low 2-year and much lower 5-year survival. The main efficiency criterion is patients, quality of life as compared to antitumor treatment programs in the absence of differences in survival.As the only chance of cure or life prolongation in most cases, multicomponent surgery for locally advanced and recurrent oropharyngeal cancer may be refused by a patient for fear of being lost to society. Identification of surgical treatment-induced changes in quality of life in patients may be used as a criterion for assessing the performed operations.The body's changes in a patient with otopharyngeal cancer are associated with impairment of basic physiological functions (deglutition, mastication, and breathing, sensitivity (taste, olfaction, and hearing, and individual characteristics of a human being (for example, appearance and voice. The quality of life is integral characteristics of the physical, psychological, emotional, and social functioning of a patient, which is based on his subjective perception. The methods for studying the quality of life include first of all questionnaires that are classified as general and special ones.The general questionnaires are intended to assess the quality of life of both healthy individuals and patients regardless of their disease; the special questionnaires are used to study that in certain categories and groups of patients. The general questionnaires allow the comparison of patients with a population of healthy people. Account must be also taken of the fact that the quality of life varies with age and comorbidities. A great deal of procedures for measuring the quality of life in different groups of

  13. Numerical Study of Buoyancy and Differential Diffusion Effects on the Structure and Dynamics of Triple Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. -Y.; Echekki, T.

    1999-01-01

    Triple flames arise in a number of practical configurations where fuel and oxidizer are partially premixed, such as in the base of a lifted jet flame. Past experimental studies, theoretical analyses, and numerical modeling of triple flames suggested the potential role of triple flames in stabilizing turbulent flames and in promoting flame propagation. From recent numerical simulations of laminar triple flames, a strong influence of differential diffusion among species and heat on the triple flame structure has been gradually appreciated. This paper reports preliminary numerical results on the influence of gravity and differential diffusion effects on the structure and dynamics of triple flames with a one-step global irreversible chemistry model.

  14. Psychological Distress during Ovarian Cancer Treatment: Improving Quality by Examining Patient Problems and Advanced Practice Nursing Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Kline O'Sullivan; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Sangchoon Jeon; Elizabeth Ercolano; Ruth McCorkle

    2011-01-01

    Background/Significance. Ovarian cancer patients are prone to psychological distress. The clinical significance and best practices for distress among this population are poorly understood. Method. Secondary analysis of research records from a six month randomized control trial included 32 women with primary ovarian cancer. All received 18 advanced practice nurse (APN) visits over six months. Three sub-samples were determined by distress level (high/low) and mental health service consent for h...

  15. Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent flame stabilized by a rod. The study compares the flame behaviour with a fractal grid to the behaviour when a standard square mesh grid with the same effective mesh size and solidity as the fractal grid is used. The isothermal gas flow turbulence characteristics, including mean flow velocity and rms of velocity fluctuations and Taylor length, were evaluated from hot-wire measurements. The behaviour of the flames was assessed with direct chemiluminescence emission from the flame and high-speed OH-laser-induced fluorescence. The characteristics of the two flames are considered in terms of turbulent flame thickness, local flame curvature and turbulent flame speed. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry and at the same distance downstream of the location of the grid, fractal-grid-generated turbulence leads to a more turbulent flame with enhanced burning rate and increased flame surface area. (paper)

  16. Structure of Microgravity Transitional and Pulsed Jet Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, M. Yousef; Hegde, Uday; Stocker, Dennis P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained in a study of pulsed gas jet diffusion flames to better characterize the recently observed vortex/flame interactions in microgravity transitional and turbulent diffusion flames, and to improve the understanding of large-scale structures in corresponding normal-gravity flames. In preparation for a space experiment, tests were conducted in the 5.18-Second Zero-Gravity Facility of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Both unpulsed and pulsed laminar flames were studied and numerical modeling of these flames was carried out for data comparison and model validation. In addition, complementary tests for a series of unpulsed flames were conducted on-board the NASA KC-135 research aircraft. The microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames have been observed to be dominated by large-scale disturbances, or structures. These structures first appear intermittently in the flame at Reynolds numbers (based on the cold jet injection properties) of about 2100. With increase in injection Reynolds number, the rate of intermittent disturbances increases until the generation becomes continuous at Reynolds numbers of 3000 and higher. The behavior of these structures depends upon the velocity and temperature characteristics of the jet/flame shear layer. These characteristics are different in normal gravity and microgravity.

  17. Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulopoulos, N; Kerl, J; Sponfeldner, T; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P [Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vassilicos, J C, E-mail: ns6@ic.ac.uk [Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent flame stabilized by a rod. The study compares the flame behaviour with a fractal grid to the behaviour when a standard square mesh grid with the same effective mesh size and solidity as the fractal grid is used. The isothermal gas flow turbulence characteristics, including mean flow velocity and rms of velocity fluctuations and Taylor length, were evaluated from hot-wire measurements. The behaviour of the flames was assessed with direct chemiluminescence emission from the flame and high-speed OH-laser-induced fluorescence. The characteristics of the two flames are considered in terms of turbulent flame thickness, local flame curvature and turbulent flame speed. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry and at the same distance downstream of the location of the grid, fractal-grid-generated turbulence leads to a more turbulent flame with enhanced burning rate and increased flame surface area. (paper)

  18. Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based on the mean gas temperature and the concentration of CO, O 2, NO, and HC at the flame early region of reaction. The investigation covered the influence of the nozzle cone angle, the jet exit velocity and the jet equivalence ratio. The stability results show that the flames with cone are more stable than those without cone. For conical stabilized flames, the stability results exhibit three different sensitivity regions between the jet velocity and equivalence ratio. The inflame measurements prove that the flame stability could be attributed to the triple flame structure at the flame leading edge. The data show that the triple flame structure is influenced by cone angle, the jet velocity and the equivalence ratio. The flame is believed to be controlled by the recirculation flow inside the cone. Increasing the cone angle induced higher air entrainment to the reaction zone as depicted by a higher O 2 concentration within the flame leading edge. Increasing the jet velocity to a certain limit enhances the intensity of combustion at the flame leading edge, while excessive increase in jet velocity reduces this intensity. At a fixed jet velocity the higher the equivalence ratio, the higher the amount of fuel diffused and engulfed to the reaction zone, the more delay of the combustion completion and the higher the emission concentrations of the flame. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Sentinel 3 for Inland Water Quality Monitoring- Advanced in Earth Observation Based Technologies to Assist Algal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malthus, Tim J.; Anstee, Janet; Botha, Hannelie; Hestir, Erin; Dekker, Arnold

    2015-12-01

    Using both modeled and real measurements of spectral reflectance over Australian inland water bodies of varying water quality the potential of the Sentinel 3 OLCI sensor for monitoring inland optical water quality dynamics, notably algal greening, was investigated. Established semi-empirical water quality algorithms for chlorophyll were tested for their potential to form the basis of an algal alerting system for water managers. Given the possession of the additional spectral band at ~705-710 nm both Sentinels 3 and 2 will be better able to resolve chlorophyll and NAP than conventional MS sensors lacking this spectral band. Such algorithms will have an accuracy sufficient for alerting algal blooms/green-up with semi-empirical algorithms displaying RMSEs of ~4 - 9 mg m-3 Chl and RMSEs for semi-analytical inversion approaches within a similar range (~7- 8 mg m-3 Chl). Whilst the results bode well for S3, the potential for S2 for accurate retrieval of chlorophyll estimates will be highly dependent on its SNR. We further report on some other challenges before such sensors can be used as an inland water quality monitoring tool.

  20. Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidirectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  1. "Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidrectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  2. Lean premixed flames for low NO{sub x} combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, P.; Tseng, L.; Bryjak, J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines are being used throughout the world to generate electricity. Due to increasing fuel costs and environmental concerns, gas turbines must meet stringent performance requirements, demonstrating high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. In order for U.S. manufactured gas turbines to stay competitive, their NO{sub x} levels must be below 10 ppm and their thermal efficiencies should approach 60%. Current technology is being stretched to achieve these goals. The twin goals of high efficiency and low NO{sub x} emissions require extending the operating range of current gas turbines. Higher efficiency requires operation at higher pressures and temperatures. Lower NO{sub x} emissions requires lower flame temperatures. Lower flame temperatures can be achieved through partially to fully pre-mixed combustion. However, increased performance and lower emissions result in a set of competing goals. In order to achieve a successful compromise between high efficiency and low NO{sub x} emissions, advanced design tools must be developed. One key design tool is a computationally efficient, high pressure, turbulent flow, combustion model capable of predicting pollutant formation in an actual gas turbine. Its development is the goal of this program. Achieving this goal requires completion of three tasks. The first task is to develop a reduced chemical kinetics model describing N{sub O}x formation in natural gas-air systems. The second task is to develop a computationally efficient model that describes turbulence-chemistry interactions. The third task is to incorporate the reduced chemical kinetics and turbulence-chemistry interaction models into a commercially available flow solver and compare its predictions with experimental data obtained under carefully controlled conditions so that the accuracy of model predictions can be evaluated.

  3. Nurse Mentors to Advance Quality Improvement in Primary Health Centers: Lessons From a Pilot Program in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elizabeth A; Jayana, Krishnamurthy; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Mony, Prem; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    High-quality care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period is critically important since maternal and child morbidity and mortality are linked to complications that arise during these stages. A nurse mentoring program was implemented in northern Karnataka, India, to improve quality of services at primary health centers (PHCs), the lowest level in the public health system that offers basic obstetric care. The intervention, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, employed 53 full-time nurse mentors and was scaled-up in 385 PHCs in 8 poor rural districts. Each mentor was responsible for 6 to 8 PHCs and conducted roughly 6 mentoring visits per PHC in the first year. This paper reports the results of a qualitative inquiry, conducted between September 2012 and April 2014, assessing the program's successes and challenges from the perspective of mentors and PHC teams. Data were gathered through 13 observations, 9 focus group discussions with mentors, and 25 individual and group interviews with PHC nurses, medical officers, and district health officers. Mentors and PHC staff and leaders reported a number of successes, including development of rapport and trust between mentors and PHC staff, introduction of team-based quality improvement processes, correct and consistent use of a new case sheet to ensure adherence to clinical guidelines, and increases in staff nurses' knowledge and skills. Overall, nurses in many PHCs reported an increased ability to provide care according to guidelines and to handle maternal and newborn complications, along with improvements in equipment and supplies and referral management. Challenges included high service delivery volumes and/or understaffing at some PHCs, unsupportive or absent PHC leadership, and cultural practices that impacted quality. Comprehensive mentoring can build competence and improve performance by combining on-the-job clinical and technical support, applying quality improvement principles, and promoting team

  4. Two-dimensional flame temperature and emissivity measurements of pulverized oxy-coal flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Two emissivity models were investigated for use with pyrometry in coal flames. ► The oxy-fired coal produced flame temperatures in excess of 2400 K. ► The H. B. Model produced an average temperature 9% lower and emissivity 81% lower. ► Addition of CO2 to the secondary air decreased the flame temperature by over 200 K. ► The measured and calculated decrease in flame temperature with CO2 addition were similar. -- Abstract: A broadband, RGB, two-color pyrometry technique for measuring the flame temperature and total emissivity of a two-dimensional image of a coal flame has been developed and used on an oxy-coal flame. The method uses a single, relatively inexpensive, RGB, digital camera. The camera software permits the light intensities of the red, green, and blue light collected for each pixel to be recorded separately. The response of each pixel was calibrated for each color using a blackbody radiating cavity and a monochrometer, which enabled an absolute, broadband emission measurement. The image obtained by the camera was processed to produce a temperature and total emissivity for each pixel. Two spectral emissivity models were explored for use in determining the temperature and emissivity: a Gray model and Hottel and Broughton’s soot emissivity model. Significant differences of 7.1% in average temperature and 24.2% in average emissivity were found. While neither model is ideal for the entire coal flame, the Hottel and Broughton model was selected for future image processing because the images and analysis suggested soot was the more dominant emitter for most of the image. Images were obtained in a 150 kWth, pulverized-coal reactor at two different mixture oxidizer ratios of O2/CO2. The addition of CO2 decreased the average flame temperature from 2183 K to 2022 K and reduced the average emissivity from 0.59 to 0.13. The increase in CO2 lowered the temperature by increasing the dilution. The increased flow rate caused increased mixing

  5. Somatostatin receptor expression, tumour response, and quality of life in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with long-acting octreotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebon, J; Findlay, M; Hargreaves, C; Stockler, M; Thompson, P; Boyer, M; Roberts, S; Poon, A; Scott, A M; Kalff, V; Garas, G; Dowling, A; Crawford, D; Ring, J; Basser, R; Strickland, A; Macdonald, G; Green, M; Nowak, A; Dickman, B; Dhillon, H; Gebski, V

    2006-10-01

    Octreotide may extend survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Forty-one per cent of HCCs have high-affinity somatostatin receptors. We aimed to determine the feasibility, safety, and activity of long-acting octreotide in advanced HCC; to identify the best method for assessing somatostatin receptor expression; to relate receptor expression to clinical outcomes; and to evaluate toxicity. Sixty-three patients with advanced HCC received intramuscular long-acting octreotide 20 mg monthly until progression or toxicity. Median age was 67 years (range 28-81 years), male 81%, Child-Pugh A 83%, and B 17%. The aetiologies of chronic liver disease were alcohol (22%), viral hepatitis (44%), and haemochromatosis (6%). Prior treatments for HCC included surgery (8%), chemotherapy (2%), local ablation (11%), and chemoembolisation (6%). One patient had an objective partial tumour response (2%, 95% CI 0-9%). Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels decreased more than 50% in four (6%). Median survival was 8 months. Thirty four of 61 patients (56%) had receptor expression detected by scintigraphy; no clear relationship with clinical outcomes was identified. There were few grade 3 or 4 toxicities: hyperglycaemia (8%), hypoglycaemia (2%), diarrhoea (5%), and anorexia (2%). Patients reported improvements in some symptoms, but no major changes in quality of life were detected. Long-acting octreotide is safe in advanced HCC. We found little evidence of anticancer activity. A definitive randomised trial would identify whether patients benefit from this treatment in other ways. PMID:16953241

  6. QA (Quality Assurance) role in advanced energy activities: Towards an /open quotes/orthodox/close quotes/ Quality Program: Canonizing the traditions at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.W.

    1988-02-01

    After a brief description of the goal of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) this paper poses and answers three questions related to Quality Assurance (QA) at the Laboratory. First, what is the difference between 'orthodox' and 'unorthodox' QA and is there a place for 'orthodox' QA at a laboratory like Fermilab. Second, are the deeper philosophical and cultural frameworks of high-energy physics acommodating or antagonistic to an 'orthodox' QA Program. Finally, faced with the task of developing an institutional QA program for Fermilab where does one begin. The paper is based on experience with the on-going development and implementation of an institutional QA Program at Fermilab. 10 refs.

  7. The association of quality of life with potentially remediable disruptions of circadian sleep/activity rhythms in patients with advanced lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Donald P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer patients routinely develop symptoms consistent with profound circadian disruption, which causes circadian disruption diminished quality of life. This study was initiated to determine the relationship between the severity of potentially remediable cancer-associated circadian disruption and quality of life among patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods We concurrently investigated the relationship between the circadian rhythms of 84 advanced lung cancer patients and their quality of life outcomes as measured by the EORTC QLQ C30 and Ferrans and Powers QLI. The robustness and stability of activity/sleep circadian daily rhythms were measured by actigraphy. Fifty three of the patients in the study were starting their definitive therapy following diagnosis and thirty one patients were beginning second-line therapy. Among the patients who failed prior therapy, the median time between completing definitive therapy and baseline actigraphy was 4.3 months, (interquartile range 2.1 to 9.8 months. Results We found that circadian disruption is universal and severe among these patients compared to non-cancer-bearing individuals. We found that each of these patient's EORTC QLQ C30 domain scores revealed a compromised capacity to perform the routine activities of daily life. The severity of several, but not all, EORTC QLQ C30 symptom items correlate strongly with the degree of individual circadian disruption. In addition, the scores of all four Ferrans/Powers QLI domains correlate strongly with the degree of circadian disruption. Although Ferrans/Powers QLI domain scores show that cancer and its treatment spared these patients' emotional and psychological health, the QLI Health/Function domain score revealed high levels of patients' dissatisfaction with their health which is much worse when circadian disruption is severe. Circadian disruption selectively affects specific Quality of Life domains, such as the Ferrans/Powers Health

  8. Spectroscopy of flame emission temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study laser induced fluorescence technique is applied to bunsen burner flame.The emission spectra of the bunsen burner which consist visible and infrared bands coming from exited CH and H2O vapor molecules in butane/air flame, were recorded.The transition probability of the lines was calculated.The ratio of the emission intensity peaks was used for the estimation of the local temperature in different positions above the primary reaction zone. It was shown that the ratio of emission lines corresponding to λ1 and λ2 changes smoothly with temperature, which makes valid the empirically obtained relationship.This technique is used as a thermometer to determine different temperatures remotely. This is necessarily needed for measuring high temperatures in certain industries.(Author)

  9. More results on oscillating edge-flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine a simple model of a side-anchored non-premixed edge-flame in order to gain insights into the oscillations that are sometimes observed in microgravity candle burning, flame-spread over liquids, etc. Previous results describe the role played by the Lewis number of the fuel, and the Damkoehler number, and here we examine both the effects of an on-edge and off-edge convective flow, and the effects of a heat sink. The on-edge flow and the heat sink tend to destabilize and the off-edge flow tends to stabilize, results consistent with our hypothesis regarding the genesis of the oscillations. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Parametric Erosion Investigation: Propellant Adiabatic Flame Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Conroy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of quasi-independent parameters and their potential influence on erosion in guns have been investigated. Specifically, the effects of flame temperature and the effect of assuming that the Lewis number (ratio of mass-to-heat transport to the surface, Le = 1, has been examined. The adiabatic flame temperature for a propellant was reduced by the addition of a diluent from a high temperature of 3843 K (similar to that of M9 down to 3004 K, which is near the value for M30A1 propellant. Mass fractions of critical species at the surface with and without the assumption of Le = 1 are presented, demonstrating that certain species preferentially reach the surface providing varied conditions for the surface reactions. The results for gun tube bore surface regression qualitatively agree with previous studies and with current experimental data.

  11. Flame-in-gas-shield and miniature diffusion flame hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: optimization and comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed optimization of relevant experimental parameters of two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: flame-in-gas-shield atomizer with a two-channel shielding unit and a standard atomizer for atomic fluorescence spectrometry, miniature diffusion flame, was performed. Arsine, generated by the reaction with NaBH4 in a flow injection arrangement, was chosen as the model hydride. Analytical characteristics of both the atomizers (sensitivity, noise, limits of detection) were compared. Under optimum conditions sensitivity obtained with flame-in-gas-shield atomizer was approximately twice higher than with miniature diffusion flame. The additional advantage of flame-in-gas-shield atomizer is significantly lower flame emission resulting in a better signal to noise ratio. The resulting arsenic limits of detection for miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were 3.8 ng l−1 and 1.0 ng l−1, respectively. - Highlights: • We optimized and compared two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. • Miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were optimized. • The limit of detection for arsenic was 1.0 ng l−1

  12. Analytical study in the mechanism of flame movement in horizontal tubes. II. Flame acceleration in smooth open tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, Kirill A

    2013-01-01

    The problem of spontaneous acceleration of premixed flames propagating in open horizontal tubes with smooth walls is revisited. It is proved that in long tubes, this process can be considered quasi-steady, and an equation for the flame front position is derived using the on-shell description. Numerical solutions of this equation are found which show that as in the case of uniform flame movement, there are two essentially different regimes of flame propagation. In the type I regime, the flame speed and its acceleration are comparatively low, whereas the type II regime is characterized by significant flame acceleration that rapidly increases as the flame travels along the tube. A detailed comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data on flame acceleration in methane-air mixtures is given. In particular, it is confirmed that flames propagating in near-stoichiometric mixtures and mixtures near the limits of inflammability belong to the types II and I, respectively, whereas flames in transient mixt...

  13. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, J G; Becher, G; Berg, van den, C.A.; Boer; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume are the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Because of their persistence and low biodegradation profile, several of the PBDE ...

  14. Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes three new methods for performing simple flame tests using cotton swabs. The first method uses a Bunsen burner and solid metal salts; the second method uses a Bunsen burner and 1 M aqueous solutions of metal salts; and the third method uses candles, rubbing alcohol, and solid metal salts. These methods have the advantage of being easy to perform, require inexpensive and easily-obtained materials, and have easy cleanup and disposal methods. See the Discussion on this Tested Demonstation .

  15. Numerical study of one swirling flame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yang; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Yin, Chungen

    This paper presents numerical study of one of Sydney swirl flames. Good agreements gained between numerical results and the experimental data. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES) methods show different flow patterns in isothermal and reacting case. The influence...... of heat release is considered by comparing cold flow structure with same boundary conditions and reaction flow structure using RANS results. The research built the framework for the following reacting flow studies using LES....

  16. Computational and experimental study of laminar flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smooke, Mitchell [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-05-29

    During the past three years, our research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in coflowing axisymmetric configurations. We have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel on both steady-state and time-dependent systems. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the steady-state and time-dependent boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. Previously, spontaneous Raman scattering, chemiluminescence, and laser-induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to investigate velocity distributions and for calibration of time-varying flames. Laser-induced incandescence (LII) with an extinction calibration was used to determine soot volume fractions, while soot surface temperatures were measured with three-color optical pyrometry using a color digital camera. A blackbody calibration of the camera allows for determination of soot volume fraction as well, which can be compared with the LII measurements. More recently, we have concentrated on a detailed characterization of soot using a variety of techniques including time-resolved LII (TiRe-LII) for soot primary particles sizes, multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for soot radius of gyration, and spectrally-resolved line of sight attenuation (spec-LOSA). Combining the information from all of these soot measurements can be used to determine the soot optical properties, which are observed to vary significantly depending on spatial location and fuel dilution. Our goal has been to obtain a more fundamental understanding of the important fluid dynamic and chemical interactions in

  17. Application of simultaneous determination of inorganic ionic species by advanced ion chromatography for water quality monitoring of river water and wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobutake NAKATANI; Daisuke KOZAKI; Kazuhiko TANAKA

    2012-01-01

    In this study,our recent work on advanced ion chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of inorganic ionic species such as common anions ( SO42 -,Cl- and NO3- ) and cations (Na+,NH4+,K+,Mg2+,and Ca2 + ),nutrients ( phosphate and silicate) and hydrogen ion/alkalinity are summarized first.Then,the applications using these methods for monitoring environmental water quality are also presented.For the determination of common anions and cations with nutrients,the separation was successfully performed by a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange column of TSKgel Super IC-A/C ( Tosoh,150 mm x 6.0 mm i.d.) and a mixture solution of 100 mmol/L ascorbic acid and 4 mmol/L 18-crown-6 as acidic eluent with dual detection of conductivity and spectrophotometry.For the determination of hydrogen ion/alkelinity,the separation was conducted by TSKgel ODS-100Z column (Tosoh,150 mm ×4.5 mm i.d.) modified with lithium dodecylsulfate and an eluent of 40 mmol/L LiCl/0.1 mmol/L lithium dodecylsulfate/0.05 mmol/L H2SO4 with conductivity detector.The differences of ion concentration between untreated and treated wastewater showed the variation of ionic species during biological treatment process in a sewage treatment plant.Occurrence and distribution of water-quality conditions were related to the bioavailability and human activity in watershed.From these results,our advanced ion chromatographic methods have contributed significantly for water quality monitoring of environmental waters.

  18. Flames in fractal grid generated turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, K H H; Hampp, F; Lindstedt, R P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Geipel, P, E-mail: p.lindstedt@imperial.ac.uk [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, SE-612 83 Finspong (Sweden)

    2013-12-15

    Twin premixed turbulent opposed jet flames were stabilized for lean mixtures of air with methane and propane in fractal grid generated turbulence. A density segregation method was applied alongside particle image velocimetry to obtain velocity and scalar statistics. It is shown that the current fractal grids increase the turbulence levels by around a factor of 2. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to show that the fractal grids produce slightly larger turbulent structures that decay at a slower rate as compared to conventional perforated plates. Conditional POD (CPOD) was also implemented using the density segregation technique and the results show that CPOD is essential to segregate the relative structures and turbulent kinetic energy distributions in each stream. The Kolmogorov length scales were also estimated providing values {approx}0.1 and {approx}0.5 mm in the reactants and products, respectively. Resolved profiles of flame surface density indicate that a thin flame assumption leading to bimodal statistics is not perfectly valid under the current conditions and it is expected that the data obtained will be of significant value to the development of computational methods that can provide information on the conditional structure of turbulence. It is concluded that the increase in the turbulent Reynolds number is without any negative impact on other parameters and that fractal grids provide a route towards removing the classical problem of a relatively low ratio of turbulent to bulk strain associated with the opposed jet configuration. (paper)

  19. Nurse Mentors to Advance Quality Improvement in Primary Health Centers: Lessons From a Pilot Program in Northern Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Elizabeth A; Jayana, Krishnamurthy; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Mony, Prem; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Trained nurse mentors catalyzed quality improvements in facility-based maternal and newborn care by: (1) encouraging use of self-assessment checklists and team-based problem solving, (2) introducing case sheets to ensure adherence to clinical guidelines, and (3) strengthening clinical skills through on-site demonstrations and bedside teaching. Inadequate leadership and staffing were challenges in some facilities. Some social norms, such as client resistance to referral and to staying 48 hours...

  20. Advancing the Potential of Citizen Science for Urban Water Quality Monitoring: Exploring Research Design and Methodology in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, D.; Farnham, D. J.; Gibson, R.; McGillis, W. R.; Culligan, P. J.; Cooper, C.; Larson, L.; Mailloux, B. J.; Buchanan, R.; Borus, N.; Zain, N.; Eddowes, D.; Butkiewicz, L.; Loiselle, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen Science is a fast-growing ecological research tool with proven potential to rapidly produce large datasets. While the fields of astronomy and ornithology demonstrate particularly successful histories of enlisting the public in conducting scientific work, citizen science applications to the field of hydrology have been relatively underutilized. We demonstrate the potential of citizen science for monitoring water quality, particularly in the impervious, urban environment of New York City (NYC) where pollution via stormwater runoff is a leading source of waterway contamination. Through partnerships with HSBC, Earthwatch, and the NYC Water Trail Association, we have trained two citizen science communities to monitor the quality of NYC waterways, testing for a suite of water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, phosphate, nitrate, and Enterococci (an indicator bacteria for the presence of harmful pathogens associated with fecal pollution). We continue to enhance these citizen science programs with two additions to our methodology. First, we designed and produced at-home incubation ovens for Enterococci analysis, and second, we are developing automated photo-imaging for nitrate and phosphate concentrations. These improvements make our work more publicly accessible while maintaining scientific accuracy. We also initiated a volunteer survey assessing the motivations for participation among our citizen scientists. These three endeavors will inform future applications of citizen science for urban hydrological research. Ultimately, the spatiotemporally-rich dataset of waterway quality produced from our citizen science efforts will help advise NYC policy makers about the impacts of green infrastructure and other types of government-led efforts to clean up NYC waterways.

  1. Temperature and velocity measurements in premixed turbulent flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandekar, K. V.; Gouldin, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    Turbulent flame speed data for premixed flames of methane-air, propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures stabilized in grid turbulence are reported and discussed. It is shown that turbulence effects on flame speed cannot be fully correlated by the turbulence length scale and r.m.s. velocity in the cold flow. Rather there appear to be significant flame-flow-turbulence interactions affecting both turbulence level in the reaction zone and measured flame speeds. Results of detailed velocity measurements, including autocorrelations, by laser velocimetry are used to elucidate the nature of these interactions. It is concluded that flame speed experiments must be designed and conducted to provide sufficient information (e.g., boundary conditions) to allow for reconstruction of the flow field and these interactions by modelers if the data are to be of value in turbulent combustion model development and evaluation.

  2. Analysis of Aluminum Dust Cloud Combustion Using Flame Emission Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyup; Noh, Kwanyoung; Yoon, Woongsup

    2015-09-01

    In this study, aluminum flame analysis was researched in order to develop a measurement method for high-energy-density metal aluminum dust cloud combustion, and the flame temperature and UV-VIS-IR emission spectra were precisely measured using a spectrometer. Because the micron-sized aluminum flame temperature was higher than 2400 K, Flame temperature was measured by a non-contact optical technique, namely, a modified two-color method using 520 and 640 nm light, as well as by a polychromatic fitting method. These methods were applied experimentally after accurate calibration. The flame temperature was identified to be higher than 2400 K using both methods. By analyzing the emission spectra, we could identify AlO radicals, which occur dominantly in aluminum combustion. This study paves the way for realization of a measurement technique for aluminum dust cloud combustion flames, and it will be applied in the aluminum combustors that are in development for military purposes. PMID:26669143

  3. Flame inhibition by hydrogen halides - Some spectroscopic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, N. R.; Cagliostro, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The far-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of an air-propane diffusion flame inhibited with hydrogen halides has been studied. Plots of the absorption of light by hydrogen halides as a function of position in the flame and also as a function of the amount of hydrogen halide added to the flame have been obtained. The hydrogen halides are shown to be more stable on the fuel side of the reaction zone than they are on the air side. Thermal diffusion is seen to be important in determining the concentration distribution of the heavier hydrogen halides in diffusion flames. The relationship between the concentration distribution of the hydrogen halides in the flame and the flame inhibition mechanism is discussed.

  4. Microwave plasma burner and temperature measurements in its flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus for generating flames and more particularly the microwave plasma burner for generating high-temperature large-volume plasma flame was presented. The plasma burner is operated by injecting liquid hydrocarbon fuels into a microwave plasma torch in air discharge and by mixing the resultant gaseous hydrogen and carbon compounds with air or oxygen gas. The microwave plasma torch can instantaneously vaporize and decompose the hydrogen and carbon containing fuels. It was observed that the flame volume of the burner was more than 50 times that of the torch plasma. While the temperature of the torch plasma flame was only 550 K at a measurement point, that of the plasma-burner flame with the addition of 0.025 lpm (liters per minute) kerosene and 20 lpm oxygen drastically increased to about 1850 K. A preliminary experiment was carried out, measuring the temperature profiles of flames along the radial and axial directions

  5. Characteristics of turbulent nonpremixed jet flame in cross air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study on the characteristics of stability of propane turbulent nonpremixed jet flames discharged normal to air free-streams with uniform velocity profile is conducted. Experimental observations are focused on the flame shape, the stability considering two kinds of flame, lift-off distance,and the flame length according to velocity ratio. In order to investigate the mixing structure of the flame base at the lower limit, we employ the RMS technique and measure the species consent ration by a gas chromatography. In the results of the stability curve and lifted flame, it is found that the dependency of nozzle diameter is closely related to the large-scale vortical structure representing counter-rotating vortices pair. Also, the detailed discussion on the phenomenon of blowout due to this large vortical motion, is provided

  6. Dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flames in mesoscale channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizza, Gianmarco [Paul Scherrer Institute, Combustion Research, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092, Zurich (Switzerland); Frouzakis, Christos E.; Boulouchos, Konstantinos [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092, Zurich (Switzerland); Mantzaras, John [Paul Scherrer Institute, Combustion Research, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Tomboulides, Ananias G. [Department of Engineering and Management of Energy Resources, University of Western Macedonia, 50100 Kozani (Greece)

    2008-10-15

    Direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and transport is used to study the stabilization and dynamics of lean ({phi}=0.5) premixed hydrogen/air atmospheric pressure flames in mesoscale planar channels. Channel heights of h=2, 4, and 7 mm, and inflow velocities in the range 0.3{<=}U{sub IN}{<=}1100cm/ s are investigated. Six different burning modes are identified: mild combustion, ignition/extinction, closed steady symmetric flames, open steady symmetric flames, oscillating and, finally, asymmetric flames. Chaotic behavior of cellular flame structures is observed for certain values of U{sub IN}. Stability maps delineating the regions of the different flame types are finally constructed. (author)

  7. New developments in the theory of flame propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivashinsky, G.I. [City College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Two topics in combustion fluid mechanics are discussed. The first is a theory of the outward propagating spherical flame in the regime of well-developed hydrodynamic instability. In a qualitative agreement with experimental observations it is shown that the flame assumes a fractal-like wrinkled structure resulting in the overall burning rate acceleration. In contrast to hydrodynamically unstable flames, the expanding flame subject exclusively to the effect of diffusive instability does not indicate any disposition toward acceleration. The second topic concerns the dynamics of diffusively unstable flames subjected to radiative heat losses. At high enough heat losses the flame breaks up into separate self-propagating cap-like flamelets while a significant portion of the fuel remains unconsumed.

  8. Coherent structure dynamics during turbulence-flame interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Eileen; Green, Melissa; Hamlington, Peter; Poludnenko, Alexi; Oran, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have been conducted to characterize the turbulence-flame interaction in reacting flows quantitatively. It has been observed that increased turbulence intensity both wrinkles and broadens the flame front throughout the preheat zone and reaction zone. In addition, previous studies showed that interaction with the flame changes the orientation of turbulent structures and and in some cases incites loss of vorticity, but the physical mechanism of this interaction was still unclear. An Eulerian analysis (Q criterion) is preformed to track structures through the flow, and to visualize the vortex transformation as it encounters the flame. This is coupled with the contours of the fuel-mass fraction, density, and pressure throughout the flame brush to provide insight into the physical interaction between turbulent structures and the flame. A complete description of the physical mechanism could provide insight into ways to design engine inlets for efficient mixing in combustion applications.

  9. Advances in Research of Meat Quality Improvement%国外肉品品质改良研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张哲奇; 李丹; 张凯华; 臧明伍

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of meat quality improvement is important for guiding meat production and improving the processing technology and quality. In this paper, the latest technologies in recent 5 years for meat quality improvement are reviewed with focus on the influence of dietary adjustment, slaughter and postmortem aging technologies, genetic modification of animals, heat processing, use of food additives and preservation process optimization on meat color, flavor and structure, aiming to provide references for future studies in this field.%研究肉品品质改良对于指导肉品生产、优化加工工艺、提高食品品质等具有重要意义。本文综述了近5年国外肉品品质改良的最新研究进展,主要分析了日粮调节、屠宰和成熟工艺、基因改良、热加工、食品添加剂使用和贮存工艺优化对肉品色泽、风味、组织状态等食用品质的影响,以期为国内相关研究提供参考和借鉴。

  10. Applications of Computer Vision for Assessing Quality of Agri-food Products: A Review of Recent Research Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Da-Wen; Qu, Jia-Huan; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin; Gao, Wen-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An

    2016-01-01

    With consumer concerns increasing over food quality and safety, the food industry has begun to pay much more attention to the development of rapid and reliable food-evaluation systems over the years. As a result, there is a great need for manufacturers and retailers to operate effective real-time assessments for food quality and safety during food production and processing. Computer vision, comprising a nondestructive assessment approach, has the aptitude to estimate the characteristics of food products with its advantages of fast speed, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation. Specifically, computer vision systems are feasible for classifying food products into specific grades, detecting defects, and estimating properties such as color, shape, size, surface defects, and contamination. Therefore, in order to track the latest research developments of this technology in the agri-food industry, this review aims to present the fundamentals and instrumentation of computer vision systems with details of applications in quality assessment of agri-food products from 2007 to 2013 and also discuss its future trends in combination with spectroscopy. PMID:24689735

  11. Adiabatic Flame Temperature and Specific Heat of Combustion Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Torii, Shuichi; Yano, Toshiaki; Tsunoda, Yukio; トリイ, シュウイチ; ヤノ, トシアキ; ツノダ, ユキオ; 鳥居, 修一; 矢野, 利明; 角田, 幸男

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to examine adiabatic flame temperature and the specific heat of combustion gases for both hydrocarbon-air and alcohol-air mixtures by means of a method of chemical equilibrium calculation. Emphasis is placed on the elucidation of simplified correlation equations capable of predicting (i) adiabatic flame temperature at any equivalence ratio and (ii) the specific heat of combustion gases when the adiabatic flame temperature, the gas temperature and the equivalence...

  12. Heat transfers from gaseous fuel - oxygen flames to metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelen, J.; Kadirgan, N.; Sarac, A. (Yildiz Univ., Istanbul (TR). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Because the flames produced by burning gaseous fuels with oxygen are too hot (3000{sup o}C), the heat transfers from these flames to metals cannot be investigated by classical methods. In the present study, the validity of a method depending on measuring the cutting time has been explored in order to compare the effectiveness of premixed gaseous fuel-oxygen flames from a heat transfer point of view. (author).

  13. Effects Of Electric Field On Hydrocarbon-Fueled Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z.-G.; Hegde, U.

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed that flames are susceptible to electric fields that are much weaker than the breakdown field strength of the flame gases. When an external electric field is imposed on a flame, the ions generated in the flame reaction zone drift in the direction of the electric forces exerted on them. The moving ions collide with the neutral species and change the velocity distribution in the affected region. This is often referred to as ionic wind effect. In addition, the removal of ions from the flame reaction zone can alter the chemical reaction pathway of the flame. On the other hand, the presence of space charges carried by moving ions affects the electric field distribution. As a result, the flame often changes its shape, location and color once an external electric field is applied. The interplay between the flame movement and the change of electric field makes it difficult to determine the flame location for a given configuration of electrodes and fuel source. In normal gravity, the buoyancy-induced flow often complicates the problem and hinders detailed study of the interaction between the flame and the electric field. In this work, the microgravity environment established at the 2.2 Second Drop Tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center is utilized to effectively remove the buoyant acceleration. The interaction between the flame and the electric field is studied in a one-dimensional domain. A specially designed electrode makes flame current measurements possible; thus, the mobility of ions, ion density, and ionic wind effect can be evaluated.

  14. Measurement of flame emissivity of gasoline pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major engineering parameter of interest in open pool fires is flame emissivity. Mass burning rate is measured for gasoline pool fires of pool diameters 0.3 m, 0.5 m, 0.7 m and 1.0 m. Flame emissivities of the pool fires are inferred from the mass burning rate. It is observed that the emissivity of the flame increases with the diameter. The mean optical thickness of gasoline pool fires is found to be 1.52 m-1. Using thermography, emissivity variation with the height of the flame of gasoline pool fire is investigated for diameters of 0.3 m, 0.5 m, 0.7 m and 1.0 m. In this thermography technique, multiple black bodies are placed at different heights behind the flame. Emissivity of the flame at the flame tip is lower than that at the base of the pool fire. The average value of the flame emissivity measured using thermography is comparable with the flame emissivity inferred from the mass burning rate value.

  15. Effects of Lewis Number on Temperatures of Spherical Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, K. J.; Sun, Z.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Axelbaum, R. I.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    Spherical diffusion flames supported on a porous sphere were studied numerically and experimentally. Experiments were performed in 2.2 s and 5.2 s microgravity facilities. Numerical results were obtained from a Chemkin-based program. The program simulates flow from a porous sphere into a quiescent environment, yields both steady-state and transient results, and accounts for optically thick gas-phase radiation. The low flow velocities and long residence times in these diffusion flames lead to enhanced radiative and diffusive effects. Despite similar adiabatic flame temperatures, the measured and predicted temperatures varied by as much as 700 K. The temperature reduction correlates with flame size but characteristic flow times and, importantly, Lewis number also influence temperature. The numerical results show that the ambient gas Lewis number would have a strong effect on flame temperature if the flames were steady and nonradiating. For example, a 10% decrease in Lewis number would increase the steady-state flame temperature by 200 K. However, for these transient, radiating flames the effect of Lewis number is small. Transient predictions of flame sizes are larger than those observed in microgravity experiments. Close agreement could not be obtained without either increasing the model s thermal and mass diffusion properties by 30% or reducing mass flow rate by 25%.

  16. Effects of buoyancy on gas jet diffusion flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, M. Yousef; Edelman, Raymond B.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental phenomena involved in laminar gas jet diffusion flames in the absence of buoyancy by studying the transient phenomena of ignition and flame development, (quasi-) steady-state flame characteristics, soot effects, radiation, and, if any, extinction phenomena. This involved measurements of flame size and development, as well as temperature and radiation. Additionally, flame behavior, color, and luminosity were observed and recorded. The tests quantified the effects of Reynolds number, nozzle size, fuel reactivity and type, oxygen concentration, and pressure on flame characteristics. Analytical and numerical modeling efforts were also performed. Methane and propane flames were studied in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower and the 5.18-Second Zero-Gravity Facility of NASA LeRC. In addition, a preliminary series of tests were conducted in the KC-135 research aircraft. Both micro-gravity and normal-gravity flames were studied in this program. The results have provided unique and new information on the behavior and characteristics of gas jet diffusion flames in micro-gravity environments.

  17. Product engineering by high-temperature flame synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid;

    product gas can be applied directly in additional product engineering concepts. A brief overview of on-going product developments and product engineering projects is outlined below. These projects, which are all founded on flame synthesis of nano-structured materials, include: • Preparation of catalyzed......High-temperature flame processes can be applied as a tool for chemical product engineering. The general principle behind flame synthesis is the decomposition/oxidation of evaporated metal-precursors in a flame, thereby forming metal oxide monomers which nucleate, aggregate, and - to some extent...

  18. Measurement of flame emissivity of gasoline pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudheer, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Powai, Mumbai - 400 076 (India); Prabhu, S.V., E-mail: svprabhu@iitb.ac.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Powai, Mumbai - 400 076 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Major engineering parameter of interest in open pool fires is flame emissivity. Mass burning rate is measured for gasoline pool fires of pool diameters 0.3 m, 0.5 m, 0.7 m and 1.0 m. Flame emissivities of the pool fires are inferred from the mass burning rate. It is observed that the emissivity of the flame increases with the diameter. The mean optical thickness of gasoline pool fires is found to be 1.52 m{sup -1}. Using thermography, emissivity variation with the height of the flame of gasoline pool fire is investigated for diameters of 0.3 m, 0.5 m, 0.7 m and 1.0 m. In this thermography technique, multiple black bodies are placed at different heights behind the flame. Emissivity of the flame at the flame tip is lower than that at the base of the pool fire. The average value of the flame emissivity measured using thermography is comparable with the flame emissivity inferred from the mass burning rate value.

  19. Research on Alkaline Filler Flame-Retarded Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; ZHANG Houji; WANG Jiaolan

    2006-01-01

    Used as flame retardant of tunnel asphalt pavement, organic bromides produce a large amount of poisons and smoke in construction and flame retardation stage. The alkaline filler was found to replace mineral filler, and the flame-retarded asphalt mixtures were produced. Experimental results show that these asphalt mixtures are smoke restrained; the performances and construction technology of asphalt pavement are not influenced; also the alkaline filler is of low-price. So this kind of flame-retarded asphalt mixtures is suitable for tunnel pavement.

  20. Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe

    2001-01-01

    Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education. We provide information on the nature of flame retardants in general and the mechanisms of flame retardation. In addition, we offer a complete pedagogical presentation of the topic, including the use of video and some simple laboratory experiments, that was developed and successfully implemented in both countries. Featured on the Cover

  1. Active Control for Statistically Stationary Turbulent PremixedFlame Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Grcar, J.F.; Lijewski, M.J.

    2005-08-30

    The speed of propagation of a premixed turbulent flame correlates with the intensity of the turbulence encountered by the flame. One consequence of this property is that premixed flames in both laboratory experiments and practical combustors require some type of stabilization mechanism to prevent blow-off and flashback. The stabilization devices often introduce a level of geometric complexity that is prohibitive for detailed computational studies of turbulent flame dynamics. Furthermore, the stabilization introduces additional fluid mechanical complexity into the overall combustion process that can complicate the analysis of fundamental flame properties. To circumvent these difficulties we introduce a feedback control algorithm that allows us to computationally stabilize a turbulent premixed flame in a simple geometric configuration. For the simulations, we specify turbulent inflow conditions and dynamically adjust the integrated fueling rate to control the mean location of the flame in the domain. We outline the numerical procedure, and illustrate the behavior of the control algorithm on methane flames at various equivalence ratios in two dimensions. The simulation data are used to study the local variation in the speed of propagation due to flame surface curvature.

  2. The structure of horizontal hydrogen-steam diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes a systematic study on the stability, peak temperature and flame length of various horizontal hydrogen-steam diffusion flames in air. Results from this study are discussed in terms of their impact on hydrogen management in a nuclear containment building after a nuclear reactor accident. They show that, for a certain range of emerging hydrogen-steam compositions, a stable diffusion flame can anchor itself at the break in the primary heat transport system. The length of this flame can be up to 100 times the break diameter. This implies that creation of a stable diffusion flame at the break is a possible outcome of the deliberate ignition mitigation scheme. The high temperature and heat flux from a diffusion flame can threaten nearby equipment. However, due to the presence of steam and turbulent mixing with surrounding air, the peak temperatures of these diffusion flames are much lower than the adiabatic constant pressure combustion temperature of a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture. These results suggest that the threat of a diffusion flame anchored at the break may be less severe than conservative analysis would indicate. Furthermore, such a flame can remove hydrogen at the source and minimize the possibility of a global gas explosion. (author)

  3. Radiation Heat Transfer in Particle-Laden Gaseous Flame: Flame Acceleration and Triggering Detonation

    OpenAIRE

    Liberman, M. A.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine influence of the radiation heat transfer on the combustion regimes in the mixture, formed by suspension of fine inert particles in hydrogen gas. The gaseous phase is assumed to be transparent for the thermal radiation, while the radiant heat absorbed by the particles is then lost by conduction to the surrounding gas. The particles and gas ahead of the flame is assumed to be heated by radiation from the original flame. It is shown that the maximum temperature increase ...

  4. Characteristics Of Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet-Flames And Jet-Flames In Crossflow In Normal- And Low-Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, N. T.; Boxx, I. G.; Idicheria, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that buoyancy has a major influence on the flow structure of turbulent nonpremixed jet flames. For example, previous studies have shown that transitional and turbulent jet flames exhibit flame lengths that are as much as a factor of two longer in microgravity than in normal gravity. The objective of this study is to extend these previous studies by investigating both mean and fluctuating characteristics of turbulent nonpremixed jet flames under three different gravity levels (1 g, 20 mg and 100 micrograms). This work is described in more detail elsewhere. In addition, we have recently initiated a new study into the effects of buoyancy on turbulent nonpremixed jet flames in cross-flow (JFICF). Buoyancy has been observed to play a key role in determining the centerline trajectories of such flames.6 The objective of this study is to use the low gravity environment to study the effects of buoyancy on the turbulent characteristics of JFICF.

  5. Quality-of-Life-Adjusted Survival Analysis of Concurrent Chemo Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced (Nonmetastatic) Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess whether the benefits of adding cisplatin (CDDP) concurrent with radiotherapy, followed by adjuvant CDDP and fluorouracil, justifies the toxicity cost for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) using the quality-adjusted time without symptoms or toxicity (Q-TWiST) approach. Methods and Materials: One hundred seven patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) and 111 with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CRT) were analyzed. The overall survival was divided into three health states: time on active treatment only, during which any subjective nonhematologic toxic event of grade > = 3 was reported; time without symptoms of disease relapse; or treatment and time following first disease RELapse. The relative advantage of CRT and RT was examined by conducting the analysis cumulatively at restriction times 3, 6, 24, 36, 48 months. Results: At 48 months, the improvement in disease-free survival was 14.4% for CRT, whereas that for overall survival was 18.9%. The differences in Q-TWiST were -0.4, -0.7, 0.1, 1.6, and 3.6 months at 3, 6, 24, 36, and 48 months, respectively, with positive differences favoring CRT. At 24 months, the difference in Q-TWiST began to favor CRT. At 36 months, CRT may be the preferred option from the patient's viewpoint if the time spent in the REL state is valued to be <0.83, with the value of perfect health being 1. Finally, Q-TWiST accumulated within 48 months indicated a significant advantage in quality-adjusted survival time for CRT (p = 0.020). Conclusion: Irrespective of how patients valued periods of toxicity and delayed disease progression, concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy offered NPC patients significantly more quality-adjusted survival than radiotherapy alone in the long term.

  6. A Novel Process for High-efficient Synthesis of One-dimensional Carbon Nanoraaterials from Flames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang QI; Jun ZHANG; Chunxu PAN

    2008-01-01

    The substrate pre-treatment plays a key role in obtaining hollow-cored carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and solidcored carbon nanofibers (CNFs) from flames. This paper introduces a simply and high-efficient process by coating a NiSO4 or FeSO4 layer on the substrate as catalyst precursors. Comparing with the regular pretreatment methods, the present experiments showed that the coating pre-treatment provided the following advantages: 1) greatly shortening the synthesis time; 2) available variant substrates and carbon sources; 3) narrowing the diameters distribution. The sulfate is considered to be a crucial factor at the growth of CNTs and CNFs, because it increases the surface energy of catalyst particles and the surface specificity of sulfurs action in metallic grains. This novel process provides a possibility for high quality and mass production of CNTs and CNFs from flames.

  7. Effect of flame-tube head structure on combustion chamber performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Minqqi

    1986-01-01

    The experimental combustion performance of a premixed, pilot-type flame tube with various head structures is discussed. The test study covers an extensive area: efficiency of the combustion chamber, quality of the outlet temperature field, limit of the fuel-lean blowout, ignition performance at ground starting, and carbon deposition. As a result of these tests, a nozzle was found which fits the premixed pilot flame tube well. The use of this nozzle optimized the performance of the combustion chamber. The tested models had premixed pilot chambers with two types of air-film-cooling structures, six types of venturi-tube structures, and secondary fuel nozzles with two small spray-cone angles.

  8. Local Velocity Field Measurements towards Understanding Flame Stabilization of Turbulent Non-premixed Jet Flames in Vitiated Coflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Aravind; Mothe, Anirudh Reddy; Narayanaswamy, Venkateswaran

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent combustion of a non-premixed methane jet issuing into a vitiated coflow is being studied in our lab. Flame luminosity studies demonstrated three dominant characteristic flame motions - a stable flame base (Mode A), complete blowout (Mode B), and partial blowout followed by re-anchoring of the flame by autoignition kernels (Mode C). The experiments presented in this work focused on Mode A, and were carried out over a range of oxidizer temperatures, oxygen molefractions, and fuel jet Reynolds numbers. Measurements of 2-D velocity fields near the base of the lifted jet flame were obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with the objective to delineate the dominant mechanisms involved in the flame stabilization. Statistical analysis of these instantaneous velocity fields will be presented, which shows non-trivial contributions from autoignition kernels as well as edge flame propagation towards flame stabilization. The effect of vortices and high local strain rates was observed to produce local extinctions and destabilize the flame, indicating their role as precursors to (unstable) Mode B and Mode C motions. NSF Grant CBET-1511216.

  9. Validation of the quality of life-radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI) in patients receiving definitive radiation therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The incidence of prostate cancer has tripled over the last 10 years, doubled over the last four years and continues to increase. A common method of treating prostate cancer is with external beam radiotherapy with or without hormones. Accurate and comprehensive documentation through prospective studies with long term follow-up is necessary to reduce the negative impact of treatment on a patient's quality of life. While it is increasingly recognized that radiation therapy treatment for prostate cancer may result in permanent alteration of the patient's quality of life, the extent and timing of this change in quality of life has not been adequately investigated in a comprehensive and prospective manner. Furthermore, there are limited instruments developed for use with patients undergoing definitive radiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to report on the validation of the Quality of Life Radiation Therapy Instrument (QOL-RTI), a 24-item visual analogue general quality of life tool developed for use with patients receiving radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Health related quality of life was assessed in a prospective study of 62 patients treated with either combined hormonal therapy (HT) plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or EBRT alone for locally advanced prostate cancer. Quality life was measured prospectively before, during, and after radiation therapy. Results: The estimated reliability of the subscales was assessed with coefficient alpha which ranged from 0.57 to 0.68. Internal consistency was calculated using initial questionnaires for the entire sample, yielding a Cronbach's alpha of 0.82. Test-retest produced a correlation coefficient of 0.75 (p<0.0001) [n=60]. Construct validity was assessed by a repeated measures design to look for time effect, group effect, group and time interaction effect. We examined quality of life total scores, subscale total scores and performance status scores for patients who were treated with HT+ EBRT and

  10. Use of advanced regional airshed models to study the effect of alternatively fueled vehicles in urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strict, ambient level standards concerning ozone and particulate matter2.5 (particulate matter) have recently been introduced in Canada. The formation of these substances is dependent on chemical reactions in the atmosphere among primary emitted substances like nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide. Therefore ozone and particulate matter have been classed as secondary. Complex modelling systems were created in an effort to better understand the origin of the ozone and particulate matter levels. The models include MC2/Calgrid, PATH framework in Hong Kong and the Models 3 Framework in the United States. The modelling systems enable scientists to assess air quality problems on a regional basis as well as the determination of appropriate potential solutions. The results of recent modelling efforts in Canada were reported on in this paper. The results of an assessment of the effects of alternatively fuelled vehicles on the ozone levels in the Vancouver area were included. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  11. Diffusion Flame Extinction in a Low Strain Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutula, Jason; Jones, Joshua; Torero, Jose L.; Borlik, Jeffrey; Ezekoye, Ofodike A.

    1997-01-01

    Diffusion flames are of great interest in fire safety and many industrial processes. Many parameters significantly affect the flame structure, shape and stability, of particular importance are the constraints imposed by geometrical boundaries. Physical boundaries determine the characteristics of the flow, affect heat, fuel, and oxidizer transport from and towards the flame and can act as heat sinks or heat sources. As a result, the existence of a flame, its shape and nature are intimately related to the geometrical characteristics of the environment that surrounds it. The counter-flow configuration provides a constant strain flow, therefore, is ideal to study the structure of diffusion flames. Most studies have concentrated on the high velocity, high strain limit, since buoyantly induced instabilities will disintegrate the planar flame as the velocity decreases. Only recently, experimental studies in micro-gravity conditions have begun to explore the low strain regimes. The main objective of these on-going studies is to determine the effect of radiative heat losses and variable strain on the structure and radiation-induced extinction of diffusion flames. For these programs, size, geometry, and experimental conditions have been chosen to keep the flame unaffected by the physical boundaries. Whether is the burning of condensed or gaseous fuels, for most real situations the boundaries impose a significant effect on the nature of the flame. There is, therefore, a need to better understand the effect that geometrical constraints (i.e. flow nonperpendicular to a fuel surface, heat losses to the boundaries, etc.) might have on the final characteristics of a diffusion flame. Preliminary experiments have shown that, in the absence of gravity, and depending on the distance from the flame to the boundary, three characteristically different regimes can be observed. Close to the boundary, the flame is parabolic, very thin and blue, almost soot-less. Diffusion is the main

  12. Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Iskender

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions R. Thimothée, C. Chauveau, F. Halter, I Gökalp Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement (ICARE), CNRS, 1C Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2, France This paper presents and discusses recent results on two-phase flame propagation experiments we carried out with mono-sized ethanol droplet aerosols under microgravity conditions. Fundamental studies on the flame propagation in fuel droplet clouds or sprays are essential for a better understanding of the combustion processes in many practical applications including internal combustion engines for cars, modern aircraft and liquid rocket engines. Compared to homogeneous gas phase combustion, the presence of a liquid phase considerably complicates the physico-chemical processes that make up combustion phenomena by coupling liquid atomization, droplet vaporization, mixing and heterogeneous combustion processes giving rise to various combustion regimes where ignition problems and flame instabilities become crucial to understand and control. Almost all applications of spray combustion occur under high pressure conditions. When a high pressure two-phase flame propagation is investigated under normal gravity conditions, sedimentation effects and strong buoyancy flows complicate the picture by inducing additional phenomena and obscuring the proper effect of the presence of the liquid droplets on flame propagation compared to gas phase flame propagation. Conducting such experiments under reduced gravity conditions is therefore helpful for the fundamental understanding of two-phase combustion. We are considering spherically propagating two-phase flames where the fuel aerosol is generated from a gaseous air-fuel mixture using the condensation technique of expansion cooling, based on the Wilson cloud chamber principle. This technique is widely recognized to create well-defined mono-size droplets

  13. Nonpremixed flame in a counterflow under electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2016-05-08

    Electrically assisted combustion has been studied in order to control or improve flame characteristics, and emphasizing efficiency and emission regulation. Many phenomenological observations have been reported on the positive impact of electric fields on flame, however there is a lack of detailed physical mechanisms for interpreting these. To clarify the effects of electric fields on flame, I have investigated flame structure, soot formation, and flow field with ionic wind electrical current responses in nonpremixed counterflow flames. The effects of direct current (DC) electric field on flame movement and flow field was also demonstrated in premixed Bunsen flames. When a DC electric field was applied to a lower nozzle, the flames moved toward the cathode side due to Lorentz force action on the positive ions, soot particles simultaneously disappeared completely and laser diagnostics was used to identify the results from the soot particles. To understand the effects of an electric field on flames, flow visualization was performed by Mie scattering to check the ionic wind effect, which is considered to play an important role in electric field assisted combustion. Results showed a bidirectional ionic wind, with a double-stagnant flow configuration, which blew from the flame (ionic source) toward both the cathode and the anode. This implies that the electric field affects strain rate and the axial location of stoichiometry, important factors in maintaining nonpremixed counterflow flames; thus, soot formation of the counterflow flame can also be affected by the electric field. In a test of premixed Bunsen flames having parallel electrodes, flame movement toward the cathode and bidirectional ionic wind were observed. Using PIV measurement it was found that a created radial velocity caused by positive ions (i.e. toward a cathode), was much faster than the velocity toward the anode. Even in a study of alternating current (AC) electric fields, bidirectional ionic wind could

  14. Litter decomposition over broad spatial and long time scales investigated by advanced solid-state NMR: insight into effects of climate, litter quality, and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Chen, N.; Harmon, M. E.; Li, Y.; Cao, X.; Chappell, M.

    2012-12-01

    Advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques were employed to study the chemical structural changes of litter decomposition across broad spatial and long time scales. The fresh and decomposed litter samples of four species (Acer saccharum (ACSA), Drypetes glauca (DRGL), Pinus resinosa (PIRE), and Thuja plicata (THPL)) incubated for up to 10 years at four sites under different climatic conditions (from Arctic to tropical forest) were examined. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of cutin and surface wax materials, and a depletion of carbohydrates causing overall composition to become more similar compared with original litters. However, the changes of main constituents in the four litters were inconsistent with the four litters following different pathways of decomposition at the same site. As decomposition proceeded, waxy materials decreased at the early stage and then gradually increased in PIRE; DRGL showed a significant depletion of lignin and tannin while the changes of lignin and tannin were relative small and inconsistent for ACSA and THPL. In addition, the NCH groups, which could be associated with either fungal cell wall chitin or bacterial wall petidoglycan, were enriched in all litters except THPL. Contrary to the classic lignin-enrichment hypothesis, DRGL with low-quality C substrate had the highest degree of composition changes. Furthermore, some samples had more "advanced" compositional changes in the intermediate stage of decomposition than in the highly-decomposed stage. This pattern might be attributed to the formation of new cross-linking structures, that rendered substrates more complex and difficult for enzymes to attack. Finally, litter quality overrode climate and time factors as a control of long-term changes of chemical composition.

  15. Effect of turbulence on extinction of counterflow diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Akira; Endo, Nobuyuki [Tokyo Denki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    A laminar counterflow diffusion flame established in the forward stagnation region of a porous cylinder has been used widely for the laminar flame studies. In the present study, this flame was applied to investigating the extinction of a diffusion flame due to air stream turbulence. Propane or methane was ejected from a 30-mm porous cylinder. The turbulence was given to the counterflowing air stream by perforated plates. The results of this study show that the air stream turbulence causes large-scale distortions with small amplitude on the apparently laminar diffusion flame, and the time-averaged thickness of this flame is three times as large as the purely laminar flame. Even if the air stream becomes turbulent, there exists a critical stagnation velocity gradient beyond which the flame can never be stabilized, however large the fuel ejection velocity is. Local extinction near the stagnation region always leads to global extinction of the whole flame. As expected, the critical velocity gradient decreases as the turbulence intensity increases. This flame is subjected to the sum of the bulk stretch rate exerted by the mean flow and the turbulent stretch rate exerted by small eddies of Kolmogorov scale. The critical total stretch rate at which the extinction occurs is nearly constant for each fuel for all turbulence conditions tested in the present study and coincides with the critical stagnation velocity gradient of the laminar diffusion flame, that is, the total stretch rate without turbulence. This fact suggests that large-scale eddies are not so effective for the local extinction and that the chemical reaction that occurs in molecular scale is not affected by small eddies of the Kolmogorov scale.

  16. Radiochemotherapy of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: Prospective assessment of early impact on the quality of life (randomized trial ACCORD 03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the quality of life (QOL) of patients treated by concomitant chemo radiation for locally advanced anal canal carcinoma. Materials and methods: We report on a subgroup of 119 patients enrolled in a 306-patient therapeutic intensification prospective trial (ACCORD 03). This trial evaluated the impact on colostomy-free survival of induction chemotherapy and/or high dose radiotherapy (factorial design 2 * 2 treatment arms). QOL was assessed both before and 2 months after treatment using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire as well as a questionnaire relating to anal sphincter conservative treatment (AS-CT). Results: Compared to pre-treatment scores, patients reported significant improvement in their emotional function (+8.4 points p = 0.002), global health status (+5.9 points p = 0.0007), as well as a decrease in insomnia (-13.8 points p < 0.0001), constipation (-12.0 points p < 0.0001), appetite loss (-10.3 points p < 0.0001) and pain (-9.6 points p = 0.0002). The AS-CT degree of satisfaction with intestinal functions score was increased (+11.2 points p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study comparing QOL of patients with advanced anal canal carcinoma, before and 2 months after conservative treatment. Two months after treatment, QOL was improved. Induction chemotherapy and/or high dose radiotherapy did not provide a negative impact on QOL

  17. Gaseous Non-Premixed Flame Research Planned for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Dennis P.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Hickman, J. Mark; Suttles, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, studies of gaseous diffusion flames on the International Space Station (ISS) have been limited to research conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in mid-2009 and early 2012. The research was performed with limited instrumentation, but novel techniques allowed for the determination of the soot temperature and volume fraction. Development is now underway for the next experiments of this type. The Advanced Combustion via Microgravity Experiments (ACME) project consists of five independent experiments that will be conducted with expanded instrumentation within the stations Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). ACMEs goals are to improve our understanding of flame stability and extinction limits, soot control and reduction, oxygen-enriched combustion which could enable practical carbon sequestration, combustion at fuel lean conditions where both optimum performance and low emissions can be achieved, the use of electric fields for combustion control, and materials flammability. The microgravity environment provides longer residence times and larger length scales, yielding a broad range of flame conditions which are beneficial for simplified analysis, e.g., of limit behaviour where chemical kinetics are important. The detailed design of the modular ACME hardware, e.g., with exchangeable burners, is nearing completion, and it is expected that on-orbit testing will begin in 2016.

  18. Flame Tube NOx Emissions Using a Lean-Direct-Wall-Injection Combustor Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Robert R.; Wey, Changlie; Choi, Kyung J.

    2001-01-01

    A low-NOx emissions combustor concept has been demonstrated in flame tube tests. A lean-direct injection concept was used where the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone and the overall fuel-air mixture is lean. In this concept the air is swirled upstream of a venturi section and the fuel is injected radially inward into the air stream from the throat section using a plain-orifice injector. Configurations have two-, four-, or six-wall fuel injectors and in some cases fuel is also injected from an axially located simplex pressure atomizer. Various orifice sizes of the plain-orifice injector were evaluated for the effect on NOx. Test conditions were inlet temperatures up to 8 1 OK, inlet pressures up to 2760 kPa, and flame temperatures up to 2100 K. A correlation is developed relating the NOx emissions to inlet temperature, inlet pressure, fuel-air ratio and pressure drop. Assuming that 15 percent of the combustion air would be used for liner cooling and using an advanced engine cycle, for the best configuration, the NOx emissions using the correlation is estimated to be <75 percent of the 1996 ICAO standard.

  19. Effect of Flame Conditions on Crystalline Structure of TiO2 in Liquid Flame Spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang-jiu; YANG Guan-jun; WANG Yu-yue

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 is a most promising functional ceramic owing to its potential utilization in photocatalytical, optical and electrical applications. Nanostructured TiO2 coating was deposited through thermal spraying with liquid feedstock. Two types of crystalline structures were present in the synthesized TiO2 coating including anatase phase and rutile phase.The effect of spray flame conditions on the crystalline structure was investigated in order to control the crystalline structure of the coating. The results showed that spray distance, flame power and precursor concentration in the liquid feedstock significantly influenced phase constitutions and grain size in the coating. Anatase phase was formed at spray distance from 150 to 250mm, while rutile phase was evidently observed in the coating deposited at 100 mm. The results suggested that anatase phase was firstly formed in the coating, and rutile phase resulted from the transformation of the deposited anatase phase. The phase transformation from anatase to rutile occurred through the annealing effect of spraying flame. The control of the phase formation can be realized through flame condition and spray distance.

  20. Study on turbulent fluctuations in diffusion flames using laser induced fluorescence. Doctoral thesis; Studie van turbulente fluctuaties in diffusievlammen met gebruik van laser geinduceerde fluorescentie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, J.E.

    1994-11-15

    Even with the fastest computers of the day, detailed chemistry modelling can only be applied to turbulent flames with simple geometry, and not to flames in industrial furnaces which generally have complex geometries. The power of the laboratory scale turbulent flames we studied is about 25 kW, compared to flame powers used in industry often ranging from 100 kW to several MW. In the Heat Transfer Group, several researchers collaborate to provide a description as complete as possible of turbulent co-current nonpremixed natural gas flames produced by a burner designed in the Heat Transfer Group. In total, we investigated six flames with different conditions. The aims of this study are to provide concentration measurements, including measurements of average concentrations and of quantities describing turbulent fluctuations of the species measured. The effect of turbulence on the concentrations is studied by varying the exit velocities, and the effect of chemistry by varying the exit flow temperature. In addition, we chose to measure NO seeded to the natural gas, to study the mixing of a conserved species by shear layer turbulence. These results uncover the qualities and shortcomings of the current models of turbulent combustion.

  1. Developing a Patient Care Co-ordination Centre in Trafford, England: lessons from the International Foundation for Integrated Care (IFIC/Advancing Quality Alliance integrated care fellowship experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gregory

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The NHS and Social Care in England are facing one of the biggest financial challenges for a generation. Commissioners and providers need to work on collaborative schemes to manage the increasing demand on health and social care within a period of financial constraint. Different forms of care co-ordination have been developed at different levels across the world.In the north-west of England, the Trafford health and social care economy have been working through a competitive dialogue process with industry to develop an innovative and dynamic solution to deliver seamless co-ordination for all patients and service users. The strategy is to develop a new Patient Care Co-ordination Centre, which will be responsible for the delivery of co-ordinated, quality care. The Patient Care Co-ordination Centre will work at clinical, service, functional and community levels across multiple providers covering risk stratification, preventative, elective and unscheduled care.I am the clinical lead for the Patient Care Co-ordination Centre and during my year as an Advancing Quality Alliance Integrated Care Fellow, I have had the opportunity to study examples of care coordination from UK and international sites. The learning from these visits has been assimilated into the design process of the Patient Care Co-ordination Centre.

  2. New hybrid halogen-free flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowska, Dorota; Jankowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of this work were researches concerning the methods of the in-situ modification of silicate layer-tubular mineral (SL-TM) halloysite, using the salts of melamine, i.e. melamine cyanurate. The modified mineral was used as flame retardant to thermoplastic polymers. In the case of the application of halloysite modified by melamine cyanurate to polyamide 6 (PA6) the highest parameters of vertical and horizontal flammability were achieved. The mechanical properties of filled polyamide 6 have been improved.

  3. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C J; Brott, I; Cantiello, M.; de Koter, A.; Mink, S.E. de; Langer, N.; N. R. Walborn

    2010-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both stellar and cluster evolution. Here we give an overview of the survey and the observational strategy, which was designed to be very sensitive to massive binaries. We highlight the power of the multi-e...

  4. Power generation performance of direct flame fuel cell (DFFC) impinged by small jet flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji; Endo, Shota

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigated the effect of cell temperature and product species concentration induced by a small jet flame on the power generation performance of a direct flame fuel cell (DFFC). The cell is placed above the small-scale jet flame and the heated product’s gases are impinged toward it. This system is considered to be the simplest and smallest unit of such power generation devices to have been developed. Methane is used as fuel and an equivalence ratio (φ ) of the mixture (with oxygen) and the distance between the cell and the burner surface (d) are considered as the experimental parameters. It turns out that open circuit voltage increases linearly with the increase of temperature in a wide range of equivalence ratios. However, it increases drastically to the point at which the equivalence ratio becomes small enough (φ   ⩽  2.0 in the present study) within the specific distance range to bring about the appearance of an inner flame. This could provide sufficient heat and oxygen for the anode, contributing to the generation of the cell’s high electric potential. It is also noted that the appearance of the inner flame does not promise to better the performance unless the preferred conditions (high temperature, low oxygen, rich fuel) near the cell are achieved. The Nernst equation works well for predicting the open circuit voltage under the conditions studied. Systematic design of the entire power generation system is preferable when a miniaturized power generation system is considered by applying DFFC.

  5. Aspects of the mechanism of the flame ionization detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1999-01-01

    The development of flame ionization detection (FID) took place on an empirical basis without a clear understanding of the mechanism. The study of flames by MS showed that the all-important ion was the formylium ion CHO+. The pre-combustion degradation was thought to be a pyrolytic degradation...

  6. Buoyancy effects on the temperature field in downward spreading flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenkirch, R. A.; Winchester, D. C.; Eichhorn, R.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that flames which spread vertically down thermally thin fuels at the same Damkoehler number, and therefore have the same dimensionless spread rate, also have the same dimensionless temperature fields irrespective of differences in physical size. The Frey and Tien (1976) effects of pressure on flame size are due to the effects of pressure on the character of the induced buoyant flow.

  7. 40 CFR 1065.260 - Flame-ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flame-ionization detector. 1065.260 Section 1065.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION...-ionization detector. (a) Application. Use a flame-ionization detector (FID) analyzer to measure...

  8. Aspects of the mechanism of the flame ionization detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1999-01-01

    The development of flame ionization detection (FID) took place on an empirical basis without a clear understanding of the mechanism. The study of flames by MS showed that the all-important ion was the formylium ion CHO+. The pre-combustion degradation was thought to be a pyrolytic degradation and...

  9. Large eddy simulation of flame flashback in a turbulent channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanaly, Malik; Lietz, Christopher; Raman, Venkat; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline; Gruber, Andrea; Computational Flow Physics Group Team

    2014-11-01

    In high-hydrogen content gas turbines, the propagation of a premixed flame along with boundary layers on the combustor walls is a source of failure, whereby the flame could enter the fuel-air premixing region that is not designed to hold high-temperature fluid. In order to develop models for predicting this phenomenon, a large eddy simulation (LES) based study is carried out here. The flow configuration is based on a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent channel, where an initial planar flame is allowed to propagate upstream in a non-periodic channel. The LES approach uses a flamelet-based combustion model along with standard models for the unresolved subfilter flux terms. It is found that the LES are very accurate in predicting the structure of the turbulent flame front. However, there was a large discrepancy for the transient evolution of the flame, indicating that the flame-boundary layer interaction modulates flame propagation significantly, and the near-wall flame behavior may be non-flamelet like due to the anisotropic of the flow in this region.

  10. Flame retardant properties of triazine phosphonates derivative with cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flame retardant behavior of a cotton fabric treated with phosphorus-nitrogen containing triazine compound was evaluated. It was found that cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine) is an excellent starting material for the preparation of phosphonates flame retardants that interacts wel...

  11. Measurement and Modeling of Particle Radiation in Coal Flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckström, Daniel; Johansson, Robert; Andersson, Klas Jerker;

    2014-01-01

    This work aims at developing a methodology that can provide information of in-flame particle radiation in industrial-scale flames. The method is based on a combination of experimental and modeling work. The experiments have been performed in the high-temperature zone of a 77 kWth swirling lignite...

  12. Stationary premixed flames in spherical and cylindrical geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronney, P. D.; Whaling, K. N.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Gatto, J. L.; Pisowiscz, V. L.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary source-free spherical flames ('flame balls') in premixed combustible gases were studied by employing low-gravity (micro-g) environments in a drop tower and an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories to diminish the impact of buoyancy-induced convective flow. Flame balls were found in all mixture families tested when: (1) the Lewis number Le of the deficient reactant was sufficiently low; and (2) the compositions were sufficiently close to the flammability limits. Probably as a consequence of the reduction in buoyant convection, the flammability limits at micro-g were significantly more dilute than those at Earth gravity; for example, 3.35% H2 vs 4.0% H2 in lean H2-air mixtures. By comparison with analytical and computational models, it is inferred that the phenomenon is probably related to diffusive-thermal effects in low-Le mixtures in conjunction with flame-front curvature and radiative heat losses from the combustion products. The chemical reaction mechanism appears to play no qualitative role. In the aircraft experiments, the gravity levels (approximately equal 10(exp -2)g(sub 0)) were found to cause noticeable motion of flame balls due to buoyancy, which in turn influenced the behavior of flame balls. At these g levels, a new type of transient, nearly cylindrical flame structure, termed 'flame strings,' was observed.

  13. Advances in performance and beam quality of 9xx-nm laser diodes tailored for efficient fiber coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Christian; König, Harald; Grönninger, Günther; Hein, Sebastian; Gomez-Iglesias, Alvaro; Furitsch, Michael; Maric, Josip; Kissel, Heiko; Wolf, Paul; Biesenbach, Jens; Strauss, Uwe

    2012-03-01

    The impact of new direct-diode and fiber laser systems on industrial manufacturing drives the demand for highbrightness diode laser pump sources suitable for simple fiber coupling with high efficiency. Within the German funded project HEMILAS laser mini-bars with different bar geometries and small fill factors were investigated. We present results on 9xx nm bars with tailored beam parameter products for simplified coupling to fibers with core diameters of 200μm and 300μm with a numerical aperture of 0.22 and compare beam quality parameters, brightness, conversion efficiency, and thermal performance of different bar designs. Optimized epitaxy structures yield conversion efficiency maxima above 66%. The slow axis divergence angle of mini-bars with a fill factor of 10% featuring five 100μm wide and 4mm long emitters based on this epitaxy structure stays below 7°, which corresponds to a beam parameter product of 15mm mrad, up to very high output power of over 45W. This result was achieved for mounting on actively cooled submounts using hard solder. A similar bar with 5mm cavity length and using soft soldering reached an output power of 60W at the same beam parameter product. At 4mm cavity length, no COMD failures were observed up to currents exceeding the thermal rollover and the maximum output cw power was 95W.

  14. Using Quality of Life Measures in a Phase I Clinical Trial of Noni in Patients with Advanced Cancer to Select a Phase II Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issell, Brian F.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, A. Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a Phase I study of noni in patients with advanced cancer. Quality of life measures were examined as an alternate way to select a Phase II dose of this popular dietary supplement. Patients and Methods Starting at two capsules twice daily (2 grams), the dose suggested for marketed products, dose levels were escalated by 2 grams daily in cohorts of at least five patients until a maximum tolerated dose was found. Patients completed QLQ-C30 Quality of Life, and the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), questionnaires at baseline and at four week intervals. Scopoletin was measured in blood and urine collected at baseline and at approximately four week intervals. Results Fifty-one patients were enrolled at seven dose levels. Seven capsules four times daily (14 grams) was the maximum tolerated dose. No dose limiting toxicity was found but four of eight patients at this level withdrew from the study due to the challenges of ingesting so many capsules. There was a dose response for self reported physical functioning and the control of pain and fatigue. Patients taking four capsules four times daily experienced less fatigue than patients taking lower or higher doses. A relationship between noni dose and blood and urinary scopoletin concentrations was found. Conclusion Measuring quality of life to determine a dose for subsequent Phase II testing is feasible. A noni dose of four capsules four times daily (8 grams) is recommended for Phase II testing where controlling fatigue and maintaining physical function is the efficacy of interest. Scopoletin is a measurable noni ingredient for pharmacokinetic studies in patients with cancer. PMID:22435516

  15. SU-C-BRD-05: Implementation of Incident Learning in the Safety and Quality Management of Radiotherapy: The Primary Experience in a New Established Program with Advanced Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To explore the implementation and effectiveness of incident learning for the safety and quality of radiotherapy in a new established radiotherapy program with advanced technology. Methods: Reference to the consensus recommendations by American Association of Physicist in Medicine, an incident learning system was specifically designed for reporting, investigating, and learning of individual radiotherapy incidents in a new established radiotherapy program, with 4D CBCT, Ultrasound guided radiotherapy, VMAT, gated treatment delivered on two new installed linacs. The incidents occurring in external beam radiotherapy from February, 2012 to January, 2014 were reported. Results: A total of 33 reports were analyzed, including 28 near misses and 5 incidents. Among them, 5 originated in imaging for planning, 25 in planning, 1 in plan transfer, 1 in commissioning and 1 in treatment delivery. Among them, three near misses originated in the safety barrier of the radiotherapy process. In terms of error type, 1 incident was classified as wrong patient, 7 near misses/incidents as wrong site, 6 as wrong laterality, 5 as wrong dose, 7 as wrong prescription, and 7 as suboptimal plan quality. 5 incidents were all classified as grade 1/2 of dosimetric severity, 1 as grade 0, and the other 4 as grade 1 of medical severity. For the causes/contributory factors, negligence, policy not followed, inadequate training, failure to develop an effective plan, and communication contributed to 19, 15, 12, 5 and 3 near misses/incidents, respectively. The average incident rate per 100 patients treated was 0.4; this rate fell to 0.28% in the second year from 0.56% in the first year. The rate of near miss fell to 1.24% from 2.22%. Conclusion: Effective incident learning can reduce the occurrence of near miss/incidents, enhance the culture of safety. Incident learning is an effective proactive method for improving the quality and safety of radiotherapy

  16. SU-C-BRD-05: Implementation of Incident Learning in the Safety and Quality Management of Radiotherapy: The Primary Experience in a New Established Program with Advanced Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R; Wang, J [Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the implementation and effectiveness of incident learning for the safety and quality of radiotherapy in a new established radiotherapy program with advanced technology. Methods: Reference to the consensus recommendations by American Association of Physicist in Medicine, an incident learning system was specifically designed for reporting, investigating, and learning of individual radiotherapy incidents in a new established radiotherapy program, with 4D CBCT, Ultrasound guided radiotherapy, VMAT, gated treatment delivered on two new installed linacs. The incidents occurring in external beam radiotherapy from February, 2012 to January, 2014 were reported. Results: A total of 33 reports were analyzed, including 28 near misses and 5 incidents. Among them, 5 originated in imaging for planning, 25 in planning, 1 in plan transfer, 1 in commissioning and 1 in treatment delivery. Among them, three near misses originated in the safety barrier of the radiotherapy process. In terms of error type, 1 incident was classified as wrong patient, 7 near misses/incidents as wrong site, 6 as wrong laterality, 5 as wrong dose, 7 as wrong prescription, and 7 as suboptimal plan quality. 5 incidents were all classified as grade 1/2 of dosimetric severity, 1 as grade 0, and the other 4 as grade 1 of medical severity. For the causes/contributory factors, negligence, policy not followed, inadequate training, failure to develop an effective plan, and communication contributed to 19, 15, 12, 5 and 3 near misses/incidents, respectively. The average incident rate per 100 patients treated was 0.4; this rate fell to 0.28% in the second year from 0.56% in the first year. The rate of near miss fell to 1.24% from 2.22%. Conclusion: Effective incident learning can reduce the occurrence of near miss/incidents, enhance the culture of safety. Incident learning is an effective proactive method for improving the quality and safety of radiotherapy.

  17. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (−g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in −g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in −g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ≈106 s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  18. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K., E-mail: rajan.chakrabarty@gmail.com [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Novosselov, Igor V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Enertechnix Inc., Maple Valley, Washington 98068 (United States); Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmüller, Hans [Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Sorensen, Christopher M. [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Stipe, Christopher B. [TSI Incorporated, 500 Cardigan Rd, Shoreview, Minnesota 55126 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (−g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in −g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in −g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ≈10{sup 6} s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  19. Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao

    2013-11-02

    The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree of turbulent flame puff interaction, and the turbulent flame puff celerity were determined from high-speed imaging of the luminous flame. All of the tests presented here were conducted with a fixed fuel injection velocity at a Reynolds number of 5000. The flame dimensions were generally found to be more impacted by swirl for the cases of longer injection time and faster co-flow flow rate. Flames with swirl exhibited a flame length up to 34% shorter compared to nonswirled flames. Both the turbulent flame puff separation and the flame puff celerity generally decreased when swirl was imposed. The decreased flame length, flame puff separation, and flame puff celerity are consistent with a greater momentum exchange between the flame and the surrounding co-flow, resulting from an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. Three scaling relations were developed to account for the impact of the injection time, the volumetric fuel-to-air flow rate ratio, and the jet-on fraction on the visible flame length. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Field Effects of Buoyancy on a Premixed Turbulent Flame Studied by Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    Typical laboratory flames for the scientific investigation of flame/turbulence interactions are prone to buoyancy effects. Buoyancy acts on these open flame systems and provides upstream feedbacks that control the global flame properties as well as local turbulence/flame interactions. Consequently the flame structures, stabilization limits, and turbulent reaction rates are directly or indirectly coupled with buoyancy. The objective of this study is to characterize the differences between premixed turbulent flames pointing upwards (1g), pointing downwards (-1g), and in microgravity (mg). The configuration is an inverted conical flame stabilized by a small cone-shaped bluff body that we call CLEAN Flames (Cone-Stabilized Lean Flames). We use two laser diagnostics to capture the velocity and scalar fields. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measures the mean and root mean square velocities and planar imaging by the flame fronts method outlines the flame wrinkle topology. The results were obtained under typical conditions of small domestic heating systems such as water heaters, ovens, and furnaces. Significant differences between the 1g and -1g flames point to the need for including buoyancy contributions in theoretical and numerical calculations. In Earth gravity, there is a complex coupling of buoyancy with the turbulent flow and heat release in the flame. An investigation of buoyancy-free flames in microgravity will provide the key to discern gravity contributions. Data obtained in microgravity flames will provide the benchmark for interpreting and analyzing 1g and -1g flame results.

  1. Reverse-Engineering of the Cryptanalytic Attack Used in the Flame Super-Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Fillinger, Max; Stevens, Marc; Iwata, T; Cheon, J H

    2015-01-01

    In May 2012, a highly advanced malware for espionage dubbed Flame was found targeting the Middle-East. As it turned out, it used a forged signature to infect Windows machines by MITM-ing Windows Update. Using counter-cryptanalysis, Stevens found that the forged signature was made possible by a chosen-prefix attack on MD5 \\cite{DBLP:conf/crypto/Stevens13}. He uncovered some details that prove that this attack differs from collision attacks in the public literature, yet many questions about tec...

  2. Experimental Measurements of Two-dimensional Planar Propagating Edge Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Gonzalez, Marcos; Marchese, Anthony J.; Easton, John W.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2007-01-01

    The study of edge flames has received increased attention in recent years. This work reports the results of a recent study into two-dimensional, planar, propagating edge flames that are remote from solid surfaces (called here, free-layer flames, as opposed to layered flames along floors or ceilings). They represent an ideal case of a flame propagating down a flammable plume, or through a flammable layer in microgravity. The results were generated using a new apparatus in which a thin stream of gaseous fuel is injected into a low-speed laminar wind tunnel thereby forming a flammable layer along the centerline. An airfoil-shaped fuel dispenser downstream of the duct inlet issues ethane from a slot in the trailing edge. The air and ethane mix due to mass diffusion while flowing up towards the duct exit, forming a flammable layer with a steep lateral fuel concentration gradient and smaller axial fuel concentration gradient. We characterized the flow and fuel concentration fields in the duct using hot wire anemometer scans, flow visualization using smoke traces, and non-reacting, numerical modeling using COSMOSFloWorks. In the experiment, a hot wire near the exit ignites the ethane air layer, with the flame propagating downwards towards the fuel source. Reported here are tests with the air inlet velocity of 25 cm/s and ethane flows of 967-1299 sccm, which gave conditions ranging from lean to rich along the centerline. In these conditions the flame spreads at a constant rate faster than the laminar burning rate for a premixed ethane air mixture. The flame spread rate increases with increasing transverse fuel gradient (obtained by increasing the fuel flow rate), but appears to reach a maximum. The flow field shows little effect due to the flame approach near the igniter, but shows significant effect, including flow reversal, well ahead of the flame as it approaches the airfoil fuel source.

  3. Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

  4. Lagrangian Analysis of Premixed Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Clarissa; Hamlington, Peter; Poludnenko, Alexei

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent premixed combustion is a complicated problem that requires understanding of turbulence and chemistry, as well as their interactions. By contrast to the Eulerian approach, Lagrangian analyses track the evolution of chemical species and flow properties for an advecting fluid parcel. This approach permits detailed analysis of chemical reaction rates and validation of chemical reaction models. Lagrangian trajectories also allow changes in chemical species and flow properties to be examined locally and instantaneously through premixed flamelets. In this study, a Lagrangian analysis has been performed on data from direct numerical simulations of premixed H2-air flames for two different turbulence intensities, using a 8-species chemical reaction mechanism. The relative contributions of dynamical budget terms are calculated for both chemical species, including reaction and diffusion terms, as well as vorticity, which depends on baroclinic torque, dilatation, and viscous effects. Scales of motion throughout the flame are also characterized using multi-point correlations. The results reveal complicated dynamics, including non-monotonic behavior of temperature and fuel mass fractions along trajectories, as well as changing scales of motion through the flameout.

  5. Shearlet-based detection of flame fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenhofer, Rafael; Kiefer, Johannes; King, Emily J.

    2016-03-01

    Identifying and characterizing flame fronts is the most common task in the computer-assisted analysis of data obtained from imaging techniques such as planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), laser Rayleigh scattering (LRS), or particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). We present Complex Shearlet-Based Ridge and Edge Measure (CoShREM), a novel edge and ridge (line) detection algorithm based on complex-valued wavelet-like analyzing functions—so-called complex shearlets—displaying several traits useful for the extraction of flame fronts. In addition to providing a unified approach to the detection of edges and ridges, our method inherently yields estimates of local tangent orientations and local curvatures. To examine the applicability for high-frequency recordings of combustion processes, the algorithm is applied to mock images distorted with varying degrees of noise and real-world PLIF images of both OH and CH radicals. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the newly proposed complex shearlet-based measure to well-established edge and ridge detection techniques such as the Canny edge detector, another shearlet-based edge detector, and the phase congruency measure.

  6. Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-05-21

    Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments. PMID:19421486

  7. Diagnostic Imaging in Flames with Instantaneous Planar Coherent Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, A; Kliewer, C J

    2014-04-01

    Spatial mapping of temperature and molecular species concentrations is vitally important in studies of gaseous chemically reacting flows. Temperature marks the evolution of heat release and energy transfer, while species concentration gradients provide critical information on mixing and chemical reaction. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was pioneered in measurements of such processes almost 40 years ago and is authoritative in terms of the accuracy and precision it may provide. While a reacting flow is fully characterized in three-dimensional space, a limitation of CARS has been its applicability as a point-wise measurement technique, motivating advancement toward CARS imaging, and attempts have been made considering one-dimensional probing. Here, we report development of two-dimensional CARS, with the first diagnostics of a planar field in a combusting flow within a single laser pulse, resulting in measured isotherms ranging from 450 K up to typical hydrocarbon flame temperatures of about 2000 K with chemical mapping of O2 and N2. PMID:26274479

  8. Effect of vorticity flip-over on the premixed flame structure: First experimental observation of type I inflection flames

    CERN Document Server

    El-Rabii, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    Premixed flames propagating in horizontal tubes are observed to take on shape convex towards the fresh mixture, which is commonly explained as a buoyancy effect. A recent rigorous analysis has shown, on the contrary, that this process is driven by the balance of vorticity generated by a curved flame front with the baroclinic vorticity, and predicted existence of a regime in which the leading edge of the flame front is concave. We report first experimental realization of this regime. Our experiments on ethane and n-butane mixtures with air show that flames with an inflection point on the front are regularly produced in lean mixtures, provided that a sufficiently weak ignition is used. The observed flame shape perfectly agrees with the theoretically predicted.

  9. Effect of vorticity flip-over on the premixed flame structure: Experimental observation of type-I inflection flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rabii, Hazem; Kazakov, Kirill A

    2015-12-01

    Premixed flames propagating in horizontal tubes are observed to take on a convex shape towards the fresh mixture, which is commonly explained as a buoyancy effect. A recent rigorous analysis has shown, on the contrary, that this process is driven by the balance of vorticity generated by a curved flame front with the baroclinic vorticity, and predicted existence of a regime in which the leading edge of the flame front is concave. We report experimental realization of this regime. Our experiments on ethane and n-butane mixtures with air show that flames with an inflection point on the front are regularly produced in lean mixtures, provided that a sufficiently weak ignition is used. The observed flame shape perfectly agrees with that theoretically predicted. PMID:26764801

  10. A retrospective quality of life analysis using the lung cancer symptom scale in patients treated with palliative radiotherapy for advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To measure symptom palliation in patients treated with radiation therapy for advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Five hundred thirty patients with NSCLC were treated at the Medical College of Virginia between 1988 and 1993. Sixty-three patients with the least favorable prognostic features received palliative radiation to 30 Gy in 10 or 12 fractions for symptoms related to the presence of intrathoracic tumor. The observer portion of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) was employed in a retrospective chart review, scoring measures of appetite, fatigue, cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and pain. Results: In 54 evaluable patients, median survival was 4 months and was independent of age, stage, performance status, or histology. Ninety-six percent of the patients had at least one LCSS symptom at presentation. Fatigue was unaffected by therapy. Improvements in appetite (p = 0.68) and pain (p = 0.61) were not statistically significant. There was, however, a statistically significant reduction in cough (p = 0.01), hemoptysis (p = 0.001), and dyspnea (p 0.0003). Self-limiting acute side effects included transient esophagitis in 37% of patients, though no severe toxicities were noted. Conclusions: These results suggest symptomatic benefit from radiotherapy even in those NSCLC patients with advanced disease and a limited life expectancy. Treatment should be given to patients whose symptoms are most amenable to palliation. A site-specific quality of life instrument such as the LCSS should be included within any future clinical trial of NSCLC management so that symptom control may be scored as a treatment outcome in addition to disease-free survival

  11. Long-term quality-of-life after neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy and long-course radiochemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term quality-of-life (QoL) after neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy (SC-RT) and long-course radiochemotherapy (LC-RCHT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: Between 1999 and 2008, 225 patients were treated with curative intent for locally advanced rectal cancer using neoadjuvant SC-RT (n = 108) or LC-RCHT (n = 117). SC-RT delivered 10 × 2.9 Gy twice daily with immediate surgery. LC-RCHT delivered 28 × 1.8 Gy concomitant with 5-FU based chemotherapy and delayed surgery. A cross-sectional QoL analysis was performed in disease-free patients using the EORTC-QLQ-C30 and EORTC-QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. Results: After a median follow-up of 67 months, 133 patients were disease-free of which 120 (90%) returned the QoL questionnaires. Patients in the LC-RCHT cohort had a higher rate of uT4, uN+ and low tumor location. No difference in QoL was observed between SC-RT and LC-RCHT except an improved physical functioning in the LC-RCHT group (p = 0.04). Comparing our total patient cohort with the general German population showed no difference in global health status but decreased QoL in several functional and bowel symptom scores. Conclusions: The finding of comparable long-term QoL after SC-RT and LC-RCHT adds to our knowledge of equivalent oncological outcome and may be useful in the decision making process between the two neoadjuvant approaches

  12. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  13. Small-scale Interaction of Turbulence with Thermonuclear Flames in Type Ia Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Niemeyer, J. C.; Bushe, W. K.; Ruetsch, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Microscopic turbulence-flame interactions of thermonuclear fusion flames occuring in Type Ia Supernovae were studied by means of incompressible direct numerical simulations with a highly simplified flame description. The flame is treated as a single diffusive scalar field with a nonlinear source term. It is characterized by its Prandtl number, Pr

  14. Numerical Simulation of Microgravity Flame Spread Over Solid Combustibles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGXi; FANWeicheng

    1995-01-01

    A computational model of three-dimensional,time-dependent flame spread in microgravity environment is presented.THe solid is assumed to be a thermally-thin,pyrolysing cellulosic sheet.The gas phase model includes the full Navier-Stokes equations with density and pressure variations and six-flus model of radiation heat transfer,The solid phase model consists of continuity and energy equations whose solution provides boundary conditions for the gas phase equatons.In the numerical procedure,the gas-and solid -phase equations are solved separately and iteratively at each time step.Predictions have been made of flame spreas in slow forced flow under gravitational acceleration normal to fuel surface and flame spread in a quiescent environment in an enclosed chamber under gravitational acceleration parallel to fuel surface.Numerical simulations show that,under microgravity,slow-flow conditions,flame spread process is highly unsteady with the upstream flame spreads faster than the downstream flame after a period of ignition,It has also been shown that the level of microgravity has a significant effect on the flame spread process.

  15. Post-flame gas-phase sulfation of potassium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan;

    2013-01-01

    homogeneous systems are required to characterize the gas-phase formation of alkali sulfates. We have measured the temperature and gas-phase concentrations of KCl and HCl, and detected the presence of aerosols in the post-flame region of a range of hydrocarbon flames seeded with KCl, with and without the...... addition of SO2. Dilution of the flame products with different amounts of N2 ensured post-flame temperatures in the range 950–1400K. In the absence of SO2, KCl levels were constant in the post-flame zone and no aerosols were formed, even at the lowest temperatures. In the presence of SO2, KCl was consumed...... and HCl and aerosols formed, most pronounced in flames with the lowest post-flame temperatures. This shows that KCl is sulfated in the gas phase to K2SO4, and this is followed by homogeneous nucleation of K2SO4 to form aerosols. Predictions from a kinetic model of the S/Cl/K chemistry agreed well with...

  16. PIV Measurements in Weakly Buoyant Gas Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Peter B.; Greenbberg, Paul S.; Urban, David L.; Wernet, Mark P.; Yanis, William

    2001-01-01

    Despite numerous experimental investigations, the characterization of microgravity laminar jet diffusion flames remains incomplete. Measurements to date have included shapes, temperatures, soot properties, radiative emissions and compositions, but full-field quantitative measurements of velocity are lacking. Since the differences between normal-gravity and microgravity diffusion flames are fundamentally influenced by changes in velocities, it is imperative that the associated velocity fields be measured in microgravity flames. Velocity measurements in nonbuoyant flames will be helpful both in validating numerical models and in interpreting past microgravity combustion experiments. Pointwise velocity techniques are inadequate for full-field velocity measurements in microgravity facilities. In contrast, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) can capture the entire flow field in less than 1% of the time required with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Although PIV is a mature diagnostic for normal-gravity flames , restrictions on size, power and data storage complicate these measurements in microgravity. Results from the application of PIV to gas jet flames in normal gravity are presented here. Ethane flames burning at 13, 25 and 50 kPa are considered. These results are presented in more detail in Wernet et al. (2000). The PIV system developed for these measurements recently has been adapted for on-rig use in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower.

  17. Buoyancy Effects in Fully-Modulated, Turbulent Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanson, J. C.; Johari, H.; Ghaem-Maghami, E.; Stocker, D. P.; Hegde, U. G.; Page, K. L.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed combustion appears to have the potential to provide for rapid fuel/air mixing, compact and economical combustors, and reduced exhaust emissions. The objective of this experiment (PuFF, for Pulsed-Fully Flames) is to increase the fundamental understanding of the fuel/air mixing and combustion behavior of pulsed, turbulent diffusion flames by conducting experiments in microgravity. In this research the fuel jet is fully-modulated (i.e., completely shut off between pulses) by an externally controlled valve system. This gives rise to drastic modification of the combustion and flow characteristics of flames, leading to enhanced fuel/air mixing compared to acoustically excited or partially-modulated jets. Normal-gravity experiments suggest that the fully-modulated technique also has the potential for producing turbulent jet flames significantly more compact than steady flames with no increase in exhaust emissions. The technique also simplifies the combustion process by avoiding the acoustic forcing generally present in pulsed combustors. Fundamental issues addressed in this experiment include the impact of buoyancy on the structure and flame length, temperatures, radiation, and emissions of fully-modulated flames.

  18. Buoyancy Effects upon Vapor Flame and Explosion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, R. B.; Harsha, P. T.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this microgravity project is to develop an experimental and theoretical analyses critical to the understanding of the coupling of buoyancy and turbulence generation and its effect on fuel-air mixing, flame intensity and flame propagation in jet diffusion flames. The experiment is designed to examine certain effects of buoyancy acting on a diffusion flame in which the flame is directed either upward or downward. This change from negative to positive g is observed to significantly alter the flame shape although all other operating conditions are the same for both configurations. However, to perform this experiment a significant coaxial secondary air flow is needed in order to prevent flow reversal when the flame is inverted. The theoretical analysis that has been developed handles the secondary air flow and the extreme change in gravity vector direction. Thus the data will provide a measure of credibility of the analysis which will then be used to assist in the design of the actual zero-g experiment.

  19. Gravitationally Unstable Flames: Rayleigh-Taylor Stretching versus Turbulent Wrinkling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, E. P.; Rosner, R.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we provide support for the Rayleigh-Taylor-(RT)-based subgrid model used in full-star simulations of deflagrations in Type Ia supernovae explosions. We use the results of a parameter study of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an RT unstable model flame to distinguish between the two main types of subgrid models (RT or turbulence dominated) in the flamelet regime. First, we give scalings for the turbulent flame speed, the Reynolds number, the viscous scale, and the size of the burning region as the non-dimensional gravity (G) is varied. The flame speed is well predicted by an RT-based flame speed model. Next, the above scalings are used to calculate the Karlovitz number (Ka) and to discuss appropriate combustion regimes. No transition to thin reaction zones is seen at Ka = 1, although such a transition is expected by turbulence-dominated subgrid models. Finally, we confirm a basic physical premise of the RT subgrid model, namely, that the flame is fractal, and thus self-similar. By modeling the turbulent flame speed, we demonstrate that it is affected more by large-scale RT stretching than by small-scale turbulent wrinkling. In this way, the RT instability controls the flame directly from the large scales. Overall, these results support the RT subgrid model.

  20. GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE FLAMES: RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRETCHING VERSUS TURBULENT WRINKLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we provide support for the Rayleigh-Taylor-(RT)-based subgrid model used in full-star simulations of deflagrations in Type Ia supernovae explosions. We use the results of a parameter study of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an RT unstable model flame to distinguish between the two main types of subgrid models (RT or turbulence dominated) in the flamelet regime. First, we give scalings for the turbulent flame speed, the Reynolds number, the viscous scale, and the size of the burning region as the non-dimensional gravity (G) is varied. The flame speed is well predicted by an RT-based flame speed model. Next, the above scalings are used to calculate the Karlovitz number (Ka) and to discuss appropriate combustion regimes. No transition to thin reaction zones is seen at Ka = 1, although such a transition is expected by turbulence-dominated subgrid models. Finally, we confirm a basic physical premise of the RT subgrid model, namely, that the flame is fractal, and thus self-similar. By modeling the turbulent flame speed, we demonstrate that it is affected more by large-scale RT stretching than by small-scale turbulent wrinkling. In this way, the RT instability controls the flame directly from the large scales. Overall, these results support the RT subgrid model.

  1. Buoyancy Effects in Strongly-Pulsed, Turbulent Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanson, James; Johari, Hamid; Stocker, Dennis; Hegde, Uday

    2004-11-01

    Buoyancy effects in pulsed, turbulent flames are studied in microgravity in a 2.2 s drop-tower. The fuel is pure ethylene or a 50/50 mixture with nitrogen; the oxidizer co-flow is either air or 30% oxygen in nitrogen. A fast solenoid valve fully modulates (shuts off) the fuel flow between pulses. The jet Reynolds number is 5000 with a nozzle i.d. of 2 mm. For short injection times and small duty cycle (jet-on fraction), compact, puff-like flames occur. The invariance in flame length of these puffs with buoyancy is due to offsetting changes in puff celerity and burnout time. Buoyancy does impact interacting flame puffs, with the flame length generally increasing with injection duty cycle. The mean centerline temperatures for all flames are generally higher in microgravity than in normal gravity. The transition in temperatures with increasing injection time is more gradual in micro-g than in 1-g. These observations can be explained in terms of the local duty cycle in the flame and differences in entrainment in normal- vs. microgravity.

  2. GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE FLAMES: RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRETCHING VERSUS TURBULENT WRINKLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, E. P. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Rosner, R., E-mail: eph2001@columbia.edu [Computation Institute, University of Chicago, 5735 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2013-07-10

    In this paper, we provide support for the Rayleigh-Taylor-(RT)-based subgrid model used in full-star simulations of deflagrations in Type Ia supernovae explosions. We use the results of a parameter study of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an RT unstable model flame to distinguish between the two main types of subgrid models (RT or turbulence dominated) in the flamelet regime. First, we give scalings for the turbulent flame speed, the Reynolds number, the viscous scale, and the size of the burning region as the non-dimensional gravity (G) is varied. The flame speed is well predicted by an RT-based flame speed model. Next, the above scalings are used to calculate the Karlovitz number (Ka) and to discuss appropriate combustion regimes. No transition to thin reaction zones is seen at Ka = 1, although such a transition is expected by turbulence-dominated subgrid models. Finally, we confirm a basic physical premise of the RT subgrid model, namely, that the flame is fractal, and thus self-similar. By modeling the turbulent flame speed, we demonstrate that it is affected more by large-scale RT stretching than by small-scale turbulent wrinkling. In this way, the RT instability controls the flame directly from the large scales. Overall, these results support the RT subgrid model.

  3. Residual deficits in quality of life one year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) undergo life-changing treatments that can seriously affect quality of life (QoL). This prospective study examined the key QoL domains during the first year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and identified predictors of these changes in order to improve patient outcomes. A consecutive series of patients with LAHNC completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core module (QLQ-C30) and the HNC-specific QLQ-HN35 before (t0) and at the end (t1) of definitive or adjuvant IMRT, then at 6-8 weeks (t2), 6 months (t3), and 1 year (t4) after IMRT. Patients (n = 111) completing questionnaires at all five time points were included (baseline response rate: 99 %; dropout rate between t0 and t4: 5 %). QoL deteriorated in all domains during IMRT and improved slowly during the first year thereafter. Many domains recovered to baseline values after 1 year but problems with smelling and tasting, dry mouth, and sticky saliva remained issues at this time. Increases in problems with sticky saliva were greater after 1 year in patients with definitive versus adjuvant IMRT (F = 3.5, P = 0.05). QoL in patients with LAHNC receiving IMRT takes approximately 1 year to return to baseline; some domains remain compromised after 1 year. Although IMRT aims to maintain function and QoL, patients experience long-term dry mouth and sticky saliva, particularly following definitive IMRT. Patients should be counseled at the start of therapy to reduce disappointment with the pace of recovery. (orig.)

  4. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XIV. The O-type stellar content of 30 Doradus

    OpenAIRE

    N. R. Walborn; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Maíz Apellániz, J; Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C J; Markova, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Koter, de, A.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed spectral classifications are presented for 352 O-B0 stars in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey ESO Large Programme, of which 213 O-type are judged of sufficiently high quality for further morphological analysis. Among them, six subcategories of special interest are distinguished. (1) Several new examples of the earliest spectral types O2-O3 have been found, while a previously known example has been determined to belong to the nitrogen-rich ON2 class. (2) A group of extremely rapidly ro...

  5. Similarity solutions in buoyancy-controlled turbulent diffusion flame modeling; Turbulent buoyant diffusion flame modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovarov, M.A.; Zhang, H.; Ramakev, D.E.; Tatem, P.A.; Williams, F.W. (George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-02-01

    This paper considers the applicability of different versions of the k-[epsilon] hypothesis of turbulence for flame modeling. Utilizing similarity solutions, the authors find that the k-[epsilon] hypothesis gives a finite radius for a weak axisymmetric plume above the heat source. The radius of this plume is defined as an eigenvalue of the boundary value problem with unknown boundary. Solving this problem with an adjusted set of parameters from the standard version of the k-[epsilon] hypothesis gives excellent agreement with experimental data for center line and radial profiles of the mean and turbulent quantities, and also for the radius of the plume and entrainment level. In contrast, the standard set of parameters, widely utilized in flame modeling, gives inaccurate predictions. Specifically, this set of parameters yields underestimates of the radius of the plume and the entrainment level. Since this same trend has been extensively observed in flame modeling, the authors conclude that the standard set of parameters for the k-[epsilon] hypothesis is inadequate, and that this is the main reason for the shortcomings of previous numerical models.

  6. Chaos of radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugawa, Hikaru; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Gotoda, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We are intensively studying the chaos via the period-doubling bifurcation cascade in radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability by analytical methods based on dynamical systems theory and complex networks. Significant changes in flame front dynamics in the chaotic region, which cannot be seen in the bifurcation diagrams, were successfully extracted from recurrence quantification analysis and nonlinear forecasting and from the network entropy. The temporal dynamics of the fuel concentration in the well-developed chaotic region is much more complicated than that of the flame front temperature. It exhibits self-affinity as a result of the scale-free structure in the constructed visibility graph.

  7. Flame retardant cotton fabrics treated with organophosphorus polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Okeil, A; El-Sawy, S M; Abdel-Mohdy, F A

    2013-02-15

    Organo-phosphorus compounds was prepared and applied onto cotton fabrics as flame retarding agent. methacryloloxyethylorthophoshor tetraethyl diamidate (MPD) was prepared and its structure was confirmed by IR, NMR and mass spectroscopy. Pyrovatex as commercial flame retardant was used for comparative study. Impregnation method was used as coating for the application of the organophosphorus compounds to cotton fabrics. The major factors affecting the reaction were studied. The results show that the prepared organophosphorus compound can be successfully used as flame retardant for cotton fabrics. PMID:23399290

  8. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  9. Simulation of flame-vortex interaction using detailed and reduced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilka, M. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Veynante, D. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Baum, M. [CERFACS (France); Poinsot, T.J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse

    1996-12-31

    The interaction between a pair of counter-rotating vortices and a lean premixed CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame ({Phi} = + 0.55) has been studied by direct numerical simulations using detailed and reduced chemical reaction schemes. Results from the complex chemistry simulation are discussed with respect to earlier experiments and differences in the simulations using detailed and reduces chemistry are investigated. Transient evolutions of the flame surface and the total heat release rate are compared and modifications in the evolution of the local flame structure are displayed. (authors) 22 refs.

  10. Measurements of surface deposition from seeded flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work reported here, the authors used Raman scattering from a surface deposit to determine its composition and thickness. Surface deposits of B2O3 are obtained by doping a CH4/H2/air flame with BCl3. The dependence of deposit growth and loss rates on surface temperature and the water and boron seed level in the combustion gases are discussed. At temperatures more than 200 K below the dew point, the observed growth and loss rate are explained by a near-constant arrival rate of boron at the surface with an enhanced volatilization at lower temperatures due to the formation of H3BO3 and (HBO2)3

  11. Analysis of polydisperse fuel spray flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Ophir; Lehavi, Yaron; Ajadi, Suraju; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we analyzed the model of polydisperse fuel spray flame by using the sectional approach to describe the droplet-droplet interaction within the spray. The radii of the droplets are described by a probability density function. Our numerical simulations include a comparative analysis between three empirical droplet size distributions: the Rosin-Rammler distribution, the log-normal distribution and the Nakiyama-Tanasawa distribution. The log-normal distribution was found to produce a reasonable approximation to both the number and volume size distribution function. In addition our comparative analysis includes the application of the homotopy analysis method which yields convergent solutions for all values of the relevant parameters. We compared the above results to experimental fuel spray data such as {{Tetralin}} , n-{{Decane}} , and n-{{Heptane}} .

  12. Some new experimental photonic flame effect features

    CERN Document Server

    Tcherniega, N V

    2007-01-01

    The results of the spectral, energetical and temporal characteristics of radiation in the presence of the photonic flame effect are presented. Artificial opal posed on Cu plate at the temperature of liquid nitrogen boiling point (77 K) being irradiated by nanosecond ruby laser pulse produces long- term luminiscence with a duration till ten seconds with a finely structured spectrum in the the antistocks part of the spectrum. Analogous visible luminescence manifesting time delay appeared in other samples of the artificial opals posed on the same plate. In the case of the opal infiltrated with different nonlinear liquids the threshold of the luminiscence is reduced and the spatial disribution of the bright emmiting area on the opal surface is being changed. In the case of the putting the frozen nonlinear liquids on the Cu plate long-term blue bright luminiscence took place in the frozen species of the liquids. Temporal characteristics of this luminiscence are nearly the same as in opal matrixes.

  13. 美国管道质量检验标准先进性研究%The Advancement Research on American Pipeline Quality Supervision Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费雪松; 蔡亮; 侯金山; 李青春; 刘凤侠

    2015-01-01

    The high efficiency and safe supervision work was important for guarantee new pipeline quality and pipeline safe operation. PetroChina West-Eest Gas Pipeline Company successfully explored the application of American supervision company, and the good result was achieved. The idea of referring American pipeline supervision standard to improve domestic standard was raised. The paper introduced API RP 1169-2013《Recommended Practice for Basic Inspection Requirements-New Pipeline Construction》, with the difference between American and China new pipeline quality inspection was studied in detail. The advancement of API RP 1169-2013 were expounded, including the detailed profession classification of inspector, and as a representative of pipeline operator with the highest voice right, and strict and detailed pipeline constructionfield safe supervision measure, and the perfect pipeline construction quality inspection requirement. Finally, the suggestion of adopting API RP 1169-2013 was made based on the situation of domestic pipeline construction standard and supervision standard.%实施安全高效监理工作,对于保障新建管道质量和管道安全运行至关重要。西气东输管道探索应用了美国监理公司的做法,取得了良好效果。本文提出了借鉴美国管道监理标准改进国内监理工作的理念,以API RP 1169《新建管道工程基本检验要求推荐做法》为例,深入研究了中美新建管道质量检验的差异。该标准的先进性表现在检验员专业化分细致、检验员代表运营方利益且拥有最高话语权、管道施工现场安全监护措施严格细致,管道施工质量检验要求完善等。最后,基于国内管道施工和监理标准现状,提出了API RP 1169采标建议。

  14. Calculations and surface quality measurements of high-asymmetry angle x-ray crystal monochromators for advanced x-ray imaging and metrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zápražný, Zdenko; Korytár, Dušan; Jergel, Matej; Šiffalovič, Peter; Dobročka, Edmund; Vagovič, Patrik; Ferrari, Claudio; Mikulík, Petr; Demydenko, Maksym; Mikloška, Marek

    2015-03-01

    We present the numerical optimization and the technological development progress of x-ray optics based on asymmetric germanium crystals. We show the results of several basic calculations of diffraction properties of germanium x-ray crystal monochromators and of an analyzer-based imaging method for various asymmetry factors using an x-ray energy range from 8 to 20 keV. The important parameter of highly asymmetric monochromators as image magnifiers or compressors is the crystal surface quality. We have applied several crystal surface finishing methods, including advanced nanomachining using single-point diamond turning (SPDT), conventional mechanical lapping, chemical polishing, and chemomechanical polishing, and we have evaluated these methods by means of atomic force microscopy, diffractometry, reciprocal space mapping, and others. Our goal is to exclude the chemical etching methods as the final processing technique because it causes surface undulations. The aim is to implement very precise deterministic methods with a control of surface roughness down to 0.1 nm. The smallest roughness (˜0.3 nm), best planarity, and absence of the subsurface damage were observed for the sample which was machined using an SPDT with a feed rate of 1 mm/min and was consequently polished using a fine polishing 15-min process with a solution containing SiO2 nanoparticles (20 nm).

  15. Oral health-related quality of life and depression/anxiety in long-term recurrence-free patients after treatment for advanced oral squamous cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Alexander J; Danner, Daniel; Freier, Kolja; Hofele, Christof; Becker-Bikowski, Kirsten; Engel, Michael

    2012-06-01

    This report focuses on the association between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and depression/anxiety of a homogeneous group of cancer patients who were recurrence-free for 8 years after treatment for advanced oral squamous cell. Participants were 24 patients (mean age 55 years, 75% men) treated with neoadjuvant concurrent radiochemotherapy followed by surgery with a mean recurrence-free period of 95 months (from 39 to 164 months). The OHRQoL (OHIP) and the anxiety/depression (HADS) were assessed twice (1 year between t1 and t2). OHRQoL was impaired in this group (mean OHIP score 65 units). In cross-lagged correlation analysis, the correlation between OHRQoL to t1 and depression to t2 was significant and greater than the non-significant correlation for depression to t1 and OHRQoL to t2 indicating that OHRQoL predicts depression better than vice versa. However, the difference in the correlation coefficients was not significant (ZPF-test). The same was true for OHRQoL and anxiety. The OHRQoL measured with the OHIP was impaired in comparison to the normal population. In the limitations of the study design and bearing the small sample size in mind, the results give evidence that OHRQoL predicts psychological outcomes, namely depression and anxiety, better than vice versa. PMID:21733701

  16. Palliative chemotherapy beyond three courses conveys no survival or consistent quality-of-life benefits in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, C; Bergman, B; Andresen, O;

    2006-01-01

    rates were 25 and 9% vs 25 and 5% in the C3 and C6 arm, respectively. Median progression-free survival was 16 and 21 weeks in the C3 and C6 groups, respectively (P=0.21, HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68-1.08). In conclusion, palliative chemotherapy with carboplatin and vinorelbine beyond three courses conveys no......This randomised multicentre trial was conducted to establish the optimal duration of palliative chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We compared a policy of three vs six courses of new-generation platinum-based combination chemotherapy with regard to effects on quality of...... life (QoL) and survival. Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and WHO performance status (PS) 0-2 were randomised to receive three (C3) or six (C6) courses of carboplatin (area under the curve (AUC) 4, Chatelut's formula, equivalent to Calvert's AUC 5) on day 1 and vinorelbine 25 mg m(-2) on days 1 and...

  17. Time resolved density measurements in premixed turbulent flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandekar, K. V.; Gouldin, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Premixed, turbulent flames are important in connection with investigations of fundamental, turbulent-reacting-flow processes and the study of practical combustion devices, such as spark ignition engines and premixed, prevaporized gas turbine combustors which burn premixed reactants. The considered investigation is concerned with the application of laser induced Rayleigh scattering to measure the gas density in premixed, methane-air flames. A description is provided of the results of density and velocity measurements in an open, lean, premixed methane-air flame stabilized in grid turbulence of low Reynolds number. It is found that where applicable, Rayleigh scattering can be used to good advantage to measure molecular number density. Mean and rms density results show that the mean flame thickens with axial distance but that the maximum in rms does not change appreciably.

  18. 30 CFR 7.406 - Flame test apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... natural gas type Tirrill burner, with a nominal inside diameter of 3/8 inch, to apply the flame to the test specimen. The fuel for the burner shall be natural gas composed of at least 96 percent...

  19. Chaotic map models of soot fluctuations in turbulent diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerji, S.; McDonough, J.M.; Menguec, M.P.; Manickavasagam, S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chung, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce a methodology to characterize time-dependent soot volume fraction fluctuations in turbulent diffusion flames via chaotic maps. The approach is based on the hypothesis that fluctuations of properties in turbulent flames are deterministic in nature, rather than statistical. The objective is to develop models of these fluctuations to be used in comprehensive algorithms to study the nature of turbulent flames and the interaction of turbulence with radiation. To this end the authors measured the time series of soot scattering coefficient in an ethylene diffusion flame from light scattering experiments and fit these data to linear combinations of chaotic maps of the unit interval. Both time series and power spectra can be modeled with reasonable accuracy in this way.

  20. STUDY ON STRUCTURE OF SINGULAR POINTS OF LAMINAR FLAME SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-e; YIN Xian-jun

    2005-01-01

    Under some certain assumptions, the physical model of the air combustion system was simplified to a laminar flame system. The mathematical model of the laminar flame system, which was built according to thermodynamics theory and the corresponding conservative laws, was studied. With the aid of qualitative theory and method of ordinary differential equations, the location of singular points on the Rayleigh curves is determined,the qualitative structure and the stability of the singular points of the laminar flame system,which are located in the areas of deflagration and detonation, are given for different parameter values and uses of combustion. The phase portraits of the laminar flame system in the reaction-stagnation enthalpy and combustion velocity-stagnation enthalpy planes are shown in the corresponding figures.

  1. Power generation properties of Direct Flame Fuel Cell (DFFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigated the effect of cell temperature and product species concentration induced by small-jet flame on the power generation performance of Direct Flame Fuel Cell (DFFC). The cell is placed above the small flame and heated product gas is impinged toward it and this system is the simplest and smallest unit of the power generation device to be developed. Equivalence ratio (φ) and the distance between the cell and the burner surface (d) are considered as main experimental parameters. It turns out that open circuit voltage (OCV) increases linearly with the increase of temperature in wide range of equivalence ratios. However, it increases drastically at which the equivalence ratio became small (φ ≤ 2.0) showing inner flame clearly. This result suggests that OCV depends on not only cell temperature but also the species concentration exposed to the cell. It is suggested that Nernst equation might work satisfactory to predict OCV of DFFC

  2. A Kinetic Model of Chromium in a Flame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Chromium has been identified as a carcinogenic metal.Incineration is the useful method for disposal of toxic chromium hazard waste and a chromium kinetic model in a flame is very important to study chromium oxidation.Chromium chemical kinetics over a range of temperatures of a hydrogen/air flame is proposed.Nine chromium compounds and fifty-eight reversible chemical reactions were considered The forward reaction rates are calculated based on the molecular collision approach for unknown ones and Arrhenius's Law for known ones.The backward reaction rates were calculated according to forward reaction rates, the equilibrium constants and chemical thermodynamics.It is verified by several equilibrium cases and is tested by a hydrogen/air diffusion flame.The results show that the kinetic model could be used in cases in which the chromium kinetics play an important role in a flame

  3. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed.

  4. Development of Flame Retardants for Engineering Polymers and Polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Anantha

    2013-03-01

    With a broad portfolio of brominated, organophosphorus and inorganic flame retardants, ICL Industrial Products (ICL-IP) is engaged in the development of new flame retardants by exploiting the synergism between bromine based, phosphorus based and other halogen-free flame retardants. ICL-IP is also focusing on the development of polymeric and reactive flame retardants. This presentation will give examples of existing and new polymeric and reactive products for applications in thermoplastics, thermosets and polyurethane foam. This presentation will also show examples of phosphorus-bromine synergism allowing partial or complete elimination of antimony trioxide in many thermoplastics for electronic applications. New synergistic combinations of magnesium hydroxide with phosphorus and other halogen-free FRs will be presented. Work done in collaboration with S. Levchik, ICL-IP America, 430 Saw Mill Rriver Rd., Ardsley, NY, 10502, USA and M. Leifer, ICL-IP, P. O. Box 180, Beer Sheva 84101, Israel.

  5. Lean blowoff of bluff body stabilized flames. Scaling and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Husain, Sajjad; Lieuwen, Tim [Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 270 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    This paper overviews the dynamics of bluff body stabilized flames and describes the phenomenology of the blowoff process. The first section of the paper provides an overview of the fluid mechanics of the non-reacting and reacting bluff body wake flow. It highlights the key features of the flow (the boundary layer, separated shear layer, and wake), the flow instabilities that influence each of these features, and the influences of the flame on these instabilities. A key point from these studies is the large differences between the non-reacting wake (dominated by an absolutely unstable, sinuous instability associated with vortex shedding from the bluff body) and the reacting wake of high dilatation ratio flames. The latter are dominated by the lower intensity, convective instability of the shear layer. Very low dilatation ratio flames begin to approach the behavior of the non-reacting wake, as might be expected. Next, the paper presents a compilation of bluff body blowoff data from the literature and shows that the basic Damkoehler correlations developed from prior studies are recovered, but without the need for semi-empirical fits or adjustable constants for chemical time estimation. The third section considers in detail the dynamics and phenomenology of near blowoff flames. It is shown that spatio/temporally localized extinction occurs sporadically on near blowoff flames, manifested as 'holes' in the flame sheet that form and convect downstream. However, these extinction events are distinct from blowoff - in fact, under certain conditions the flame can persist indefinitely with certain levels of local extinction. The number of these events per unit time increase as blowoff is approached, eventually leading to large scale alteration of the wake. We hypothesize that simple Damkoehler number correlations contain the essential physics describing the initial stage of blowoff; i.e., they are correlations for the conditions where local extinction on the flame

  6. A quasi-adiabatic laminar flat flame burner for high temperature calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flat flame burners were developed for many purposes. In this study, a new flat flame burner for the high temperature calibration of combustion product species and temperature is presented. The burner is operated on methane/air mixtures. Equivalence ratios can be varied from φ = 0.65 to φ = 1.5. A flat, laminar, premixed flame stabilizes above the flame holder that is manufactured from porous material and differently to other designs is not water cooled. Unlike most other realizations, the flame burns detached by 1.5–2.5 mm from the flame holder. This is realized by adjusting the exit speed to a value very close to the burning velocity of the corresponding equivalence ratio. As the control range between flame blow-off and attachment to the flame holder is very narrow, this strategy requires spatially very uniform porous materials and a precise mass flow control. Heat losses to the flame holder necessary for flame stabilization are minimized furthermost by these detached flames. This becomes manifested by a temperature rise of the flame holder by less than 10 K and an almost homogeneous temperature distribution within the flame holder. In consequence, flame temperatures measured by Rayleigh thermometry are observed to be close to adiabatic flame temperatures. Differences between adiabatic and measured temperatures depend on the equivalence ratio and range from 35 K to 50 K. By comparison with 1D-flame simulations with and without radiation models, it is shown that these temperature losses are mainly due to radiation but not to heat conduction to the flame holder. For this reason, flames stabilized on this burner are termed quasi-adiabatic as they exhibit exhaust gas temperatures very similar to freely propagating flames

  7. Study of a non-buoyant diffusion flame radiative characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Legros, Guillaume

    2003-01-01

    This study is a contribution to a project aiming to characterize a fire spreading in weightlessness. An ethylene burner across which an air flow leads to boundary layer type conditions is used. First experimental results show the high sensitivity of the flame radiative emission to the air flow velocity and the soot key-role. Gas contribution to the flame emission is computed and qualitatively fit with experimental data. Because of the need in a reliable numerical model of soot production, a p...

  8. Radiation Intensity of a Turbulent Sooting Ethylene Flame

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Ryan M; Gore, Jay P, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Turbulent sooting flame radiation is relevant to applications ranging from fire safety to gas turbine engines. The complex direct interactions of soot and radiation intensity are of particular importance when creating accurate soot prediction models. Previous studies have measured gas-band and broadband radiation intensity from turbulent sooting flames. The focus of the current study is the characterization of radiation intensity emanating from soot. A high-speed infrared camera (FLIR Phoenix...

  9. Quantification of extinction mechanism in counterflow premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Sangkyu

    2014-09-01

    The extinction mechanisms of stretched premixed flames have been investigated numerically for the fuels of CH4, C3H8, H2, CO and for the mixture fuels of CH4+H2 and CO+H2 by adopting symmetric double premixed flames in a counterflow configuration. The local equilibrium temperature concept was used as a measure of energy loss or gain in order to quantify the extinction mechanism by preferential diffusion and/or incomplete reaction. The energy loss ratio from preferential diffusion arising from non-unity Lewis number and the loss ratio from incomplete reaction were calculated at various equivalence ratios near flame extinction. The results showed that the extinction of lean H2, CH4, CH4+H2, CO+H2, and rich C3H8 premixed flames was caused by incomplete reaction due to insufficient reaction time, indicating that the effective Lewis number was smaller than unity, while the effect of preferential diffusion resulted in energy gain. However, the extinction of rich H2, CH4, CH4+H2, CO+H2, and lean C3H8 premixed flames was affected by the combined effects of preferential diffusion and incomplete reaction indicating that the effective Lewis number was larger than unity. In CO premixed flames, incomplete reaction was dominant in both lean and rich cases due to the effective Lewis number close to unity. The effect of H2 mixing to CO is found to be quite significant as compared to CH4+H2 cases, which can alter the flame behavior of CO flames to that of H2.

  10. Mode Selection in Flame-Vortex driven Combustion Instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Speth, Ray

    2011-01-04

    In this paper, we investigate flame-vortex interaction in a lean premixed, laboratory scale, backward-facing step combustor. Two series of tests were conducted, using propane/hydrogen mixtures and carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures as fuels, respectively. Pressure measurements and high speed particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) were employed to generate pressure response curves as well as the images of the velocity field and the flame brush. We demonstrate that the step combustor exhibits several operating modes depending on the inlet conditions and fuel composition, characterized by the amplitude and frequency of pressure oscillations along with distinct dynamic flame shapes. We propose a model in which the combustor\\'s selection of the acoustic mode is governed by a combustion-related time delay inversely proportional to the flame speed. Our model predicts the transition between distinct operating modes. We introduce non-dimensional parameters characterizing the flame speed and stretch rate, and develop a relationship between these quantities at the operating conditions corresponding to each mode transition. Based on this relationship, we show that numerically-calculated density-weighted strained flame speed can be used to collapse the combustion dynamics data over the full range of conditions (inlet temperature, fuel composition, and equivalence ratio). Finally, we validate our strain flame based model by measuring the strain rate using the flame image and the velocity field from the PIV measurement. Our results show that the measured strain rates lie in the same range as the critical values at the transitions among distinct modes as those predicted by our model.

  11. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Pan Liu; Hao-Yang Wang; Jun-Ting Zhang; Meng-Xi Wu; Wan-Shu Qi; Hui Zhu; Yin-Long Guo

    2015-01-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray g...

  12. Investigation of Turbulent Flame Characteristics via Laser Induced Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Sunil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis experimental investigation to study turbulent flame characteristics using laser based methods is presented. Combustion inside almost all technical industrial devices takes place under turbulent environment. In addition, a significant amount of effort is ongoing to improve the knowledge of turbulent combustion. This work is focussed on the turbulent-chemistry interaction, which remains to be the bottleneck problem in turbulent combustion. Combustion flames from turbulent ...

  13. Diamond growth in a novel low pressure flame

    OpenAIRE

    Glumac, N. G.; Goodwin, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Diamond growth using a new low-pressure combustion technique is reported. A large-area hydrogen/oxygen flame is used as the source of atomic hydrogen. Methane diluted in hydrogen is injected into the flame near a heated silicon substrate, on which diamond crystallites nucleate and grow. This technique is potentially capable of large-area film growth, since atomic hydrogen can be generated uniformly over arbitrarily large areas.

  14. Regularization modeling for large-eddy simulation of diffusion flames

    OpenAIRE

    Geurts, Bernard J.; Wesseling, P.; OÑate, E.; Périaux, J.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of a diffusion flame in a turbulent mixing layer using large-eddy simulation. The large-eddy simulation includes Leray regularization of the convective transport and approximate inverse filtering to represent the chemical source terms. The Leray model is compared to the more conventional dynamic mixed model. The location of the flame-center is defined by the 'stoichiometric' interface. Geometrical properties such as its surface-area and wrinkling are characterized usi...

  15. Environmental fate & effects of new generation flame retardants

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt, de, P.; Admiraal, W; Parsons, J.R.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Waaijers, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for substituting several halogenated flame retardants, given the human and environmental health concerns of many of these compounds. Halogen Free Flame Retardants (HFFRs) have been suggested as alternatives and are already being marketed, although their potential impact on the environment cannot be properly assessed because of a lack of information regarding their environmental and ecotoxicological properties. The aim of this study was to determine the aquatic fate an...

  16. Effect of Electric Field on Outwardly Propagating Spherical Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama

    2012-06-01

    The thesis comprises effects of electric fields on a fundamental study of spheri­cal premixed flame propagation.Outwardly-propagating spherical laminar premixed flames have been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by applying au uni-directional electric potential.Direct photography and schlieren techniques have been adopted and captured images were analyzed through image processing. Unstretched laminar burning velocities under the influence of electric fields and their associated Markstein length scales have been determined from outwardly prop­agating spherical flame at a constant pressure. Methane and propane fuels have been tested to assess the effect of electric fields on the differential diffusion of the two fuels.The effects of varying equivalence ratios and applied voltages have been in­vestigated, while the frequency of AC was fixed at 1 KHz. Directional propagating characteristics were analyzed to identify the electric filed effect. The flame morphology varied appreciably under the influence of electric fields which in turn affected the burning rate of mixtures.The flame front was found to propagate much faster toward to the electrode at which the electric fields were supplied while the flame speeds in the other direction were minimally influenced. When the voltage was above 7 KV the combustion is markedly enhanced in the downward direction since intense turbulence is generated and as a result the mixing process or rather the heat and mass transfer within the flame front will be enhanced.The com­bustion pressure for the cases with electric fields increased rapidly during the initial stage of combustion and was relatively higher since the flame front was lengthened in the downward direction.

  17. Porous Flame-retarded Asphalt Pavement for Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; HUANG Shaolong; Ding Qingjun

    2008-01-01

    A new way to improve the tunnel fire protection by using flame-retarded porous asphalt pavement containing ATH powders was introduced. Based on the miniature burning test designed and conducted, the burning time and temperature of porous asphalt (PA) and flame-retarded porous asphalt (FRPA) were studied comparing with cement concrete pavement, dense-graded HMA and S MA. Results of burning test and pavement performance test indicate that FRPA is appropriate and suitable as the pavement material of highway tunnel.

  18. Armazenamento refrigerado de pomelos variedades flame e henderson revestidos com cera Refrigerated storage of wax-coated grapefruit varieties Flame and Henderson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Toews Doll Hojo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar a conservação de pomelos (Citrus paradisi Macfad. varieties 'Flame' e 'Henderson' revestidos com cera Sparcitrus e mantidos sob refrigeração (8º C ± 1º C e 95% ± 5% UR. Para cada variedade estudada, utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com 3 repetições, onde o primeiro fator correspondeu aos tratamentos com e sem a aplicação de cera (controle e o segundo, ao tempo armazenamento (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 dias. Cada parcela experimental foi composta por cinco frutos. Foram estudadas as seguintes variáveis: perda de massa, rendimento do suco, pH, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, SS/AT, açúcares redutores, açúcares não redutores, açúcares solúveis totais, vitamina C e aparência externa. A aplicação de cera é efetiva na preservação da aparência de pomelos 'Flame' e 'Henderson', não afetando sua qualidade interna.The goal of this work was to study the conservation of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad. "Flame" and "Henderson" coated with Sparcitrus wax and kept under refrigeration (8º C ± 1º C and 95% ± 5% RH. For each variety studied, the experimental design was completely randomized, build up in factorial 2 x 5, with 3 replicates, where the first factor corresponded to the treatments with and without wax application (control and the second factor to the storage period (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. Each experimental parcel was composed of five fruits. The following variables were studied: mass loss, yield of juice, pH, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/AT, reducing, non-reducing and total soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and external appearance. Wax application is effective in the preservation of the appearance of grapefruits "Flame" and "Henderson", and does not affect their internal quality.

  19. Upgrading of recycled polypropylene by preparing flame retarded layered composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ronkay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Upgrading of polypropylene waste was performed by different composite technologies, in order to improve the flame retardancy combined with preserved or improved mechanical properties. The polymer waste of density below 900 kg/m3 is originated from end-of-life vehicles (ELV after comminution, density separation and comprehensive analysis. Intumescent flame retardant system was used for reducing the flammability; while chopped glass fibre reinforcement was used to compensate the deterioration of mechanical properties caused by flame retardant additives. In mixed composite beside of flame retardants, the reinforcement effect of glass fibre can not be realized; therefore with modification of composite structure (but maintaining the composition a multilayer composite was developed, which contains 65.5% of recycled polymer, where the core is reinforced with glass fibre covered by flame retarded shell layers. Enhanced flame retardancy (4 min longer time to escape was achieved by using this layered composite compared to the mixed composite, thus the time to escape could be extended only with modification of composite structure.

  20. Ion measurements in premixed methane-oxygen flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2014-07-25

    Ions are formed as a result of chemi-ionization processes in combustion systems. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in understanding flame ion chemistry due to the possible application of external electric fields to reduce emissions and improve combustion efficiency by active control of combustion process. In order to predict the effect of external electric fields on combustion plasma, it is critical to gain a good understanding of the flame ion chemistry. In this work, a Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane-oxygen-argon burner-stabilized flames. Lean, stoichiometric and rich flames at atmospheric pressure are used to study the dependence of ion chemistry on equivalence ratio of premixed flames. The relative ion concentration profiles are compared qualitatively with previous methane-oxygen studies and show good agreement. The relative ion concentration data obtained in the present study can be used to validate and improve ion chemistry models for methane-oxygen flames.