WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced fischer-tropsch technology

  1. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  2. Simulation models and designs for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G.N.; Kramer, S.J.; Tam, S.S. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Process designs and economics were developed for three grass-roots indirect Fischer-Tropsch coal liquefaction facilities. A baseline and an alternate upgrading design were developed for a mine-mouth plant located in southern Illinois using Illinois No. 6 coal, and one for a mine-mouth plane located in Wyoming using Power River Basin coal. The alternate design used close-coupled ZSM-5 reactors to upgrade the vapor stream leaving the Fischer-Tropsch reactor. ASPEN process simulation models were developed for all three designs. These results have been reported previously. In this study, the ASPEN process simulation model was enhanced to improve the vapor/liquid equilibrium calculations for the products leaving the slurry bed Fischer-Tropsch reactors. This significantly improved the predictions for the alternate ZSM-5 upgrading design. Another model was developed for the Wyoming coal case using ZSM-5 upgrading of the Fischer-Tropsch reactor vapors. To date, this is the best indirect coal liquefaction case. Sensitivity studies showed that additional cost reductions are possible.

  3. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.J.; Raje, A.; Keogh, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low-or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the {open_quotes}standard-catalyst{close_quotes} developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst this is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  4. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.H.

    1998-07-22

    The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  5. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4). Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to(epsilon)(prime)-Fe(sub 2.2)C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2) and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4); however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94%(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2), deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4). No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2) and(epsilon)(prime)-Fe(sub 2.2)C

  6. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtron H. Davis

    1999-04-30

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94% {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C.

  7. Advances in Fischer-Tropsch wax hydrocracking process%F-T合成蜡油加氢裂解反应过程研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 蒋坚; 鲁丹; 曹发海

    2013-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is an important process to convert coal,natural gas and biomass into liquid fuel,and is a promising process for resolving the shortage of petroleum. Mild hydrocracking is an effective route to upgrade the heavy waxy hydrocarbons derived from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction into high value fuels,such as clean,high-quality diesel and jet fuel. In this paper,the recent advances in hydrocracking Fischer-Tropsch wax are reviewed. The mechanism of hydrocracking Fischer-Tropsch wax is introduced,the modeling of hydrocracking Fischer-Tropsch wax through lump and single-event kinetics is discussed,and the catalytic system as well as influence factors of the reaction are analyzed. Reactive distillation process can improve the selectivity of hydrocracking Fischer-Tropsch wax at a high conversion rate toward diesel. Apart from research and development of more effective catalysts,the study and application of Fischer-Tropsch wax hydrocracking reactive distillation process will have significant prospect.%通过F-T合成生产液体燃料是转化利用煤、天然气和生物质并解决石油短缺问题的一种有效途径,采用轻度加氢裂解F-T合成过程中产生的高沸点蜡油可以生产清洁优质的柴油和喷气燃料。本文对近年F-T合成蜡油加氢裂解的研究进展进行了综述,简要介绍了F-T合成蜡油加氢裂解的反应机理,讨论了集总动力学和单事件动力学在F-T合成蜡油加氢裂解中的应用情况,对F-T合成蜡加氢裂解催化剂体系以及反应影响因素进行了分析。反应精馏工艺可以提高F-T合成蜡加氢裂解高转化率时柴油的选择性,除了开发更高效的催化剂以外,F-T合成蜡油加氢裂解反应精馏的研究与应用将具有重大前景。

  8. Recent Technological Developments in Cobalt Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junling Zhang; Jiangang Chen; Yongwang Li; Yuhan Sun

    2002-01-01

    Co-based catalysts are often utilized due to their high Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) activity,C+5 hydrocarbon selectivity, low water-gas shift reaction (WGS) activity and relatively low cost. Selective control of C5+ hydrocarbons and the catalyst longevity are critical in the design of cobalt catalysts.Thus, various methods to improve the performance of Co catalysts have been suggested. The progress in cobalt catalysts reviewed in the last few decades, mainly involved the support, promoter, preparation and deactivation of Co-based catalysts.

  9. Synthetic gasoline and diesel oil produced by Fischer-Tropsch Technology. A possibility for the future? IEA/AMF annex XXXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B., (Atrax Energy AB, Goeteborg (SE)); Blinge, M., (The Swedish Transport Research Institute, TFK (SE)); Schramm, J.; Larsen, Ulrik, (Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-03-15

    This report is the result of an annex (annex XXXI, Fischer-Tropsch Fuels) initiated by the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels. The annex has been managed by Atrax Energi AB, Bjorn Rehnlund, acting as the operating agent of the annex. The work in the annex has been carried out in co-operation with the Swedish Transportation Research Institute - TFK, Magnus Blinge and the Technical University of Denmark - DTU, Jesper Schramm and Ulrik Larsen. In this report the possibilities to produce synthetic gasoline and synthetic diesel oil from biomass, and also from natural gas, by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Technology are analysed and discussed. After an introduction of the technology as such, environmental aspects and the life cycle perspective of synthetic gasoline and diesel oil are discussed, and some possible national/regional scenarios are analysed and presented. Vehicle emission tests with synthetic gasoline carried out at DTU are described and discussed in this report as well. Based on the result of the analysis and the vehicle emission tests presented in the report, a first SWOT analysis of Fischer-Tropsch technology is then presented, and finally some main conclusions are drawn. During the execution of the annex Sasol in South Africa, Nykomb Synergetics in Sweden, Chemrec in Sweden, the Technical University of Denmark, VTT in Finland, the Varnamo gasification research project in Sweden, and the Black liquor gasification project in Pitea, Sweden have been visited. Some of the most important conclusions are that: 1) FT-Fuels such as FT-Diesel (FTD) and FT-Gasoline (FTG) produced through CoalTo-Liquid, (CTL), Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) and Biomass-To-Liquid (BTL) technologies can contribute to reducing the dependency on crude oil. 2) FTD and FTG are attractive for use in neat form and also as components in blends with low quality diesel and gasoline, to upgrade fuels to meet the ever more stringent regulations. 3) Production and use of

  10. Product evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch derived fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, G.N. [Bechtel Corp., San Fransico, CA (United States); Kramer, S.J. [Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have placed stringent requirements on the quality of transportation fuels. Most petroleum refiners are scrambling to meet provisions of the Amendments to be implemented between 1995 and 2000. These requirements will also have significant implications for the production of alternative fuels. These have been examined for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) derived fuels. This analysis was conducted in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project, Baseline Design/Economics for Advanced Fischer-Tropsch Technology, conducted by Bechtel and Amoco. The goal of this study was to develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal using gasification, syngas conversion in slurry reactors with iron catalysts, and conventional refinery upgrading of the F-T derived hydrocarbon liquids. One alternative case using ZSM-5 upgrading technology was also considered. This study included complete capital and operating cost estimates for the processes. To perform economic analyses for the different design cases, the products from the liquefaction plant had to be valued relative to conventional transportation fuels. This task was accomplished by developing a Linear Programming (LP) model for a typical midwest refinery, and then feeding the F-T liquids to the refinery. In this way, the breakeven value determined for these materials is indicative of the price they could command if available in the marketplace. Inputs to the LP model include: refinery size, configuration, feedstocks, products, specifications, prices, and operating and capital recovery costs. The model was set up to be representative of conditions anticipated for the turn of the century. This required inclusion of fuel specifications from the CAAA of 1990 which have or will come into force by the year 2000.

  11. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. [DOE patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, K.P.C.; Perkins, P.

    Novel compounds are described which are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO + H/sub 2/ to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  12. Moderated ruthenium fischer-tropsch synthesis catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrevaya, Hayim

    1991-01-01

    The subject Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprises moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation.

  13. Systematic Staging in Chemical Reactor Design : Fischer-Tropsch

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Martin Skjærvø

    2013-01-01

    Today, crude oil is the main resource for production of liquid fuels. As the demandincreases, utilization of alternative resources becomes more and more urgent. Thus,the development of new and continued research on established process technologies isimportant.The scope of this Master?s thesis has been the catalytic hydrogenation of CO for production of linear, long chained hydrocarbons, known as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The core of a chemical plant is the reactor, thus the ultimate goal i...

  14. Model catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto-Sandoval Rodriguez, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Today, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is the key process in the production of liquid fuels from synthesis gas (a mixture of CO + H2). This mixture can be obtained from fossil fuels (oil, natural gas or coal) and from renewable sources such as biomass. Catalysis has an important role in the reaction since the catalysts can vary the activity and selectivity towards a wide range of products (i.e. methane, olefins, paraffins and alcohols, among others). The scope of this Master s thesis has been t...

  15. A novel water perm-selective membrane dual-type reactor concept for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of GTL (gas to liquid) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study proposes a novel configuration of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) reactors in which a fixed-bed water perm-selective membrane reactor is followed by a fluidized-bed hydrogen perm-selective membrane reactor. This novel concept which has been named fixed-bed membrane reactor followed by fluidized-bed membrane reactor (FMFMDR) produces gasoline from synthesis gas. The walls of the tubes of a fixed-bed reactor (water-cooled reactor) of FMFMDR configuration are coated by a high water perm-selective membrane layer. In this new configuration, two membrane reactors instead of one membrane reactor are developed for FTS reactions. In other words, two different membrane layers are used. In order to investigate the performance of FMFMDR, a one-dimensional heterogeneous model is taken into consideration. The simulation results of three schemes named fluidized-bed membrane dual-type reactor (FMDR), FMFMDR and conventional fixed-bed reactor (CR) are presented. They have been compared in terms of temperature, gasoline and CO2 yields, H2 and CO conversions and the water permeation rate through the membrane layer. Results show that the gasoline yield in FMFMDR is higher than the one in FMDR. The FMFMDR configuration not only decreases the undesired product such as CO2 but also produces more gasoline. -- Research highlights: → The application of H-SOD membrane layer in FTS reactors. → Approximate 7.5% and 37% increase in the gasoline yield in terms of [g/g feed x 100] in comparison with FMDR and CR, respectively. → A remarkable decrease in CO2 emission to the environment. → A good configuration mainly due to reduction in catalysts sintering as a result of in situ water removal.

  16. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  17. Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for the production of hydrocarbon fuels with high selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghong; Cheng, Kang; Kang, Jincan; Deng, Weiping; Wang, Ye

    2014-05-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a key reaction in the utilization of non-petroleum carbon resources, such as methane (natural gas, shale gas, and biogas), coal, and biomass, for the sustainable production of clean liquid fuels from synthesis gas. Selectivity control is one of the biggest challenges in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This Minireview focuses on the development of new catalysts with controllable product selectivities. Recent attempts to increase the selectivity to C5+ hydrocarbons by preparing catalysts with well-defined active phases or with new supports or by optimizing the interaction between the promoter and the active phase are briefly highlighted. Advances in developing bifunctional catalysts capable of catalyzing both CO hydrogenation to heavier hydrocarbons and hydrocracking/isomerization of heavier hydrocarbons are critically reviewed. It is demonstrated that the control of the secondary hydrocracking reactions by using core-shell nanostructures or solid-acid materials, such as mesoporous zeolites and carbon nanotubes with acid functional groups, is an effective strategy to tune the product selectivity of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Very promising selectivities to gasoline- and diesel-range hydrocarbons have been attained over some bifunctional catalysts. PMID:24339240

  18. New zeolites in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, H.; Joisten, M.; Luengen, S.; Winkler, D. (RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Brennstoffchemie und Physikalisch-Chemische Verfahrenstechnik)

    1994-03-01

    Liquid fuels as well as liquid chemical feedstock can be produced from abundantly available sources such as coal or natural gas via syngas and subsequent Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). Continuing earlier investigations of various authors on zeolites A,X,Y or ZSM-5 in FTS, this paper deals with mordenite, erionite, ZSM-11, ZSM-12, and zeolites L, omega and beta, combined with Fe (promoted with Cu and K), or Co, by coprecipitation, by impregnation with carbonyls, or by ion exchange. It was the aim of this investigation to measure the effect of these zeolites on the composition of FTS products. Catalyst screening was executed at medium pressure (10 to 15 bar) in fixed bed and in bubble column reactors. It was found that the product spectra in the gaseous phase as well as in the liquid phase can be significantly different from those of classical straight-chain FTS products, and that they branch into more isomers, olefins and oxygenates, owing to the shape selectivity and acidity of the zeolites. Furthermore, it was found that zeolites with large pores were more resistant to fast blocking by carbon deposition. From the point of view of environmental protection, it should be emphasized that the FTS product is absolutely sulphur-free. 4 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Santosh K. Gangwal

    1999-10-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of FeFT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction.

  20. 费托合成浆态床反应器模型研究进展%Research Progress in Modeling of Slurry Bed Reactors for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 唐晓津; 张占柱

    2012-01-01

    基于文献中的热态研究成果,总结了费托合成浆态床反应器模型的研究进展,并根据流动状态的理想性、气泡分类、模型的维度和模型研究方法对相关的研究工作进行了梳理和总结.经过分析归纳,认为费托合成浆态床反应器模型的复杂度日益提高,与实际反应情况越来越接近,结合CFD技术,以多维度、多气泡群、非理想流动为特征的模型是未来研究工作的趋势.对模型建立过程中必需的气液平衡和产物分布计算方法进行了系统的调研与分析,认为Henry定律适于合成气溶解度计算,而状态方程适于产物分布计算.%Based on the thermal state research results in the literature, the research progress in mathematical modeling of slurry bed reactors for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is reviewed, and the modeling is summarized from four aspects of ideality of flow, type of bubble, research dimension and method. By classification and analysis, it is found that the modeling is becoming much more complicated and closer to the reality. With the development of CFD technology, the models with multi-dimension, multi-bubble classes and non-ideal flow characteristics will be the trend of this field. The algorithms for vapor-liquid equilibrium of synthesis gas and the distribution of products between the gas and liquid phases are analyzed systematically. The Henry's law is suitable for the calculation of synthesis gas solubility, and the equations of state are well used to obtain the vapor-liquid equilibrium of products.

  1. Niobia-supported Cobalt Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis niobia has been shown to be an attractive support for application in Fischer-Tropsch catalysis at industrially relevant conditions without apparent deactivation up to at least 200 hours of operation. This proves that the level of potentially poisoning contaminants is sufficiently low

  2. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁百全; 李涛; A.A.C.M.Beenackers; G.P.vanderLaan

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors is presented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, product distribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Some important aspects of further research axe proposed for improving both theories and production.

  3. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors ispresented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, productdistribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Someimportant aspects of further research are proposed for improving both theories andproduction.

  4. Techno-economic assessment of integrating methanol or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a South African sugar mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Abdul M; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-05-01

    This study considered an average-sized sugar mill in South Africa that crushes 300 wet tonnes per hour of cane, as a host for integrating methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, through gasification of a combined flow of sugarcane trash and bagasse. Initially, it was shown that the conversion of biomass to syngas is preferably done by catalytic allothermal gasification instead of catalytic autothermal gasification. Thereafter, conventional and advanced synthesis routes for both Methanol and Fischer-Tropsch products were simulated with Aspen Plus® software and compared by technical and economic feasibility. Advanced FT synthesis satisfied the overall energy demands, but was not economically viable for a private investment. Advanced methanol synthesis is also not viable for private investment since the internal rate of return was 21.1%, because it could not provide the steam that the sugar mill required. The conventional synthesis routes had less viability than the corresponding advanced synthesis routes. PMID:25727762

  5. Coupling of glycerol processing with Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for production of liquid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonetti, D.A.; Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Kunkes, E.L.;

    2007-01-01

    Liquid alkanes can be produced directly from glycerol by an integrated process involving catalytic conversion to H-2/CO gas mixtures (synthesis gas) combined with Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Synthesis gas can be produced at high rates and selectivities suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (H-2/C...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. X. Lang; Dr. S. Chokkaram; Dr. L. Nowicki; G. Wei; Dr. Y. Ding; Dr. B. Reddy; Dr. S. Xiao

    1999-07-22

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the US will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Some of the F-T catalysts synthesized and tested at Texas A and M University under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89868 were more active than any other known catalysts developed for maximizing production of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (waxes). The objectives of the present contract were to demonstrate repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of preparation procedures of two of these catalysts on a laboratory scale. Improvements in the catalyst performance were attempted through the use of: (a) higher reaction pressure and gas space velocity to maximize the reactor productivity; (b) modifications in catalyst preparation steps; and (c) different pretreatment procedures. Repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of catalyst synthesis procedure have been successfully demonstrated in stirred tank slurry reactor tests. Reactor space-time-yield was increased up to 48% by increasing reaction pressure from 1.48 MPa to 2.17 MPa, while maintaining the gas contact time and synthesis gas conversion at a constant value. Use of calcination temperatures above 300 C, additional CaO promoter, and/or potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter, instead of potassium bicarbonate, did not result in improved catalyst performance. By using different catalyst activation procedures they were able to increase substantially the catalyst activity, while maintaining low methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities. Catalyst productivity in runs SA-0946 and SA-2186 was 0.71 and 0.86 gHC/g-Fe/h, respectively, and this represents 45-75% improvement in productivity relative to that achieved in Rheinpreussen's demonstration

  7. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the US will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Some of the F-T catalysts synthesized and tested at Texas A and M University under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89868 were more active than any other known catalysts developed for maximizing production of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (waxes). The objectives of the present contract were to demonstrate repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of preparation procedures of two of these catalysts on a laboratory scale. Improvements in the catalyst performance were attempted through the use of: (a) higher reaction pressure and gas space velocity to maximize the reactor productivity; (b) modifications in catalyst preparation steps; and (c) different pretreatment procedures. Repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of catalyst synthesis procedure have been successfully demonstrated in stirred tank slurry reactor tests. Reactor space-time-yield was increased up to 48% by increasing reaction pressure from 1.48 MPa to 2.17 MPa, while maintaining the gas contact time and synthesis gas conversion at a constant value. Use of calcination temperatures above 300 C, additional CaO promoter, and/or potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter, instead of potassium bicarbonate, did not result in improved catalyst performance. By using different catalyst activation procedures they were able to increase substantially the catalyst activity, while maintaining low methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities. Catalyst productivity in runs SA-0946 and SA-2186 was 0.71 and 0.86 gHC/g-Fe/h, respectively, and this represents 45-75% improvement in productivity relative to that achieved in Rheinpreussen's demonstration plant

  9. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch from Catalyst by Supercritical Extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

    1997-10-31

    The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent.

  10. The role of additives in Fischer-Tropsch reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Perdjon-Abel, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) is an alternative route to produce liquid fuels from a variety of carbon feedstocks including coal and biomass. Typically iron and cobalt based catalysts have been used for the FTS reaction, in which a mixture of CO and H2 (syn-gas) reacts to form hydrocarbons. Enhanced performance has been reported for iron-based systems doped with alkali metals and chalcogenides. Sulfides are considered a poison for most catalytic processes, but sulfur in the form of sulf...

  11. Conversion enhancement of tubular fixed-bed reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using static mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phavanee Narataruksa; Sabaithip Tungkamani; Karn Pana-Suppamassadu; Phongsak Keeratiwintakorn; Siriluck Nivitchanyong; Piyapong Hunpinyo; Hussanai Sukkathanyawat; Prayut Jiamrittiwong; Visarut Nopparat

    2012-01-01

    Recently,Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) has become an interesting technology because of its potential role in producing biofuels via Biomassto-Liquids (BTL) processes.In Fischer-Tropsch (FT) section,biomass-derived syngas,mainly composed of a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO)and hydrogen (H2),is converted into various forms of hydrocarbon products over a catalyst at specified temperature and pressure.Fixed-bed reactors are typically used for these processes as conventional FT reactors.The fixed-bed or packed-bed type reactor has its drawbacks,which are heat transfer limitation,i.e.a hot spot problem involved highly exothermic characteristics of FT reaction,and mass transfer limitation due to the condensation of liquid hydrocarbon products occurred on catalyst surface.This work is initiated to develop a new chemical reactor design in which a better distribution of gaseous reactants and hydrocarbon products could be achieved,and led to higher throughput and conversion.The main goal of the research is the enhancement of a fixed-bed reactor,focusing on the application of KenicsTM static mixer insertion in the tubular packed-bed reactor.Two FTS experiments were carried out using two reactors i.e.,with and without static mixer insertion within catalytic beds.The modeled syngas used was a mixed gas composed of H2/CO in 2 ∶ 1 molar ratio that was fed at the rate of 30 mL(STP)·min-1 (GHSV ≈ 136 mL·g-1cat·h-1) into the fixed Ru supported aluminum catalyst bed of weight 13.3 g.The reaction was carried out at 180 ℃ and atmospheric pressure continuously for 36 h for both experiments.Both transient and steady-state conversions (in terms of time on stream) were reported.The results revealed that the steady-state CO conversion for the case using the static mixer was approximately 3.5 times higher than that of the case without static mixer.In both cases,the values of chain growth probability of hydrocarbon products (α) for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were 0.92 and 0.89 for

  12. Prediction of bulk properties of Fischer-Tropsch derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, J.J.; Holder, G.D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    1997-06-01

    Asymptotic behavior correlations (ABCs) based on the properties of pure n-paraffins are used to predict the bulk properties of liquid mixtures derived from the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Comparisons are made with literature data for congealing point, density, specific heat, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. Mixture property predictions are based on appropriate average carbon numbers and on a general property mixing rule. Both ideal and nonideal solution behavior are exhibited. For the nonideal properties, viscosity and surface tension, mixing rules are proposed and parameters regressed to obtain reasonable agreement with mixture data. Property estimates based on the appropriate average carbon number are probably sufficient for most engineering applications. Methods are outlined for estimating different carbon-number averages based on congealing- and melting-point, density, and the Anderson-Schulz-Flory distribution when the carbon number distribution of the mixture is not available. The presence of other Fischer-Tropsch byproducts appears to have little effect on the accuracy of predictions made for high molecular weight mixtures.

  13. Morphological transformation during activation and reaction of an iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, N.B.; Kohler, S.; Harrington, M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to support the development of slurry-phase bubble column processes being studied at the La Porte Alternative Fuel Development Unit. This paper describes the aspects of Sandia`s recent work regarding the advancement and understanding of the iron catalyst used in the slurry phase process. A number of techniques were used to understand the chemical and physical effects of pretreatment and reaction on the attrition and carbon deposition characteristics of iron catalysts. Unless otherwise stated, the data discussed was derived form experiments carried out on the catalyst chosen for the summer 1994 Fischer-Tropsch run at LaPorte, UCI 1185-78-370, (an L 3950 type) that is 88% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11% CuO, and 0.052%K{sub 2}O.

  14. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  15. Noble Metal Catalysts for the Hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch waxes

    OpenAIRE

    Elorriaga de la Fuente, Ibone

    2012-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis enables the production of high quality diesel fuel from biomass derived synthesis gas. In order to increase the overall diesel yield, it is necessary to perform a subsequent hydrocracking of the long-chain linear paraffins. This work is focused on characterization and testing of catalysts for the hydrocracking reaction of Fischer-Tropsch waxes. In particular, noble metal catalyst based on Pt and Pd on amorphous silica-alumina support were tested. Palladium based cata...

  16. Iron on mixed zirconia-titania substrate Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Paul N.; Nordquist, Andrew F.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising iron co-deposited with or deposited on particles comprising a mixture of zirconia and titania, preferably formed by co-precipitation of compounds convertible to zirconia and titania, such as zirconium and titanium alkoxide. The invention also comprises the method of making this catalyst and an improved Fischer-Tropsch reaction process in which the catalyst is utilized.

  17. Reduction and reoxidation of cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmen, Anne-Mette

    1996-12-31

    The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis involves the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce mainly hydrocarbons, water and carbon dioxide, but also alcohols, aldehydes and acids are formed. The distribution of these products is determined by the choice of catalyst and synthesis conditions. This thesis studies the reduction and reoxidation of 17%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 17%Co-1%Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by means of several characterization techniques. The effect of small amounts of Re on the reduction properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Co catalysts has been studied by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). An intimate mixture of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts showed a promoting effect of Re similar to that for co impregnated CoRe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A loose mixture of Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} did not show any effect of Re on the reduction of Co. But a promoting effect was observed if the mixture had been pre-treated with Ar saturated with water before the TPR. It is suggested that Re promotes the reduction of Co oxide by hydrogen spillover. It is shown that a high temperature TPK peak at 1200K assigned to Co aluminate is mainly caused by the diffusion of Co ions during the TPR and not during calcination. The Co particle size measured by x-ray diffraction on oxidized catalysts decreased compared to the particle size on the calcined catalysts, while the dispersion measured by volumetric chemisorption decreased somewhat after the oxidation-reduction treatment. The role of water in the deactivation of Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CoRe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Fischer-Tropsch catalysts has been extensively studied. There were significant differences in the reducibility of the phases formed for the two catalysts during exposure to H{sub 2}O/He. 113 refs., 76 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Techno-economic performance analysis of bio-oil based Fischer-Tropsch and CHP synthesis platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techno-economic potential of the UK poplar wood and imported oil palm empty fruit bunch derived bio-oil integrated gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (BOIG-FT) systems for the generation of transportation fuels and combined heat and power (CHP) was investigated. The bio-oil was represented in terms of main chemical constituents, i.e. acetic acid, acetol and guaiacol. The compositional model of bio-oil was validated based on its performance through a gasification process. Given the availability of large scale gasification and FT technologies and logistic constraints in transporting biomass in large quantities, distributed bio-oil generations using biomass pyrolysis and centralised bio-oil processing in BOIG-FT system are technically more feasible. Heat integration heuristics and composite curve analysis were employed for once-through and full conversion configurations, and for a range of economies of scale, 1 MW, 675 MW and 1350 MW LHV of bio-oil. The economic competitiveness increases with increasing scale. A cost of production of FT liquids of 78.7 Euro/MWh was obtained based on 80.12 Euro/MWh of electricity, 75 Euro/t of bio-oil and 116.3 million Euro/y of annualised capital cost. -- Highlights: → Biomass to liquid process and gas to liquid process synthesis. → Biorefinery economic analysis. → Pyrolysis oil to biofuel. → Gasification and Fischer-Tropsch. → Process integration, pinch analysis and energy efficiency.

  19. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H2O, CO2, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined

  20. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  1. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-09-29

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined.

  2. LIQUID PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH (III & IV) DEMONSTRATION IN THE LAPORTE ALTERNATIVE FUELS DEVELOPMENT UNIT. Final Topical Report. Volume I/II: Main Report. Task 1: Engineering Modifications (Fischer-Tropsch III & IV Demonstration) and Task 2: AFDU Shakedown, Operations, Deactivation (Shut-Down) and Disposal (Fischer-Tropsch III & IV Demonstration).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharat L. Bhatt

    1999-06-01

    Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch technology was successfully demonstrated in DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas. Earlier work at LaPorte, with iron catalysts in 1992 and 1994, had established proof-of-concept status for the slurry phase process. The third campaign (Fischer-Tropsch III), in 1996, aimed at aggressively extending the operability of the slurry reactor using a proprietary cobalt catalyst. Due to an irreversible plugging of catalyst-wax separation filters as a result of unexpected catalyst fines generation, the operations had to be terminated after seven days on-stream. Following an extensive post-run investigation by the participants, the campaign was successfully completed in March-April 1998, with an improved proprietary cobalt catalyst. These runs were sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., and Shell Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (SSFI). A productivity of approximately 140 grams (gm) of hydrocarbons (HC)/ hour (hr)-liter (lit) of expanded slurry volume was achieved at reasonable system stability during the second trial (Fischer-Tropsch IV). The productivity ranged from 110-140 at various conditions during the 18 days of operations. The catalyst/wax filters performed well throughout the demonstration, producing a clean wax product. For the most part, only one of the four filter housings was needed for catalyst/wax filtration. The filter flux appeared to exceed the design flux. A combination of use of a stronger catalyst and some innovative filtration techniques were responsible for this success. There was no sign of catalyst particle attrition and very little erosion of the slurry pump was observed, in contrast to the Fischer-Tropsch III operations. The reactor operated hydrodynamically stable with uniform temperature profile and gas hold-ups. Nuclear density and differential pressure measurements indicated somewhat higher than expected gas hold-up (45 - 50 vol%) during Fischer-Tropsch

  3. Effects of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel on combustion and emissions of direct injection diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcheng HUANG; Shangxue WANG; Longbao ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel on the combustion and emission characteristics of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine under different fuel delivery advance angles were investigated. The experi-mental results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits shorter ignition delay, lower peak values of premixed burning rate, lower combustion pressure and pressure rise rate, and higher peak value of diffusion burning rate than con-ventional diesel fuel when the engine remains unmodified. In addition, the unmodified engine with F-T diesel fuel has lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher effective thermal efficiency, and presents lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions than conventional diesel fuel. When fuel delivery advance angle is retarded by 3 crank angle degrees, the combustion duration is obviously shor-tened; the peak values of premixed burning rate, the com-bustion pressure and pressure rise rate are further reduced; and the peak value of diffusion burning rate is further increased for F-T diesel fuel operation, Moreover, the retardation of fuel delivery advance angle results in a further significant reduction in NOx emissions with no penalty on specific fuel consumption and with much less penalty on HC, CO and smoke emissions.

  4. Fischer-Tropsch Reaction Kinetics of Cobalt Catalyst in Supercritical Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah Irankhah; Ali Haghtalab; Ebrahim Vasheghani Farahani; Kambiz Sadaghianizadeh

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis under supercritical phase condition was examined in a continuous and a high-pressure fixed bed reactor by employing a cobalt catalyst (Co-Ru/γ-Al2O3). An integral reactor model involving Fischer-Tropsch reaction kinetics in the supercritical fluid n-hexane was used to describe the overall performance. On the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) model, the reaction rate constants were obtained for the rate equations of CO conversion to CH4 formation under supercritical conditions.

  5. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh K. [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  6. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Bergin

    2003-10-17

    The Syntroleum plant is mechanically complete and currently undergoing start-up. The fuel production and demonstration plan is near completion. The study on the impact of small footprint plant (SFP) fuel on engine performance is about half-completed. Cold start testing has been completed. Preparations have been completed for testing the fuel in diesel electric generators in Alaska. Preparations are in progress for testing the fuel in bus fleets at Denali National Park and the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority. The experiments and analyses conducted during this project show that Fischer-Tropsch (FT) gas-to-liquid diesel fuel can easily be used in a diesel engine with little to no modifications. Additionally, based on the results and discussion presented, further improvements in performance and emissions can be realized by configuring the engine to take advantage of FT diesel fuel's properties. The FT fuel also shows excellent cold start properties and enabled the engine tested to start at more the ten degrees than traditional fuels would allow. This plant produced through this project will produce large amounts of FT fuel. This will allow the fuel to be tested extensively, in current, prototype, and advanced diesel engines. The fuel may also contribute to the nation's energy security. The military has expressed interest in testing the fuel in aircraft and ground vehicles.

  7. Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer Tropsch Based Diesel and Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Lundorf, P.; Ivarsson, A.; Schramm, J. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Blinge, M. [The Swedish Transport Institute (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The described results were carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was supposed to be very similar, in many ways, to FT fuel. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline vehicle.

  8. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgerman, A.; Bukur, D.B.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) in the supercritical phase employing a commercial precipitated iron catalysts. As the supercritical fluid the authors used propane and n-hexane. The catalyst had a nominal composition of 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/25 SiO{sub 2} on mass basis and was used in a fixed bed reactor under both normal (conventional) and supercritical conditions. Experimental data were obtained at different temperatures (235 C, 250 C, and 260 C) and synthesis gas feed compositions (H{sub 2}/CO molar feed ratio of 0.67, 1.0 and 2.0) in both modes of operation under steady state conditions. The authors compared the performance of the precipitated iron catalyst in the supercritical phase, with the data obtained in gas phase (fixed bed reactor) and slurry phase (STS reactor). Comparisons were made in terms of bulk catalyst activity and various aspects of product selectivity (e.g. lumped hydrocarbon distribution and olefin content as a function of carbon number). In order to gain better understanding of the role of intraparticle mass transfer during FTS under conventional or supercritical conditions, the authors have measured diffusivities of representative hydrocarbon products in supercritical fluids, as well as their effective diffusion rates into the pores of catalyst at the reaction conditions. They constructed a Taylor dispersion apparatus to measure diffusion coefficients of hydrocarbon products of FTS in sub and supercritical ethane, propane, and hexane. In addition, they developed a tracer response technique to measure the effective diffusivities in the catalyst pores at the same conditions. Based on these results they have developed an equation for prediction of diffusion in supercritical fluids, which is based on the rough hard sphere theory.

  9. Influence of the Feed Gas Composition on the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Commercial Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yijun Lu; Theo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Key technical challenges relating to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis applied in the commercialization of coal/gas-to-liquids (CTL/GTL) technologies have been reviewed. Based on the experiences accumulated from pilot plant, semi-work test and lab researches, the influences of the H2/CO ratio and the CO2 in the feed gas on the F-T process as well as on CTL/GTL complex in terms of product yields, energy efficiency and carbon utilization efficiency have been studied. Being contrary to the current design schemes for F-T process using the coal derived syngas and the iron-based catalyst, it is suggested to feed the F-T synthesis unit with a syngas having a H2/CO ratio of 0.5 and then adjusting to 1.4 via the recycling process. As a result, the carbon efficiency of the whole plant could be reached to as high as 50%. For the issue of CO2 addition to the feed gas, it is proved that only a diluting role is played under the current commercial slurry phase F-T process.

  10. Development of improved iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Final technical report: Project 6464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukur, D.B.; Ledakowicz, S.; Koranne, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [and others

    1994-02-28

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the United States will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer Tropsch (FT) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Texas A&M University (TAMU) with sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, Center for Energy and Mineral Resources at TAMU, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., has been working on development of improved iron FT catalysts and characterization of hydrodynamic parameters in two- and three-phase bubble columns with FT derived waxes. Our previous studies have provided an improved understanding of the role of promoters (Cu and K), binders (silica) and pretreatment procedures on catalyst activity, selectivity and longevity (deactivation). The objective of the present contract was to develop improved catalysts with enhanced slurry phase activity and higher selectivity to liquid fuels and wax. This was accomplished through systematic studies of the effects of pretreatment procedures and variations in catalyst composition (promoters and binders). The major accomplishments and results in each of these two main areas of research are summarized here.

  11. Development of the Fischer-Tropsch Process: From the Reaction Concept to the Process Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer C.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The process development by IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN/ENI/Axens of a Fischer-Tropsch process is described. This development is based on upstream process studies to choose the process scheme, reactor technology and operating conditions, and downstream to summarize all development work in a process guide. A large amount of work was devoted to the catalyst performances on one hand and the scale-up of the slurry bubble reactor with dedicated complementary tools on the other hand. Finally, an original approach was implemented to validate both the process and catalyst on an industrial scale by combining a 20 bpd unit in ENI’s Sannazzaro refinery, with cold mock-ups equivalent to 20 and 1 000 bpd at IFPEN and a special “Large Validation Tool” (LVT which reproduces the combined effect of chemical reaction condition stress and mechanical stress equivalent to a 15 000 bpd industrial unit. Dedicated analytical techniques and a dedicated model were developed to simulate the whole process (reactor and separation train, integrating a high level of complexity and phenomena coupling to scale-up the process in a robust reliable base on an industrial scale.

  12. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2006-09-29

    This report covers the fourth year of a research project conducted under the University Coal Research Program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (water, carbon dioxide, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the fourth year of the project, an analysis of experimental data collected during the second year of this project was performed. Kinetic parameters were estimated utilizing product distributions from 27 mass balances. During the reporting period two kinetic models were employed: a comprehensive kinetic model of Dr. Li and co-workers (Yang et al., 2003) and a hydrocarbon selectivity model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) The kinetic model of Yang et al. (2003) has 24 parameters (20 parameters for hydrocarbon formation, and 4 parameters for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction). Kinetic parameters for the WGS reaction and FTS synthesis were estimated first separately, and then simultaneously. The estimation of these kinetic parameters employed the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method and the trust-region reflective Newton large-scale (LS) method. A genetic algorithm (GA) was incorporated into estimation of parameters for FTS reaction to provide initial estimates of model parameters. All reaction rate constants and activation energies were found to be positive, but at the 95% confidence level the intervals were large. Agreement between predicted and experimental reaction rates has been fair to good. Light hydrocarbons are predicted fairly accurately, whereas the model underpredicts values of higher molecular weight

  13. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-09-29

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter ({alpha}) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number

  14. How to make Fischer-Tropsch catalyst scale-up fully reliable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.; Heraud, J.P.; Forret, A.; Gazarian, J. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Solaize (France); Cornaro, U. [Eni S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy). R and M Div.; Carugati, A. [Eni S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy). E and P Div.

    2011-07-01

    Several players use Fischer-Tropsch catalysts and technologies industrially [1,2] or declare to be ready for industrial application [e.g. 3]. Present R and D aims to further increase capacities per train [4] or improve catalyst selectivity towards middle distillates [5]. For transforming promising laboratory results into industrial reality, representative catalyst testing is of particular importance for slurry bubble column FT. In the Italian eni's refinery of Sannazzaro, a 20 BPD slurry bubble column pilot plant has cumulated more than 20,000 hours time on stream in different campaigns. Non reactive slurry bubble columns corresponding to reactor capacities between 20 BPD and 1000 BPD permitted to determine the profiles for gas hold up and liquid velocities as a function of gas flow, catalyst loading, reactor diameter and internals. A hydrodynamic model based on those data led to design a Large Validation Tool, which can reproduce under reaction conditions a high mechanical stress on the catalyst equivalent to the one experienced in an industrial 15000 BPD reactor. While those tools have proven to be efficient for developing an industrial scale FT catalyst [3], they predict today in a representative manner fines formation, activity and selectivity of improved catalysts and / or for optimization of operation conditions to increase the capacity per train. We compare the here presented approach to others. We have found that it is mandatory to combine chemical stress from the reaction products with mechanical stress as experienced in an industrial slurry bubble column, in order to evaluate in a reliable way catalyst performance stability and fines formation. The potential of improvements are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Effect of potassium promoter on cobalt nano-catalysts for fischer-tropsch reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sardar; Mohd Zabidi, Noor Asmawati; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2012-09-01

    In the present work effect of potassium on cobalt nano-catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch reaction has been presented. The catalysts were prepared using a wet impregnation method and promoted with potassium. Samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, H2-TPR, and TEM. The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor 220 δC, 1 atm, H2/CO = 2 and a velocity (SV) =12 L/g.h. for 5 h. Addition of potassium into Co/CNTs decreased the average size of cobalt nanoparticles and the catalyst reducibility. Potassium-promoted Co catalyst resulted in appreciable increase in the selectivity of C5+ hydrocarbons and suppressed methane formation. The 0.06%KCo/CNTs catalyst enhanced the C5+ hydrocarbons selectivity by a factor of 23.5% and reduced the methane selectivity by a factor of 39.6%

  16. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  17. Effect of Aromatic Concentration of a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel on Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer Lindsey Suder

    2012-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) jet fuel composition differs from petroleum-based, conventional commercial jet fuel because of differences in feedstock and production methodology. Fischer­ Tropsch fuel typically has a lower aromatic and sulfur content and consists primarily of iso and normal parafins. The ASTM D3241 specification for Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) break point testing method was used to test the breakpoint of a baseline commercial grade F-T jet fuel, and various blends of this F-T fuel with an aromatic solution. The goal of this research is to determine the effect of aromatic content on the thermal stability of Fischer-Tropsch fuel. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  18. Modeling of a slurry bubble column reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Wei-xin; MA Hong-fang; LI Tao; YING Wei-yong; FANG Ding-ye

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the global CO consumption rate model,the lumped product distribution model and the sedimentation-dispersion model of a catalyst,a steady-state,one-dimensional mathematical model of the slurry bubble column reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were established.The mathematical simulation of the slurry bubble column reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was carried out under the following typical industrial operating conditions:temperature 230 ℃,pressure 3.0 MPa,gas flow 5× 105 m3/h,catalyst content in slurry phase 30%,reactor diameter 5.0 m and the composition of feed gas:y(H2)=0.60,y(CO)=0.30,y(N2)=0.10.The influences of operating pressure,temperature and m(H2)/m(CO) in feed gas on the reactor's reaction performance were simulated.

  19. 费托合成蜡中超细催化剂颗粒分离技术进展%A review of Technology to Remove Ultra-fine Particles from Fischer-Tropsch wax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜元博; 石玉林

    2012-01-01

      介绍了可用于从费托合成蜡中脱除超细催化剂颗粒的固液分离方法,以及工艺中最新发展的一些固液分离技术,如高温离心、絮凝沉降、膜分离、超临界流体萃取、分子蒸馏、磁分离、电分离、超声固液分离技术等。针对各种固液分离技术的分离效率和费托蜡/催化剂混合体系的性质,指出几种分离技术组合或耦合,是从费托合成蜡中除去超细固体微粒的有效方法。%  This paper introduces the solid-liquid separation process used in removing ultra-fine catalyst particles from the synthetic wax, produced in Fischer-Troph process. The new developed solid-liquid separation technologies in the separation process,are also introduced, such as high temperature centrifugation,flocculation,membrane separation, supercritical fluid extraction, molecular distillation, magnetic separation technology,electric separation and ultrasonic separation technology. Based on the separation efficiency of the above solid-liquid separation technologies and the mixture System properties of F-T wax/catalyst,it is suggested that the combination or coupling of separation techniques is the efficiency way to remove ultra-fine particles from F-T wax.

  20. Deactivation and Regeneration of Commercial Type Fischer-Tropsch Co-Catalysts—A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erling Rytter; Anders Holmen

    2015-01-01

    Deactivation of commercially relevant cobalt catalysts for Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) synthesis is discussed with a focus on the two main long-term deactivation mechanisms proposed: Carbon deposits covering the catalytic surface and re-oxidation of the cobalt metal. There is a great variety in commercial, demonstration or pilot LTFT operations in terms of reactor systems employed, catalyst formulations and process conditions. Lack of sufficient data makes it difficult to correlat...

  1. On the Deactivation of Cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Cats, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) process is an attractive way to obtain synthetic liquid fuel from alternative energy sources such as natural gas, coal or biomass. However, the deactivation of the catalyst, consisting of cobalt nanoparticles supported on TiO2, currently hampers the industrial application of the process. Despite many years of research, we still lack the fundamental insights into the mechanism of catalyst deactivation necessary to develop the next generation of FTS catalysts...

  2. Nano-sized cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for gas-to-liquid process applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Shik; Awate, S V; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, So Jung; Park, Moon Ju; Lee, Sang Deuk; Hong, Suk-In; Moon, Dong Ju

    2010-05-01

    Nano-sized cobalt supported catalysts were prepared for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in gas-to-liquid (GTL) process. The dependence of crystallite size and reducibility of Co3O4 on the supports were investigated with FTS activity. XRD peaks revealed nano crystallites ( Co/Al2O3 (70.0%) > Co/R_TiO2 (61%) > Co/A_TiO2 (57.5%).

  3. Hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch Products. Optimization of Diesel and Naphtha Cuts

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, U.M.; F. A. N. Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products consisting of a mixture of C4–C30 paraffins and olefins over a platinum/amorphous silica–alumina catalyst was analyzed and optimized. A mathematical model of a batch reactor used for hydrocarbon hydrocracking was developed and the process was studied from a modeling point of view based on the kinetics of a bifunctional catalyst. The influence of temperature on the product yield distribution was evaluated. Time and temperature optimization we...

  4. CHAIN-LIMITING OPERATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2003-06-01

    The use of pulsing in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to limit the hydrocarbon chain growth and maximize the yield of diesel-range (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}) products was examined on high-chain-growth-probability ({alpha} {ge} 0.9) FT catalysts. Pulsing experiments were conducted using a stainless-steel fixed-bed micro-reactor, equipped with both on-line (for the permanent gases and light hydrocarbons, C{sub 1}-C{sub 15}) and off-line (for the heavier hydrocarbons, C{sub 10}-C{sub 65}) gas chromatography analysis. Additional experiments were performed using a highly active attrition-resistant iron-based FT synthesis catalyst in a 1-liter continuous stirred-tank rector (CSTR). On both a Co-ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and a Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} FT synthesis catalyst application of H{sub 2} pulsing causes significant increase in CO conversion, and only an instantaneous increase in undesirable selectivity to CH{sub 4}. Increasing the frequency of H{sub 2} pulsing enhances the selectivity to C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} compounds but the chain-growth probability {alpha} remains essentially unaffected. Increasing the duration of H{sub 2} pulsing results in enhancing the maximum obtained CO conversion and an instantaneous selectivity to CH{sub 4}. An optimum set of H{sub 2} pulse parameters (pulse frequency, pulse duration) is required for maximizing the yield of desirable diesel-range C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} products. Application of a suitable H{sub 2} pulse in the presence of added steam in the feed is a simple method to overcome the loss in activity and the shift in paraffin vs. olefin selectivity (increase in the olefin/paraffin ratio) caused by the excess steam. A decrease in syngas concentration has a strong suppressing effect on the olefin/paraffin ratio of the light hydrocarbon products. Higher syngas concentration can increase the chain growth probability {alpha} and thus allow for better evaluation of the effect of pulsing on FT synthesis. On a high-{alpha} Fe/K/Cu/SiO{sub 2} FT

  5. Kinetics of Slurry Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski; Lech Nowicki; Madhav Nayapati

    2006-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. Three STSR tests of the Ruhrchemie LP 33/81 catalyst were conducted to collect data on catalyst activity and selectivity under 25 different sets of process conditions. The observed decrease in 1-olefin content and increase in 2-olefin and n-paraffin contents with the increase in conversion are consistent with a concept that 1-olefins participate in secondary reactions (e.g. 1-olefin hydrogenation, isomerization and readsorption), whereas 2-olefins and n-paraffins are formed in these reactions. Carbon number product distribution showed an increase in chain growth probability with increase in chain length. Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations were made to check validity of the assumption that the gas and liquid phases are in equilibrium during FTS in the STSR. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values for the liquid-phase composition (for some of the experimental data) are ascribed to experimental errors in the amount of wax collected from the reactor, and the relative amounts of hydrocarbon wax and Durasyn 164 oil (start-up fluid) in the liquid samples. Kinetic parameters of four kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003; Van der Laan and Beenackers, 1998, 1999; and an extended kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers) were estimated from experimental data in the STSR tests. Two of these kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003) can predict a complete product distribution (inorganic species and hydrocarbons), whereas the kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) can

  6. [Determination of low-carbon alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Qingqing; Wu, Peng; Shi, Yulin; Bai, Yu; Long, Yinhua

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of low-carbon (C1-C8) alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was developed by gas chromatography. It included the optimization of separation conditions, the precision and accuracy of determination, and the use of correction factors of the analytes to ethanol for quantification. The aqueous products showed that the correlation coefficients for ethanol in different content ranges were above 0.99, which means it had good linear correlations. The spiked recoveries in the aqueous samples of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were from 93.4% to 109.6%. The accuracy of the method can satisfy the requirement for the analysis of the aqueous samples of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The results showed that the total mass fractions of the major low-carbon alcohols, aldehydes, ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were about 3%-12%, and the contents of ethanol were the highest (about 1.7%-7.3%). The largest share of the total proportion was n-alcohols, followed by isomeric alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were the lowest. This method is simple, fast, and has great significance for the analysis of important components in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  7. A chemical route to the formation of water in circumstellar envelopes around carbon-rich asymptotic branch stars: Fischer-Tropsch catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willacy, K.

    2004-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysis has been suggested as a means of driving hydrocarbon chemistry in oxygen rich regions such as the protosolar nebula. In addition to producing hydrocarbons, Fischer-Tropsch catalysis also produces water, and it is therefore possible that such processes could account for the recent observations of water in the circumstellar envelope of asymptotic giant branch star IRC +10216.

  8. Study on the Precursor Phase Composition of Fused Iron Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the precursor composition of fused iron catalyst on the performance of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was investigated. XRD, BET and CO2 adsorption experiments were carried out to provide better insight into the relationship therein. The results showed that the selectivity of C5+ hydrocarbon products was dependent on the mole ratio of Fe2+/Fe3+, which was represented by a hump-shaped curve. Catalysts with precursors containing Fe3O4 phase favored the magnetite spinal formation during F-T reaction, while Fe1-xO-based catalysts were more likely to favor the formation and growth of the iron carbide crystals.

  9. Structural framework of a medium Fischer-Tropsch wax fraction determined by electron crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.; Basson, Ilsa

    2000-10-01

    The structural framework of a medium hardness Fischer-Tropsch wax distillate is established quantitatively by electron crystallography and compared to model paraffin assemblies with a similar Gaussian distribution of chain lengths. The lamellar packing closely resembles the crystal structure of refined petroleum waxes with a similar distribution of defects near the lamellar interface. Nevertheless, clear differences associated with the absorption of smaller chains within the lamellar interface, detected by NMR, are not resolved by these diffraction measurements, perhaps due to artefacts induced by the high vacuum of the experiment and/or specimen preparation.

  10. Insight on Biomass Supply and Feedstock Definition for Fischer-Tropsch Based BTL Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process chains of thermo chemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass through gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (known as BTL) represent promising alternatives for biofuels production. Since biomass is heterogeneous and not homogeneously spread over territories, one of the major technological stakes of the project is to develop a flexible industrial chain capable of co-treating the widest possible range of biomass and fossil fuel feedstock. The present study aims at characterizing biomass diversity (availability and potentials by area, cost and mineral composition) by carrying out a state of the art, as a preliminary step in order to define a series of biomass to be tested in the demonstration plant and therefore define specifications for the process. Fifty different biomass were considered for their bio-energy application potential and were finally classified into four categories: agricultural by-products, dedicated energy crops, (Very) Short Rotation Coppice ((V)SRC) and forestry biomass. Biomass availability and potentials were investigated by the mean of a literature review of past and current projects (e.g. RENEW project, Biomass Energy Europe Project, etc.) and scientific articles. Most collected data are technical potentials, meaning that they take into account biophysical limits of crops and forests, technological possibilities, competition with other land uses and ecological constraints (e.g. natural reserves). Results show various emerging markets: North and South America have considerable amounts of agricultural by-products, forest residues, and large land areas which could be dedicated to energy crops; Africa shows relevant possibilities to grow Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) and energy crops; Russia has large available quantities of agricultural by-products and forest residues, as well as little valuable land where energy crops and SRC could be grown, and Asia shows relevant amounts of forest residues and possibilities of growing SRC, as well

  11. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Multicomponent Catalysts: What Can We Learn from Computer Simulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. C. Fajín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this concise review paper, we will address recent studies based on the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA of the density functional theory (DFT and on the periodic slab approach devoted to the understanding of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process on transition metal catalysts. As it will be seen, this computational combination arises as a very adequate strategy for the study of the reaction mechanisms on transition metal surfaces under well-controlled conditions and allows separating the influence of different parameters, e.g., catalyst surface morphology and coverage, influence of co-adsorbates, among others, in the global catalytic processes. In fact, the computational studies can now compete with research employing modern experimental techniques since very efficient parallel computer codes and powerful computers enable the investigation of more realistic molecular systems in terms of size and composition and to explore the complexity of the potential energy surfaces connecting reactants, to intermediates, to products of reaction. In the case of the Fischer-Tropsch process, the calculations were used to complement experimental work and to clarify the reaction mechanisms on different catalyst models, as well as the influence of additional components and co-adsorbate species in catalyst activity and selectivity.

  12. Co-Zn-Al based hydrotalcites as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, C.L.; Pirola, C.; Boffito, D.C.; Di Fronzo, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica; Di Michele, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Vivani, R.; Nocchetti, M.; Bastianini, M.; Gatto, S. [Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    2011-07-01

    Co-Zn-Al based hydrotalcites have been investigated as catalysts for the well-known Fischer- Tropsch synthesis. A series of ternary hydrotalcites in nitrate form was prepared with the urea method in order to obtain active catalysts for the above mentioned process. The thermal activation at 350 C gives raise to finely dispersed metallic Co on the mixed oxides, so resulting in retaining the metal distribution of the parent compounds. An optimization study concerning the amount of cobalt of the prepared catalysts (range 15-70% mol, metal based) and the reaction temperature (220-260 C) is reported. All the samples have been fully characterized (BET, ICP-OES, XRPD, TG-DTA, FT-IR, SEM and TEM) and tested in a laboratory pilot plant. Tests to evaluate the stability of these materials were carried out in stressed conditions concerning both the activation and the operating temperatures and pressures (up to 350 C and 2.0 MPa). The obtained results suggest the possibility of using synthetic hydrotalcites as suitable Co-based catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. (orig.)

  13. Solid state NMR investigation of silica aerogel supported Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiru; Dunn, Brian C.; Turpin, Gregory C.; Eyring, Edward M.; Ernst, Richard D.; Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst is the critical component for the F-T synthesis of a variety of hydrocarbons from syngas. Fischer-Tropsch cobalt, iron and ruthenium catalysts supported on silica aerogel have been prepared using a combination of sol-gel chemistry and vapor phase deposition methods. Solid state NMR spectroscopy, a very powerful technique for analyzing the structure and dynamics of various materials, was employed in the study of these F-T catalyst systems. The silica aerogel supported F-T catalysts have been investigated using both solid state {sup 29}Si and {sup 13}C NMR methods. The silica aerogel's tetrahedral sub-unit structure and the influence of the loaded metal compounds have been observed. Three types of Si(O{sub 1/2}){sub 4} tetrahedral unit structure (Q{sub 2}, Q{sub 3} and Q{sub 4}) are clearly resolved in the silica aerogel samples. The calcining process and the loading of metal compounds produce line broadening in the {sup 29}Si spectra sufficient to prevent clear resolution of the three distinct Q{sub n} spectral lines, but the broadened spectra indicate that the three Q sub-unit structures are still present. The ferrocene and ruthenocene molecules used in the vapor phase deposition method exhibit a rapid exchange within the silica aerogel support similar to what one would expect in the gas or liquid state. (author)

  14. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanenchuk, C.A.; Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    A Co/MgO/SiO[sub 2] Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was operated simultaneously with a Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst in a slurry reactor for over 400 hours. The process conditions were held constant at a temperature of 240[degrees]C, a pressure of 0.79 MPa, and a 1.1 H[sub 2]/CO feed of 0.065 Nl/min-g.cat. The Fischer-Tropsch activity remained constant at the level predicted by the operation of the Co/MgO/SiO[sub 2] catalyst alone. The water-gas-shift reaction was near equilibrium. The hydrocarbon product distribution of the combined catalyst system was stable and matched that of the CO/MgO/SiO[sub 2] operating alone under similar conditions. The combined catalyst system exhibited a high selectivity to n-alkanes. Neither catalysts's operation appeared to have a detrimental effect on that of the other, showing promise for future option.

  15. Cerium Modified Pillared Montmorillonite Supported Cobalt Catalysts for Fischer Tropsch Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was accomplished over Al-pillared Montmorillonite supported 20 wt% Co modified with different weight% of cerium catalysts. These catalysts were prepared by impregnation method while structural characterizations of the prepared samples were performed by XRD, TPR, NH/sub 3/TPD, TGA, BET, XRF and SEM techniques. The Fischer Tropsch reaction was studied in fixed bed micro catalytic reactor at temperature range of 220, 260 and 275 degree C and at different pressure (1, 5 and 10 bars). From the activity results, it was found that by pillaring NaMMT with Al higher catalytic activity and lower methane selectivity of NaMMT was achieved. Furthermore, the results of FT synthesis reaction revealed that cerium incorporation increased the dispersion of Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ on the surface and consequently resulted in enhanced catalytic activity. Additionally, the C/sub 5/-C/sub 12/ hydrocarbons and methane selectivity increased while C/sub 22+/ hydrocarbons selectivity was decreased over cerium modified catalysts. Higher reaction temperature (>220 degree C) resulted in significant enhancement in CO conversion and methane selectivity. Though, increase in pressure from 1 to 10 bars eventually resulted in increase in C/sub 5+/ hydrocarbons and decrease in methane and C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons selectivity. (author)

  16. Size and Promoter Effects on Stability of Carbon-Nanofiber-Supported Iron-Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Jingxiu; Torres Galvis, Hirsa; Koeken, Ard C J; Kirilin, Alexey; Dugulan, A Iulian; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; de Jong, Krijn P

    2016-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis converts synthesis gas from alternative carbon resources, including natural gas, coal, and biomass, to hydrocarbons used as fuels or chemicals. In particular, iron-based catalysts at elevated temperatures favor the selective production of C2-C4 olefins, which are import

  17. 40 CFR 721.10103 - Naphtha (Fischer-Tropsch), C4-11-alkane, branched and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-alkane, branched and linear. 721.10103 Section 721.10103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as naphtha (fischer-tropsch), C4-11-alkane, branched and linear (PMN P-04-235; CAS...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10178 - Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction. 721.10178 Section 721.10178 Protection of Environment...), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...

  19. Effects of loading and synthesis method of titania-supported cobalt catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschemann, Thomas O.; Bitter, Johannes H.; De Jong, Krijn P.

    2014-01-01

    Because of their high activity and selectivity to C5+ hydrocarbons in the Fischer-Tropsch, process, titania-supported cobalt catalysts have received great interest from industrial and academic, institutions. Here, we report on three catalyst preparation procedures, incipient wetness impregnation (IW

  20. The role of zeolites in the deactivation of multifunctional Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis catalysts: the interaction between HZSM-5 and Fe-based FT-catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to produce gasoline directly from syngas, HZSM-5 can be added to the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. However, this catalytic system shows an important deactivation rate. Aiming at describing this phenomenon, Fe-based catalysts and physical mixtures containing these catalysts and HZSM-5 were employed in this reaction. All these systems were characterized using the following techniques: XRD, XPS, TPR and TPD of CO. This work shows that HZSM-5 interacts with the Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst during the reduction step, decreasing the Fe concentration on the catalytic surface and thus lowering the activity of the catalytic system in the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. (author)

  1. The role of zeolites in the deactivation of multifunctional fischer-tropsch synthesis catalysts: the interaction between HZSM-5 and Fe-based Ft-catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Zonetti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce gasoline directly from syngas, HZSM-5 can be added to the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. However, this catalytic system shows an important deactivation rate. Aiming at describing this phenomenon, Fe-based catalysts and physical mixtures containing these catalysts and HZSM-5 were employed in this reaction. All these systems were characterized using the following techniques: XRD, XPS, TPR and TPD of CO. This work shows that HZSM-5 interacts with the Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst during the reduction step, decreasing the Fe concentration on the catalytic surface and thus lowering the activity of the catalytic system in the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis.

  2. The role of zeolites in the deactivation of multifunctional Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis catalysts: the interaction between HZSM-5 and Fe-based FT-catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonetti, P.C.; Gaspar, A.B.; Mendes, F.M.T.; Appel, L.G., E-mail: lucia.appel@int.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Avillez, R. R. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Sousa-Aguiar, E.F. [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    In order to produce gasoline directly from syngas, HZSM-5 can be added to the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. However, this catalytic system shows an important deactivation rate. Aiming at describing this phenomenon, Fe-based catalysts and physical mixtures containing these catalysts and HZSM-5 were employed in this reaction. All these systems were characterized using the following techniques: XRD, XPS, TPR and TPD of CO. This work shows that HZSM-5 interacts with the Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst during the reduction step, decreasing the Fe concentration on the catalytic surface and thus lowering the activity of the catalytic system in the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. (author)

  3. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  4. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh; Hess, Fernando; Horzen, Wessel van; Williams, Daniel; Peevor, Andy; Dyer, Andy; Dyer, Andy; Frankel, Louis

    2016-03-31

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and process steam in the

  5. Enhancing the properties of Fischer-Tropsch fuel produced from syngas over Co/SiO2 catalyst: Lubricity and Calorific Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doustdar, O.; Wyszynski, M. L.; Mahmoudi, H.; Tsolakis, A.

    2016-09-01

    Bio-fuel produced from renewable sources is considered the most viable alternatives for the replacement of mineral diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. There are several options for biomass derived fuels production involving chemical, biological and thermochemical processes. One of the best options is Fischer Tropsch Synthesis, which has an extensive history of gasoline and diesel production from coal and natural gas. FTS fuel could be one of the best solutions to the fuel emission due to its high quality. FTS experiments were carried out in 16 different operation conditions. Mini structured vertical downdraft fixed bed reactor was used for the FTS. Instead of Biomass gasification, a simulated N2 -rich syngas cylinder of, 33% H2 and 50% N2 was used. FT fuels products were analyzed in GCMS to find the hydrocarbon distributions of FT fuel. Calorific value and lubricity of liquid FT product were measured and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Lubricity has become an important quality, particularly for biodiesel, due to higher pressures in new diesel fuel injection (DFI) technology which demands better lubrication from the fuel and calorific value which is amount of energy released in combustion paly very important role in CI engines. Results show that prepared FT fuel has desirable properties and it complies with standard values. FT samples lubricities as measured by ASTM D6079 standard vary from 286μm (HFRR scar diameter) to 417μm which are less than limit of 520μm. Net Calorific value for FT fuels vary from 9.89 MJ/kg to 43.29 MJ/kg, with six of the samples less than EN 14213 limit of 35MJ/kg. Effect of reaction condition on FT fuel properties was investigated which illustrates that in higher pressure Fischer-Tropsch reaction condition liquid product has better properties.

  6. The role of electrophilic species in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitlis, Peter M; Zanotti, Valerio

    2009-04-01

    The heterogeneously catalysed Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis converts syngas (CO+H2) into long chain hydrocarbons and is a key step in the economically important transformation of natural gas, coal, or biomass into liquid fuels, such as diesel. Catalyst surface studies indicate that the FT reaction starts when CO is activated at imperfections on the surfaces of late transition metals (Fe, Ru, Co, or Rh) and at interfaces with "islands" of promoters (Lewis acid oxides such as alumina or titania). Activation involves CO cleavage to generate a surface carbide, C(ad), which is sequentially hydrogenated to CHx(ad) species (x=1-4). An overview of practical aspects of the FT synthesis is followed by a discussion of the chief mechanisms that have been proposed for the formation of 1-alkenes by polymerisation of surface C1 species. These mechanisms have traditionally postulated rather non-polar intermediates, such as CH2(ad) and CH3(ad). However, electrophiles and nucleophiles are well-known to play key roles in the reactions of organic and organometallic compounds, and also in many reactions homogeneously catalysed by soluble metal complexes, including olefin polymerisation. We have now extended these concepts to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, and show that the polymerisation reactions at polarising surfaces, such as oxide-metal interfaces, can be understood if the reactive chain carrier is an electrophilic species, such as the cationic methylidyne, CH(delta+)(ad). It is proposed that the key coupling step in C-C bond formation involves the interaction of the electrophilic methylidyne with an alkylidene (RCH(ad), R=H, alkyl), followed by an H-transfer to generate the homologous alkylidene: CHdelta+(ad)+RCH(ad)-->RCHCH(ad) and RCHCH(ad)+H(ad)-->RCH2CH(ad). If the reactions occur on non-polarising surfaces, an alternative C-C bond forming reaction such as the alkenyl+methylene, RCH=CH(ad)+CH2(ad)-->RCH=CHCH2(ad), can take place. This approach explains important aspects of the

  7. Metal organic framework-mediated synthesis of highly active and stable Fischer-Tropsch catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vera P; Wezendonk, Tim A; Jaén, Juan José Delgado; Dugulan, A Iulian; Nasalevich, Maxim A; Islam, Husn-Ubayda; Chojecki, Adam; Sartipi, Sina; Sun, Xiaohui; Hakeem, Abrar A; Koeken, Ard C J; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Davidian, Thomas; Meima, Garry R; Sankar, Gopinathan; Kapteijn, Freek; Makkee, Michiel; Gascon, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Depletion of crude oil resources and environmental concerns have driven a worldwide research on alternative processes for the production of commodity chemicals. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process for flexible production of key chemicals from synthesis gas originating from non-petroleum-based sources. Although the use of iron-based catalysts would be preferred over the widely used cobalt, manufacturing methods that prevent their fast deactivation because of sintering, carbon deposition and phase changes have proven challenging. Here we present a strategy to produce highly dispersed iron carbides embedded in a matrix of porous carbon. Very high iron loadings (>40 wt %) are achieved while maintaining an optimal dispersion of the active iron carbide phase when a metal organic framework is used as catalyst precursor. The unique iron spatial confinement and the absence of large iron particles in the obtained solids minimize catalyst deactivation, resulting in high active and stable operation. PMID:25740709

  8. Optimisation of the Fischer-Tropsch process using zeolites for tail gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Carbajo, J; Gómez-Álvarez, P; Bueno-Perez, R; Merkling, P J; Calero, S

    2014-03-28

    This work is aimed at optimizing a Fischer-Tropsch Gas To Liquid (GTL) process by recycling compounds of the expelled gas mixture using zeolites for the separation. To that end, we have performed a computational study on four structures widely used in industry. A range of Si/Al ratios have been explored and the effects of their distribution assessed. The ability of the considered force fields and molecular models to reproduce experimental results has been widely proved in previously reported studies. Since this tail gas is formed by a five-component mixture, namely carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and hydrogen, molecular simulations present clear advantages over experiments. In addition, the viability of the Ideal Adsorption Solution Theory (IAST) has been evaluated to easily handle further separation steps. On the basis of the obtained results, we provide a separation scheme to perform sequentially the separation of CO2, CH4, CO, N2 and H2.

  9. Alkali promotion effect in Fischer-Tropsch cobalt-alumina catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Tsapkina, M.V.; Davydov, P.E.; Kazantsev, R.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry; Belousova, O.S.; Lapidus, A.L. [Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Promoting Co-alumina Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts with alkali and alkaline-earth metals was studied. XRD, oxygen titration and CO chemisorption were used for the characterization of the catalysts. The best results in terms of catalyst selectivity and long-chain alkanes content in synthesized products were obtained with K-promoted catalyst. Catalytic performance strongly depends on K:Co atomic ratio as well as preparation procedure. Effect of K loading on selectivities is non-linear with extreme point at K:Co=0.01. Significant increase in C{sub 5+} selectivity of K-promoted catalyst may be explained as a result of strong CO adsorption on the catalyst surface, as was confirmed in CO chemisorption experiments. (orig.)

  10. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitava Sarkar; James K. Neathery; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-12-31

    A fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of operation since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products in one approach may be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase iron-based FTS and is a key factor for optimizing operating costs. The separation problem is further compounded by attrition of iron catalyst particles and the formation of ultra-fine particles.

  11. Study on iron-manganese catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOSTAFA FEYZI; FATANEH JAFARI

    2012-01-01

    Iron-manganese catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method.Characterization of catalysts was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),temperature program reduction (TPR),N2 adsorptiondesorption measurements.The results from catalytic performance tests in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis showed that the iron-manganese catalysts are supersensitive to catalyst composition and materials source.It was found that C2~4 light olefins increased while CH4 and CO2 decreased by using iron-manganese catalyst prepared from iron (Ⅱ) sulfate (A catalyst).The activity and selectivity of A catalyst was studied in different operational conditions.The results showed that the best operational conditions for C2~4 light olefins production were H2/CO=1/1 (GHSV=2 400 h-1) at 260 ℃ under 0.3 MPa total pressure.

  12. Modeling of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in a Slurry Reactor with Water Permeable Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is an important chemical process for the production of liquid fuels and olefins. In recent years, the abundant availability of natural gas and the increasing demand of olefins, diesel, and waxes have led to a high interest to further develop this process. A mathematical model of a slurry membrane reactor used for syngas polymerization was developed to simulate and compare the maximum yields and operating conditions in the reactor with that in a conventional slurry reactor.The carbon polymerization was studied from a modeling point of view in a slurry reactor with a water permeable membrane and a conventional slurry reactor. Simulation results show that different parameters affect syngas conversion and carbon product distribution, such as the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio,and the membrane parameters such as membrane permeance.

  13. Trapping Planetary Noble Gases During the Fischer-Tropsch-Type Synthesis of Organic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, N. M.; Meshik, A.

    2010-01-01

    When hydrogen, nitrogen and CO arc exposed to amorphous iron silicate surfaces at temperatures between 500 - 900K, a carbonaceous coating forms via Fischer-Tropsch type reactions!, Under normal circumstances such a catalytic coating would impede or stop further reaction. However, we find that this coating is a better catalyst than the amorphous iron silicates that initiate these rcactions:u . The formation of a self-perpetuating catalytic coating on grain surfaces could explain the rich deposits of macromolecular carbon found in primitive meteorites and would imply that protostellar nebulae should be rich in organic materiaL Many more experiments are needed to understand this chemical system and its application to protostellar nebulae.

  14. Particle size effects in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis by Co catalyst supported on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Nakhaei Pour; Elham Hosaini; Mohammad Izadyar; Mohammad Reza Housaindokht

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Co particle size on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) activity of carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported Co catalysts was investigated. Microemulsion (using water-to-surfactant molar ratios of 2 to12) and impregnation techniques were used to prepare catalysts with different Co particle sizes. Kinetic studies were performed to understand the effect of Co particle size on catalytic activity. Size-dependent kinetic parameters were developed using a thermodynamic method, to evaluate the structural sensitivity of the CNT-supported Co catalysts. The size-independent FTS reaction rate constant and size-independent adsorption parameter increased with increasing reac-tion temperature. The Polani parameter also depended on catalyst particle size, because of changes in the catalyst surface coverage.

  15. Development of niobium-promoted cobalt catalysts on carbon nanotubes for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sardar Ali; Noor Asmawati Mohd Zabidi; Duvvuri Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt-based catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) support and promoted with niobium.Samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption,TEM,XRD,TPR,TPO and H2-TPD.Addition of niobium increased the dispersion of cobalt but decreased the catalysts reducibility.Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 543 K,1 atm and H2/CO =2 for 5 h.Addition of niobium enhanced the C5+ hydrocarbons selectivity by 39% and reduced methane selectivity by 59%.These effects were more pronounced for 0.04%Nb/Co/CNTs catalyst,compared with those observed for other niobium compositions.

  16. Immobilised carbon nanotubes as carrier for Co-Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, J.; Rose, A.; Kiendl, I.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Curulla-Ferre, D. [Total S.A., Gas and Power, Paris La Defense (France)

    2011-07-01

    A possibility to immobilise carbon nanotubes (CNT) to make them applicable in a technical scale fixed bed reactor is studied. The approach to fabricate millimetre scale composites containing CNT presented in this work is to confine the nano-carbon in macro porous ceramic particles. Thus CNT were grown on the inner surface of silica and alumina pellets and spheres, respectively. Cobalt nano particles were successfully deposited on the carbon surface inside the two types of ceramic carriers and the systems were tested in Fischer - Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The cobalt mass related activity of these novel catalysts is similar to a conventional system. The selectivities of the Co/CNT/ceramic composites were compared with non supported CNT and carbon nanofibres (CNF). (orig.)

  17. Kinetic Rates of the Fischer Tropsch Synthesis on a Co/Nb2O5 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Víctor R.Ahón; Paulo L.C.Lage; Carlos D.D.de Souza; Fabiana M.Mendes; Martin Schmal

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction over a Co/Nb2O5 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor was investigated experimentally. Experiments were carried out under isothermal and isobaric conditions (T=543 K, P=2.1 MPa) and under different conditions of several H2/CO feed molar ratio (0.49-4.79), space velocities (0.2-3.8 h-1), mass of catalyst (0.3-1.5 g), and CO conversion (10%-29%).Synthesis gas conversion was measured and data were reduced to estimate the kinetic parameters for different Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate expressions. Differential and integral reactor models were used for the nonlinear regression of kinetics parameters. One of the rate equations could well explain the data. The hydrocarbon product distributions that were experimentally determined exhibited an unusual behavior,and a possible explanation was discussed.

  18. Effect of Several Anions on Fe-Based Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingchang Zhang; Xuehua Guo; Weiliang Cao

    2007-01-01

    The influence of several anions on Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, used in the synthesis of light olefins from synthesis gas, was studied. The results indicated that the addition of anions resulted in the reduction of catalytic activity. When the anion content in the catalyst was 500 ppm, the influence of different anions on the catalysis activity was as follows: S2->Cl->SO42->NO3-. The addition of S2- improved the selectivity of total hydrocarbons in the products, and Cl- reduced this selectivity but increased the olefin content in the total hydrocarbons at the same time. When the contents of S2- and Cl- in the catalyst were less than 50 ppm, their influence could be ignored. The XRD results indicated that the addition of anions reduced the contents of a-Fe and Fe3C, which were the active components in the catalyst.

  19. Optimisation of the Fischer-Tropsch process using zeolites for tail gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Carbajo, J; Gómez-Álvarez, P; Bueno-Perez, R; Merkling, P J; Calero, S

    2014-03-28

    This work is aimed at optimizing a Fischer-Tropsch Gas To Liquid (GTL) process by recycling compounds of the expelled gas mixture using zeolites for the separation. To that end, we have performed a computational study on four structures widely used in industry. A range of Si/Al ratios have been explored and the effects of their distribution assessed. The ability of the considered force fields and molecular models to reproduce experimental results has been widely proved in previously reported studies. Since this tail gas is formed by a five-component mixture, namely carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and hydrogen, molecular simulations present clear advantages over experiments. In addition, the viability of the Ideal Adsorption Solution Theory (IAST) has been evaluated to easily handle further separation steps. On the basis of the obtained results, we provide a separation scheme to perform sequentially the separation of CO2, CH4, CO, N2 and H2. PMID:24522290

  20. Carbon Isotopic Fractionation in Fischer-Tropsch Type Reactions and Relevance to Meteorite Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Natasha M; Elsila, Jamie E.; Kopstein, Mickey; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2012-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch-Type (FTT) reactions have been hypothesized to contribute to the formation of organic compounds in the early solar system, but it has been difficult to identify a signature of such reactions in meteoritic organics. The work reported here examined whether temperature-dependent carbon isotopic fractionation of FTT reactions might provide such a signature. Analyses of bulk organic deposits resulting from FTT experiments show a slight trend towards lighter carbon isotopic ratios with increasing temperature. It is unlikely, however, that these carbon isotopic signatures could provide definitive provenance for organic compounds in solar system materials produced through FTT reactions, because of the small scale of the observed fractionations and the possibility that signatures from many different temperatures may be present in any specific grain.

  1. Preparation of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts from cobalt/iron hydrotalcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.H.; Boff, J.J.; Zarochak, M.F. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Compounds with the (hydrotalcites) have properties that make them attractive as precursors for Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. A series of single-phase hydrotalcites with cobalt/iron atom ratios ranging from 75/25 to 25/75 has been synthesized. Mixed cobalt/iron oxides have been prepared from these hydrotalcites by controlled thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition at temperatures below 600 {degrees}C typically produced a single-phase mixed metal oxide with a spinel structure. The BET surface areas of the spinal samples have been found to be as high as about 150 m{sup 2}/g. Appropriate reducing pretreatments have been developed for several of these spinels and their activity, selectivity, and activity and selectivity maintenance have been examined at 13 MPa in a fixed-bed microreactor.

  2. Effect of incorporation manner of Zr promoter on precipitated ironbased catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao-jian; MA Hong-fang; ZHANG Hai-tao; YING Wei-yong; FANG Ding-ye

    2012-01-01

    The promotional effects of Zr on the structure,reduction,carburization and catalytic behavior of precipitated iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were investigated.The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption,temperature-programmed reduction (TPR),and M(o)ssbauer effect spectroscopy (MES) techniques.As revealed by N2 physisorption,Zr decreased the BET surface area and pore volume of the catalyst.The results of TPR and MES show that Zr suppresses the reduction and carburization of Fe catalysts because of the interaction between Fe and Zr.The FTS reaction results indicate that Zr decreases the FTS activity of Fe catalysts but improves the catalysts' stability.In addition,Zr promoter restraines the formation of light hydrocarbons (methane and C2~C4) and shifts the production distribution to the heavy hydrocarbons.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Channel Geometric Effect for Fischer-Tropsch Microchannel Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Jonggeol; Jung, Ikhwan; Kshetrimayum, Krishnadash S.; Park, Seongho; Park, Chansaem; Han, Chonghun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Driven by both environmental and economic reasons, the development of small to medium scale GTL(gas-to-liquid) process for offshore applications and for utilizing other stranded or associated gas has recently been studied increasingly. Microchannel GTL reactors have been preferred over the conventional GTL reactors for such applications, due to its compactness, and additional advantages of small heat and mass transfer distance desired for high heat transfer performance and reactor conversion. In this work, multi-microchannel reactor was simulated by using commercial CFD code, ANSYS FLUENT, to study the geometric effect of the microchannels on the heat transfer phenomena. A heat generation curve was first calculated by modeling a Fischer-Tropsch reaction in a single-microchannel reactor model using Matlab-ASPEN integration platform. The calculated heat generation curve was implemented to the CFD model. Four design variables based on the microchannel geometry namely coolant channel width, coolant channel height, coolant channel to process channel distance, and coolant channel to coolant channel distance, were selected for calculating three dependent variables namely, heat flux, maximum temperature of coolant channel, and maximum temperature of process channel. The simulation results were visualized to understand the effects of the design variables on the dependent variables. Heat flux and maximum temperature of cooling channel and process channel were found to be increasing when coolant channel width and height were decreased. Coolant channel to process channel distance was found to have no effect on the heat transfer phenomena. Finally, total heat flux was found to be increasing and maximum coolant channel temperature to be decreasing when coolant channel to coolant channel distance was decreased. Using the qualitative trend revealed from the present study, an appropriate process channel and coolant channel geometry along with the distance between the adjacent

  4. Isotopic tracer studies of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Ru/TiO sub 2 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process in which CO and H{sub 2} react to give predominantly liquid hydrocarbons. The reaction can be considered a special type of polymerization in which the monomer is produced in situ, and chain growth occurs by a sequence of independently repeated additions of the monomer to the growing chain. A investigation has been conducted to study the CO hydrogenation reaction in order to better understand catalyst deactivation and the elementary surface processes involved in chain growth. Isotopic tracers are used in conjunction with transient-response techniques in this study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Experiments are conducted at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere, reaction temperatures of 453--498 K and D{sub 2}/CO (or H{sub 2}/CO) ratios of 2--5. Synthesis products are analyzed by gas chromatography or isotope-ratio gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rate constants for chain initiation, propagation and termination are evaluated under steady-state reaction conditions by using transients in isotopic composition. The activation energy for chain termination is much higher than that for propagation, accounting for the observed decrease in the chain growth parameter are also estimated. Coverages by reaction intermediates are also estimated. When small amounts of {sup 12}C-labelled ethylene are added to {sup 13}CO/H{sub 2} synthesis gas, ethylene acts as the sole chain initiator. Ethylene-derived carbon also accounts for 45% of the C{sub 1} monomer pool. 102 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Isotopic tracer studies of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process in which CO and H{sub 2} react to give predominantly liquid hydrocarbons. The reaction can be considered a special type of polymerization in which the monomer is produced in situ, and chain growth occurs by a sequence of independently repeated additions of the monomer to the growing chain. A investigation has been conducted to study the CO hydrogenation reaction in order to better understand catalyst deactivation and the elementary surface processes involved in chain growth. Isotopic tracers are used in conjunction with transient-response techniques in this study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Experiments are conducted at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere, reaction temperatures of 453--498 K and D{sub 2}/CO (or H{sub 2}/CO) ratios of 2--5. Synthesis products are analyzed by gas chromatography or isotope-ratio gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rate constants for chain initiation, propagation and termination are evaluated under steady-state reaction conditions by using transients in isotopic composition. The activation energy for chain termination is much higher than that for propagation, accounting for the observed decrease in the chain growth parameter are also estimated. Coverages by reaction intermediates are also estimated. When small amounts of {sup 12}C-labelled ethylene are added to {sup 13}CO/H{sub 2} synthesis gas, ethylene acts as the sole chain initiator. Ethylene-derived carbon also accounts for 45% of the C{sub 1} monomer pool. 102 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. 煤基醇类混合燃料柴油机的燃烧及排放特性%Combustion and emission performances of diesel engine burning coal based Fischer-Tropsch alcohol mixed fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武志斐; 王铁; 左鹏; 杨甜甜; 曹贻森; 王文坤

    2015-01-01

    利用煤基费托(Fischer Tropsch, F-T)燃料的高十六烷值特性和醇类燃料的含氧特性,提出了F-T柴油掺烧醇类燃料的煤基混合燃料的思路。在F-T柴油中添加10%体积比的甲醇﹑乙醇与丁醇燃料,通过与0#柴油比较来研究不同的醇燃料对发动机性能的影响规律。结果表明:相对于0#柴油,该混合燃料的燃烧始点提前,燃烧放热中心累计放热量达50%时对应的曲轴转角CA50向后推迟,燃烧放热率第一峰值点降低,预混合燃烧放热量降低;第二峰值点升高,扩散燃烧所占比重增加。在外特性下,混合燃料的NOx﹑碳烟与HCHO排放都大幅降低,并且相同体积甲醇燃料对于柴油机排放的优化效果更加明显。%An idea was proposed to use Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel blended together with alcohol fuel coal based fuel, which have high cetane value and oxygen. The combustion and emission characteristic effect was investigated for the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel adding 10% volume of methanol, ethanol and butanol fuel on comparing with 0# diesel fuel. The results show that compared to the 0# diesel fuel, the ignition time is advanced and the combustion heat release center CA50, means the crankshaft angle corresponding to 50% of the total heat release, is postponed. The ifrst peak combustion heat release rate decreases. Premixed combustion heat reduces. The other peak value increases and the diffusion combustion in proportion increases. Coal based Fischer-Tropsch alcohol mixed fuel can reduce NOx, carbon smoke and formaldehyde emissions and the same volume of methanol fuel has better effect on diesel engine emissions optimization, under external characteristic.

  7. Effect of Al2O3 Binder on the Precipitated Iron-Based Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Jun Wan; Bao-Shan Wu; Xia An; Ting-Zhen Li; Zhi-Chao Tao; Hong-Wei Xiang; Yong-Wang Li

    2007-01-01

    A series of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts incorporated with Al2O3 binder were prepared by the combination of co-precipitation and spray drying technology. The catalyst samples were characterized by using N2 physical adsorption, temperature-programmed reduction/desorption (TPR/TPD) and M(o)ssbauer effect spectroscopy (MES) methods. The characterization results indicated that the BET surface area increases with increasing Al2O3 content and passes through a maximum at the Al2O3/Fe ratio of 10/100 (weight basis). After the point, it decreases with further increase in Al2O3 content. The incorporation of Al2O3 binder was found to weaken the surface basicity and suppress the reduction and carburization of iron-based catalysts probably due to the strong K-Al2O3 and Fe-Al2O3 interactions. Furthermore, the H2 adsorption ability of the catalysts is enhanced with increasing Al2O3 content. The FTS performances of the catalysts were tested in a slurry-phase continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under the reaction conditions of 260 ℃, 1.5 MPa, 1000 h-1 and molar ratio of H2/CO 0.67 for 200 h. The results showed that the addition of small amounts of Al2O3 affects the activity of iron-based catalysts to a little extent. However, with further increase of Al2O3 content, the FTS activity and water gas shift reaction (WGS) activity are decreased severely. The addition of appropriate Al2O3 do not affect the product selectivity, but the catalysts incorporated with large amounts of Al2O3 have higher selectivity for light hydrocarbons and lower selectivity for heavy hydrocarbons.

  8. Elementary steps in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: CO bond scission, CO oxidation and surface carbiding on Co(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weststrate, C. J.; van Helden, P.; van de Loosdrecht, J.; Niemantsverdriet, J. W.

    2016-06-01

    Dissociation of CO on a Co(0001) surface is explored in the context of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on cobalt catalysts. Experiments show that CO dissociation can occur on defect sites around 330 K, with an estimated barrier between 90 and 104 kJ mol- 1. Despite the ease of CO dissociation on defect sites, extensive carbon deposition onto the cobalt surface up to 0.33 ML requires a combination of high surface temperature and a relatively high CO pressure. Experimental data on the CO oxidation reaction indicate a high reaction barrier for the CO + O reaction, and it is argued that, due to the rather strong Co-O bond, (i) oxygen removal is the rate-limiting step during surface carbidization and (ii) in the context of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, removal of surface oxygen rather than CO bond scission might be limiting the overall reaction rate.

  9. Development of a CO2 Tolerant Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst:from Laboratory to Commercial-Scale Demonstration in Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joep J H M Font Freide; Tim D Gamlin; J Richard Hensman; Barry Nay; Christopher Sharp

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development of BP's Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, used for the conversion of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons. It covers the 18 year period from the early eighties, when laboratory scale preparations and micro-reactors were heavily used, right through to the present day with the commercial scale manufacture and proving of the finished catalyst in BP's new $86 million gas to liquids demonstration facility in Nikiski, Alaska. Extensive performance testing and scale-up experiments have been successfully carried out, all proof that a laboratory preparation can indeed be translated into a commercial manufacturing process. In addition, the resulting catalyst does not only meet the process design targets, but also exhibits enhanced stability and is tolerant to carbon dioxide.Above all, a commercial scale, fixed bed Fischer-Tropsch catalyst is now available and ready for licensing.Manufacturing procedures and quality control have all been successfully detailed and transferred to the commercial manufacturer.

  10. Mechanistic role of water on the rate and selectivity of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on ruthenium catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbitts, David D; Loveless, Brett T; Neurock, Matthew; Iglesia, Enrique

    2013-11-18

    Water increases Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) rates on Ru through H-shuttling processes. Chemisorbed hydrogen (H*) transfers its electron to the metal and protonates the O-atom of CO* to form COH*, which subsequently hydrogenates to *HCOH* in the kinetically relevant step. H2 O also increases the chain length of FTS products by mediating the H-transfer steps during reactions of alkyl groups with CO* to form longer-chain alkylidynes and OH*.

  11. Iron-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis : new insights from in-situ (micro)spectroscopy, diffraction and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalyst, which converts CO and H2 into longer hydrocarbon chains through a catalytic surface polymerization reaction, is one of the oldest and perhaps most studied systems known in heterogeneous catalysis. However, even though the different Fe bulk phases present during FTS have been identified in the earliest studies, precise structural data of these phases, especially iron carbides, and their role in the activation and deactivation of Fe-based F...

  12. Ruthenium promotion of Co/SBA-15 catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in slurry-phase reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jocielys Jovelino Rodrigues; Gina Pecchi; Fabiano André Narciso Fernandes; Meiry Gláucia Freire Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the catalytic properties of a Ru promoted Co/SBA-15 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS).The Ru promoted Co/SBA-15 catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and was characterized by X-ray diffraction,X-ray energy dispersion spectrophotometer,N2 adsorption-desorption,temperature-programmed reduction and transmission electron microscopy.The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using the catalyst was carried out to evaluate the catalyst activity and its effect on FTS product distribution.The synthesis was carried out in a slurry reactor operating at 513 K,20 atm,CO ∶ H2 molar ratio of 1 ∶ 1.X-ray diffraction showed that the calcined cobalt catalyst did not modify the structure of SBA-15,proving that Co was present in the form of Co3O4 in the catalyst.The addition of cobalt in SBA-15 decreased the specific superficial area of the molecular sieve.Fischer-Tropsch synthesis activity and C5+ hydrocarbon selectivity increased with the addition of Ru.The increases in activity and selectivity were attributed to the increased number of active sites resulting from higher reducibility and the synergetic effect of Ru and Co.Ru/Co/SBA-15 catalysts showed moderate conversion (40%) and high selectivity towards the production of C5+ (80 wt%).

  13. Metal (Fe, Co, Ni) supported on different aluminas as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlan [Chemistry Education Study Program, Universitas Halu Oleo, Jl. HEA Mokodompit, Kendari 93232 (Indonesia); Marsih, I. Nyoman, E-mail: nyoman@chem.itb.ac.id; Ismunandar [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, Departement of Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Makertihartha, I. G. B. N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Praserthdam, Piyasan; Panpranot, Joongjai [Center of Excellence on Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2015-09-30

    This research aimed to compare the physico-chemical properties of the same metal M (M = iron, cobalt, nickel) supported on aluminas with different morphology and pore size as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. The aluminas applied as support were alumina synthesized through hydrothermal process, alumina formed by pretreatment of catapal and commercial alumina which named as Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively. Ahy has uniform morphology of nanotubes while Aca and Aco showed non-uniform morphology of particle lumps. The particle lumps of Aca were larger than those of Aco. Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively has average pore diameter of 2.75, 2.86 and 2.9 nm. Metals were deposited on the supports by incipient-wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and H{sub 2} chemisorption. Catalyst acitivity test for Fischer-Tropsch reaction was carried out in a micro reactor at 200 °C and 1 atm, and molar ratio of H{sub 2}/CO = 2:1. The metal oxide particle size increased in the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy. The catalysts reducibility also increased according to the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy suggesting that the larger metal oxide particles are more reducible. The number of active site was not proportional to the reducibility because during the reduction, larger metal oxide particles were converted into larger metal particles. On the other hand, the number of active sites was inversely proportional to the particle sizes. The number of active site increased in the order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The catalytic activity also increased in the following order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The activity per active site increased according to the order M/Aca < M/Aco < M/Ahy meaning that for M/Ahy, a little increase in active site will lead to a significance increase in catalytic activity. It showed that Ahy has potential for the better support.

  14. Metal (Fe, Co, Ni) supported on different aluminas as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Marsih, I. Nyoman; Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Panpranot, Joongjai; Ismunandar

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to compare the physico-chemical properties of the same metal M (M = iron, cobalt, nickel) supported on aluminas with different morphology and pore size as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. The aluminas applied as support were alumina synthesized through hydrothermal process, alumina formed by pretreatment of catapal and commercial alumina which named as Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively. Ahy has uniform morphology of nanotubes while Aca and Aco showed non-uniform morphology of particle lumps. The particle lumps of Aca were larger than those of Aco. Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively has average pore diameter of 2.75, 2.86 and 2.9 nm. Metals were deposited on the supports by incipient-wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, and H2 chemisorption. Catalyst acitivity test for Fischer-Tropsch reaction was carried out in a micro reactor at 200 °C and 1 atm, and molar ratio of H2/CO = 2:1. The metal oxide particle size increased in the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy. The catalysts reducibility also increased according to the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy suggesting that the larger metal oxide particles are more reducible. The number of active site was not proportional to the reducibility because during the reduction, larger metal oxide particles were converted into larger metal particles. On the other hand, the number of active sites was inversely proportional to the particle sizes. The number of active site increased in the order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The catalytic activity also increased in the following order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The activity per active site increased according to the order M/Aca < M/Aco < M/Ahy meaning that for M/Ahy, a little increase in active site will lead to a significance increase in catalytic activity. It showed that Ahy has potential for the better support.

  15. Deactivation and Regeneration of Commercial Type Fischer-Tropsch Co-Catalysts—A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Rytter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deactivation of commercially relevant cobalt catalysts for Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT synthesis is discussed with a focus on the two main long-term deactivation mechanisms proposed: Carbon deposits covering the catalytic surface and re-oxidation of the cobalt metal. There is a great variety in commercial, demonstration or pilot LTFT operations in terms of reactor systems employed, catalyst formulations and process conditions. Lack of sufficient data makes it difficult to correlate the deactivation mechanism with the actual process and catalyst design. It is well known that long term catalyst deactivation is sensitive to the conditions the actual catalyst experiences in the reactor. Therefore, great care should be taken during start-up, shutdown and upsets to monitor and control process variables such as reactant concentrations, pressure and temperature which greatly affect deactivation mechanism and rate. Nevertheless, evidence so far shows that carbon deposition is the main long-term deactivation mechanism for most LTFT operations. It is intriguing that some reports indicate a low deactivation rate for multi-channel micro-reactors. In situ rejuvenation and regeneration of Co catalysts are economically necessary for extending their life to several years. The review covers information from open sources, but with a particular focus on patent literature.

  16. In situ reduction study of cobalt model Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Hester Esna; Forbes, Roy Peter; Barnard, Werner; Erasmus, Willem Johannes; Steuwer, Axel

    2013-07-28

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is an important process to manufacture hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons from mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (syngas). The catalysis process occurs on, for example, cobalt metal surfaces at elevated temperatures and pressures. A fundamental understanding of the reduction pathway of supported cobalt oxides, and the intermediate species present during the activation, can assist in developing improved industrial supported cobalt catalysts. Hard synchrotron X-rays have the unique ability to probe atomic processes both in terms of phases present as well as the crystallographic and local structure (using the pair distribution function approach) under realistic conditions. In this manuscript we present results from measurements during in situ hydrogen activation of a model Co/alumina catalyst using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis on beam line ID31 at the ESRF in Grenoble, France. The PDF analysis showed a substantially improved understanding of the reduction of cobalt oxides, as for the first time all cobalt could be accounted for by using total scattering analysis. PMID:23752408

  17. Greenhouse impact assessment of peat-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel life-cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkinen, Johanna; Soimakallio, Sampo; Maekinen, Tuula; Savolainen, Ilkka [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2010-01-15

    New raw materials for transportation fuels need to be introduced, in order to fight against climate change and also to cope with increasing risks of availability and price of oil. Peat has been recognised suitable raw material option for diesel produced by gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The energy content of Finnish peat reserves is remarkable. In this study, the greenhouse impact of peat-based FT diesel production and utilisation in Finland was assessed from the life-cycle point of view. In 100 year's time horizon the greenhouse impact of peat-based FT diesel is likely larger than the impact of fossil diesel. The impact can somewhat be lowered by producing peat from the agricultural peatland (strong greenhouse gas emissions from the decaying peatlayer are avoided) with new peat production technique, and utilising the produced biomass from the after-treatment area for diesel also. If diesel production is integrated with pulp and paper mill to achieve energy efficiency benefits and if the electricity demand can be covered by zero emission electricity, the greenhouse impact of peat-based FT diesel reduces to the level of fossil diesel when agricultural peatland is used, and is somewhat higher when forestry-drained peatland is used as raw material source. (author)

  18. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States has the world's largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create a major source of domestic transportation fuels from coal, and some prominent Montanans want to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process applied to average coal in Montana is less than 1/2 of the corresponding efficiency of an average crude oil refining process. The resulting CO2 emissions are 20 times (2000%) higher for CTL than for conventional petroleum products. One barrel of the FT fuel requires roughly 800 kg of coal and 800 kg of water. The minimum energy cost of subsurface CO2 sequestration would be at least 40% of the FT fuel energy, essentially halving energy efficiency of the process. We argue therefore that CTL conversion is not the most valuable use for the coal, nor will it ever be, as long as it is economical to use natural gas for electric power generation. This finding results from the low efficiency inherent in FT synthesis, and is independent of the monumental FT plant construction costs, mine construction costs, acute lack of water, and the associated environmental impacts for Montana

  19. Product distributions of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Co/AC catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixin Qian; Haitao Zhang; Weiyong Ying; Dingye Fang

    2011-01-01

    The product distributions of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Co/AC catalyst are investigated under different reaction conditions in an integral fixed bed reactor.It is found that the product distributions deviate from the ASF distribution.The deviation from ASF distribution is analyzed by taking the readsorption of alkenes and the following secondary reaction into consideration.It is noted that the contents of alcohol,alkene and alkane decline with the increasing carbon number,showing a slighter declining tendency of alkanes than those of alkenes and alcohols.It is also found that high temperature,space velocity,H2/CO in feed gas and low pressure are preferential for light hydrocarbons and alcohols while against the chain propagation.The effect of space velocity on the product distributions especially on the light products is not obvious.It is noticed that low temperature,space velocity,H2/CO and high pressure lead to high contents of alcohols; high temperature,H2/CO and low space velocity lead to high contents of alkanes.The effect of pressure on the amounts of alkanes is not significant; high space velocity and low temperature,pressure,H2/CO are preferential for alkenes.

  20. In situ observation of self-assembled hydrocarbon Fischer-Tropsch products on a cobalt catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Violeta; van Spronsen, Matthijs A.; Frenken, Joost W. M.

    2016-10-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a heterogeneous catalytic reaction that creates approximately 2% of the world's fuel. It involves the synthesis of linear hydrocarbon molecules from a gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at high pressures (from a few to tens of bars) and high temperatures (200-350 °C). To gain further insight into the fundamental mechanisms of this industrial process, we have used a purpose-built scanning tunnelling microscope to monitor a cobalt model catalyst under reaction conditions. We show that, after 30 minutes of reaction, the terraces of the cobalt catalyst are covered by parallel arrays of stripes. We propose that the stripes are formed by the self-assembly of linear hydrocarbon product molecules. Surprisingly, the width of the stripes corresponds to molecules that are 14 or 15 carbon atoms long. We introduce a simple model that explains the accumulation of such long molecules by describing their monomer-by-monomer synthesis and explicitly accounting for their thermal desorption.

  1. Synthesis, Modeling and Exergy Analysis of Atmospheric Air Blown Biomass Gasification for Fischer-Tropsch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Panopoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of the present work is to investigate the combination of an atmospheric and a pressurised air blown biomass gasifier towards Fischer-Tropsch (FT synthesis of second generation biofuels and co-production of power. The complete process was simulated in AspenPlusTM software including sub-models for the gasification, gas cleaning and conditioning as well as for the FT reactor. A sensitivity analysis on exergetic performance was performed mainly examining the recycling of FT-tail gas. For the base case of 80% FT CO conversion without any recirculation, the exergetic efficiency was found to be 34.3% with atmospheric gasification and 30.64% for pressurised gasification. Recirculation of the non-reacted CO, H2 as well as light gas products of the FT-reactor back to the atmospheric gasifier can increase the overall efficiency up to 48.1 %.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings.

  2. Attrition resistant catalysts for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan

    1999-11-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T because they are relatively inexpensive and possess reasonable activity for F-T synthesis (FTS). Their most advantages trait is their high water-gas shift (WGS) activity compared to their competitor, namely cobalt. This enables Fe F-T catalysts to process low H{sub 2}/CO ratio synthesis gas without an external shift reaction step. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, make the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, an d result in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research were to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance.

  3. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARK C. THIES; PATRICK C. JOYCE

    1998-10-31

    The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished at conditions that do not entrain the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds. That is, a constant carbon-number distribution in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. Three major tasks are being undertaken to evaluate our proposed SCF extraction process. Task 1: Equilibrium solubility measurements for model F-T wax components in supercritical fluids at conditions representative of those in a SBC reactor. Task 2: Thermodynamic modeling of the measured VLE data for extending our results to real wax systems. Task 3: Process design studies of our proposed process. Additional details of the task structure are given.

  4. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick C. Joyce; Mark C. Thies

    1999-03-31

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, is to be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Aspen Plus{trademark} was used to perform process simulation studies on the proposed extraction process, with Redlich-Kwong-Soave (RKS) being used for the thermodynamic property model. In summary, we have made comprehensive VLE measurements for short alkane + long alkane systems over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, dramatically increasing the amount of high-quality data available for these simple, yet highly relevant systems. In addition, our work has demonstrated that, surprisingly, no current thermodynamic model can adequately predict VLE behavior for these systems. Thus, process simulations (such as those for our proposed SCF extraction process) that incorporate these systems can currently only give results that are qualitative at best. Although significant progress has been made in the past decade, more experimental and theoretical work remain to be done before the phase equilibria of asymmetric alkane mixtures can be predicted with confidence.

  5. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  6. Meteorites, Organics and Fischer-Tropsch Type Reaction: Production and Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Natasha M.; Burton, A. S.; Nurth, J. A., III

    2011-01-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the relative importance about the various chemical reactions that fonned organics in the early solar system. One proposed method that has long been recognized as a potential source of organics is Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis. This process is commonly used in industry to produce fuels (i.e., complex hydrocarbons) by catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Hill and Nuth were the first to publish results of FTT experiments that also included Haber-Bosch (HB) processes (hydrogenation of nitrogen. Their findings included the production of nitrilebearing compounds as well as trace amounts of methyl amine. Previous experience with these reactions revealed that the organic coating deposited on the grains is also an efficient catalyst and that the coating is composed of insoluble organic matter (10M) and could be reminiscent of the organic matrix found in some meteorites. This current set of FTT-styled experiments tracks the evolution of a set of organics, amino acids, in detail.

  7. The role of palladium in iron based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts prepared by flame spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnermann, M.; Zielasek, V.; Baeumer, M. [Bremen Univ. (DE). Inst. of Applied and Physical Chemistry (IAPC); Pokhrei, S.; Maedler, L. [Bremen Univ. (DE). Foundation Inst. of Materials Science (IWT); Thiel, K. [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufactoring Technology and Applied Materials Research, Bremen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) is a novel technique for the fabrication of nanostructured catalysts with far-reaching options to control structure and composition even in cases where complex composites need to be prepared. In this study, we took advantage of this technique to synthesize highly dispersed pure and Pd-doped iron oxide nanoparticles and investigated them as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts. By systematically varying the Pd content over a large range from 0.1 wt % to 10 wt %, we were able to directly analyze the influence of the Pd content on activity and selectivity. In addition to catalytic measurements, the structure and composition of the particles were characterized before and after these measurements, using transmission electron microscopy, adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and EXAFS. The comparison revealed, on the one hand, that small Pd clusters (diameter: 1-2 nm) evolve from initially homogeneously distributed Pd and, on the other hand, that the iron oxide transforms into iron carbides depending on the Pd content. The presence of Pd influences the particle size in the pristine samples (8 - 11 nm), resulting in specific surface areas that increase as the Pd content increases. However, after activation and reaction the specific surface areas become similar due to partial agglomeration and sintering. In a fixed bed FT reaction test, enhanced FT activity was observed with increasing Pd content while the selectivity shifts to longer chain hydrocarbons, mainly paraffins. (orig.)

  8. In situ observation of self-assembled hydrocarbon Fischer-Tropsch products on a cobalt catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Violeta; van Spronsen, Matthijs A; Frenken, Joost W M

    2016-10-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a heterogeneous catalytic reaction that creates approximately 2% of the world's fuel. It involves the synthesis of linear hydrocarbon molecules from a gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at high pressures (from a few to tens of bars) and high temperatures (200-350 °C). To gain further insight into the fundamental mechanisms of this industrial process, we have used a purpose-built scanning tunnelling microscope to monitor a cobalt model catalyst under reaction conditions. We show that, after 30 minutes of reaction, the terraces of the cobalt catalyst are covered by parallel arrays of stripes. We propose that the stripes are formed by the self-assembly of linear hydrocarbon product molecules. Surprisingly, the width of the stripes corresponds to molecules that are 14 or 15 carbon atoms long. We introduce a simple model that explains the accumulation of such long molecules by describing their monomer-by-monomer synthesis and explicitly accounting for their thermal desorption. PMID:27657868

  9. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  10. Effect of niobium promoter on iron-based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sardar ALI; Noor Asmawati MOHD ZABIDI; Duvvuri SUBBARAO

    2012-01-01

    Niobium-promoted Fe/CNTs catalysts were prepared using a wet impregnation method.Samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption,H2-TPR,TPD,XRD and TEM.The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 220 ℃,1 atm and H2/CO =2 for 5 h.Addition of niobium into Fe/CNTs increased the dispersion,decreased the average size of iron oxide nanoparticles and the catalyst reducibility.Niobium-promoted Fe catalyst resulted in appreciable increase in the selectivity of C5+ hydrocarbons and suppressed methane formation.These effects were more pronounced for the 0.04% Nb/Fe/CNTs catalyst,compared to those observed from other niobium compositions.The 0.04% Nb/Fe/CNTs catalyst enhanced the C5+ hydrocarbons selectivity by a factor of 67.5% and reduced the methane selectivity by a factor of 59.2%.

  11. Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Activation and Handling Through Wax Enclosure Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer L. S.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which converts syn-gas, a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions. Cobalt based catalysts are used in F-T synthesis and are the focus of this paper. One key concern with handling cobalt based catalysts is that the active form of catalyst is in a reduced state, metallic cobalt, which oxidizes readily in air. In laboratory experiments, the precursor cobalt oxide catalyst is activated in a fixed bed at 350 ?C then transferred into a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with inert gas. NASA has developed a process which involves the enclosure of active cobalt catalyst in a wax mold to prevent oxidation during storage and handling. This improved method allows for precise catalyst loading and delivery into a CSTR. Preliminary results indicate similar activity levels in the F-T reaction in comparison to the direct injection method. The work in this paper was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  12. Combustion characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled with Fischer-Tropsch diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yongcheng; ZHOU Longbao; PAN Keyu

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel is characterized by a high cetane number, a near-zero sulphur content and a very low aromatic level. On the basis of the recorded incylinder pressures and injector needle lifts, the combustion characteristics of an unmodified single-cylinder directinjection diesel engine operating on F-T diesel fuel are analyzed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel operation. The results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits a slightly longer injection delay and injection duration, an average of 18.7% shorter ignition delay, and a comparable total combustion duration when compared to those of conventional diesel fuel. Meanwhile, F-T diesel fuel displays an average of 26.8% lower peak value of premixed burning rate and a higher peak value of diffusive burning rate. In addition, the F-T diesel engine has a slightly lower peak combustion pressure, a far lower rate of pressure rise, and a lower mechanical load and combustion noise than the conventional diesel engine. The brake specific fuel consumption is lower and the effective thermal efficiency is higher for F-T diesel fuel operation.

  13. Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts: influence of cobalt dispersion and titanium oxides promotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azib, H.

    1996-04-10

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of Sol-Gel preparation parameters which occur in silica supported cobalt catalysts synthesis. These catalysts are particularly used for the waxes production in natural gas processing. The solids have been characterized by several techniques: transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), programmed temperature reduction (TPR), infrared spectroscopy (IR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), Magnetism, thermodesorption of H{sub 2} (TPD). The results indicate that the control of the cobalt dispersion and oxide phases nature is possible by modifying Sol-Gel parameters. The catalytic tests in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were conducted on a pilot unit under pressure (20 atm) and suggested that turnover rates were independent of Co crystallite size, Co phases in the solids (Co deg., cobalt silicate) and titanium oxide promotion. On the other methane, the C{sub 3}{sup +} hydrocarbon selectivity is increased with increasing crystallite size. Inversely, the methane production is favoured by very small crystallites, cobalt silicate increase and titanium addition. However, the latter, used as a cobalt promoter, has a benefic effect on the active phase stability during the synthesis. (author). 149 refs., 102 figs., 71 tabs.

  14. Influence of liquid medium on the activity of a low-alpha Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, R.J.; Zarochak, M.F.; Deffenbaugh, P.W.; Rao, K.R.P.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to measure activity, selectivity, and the maintenance of these properties in slurry autoclave experiments with a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst that was used in the {open_quotes}FT II{close_quotes} bubble-column test, conducted at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas during May 1994. The catalyst contained iron, copper, and potassium and was formulated to produce mainly hydrocarbons in the gasoline range with lesser production of diesel-range products and wax. The probability of chain growth was thus deliberately kept low. Principal goals of the autoclave work have been to find the true activity of this catalyst in a stirred tank reactor, unhindered by heat or mass transfer effects, and to obtain a steady conversion and selectivity over the approximately 15 days of each test. Slurry autoclave testing of the catalyst in heavier waxes also allows insight into operation of larger slurry bubble column reactors. The stability of reactor operation in these experiments, particularly at loadings exceeding 20 weight %, suggests the likely stability of operations on a larger scale.

  15. Effect of Manganese Incorporation Manner on an Iron-Based Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingzhen Li; Yong Yang; Chenghua Zhang; Zhichao Tao; Haijun Wan; Xia An; Hongwei Xiang; Yongwang Li

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the manganese incorporation manner on the textural properties,bulk and surface phase compositions,reduction/carburization behaviors,and surface basicity of an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalyst.The catalyst samples were characterized by N2 Physisorption,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),H2(or CO) temperature-programmed reduction(TPR),CO2 temperature-programmed desorption(TPD),and Mossbauer spectroscopy.The FTS performance of the catalysts was studied in a slurry-phase continuously stirred tank reactor(CSTR).The characterization results indicated that the manganese promoter incor-porated by using the coprecipitation method could improve the dispersion of iron oxide,and decrease the size of the iron oxide crystallite.The manganese incorporated with the impregnation method is enriched on the catalyst's surface.The manganese promoter added with the impregnation method suppresses the reduction and carburization of the catalyst in H2,CO,and syngas because of the excessive enrichment of manganese on the catalyst surface.The catalyst added manganese using the coprecipitation method has the highest CO conversion (51.9%) and the lowest selectivity for heavy hydrocarbons(C12+).

  16. Two-Bubble Class Model for Churn-Turbulent Regime in a Bubble Column Slurry Reactor of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model for a bubble column slurry reactor is developed based on the experiment of Rhenpreussen Koppers demonstration plant for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reported by Koelble et al. This model is applicable to the operation in the churn-turbulent regime and incorporates the information on the bubble size. The axial dispersion model is adopted to describe the flow characteristics of the Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor. With the model developed, simulations are performed to identify the steady state behavior of a Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor of commercial size. Predictions of the two-bubble class model is compared with that of the conventional single- bubble class model. The results show that under a variety of conditions, the two-bubble class model gives results different from those for the single-bubble class model.

  17. Effect of Lanthanum as a Promoter on Fe-Co/SiO2 Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron-Cobalt catalyst is well known from both operational and economical aspects for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Effort to increase the efficiency of this kind of catalyst is an important research topic. In this work, the effect of lanthanum on characteristic behavior, conversion and selectivity of a Fe-Co/SiO2 Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was studied. The Fe-Co-La/SiO2 Catalysts were prepared using an incipient wetness impregnation method. These catalysts were then characterized by XRF-EDAX, BET and TPR techniques, and their performance were evaluated in a lab-scale reactor at 250ºC, H2/CO = 1.8 of molar ratio, 16 barg pressure and GHSV=600 h-1. TPR analysis showed that the addition of La lowered the reduction temperature of Fe-Co catalyst, and due to a lower temperature, the sintering of the catalyst can be mitigated. Furthermore, from the micro reactor tests (about 4 days, it was found that lanthanum promoted catalyst had higher selectivity toward hydrocarbons, and lower selectivity toward CO2.Received: 8th July 2013; Revised: 18th November 2013; Accepted: 1st December 2013[How to Cite: Abbasi, A., Ghasemi, M., Sadighi, S. (2014. Effect of Lanthanum as a Promoter on Fe-Co/SiO2 Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 23-27. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5142.23-27][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5142.23-27

  18. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  19. Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-30

    This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

  20. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

    2005-03-31

    In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was continued to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. In this reporting period, a series of crossflow filtration experiments were initiated to study the effect of olefins and oxygenates on the filtration flux and membrane performance. Iron-based FTS reactor waxes contain a significant amount of oxygenates, depending on the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Mono-olefins and aliphatic alcohols were doped into an activated iron catalyst slurry (with Polywax) to test their influence on filtration properties. The olefins were varied from 5 to 25 wt% and oxygenates from 6 to 17 wt% to simulate a range of reactor slurries reported in the literature. The addition of an alcohol (1-dodecanol) was found to decrease the permeation rate while the olefin added (1-hexadecene) had no effect on the permeation rate. A passive flux maintenance technique was tested that can temporarily increase the permeate rate for 24 hours.

  1. Correlation between Fischer-Tropsch catalytic activity and composition of catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao Duvvuri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of monometallic and bimetallic cobalt and iron nanoparticles supported on alumina. The catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method. Samples were characterized using temperature-programmed reduction (TPR, temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO, CO-chemisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM-EDX and N2-adsorption analysis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 543 K and 1 atm, with H2/CO = 2 v/v and space velocity, SV = 12L/g.h. The physicochemical properties and the FTS activity of the bimetallic catalysts were analyzed and compared with those of monometallic cobalt and iron catalysts at similar operating conditions. H2-TPR analysis of cobalt catalyst indicated three temperature regions at 506°C (low, 650°C (medium and 731°C (high. The incorporation of iron up to 30% into cobalt catalysts increased the reduction, CO chemisorption and number of cobalt active sites of the catalyst while an opposite trend was observed for the iron-riched bimetallic catalysts. The CO conversion was 6.3% and 4.6%, over the monometallic cobalt and iron catalysts, respectively. Bimetallic catalysts enhanced the CO conversion. Amongst the catalysts studied, bimetallic catalyst with the composition of 70Co30Fe showed the highest CO conversion (8.1% while exhibiting the same product selectivity as that of monometallic Co catalyst. Monometallic iron catalyst showed the lowest selectivity for C5+ hydrocarbons (1.6%.

  2. Performance of a slurry bubble column reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Determination of optimum condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Moon; Bae, Jong-Wook; Jun, Ki-Won [Advanced Chemical Technology Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), P.O. Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    The CO conversion and selectivity to C{sub 1}+ and C{sub 11}+ wax products over Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as Ru/Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Fischer-Tropsch (F-T)catalysts were investigated by varying reaction temperature (210-250 C), system pressure (1.0-3.0 MPa), GHSV (1000-6000 L/kg/h), superficial gas velocity (1.7-13.6 cm/s) and slurry concentration (9.09-26.67 wt.%) in a slurry bubble column reactor (0.05 m diameter x 1.5 m height) to determine the optimum operating conditions. Squalane or paraffin wax was used as initial liquid media. The overall CO conversion increased with increasing reaction temperature, system pressure and catalyst concentration. However, the local maximum CO conversion was exhibited at GHSV of 1500-2000 L/kg/h and superficial gas velocity of 3.4-5.0 cm/s. The CO conversion in the case of Ru/Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was much higher and stable than that in the case of Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The selectivity to C{sub 11}+ wax products increased slightly with increasing GHSV; on the other hand, it decreased with increasing reaction temperature, system pressure, and solid concentration in a slurry bubble column reactor. It could be concluded that the optimum operating conditions based on the yield of hydrocarbons and wax products were; U{sub G} 6.8-10 cm/s, Cs = 15 wt.%, T = 220-230 C, P = 2.0 MPa in a slurry bubble column reactor for F-T synthesis. (author)

  3. Study of Manganese Promoter on a Precipitated Iron-Based Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhichao Tao; Yong Yang; Chenghua Zhang; Tingzhe Li; Mingyue Ding; Hongwei Xiang; Yongwang Li

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Manganese (Mn) incorporation on a precipitated iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalyst were investigated using N2 physical adsorption,air differential thermal analysis (DTA),H2 temperature-programmed reduction(TPR),and Mossbauer spectroscopy.The FTS performances of the catalysts were tested in a slurry phase reactor.The characterization results indicated thatMn increased the surface area of the catalyst,and improved the dispersion of α-Fe2O3 and reduced its crystallite size as a result of the high dispersion effect of Mn and the Fe-Mn interaction.The Fe-Mn interaction also suppressed the reduction of α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4,stabilized the FeO phase,and(or)decreased the caxburization degree of the catalysts in the H2 and syngas reduction processes.In addition,incorporated Mn decreased the initial catalyst activity,but improved the catalyst stability because Mn restrained the reoxidation of iron carbides to FeaO4,and improved further carburization of the catalysts.Manganese suppressed the formation of CH4 and increased the selectivity to light olefins(C2=-4),but it had little effect on the selectivities to heavy(C5+)hydrocarbons.All these results indicated that the strong Fe-Mn interaction suppressed the chemisorptive effect of the Mn as all electronic promoter,to some extent,in the precipitated iron-manganese catalyst system.

  4. Quantification of trace O-containing compounds in GTL process samples via Fischer-Tropsch reaction by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Daniella R; Pereira, Vinícius B; Stelzer, Karen T; Gomes, Alexandre O; Neto, Francisco R Aquino; Azevedo, Débora A

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was successfully applied to eight real Brazilian Fischer-Tropsch (FT) product samples for the quantitative analysis of O-containing compounds. It not only allowed identifying and quantifying simultaneously a large number of O-containing compounds but also resolved many co-eluting components, such as carboxylic acids, which co-elute in one-dimensional gas chromatography. The homologous series of alcohols and carboxylic acids as trimethylsilyl derivatives were detected and identified at trace levels. The absolute quantification of each compound was accomplished with reliability using analytical curves. Linear alcohols (from C5 to C19), branched alcohols (C6-C13) and carboxylic acids (C4 to C12) were obtained in the range of 1.58 mg g(-1) to 14.75 mg g(-1), 0.51 mg g(-1) to 1.12 mg g(-1) and 0.21 mg g(-1) to 1.63 mg g(-1) of FT product samples, respectively. GC×GC-TOFMS provided a linear range (from 0.3 ng µL(-1) to 10 ng µL(-1)), good precision (gas-to-liquid technologies from natural gas and guide the choice of an FT conversion process that generates clean products with higher added value.

  5. Process analysis for polygeneration of Fischer-Tropsch liquids and power with CO{sub 2} capture based on coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge-wen Yu; Yuan-yuan Xu; Xu Hao; Yong-wang Li; Guang-qi Liu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2010-05-15

    This paper designs four cases to investigate the performances of the polygeneration processes, which depend on the commercially ready technology to convert coal to liquid fuels (CTL) and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. With Excel-Aspen Plus based models, mass and energy conversion are calculated in detail. The simulation shows that the thermal efficiency is down with the synfuels yield decrease though the electricity generation is increased. It also suggests that the largest low heat value (LHV) loss of coal occurs in the gasification unit. From the comparison of the four cases, prominent differences of coal energy transition appear in water-gas shift (WGS) units, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis and combined cycle processes. CO{sub 2} capture and vent are discussed and the results show that the vent amount of CO{sub 2} increases with the increase of percentage of the syngas going to produce electricity. The results also show that the ratio of carbon captured to total carbon increases from 58% to 93% which is an important contribution to cutting down the greenhouse gas vent. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Toward a more comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions assessment of biofuels: the case of forest-based fischer-tropsch diesel production in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soimakallio, Sampo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the use of biofuels influences atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Although widely recognized, uncertainties related to the particular impacts are typically ignored or only partly considered. In this paper, various sources of uncertainty related to the GHG emission savings of biofuels are considered comprehensively and transparently through scenario analysis and stochastic simulation. Technology and feedstock production chain-specific factors, market-mediated factors and climate policy time frame issues are reflected using as a case study Fischer-Tropsch diesel derived from boreal forest biomass in Finland. This case study shows that the GHG emission savings may be positive or negative in many of the cases studied, and are subject to significant uncertainties, which are mainly determined by market-mediated factors related to fossil diesel substitution. Regardless of the considerable uncertainties, some robust conclusions could be drawn; it was likely of achieving some sort of but unlikely of achieving significant savings in the GHG emissions within the 100 year time frame in many cases. Logging residues (branches) performed better than stumps and living stem wood in terms of the GHG emission savings, which could be increased mainly by blocking carbon leakage. Forest carbon stock changes also significantly contributed to the GHG emission savings. PMID:24528291

  7. Impact of Contaminants Present in Coal-Biomass Derived Synthesis Gas on Water-gas Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Co-gasification of biomass and coal in large-scale, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants increases the efficiency and reduces the environmental impact of making synthesis gas ("syngas") that can be used in Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes for producing transportation fuels. However, the water-gas shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts used in these processes may be poisoned by multiple contaminants found in coal-biomass derived syngas; sulfur species, trace toxic metals, halides, nitrogen species, the vapors of alkali metals and their salts (e.g., KCl and NaCl), ammonia, and phosphorous. Thus, it is essential to develop a fundamental understanding of poisoning/inhibition mechanisms before investing in the development of any costly mitigation technologies. We therefore investigated the impact of potential contaminants (H2S, NH3, HCN, AsH3, PH3, HCl, NaCl, KCl, AS3, NH4NO3, NH4OH, KNO3, HBr, HF, and HNO3) on the performance and lifetime of commercially available and generic (prepared in-house) WGS and FT catalysts.

  8. An investigation of the physical and chemical changes occuring in a Fischer-Tropsch fixed bed catalyst during hydrocarbon synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deactivation studies: making use of fixed bed reactors, wet chemical analysis, surface area, pore volume determinations and X-ray diffraction spectrometry, scanning electron microscope spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry techniques; were performed on a low temperature iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. It was revealed that this catalyst is mainly deactivated by sulphur poisoning, oxidation of the catalytic reactive phases, sintering of the iron crystallites and to a lesser extent deactivation through fouling of the catalytic surface by carbonaceous deposits. It was found that the top entry section of the catalyst bed deactivated relatively fast, the bottom exit section also deactivated, but not as fast as the top section. The central portion of the catalyst bed was least affected. Sulphur contaminants in the feed gas, even though present in only minute quantities, results in a loss of catalyst performance of the top section of the catalyst bed, while water, produced as a product from the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, oxidized and sintered the catalyst over the bottom section of the catalyst bed. 88 figs., 7 tabs., 224 refs

  9. Fuzzy model prediction of Co (Ⅲ)/Al2O3 catalytic behavior in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Ali Takassi; Mahdi Koolivand Salooki; Morteza Esfandyari

    2011-01-01

    The application of Co (Ⅲ)/Al2O3 catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was studied in a wide range of synthesis gas conversions and compared with Fuzzy Simulation results.Present study applies fuzzy model to predicting the product composition of CH4,CO2 and CO in Fischer-Tropsch process for natural gas synthesis,in which the input vector was 4-dimension including four variables (operating pressure,operating temperature,time and CO/H2 ratio) of 70 different experim.ents and the output product is a composition of CO2,CO and CH4.The Mamdani algorithm has been applied to the training of the fuzzy system and the test set was used to evaluate the performance of the system including R2,ARE,AARE and SD.The results demonstrated that the predicted values from the model were in good consistency with the experimental data.The work indicates how fuzzy inference system (FIS),as a promising predicting technique,would be effectively used in FTS.

  10. Combined EXAFS and STEM-EELS study of the electronic state and location of Mn as promoter in Co-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, F; Grandjean, D; de Groot, FMF; Stephan, O; Weckhuysen, BM

    2005-01-01

    STEM-EELS and EXAFS have been used to investigate the location and electronic state of Mn as promoter in TiO2- supported cobalt Fischer Tropsch catalysts prepared by two different procedures. It was found that the extent of interaction between Mn and the active Co phase as well as the level of Mn di

  11. PROGRESS TOWARDS MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-11-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The

  12. Moessbauer study of iron-carbide growth and Fischer-Tropsch activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    There is a need to establish a correlation between the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) activity of an iron-based catalyst and the catalyst phase during FT synthesis. The nature of iron phases formed during activation and FT synthesis is influenced by the nature of the gas and pressure apart from other parameters like temperature, flow rate etc., used for activation. Moessbauer investigations of iron-based catalysts subjected to pretreatment at two different pressures in gas atmospheres containing mixtures of CO, H{sub 2}, and He have been carried out. Studies on UCI 1185-57 (64%Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/5%CuO/1%K{sub 2}O/30% Kaolin) catalyst indicate that activation of the catalyst in CO at 12 atms. leads to the formation of 100% magnetite and the magnetite formed gets rapidly converted to at least 90% of {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} during activation. The FT activity was found to be good at 70-80% of (H{sub 2}+CO) conversion. On the other hand, activation. The FT activity was found to be good at 70-80% of (H{sub 2}+CO) conversion. On the other hand, activation of the catalyst in synthesis gas at 12 atms. leads to formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and it gets sluggishly converted to {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and {epsilon}-Fe{sub 2.2}C during activation and both continue to grow slowly during FT synthesis. FT activity is found to be poor. Pretreatment of the catalyst, 100fe/3.6Si/0.71K at a low pressure of 1 atms. in syngas gave rise to the formation of {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and good FT activity. On the other hand, pretreatment of the catalyst, 100Fe/3.6Si/0.71K at a relatively high pressure of 12 atms. in syngas did not give rise to the formation any carbide and FT activity was poor.

  13. Preparation, characterization and testing of SiC-based catalytic sponges as structured catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudry, A.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Solid sponges (open-cell foams) may be used as catalyst support, due to favorable thermal properties and low pressure drop. As an example, they may lead to improved temperature control in Fischer-Tropsch applications, if compared to fixed beds of catalyst particles. The aim of this study was to develop and test a wet method for impregnating ceramic foam materials with a CoRe/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Defined catalyst layers were generated on 20 ppi SiC-sponges. Resulting catalytic activities are nearly identical to those of the corresponding powder catalyst material. The difference observed can be explained by either mass transfer limitation or backmixing in the fixed bed configuration used. (orig.)

  14. Effect of Surface Modification by Chelating Agents on Fischer- Tropsch Performance of Co/SiO{sub 2} Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambal, Ashish S.; Kugler, Edwin L.; Gardner, Todd H.; Dadyburjor, Dady B.

    2013-11-14

    The silica support of a Co-based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was modified by the chelating agents (CAs) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the modification, characterization of the fresh and spent catalysts show reduced crystallite sizes, a better-dispersed Co₃O₄ phase on the calcined samples, and increased metal dispersions for the reduced samples. The CA-modified catalysts display higher CO conversions, product yields, reaction rates and rate constants. The improved FT performance of CA-modified catalysts is attributed to the formation of stable complexes with Co. The superior performance of the EDTA-modified catalyst in comparison to the NTA-modified catalyst is due to the higher affinity of the former for complex formation with Co ions.

  15. Synthesis of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and other nitrogen organic compounds by a Fischer-Tropsch-like process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. C.; Oro, J.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the formation of purines, pyrimidines, and other bases from CO, H2, and NH3 under conditions similar to those used in the Fischer-Tropsch process. It is found that industrial nickel/iron alloy catalyzes the synthesis of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and other nitrogenous compounds from mixtures of CO, H2, and NH3 at temperatures of about 600 C. Sufficient sample was accumulated to isolate as solid products adenine, guanine, and cytosine, which were identified by infrared spectrophotometry. In the absence of nickel/iron catalyst, at 650 C, or in the presence of this catalyst, at 450 C, no purines or pyrimidines were synthesized. These results confirm and extend some of the work reported by Kayatsu et al. (1968).

  16. TPR and TPD studies of effects of Cu and Ca promotion on Fe-Zn-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Olusola O James; Biswajit Chowdhury; Sudip Maity

    2013-05-01

    Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to study the effects of Cu and Ca promotion on Fe-Zn-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. The reduction temperature for Fe2O3 → Fe3O4 was unaffected by Ca addition but decreased when promoted with Cu. Fe-Zn promoted with Cu and Ca showed even much lower reduction temperature for Fe2O3→Fe3O4. Ca promotion enhances carburization and increases surface acidity and basicity of the Fe-Zn oxide precursor. While Cu inhibits carburization and decreases the surface acidity and basicity of the Fe-Zn oxide precursor. The implications of these effects on the application of catalysts for FT are discussed.

  17. Studies on the Role of Nitrogen in the Feed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Under Fixed-Bed Reactor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Jung, Jae-Sun; Kim, Na-Young; Lee, Sang Yong; Moon, Dong Ju

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co/Al203 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared via slurry impregnation method and the catalyst was characterized by various techniques such as TPR, XRD, TGA and N2 physisorption. To dissolve the wax, after-reaction catalyst was dewaxed using n-Hexane at 60 *C. The experiments were performed in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor, under the reaction condition of 230 degrees C, 20 bar and feed volume ratio of H2:CO:N2 = 2:1:0.5-1.5. The methane selectivity and the ratio of olefin to paraffin among C2-C4 hydrocarbons were increased with higher contents of nitrogen in feed gas which result in higher partial pressure ratio of H2 to CO, and also affect methane selectivity which has a significant role in increased CO conversion. PMID:27433695

  18. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over ruthenium-promoted Co/Al2O3 catalyst with different reduction procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Karimi; Ali Nakhaei Pour; Farshad Torabi; Behnam Hatami; Ahmad Tavasoli; Mohammad Reza Alaei; Mohammad Irani

    2010-01-01

    The effect of reduction procedure on catalyst properties,activity and products selectivity of ruthenium-promoted Co/γ-Al2O3 catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis(FTS)was investigated.Catalyst samples were reduced with different reduction gas compositions and passivated before being characterized by TPR and XRD techniques.Different activity and product selectivity analyses were also performed.These results showed that the catalyst dispersion,particle size,and the degree of reduction changed with different reduction gas compositions,which were resulted from the water partial pressures in reduction process that give varying degrees of interaction with the support.It has been suggested that the FTS activity of cobalt catalyst was directly dependent on the catalyst reducibility.A reduction gas with a molar ratio of H2/He = 1 was used to prevent the formation of Co-support compound during catalyst reduction.

  19. Effect of operating conditions and potassium content on Fischer-Tropsch liquid products produced by potassium-promoted iron catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco E. M. Farias; Fernando G. Sales; Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    The dependencies of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis liquid hydrocarbon product distribution on operating pressure and temperature have been studied over three potassium-promoted iron catalysts with increasing potassium molar content. The study followed an experimental planning and the results were analyzed based on surface response methodology. The effects of different operating conditions and potassium contents on the liquid product distribution were compared based on number average carbon number and dispersion. Results showed that high pressures (25 to 30 atm) favored the production of waxes that could be converted into liquid fuels through hydrocracking, while greater direct selectivity towards diesel was favored by low pressure (20 atm) using catalysts with low potassium to iron molar ratios. The liquid product distribution produced using an iron catalyst with high potassium content presented higher number-average number of carbons when compared to the distribution obtained using an iron catalyst with low potassium content.

  20. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer

  1. Quantification of trace O-containing compounds in GTL process samples via Fischer-Tropsch reaction by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Daniella R; Pereira, Vinícius B; Stelzer, Karen T; Gomes, Alexandre O; Neto, Francisco R Aquino; Azevedo, Débora A

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was successfully applied to eight real Brazilian Fischer-Tropsch (FT) product samples for the quantitative analysis of O-containing compounds. It not only allowed identifying and quantifying simultaneously a large number of O-containing compounds but also resolved many co-eluting components, such as carboxylic acids, which co-elute in one-dimensional gas chromatography. The homologous series of alcohols and carboxylic acids as trimethylsilyl derivatives were detected and identified at trace levels. The absolute quantification of each compound was accomplished with reliability using analytical curves. Linear alcohols (from C5 to C19), branched alcohols (C6-C13) and carboxylic acids (C4 to C12) were obtained in the range of 1.58 mg g(-1) to 14.75 mg g(-1), 0.51 mg g(-1) to 1.12 mg g(-1) and 0.21 mg g(-1) to 1.63 mg g(-1) of FT product samples, respectively. GC×GC-TOFMS provided a linear range (from 0.3 ng µL(-1) to 10 ng µL(-1)), good precision (<8%), and excellent accuracy (recovery range of 77% to 118%) for quantification of individual O-containing compounds in FT product samples. The results can benefit the development of gas-to-liquid technologies from natural gas and guide the choice of an FT conversion process that generates clean products with higher added value. PMID:26452870

  2. Ruthenium Modification on Mn and Zr-Modified Co/SiO2 Catalysts for Slurry-Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Miyazawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of Ru to Mn and Zr-modified Co/SiO2 catalysts, while applying different preparation orders and loading amounts, was investigated as a means of enhancing the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction. The coimpregnation of Zr/SiO2 with Co, Mn and Ru gave the most attractive catalytic properties. This can be attributed to the higher dispersion of Co metal resulting from the coimpregnation of Co and Mn as well as enhanced reducibility due to the presence of Ru. The addition of a moderate amount of Ru together with the appropriate order of addition affected both the Co reducibility and the catalytic activity, primarily because of increased reducibility. The addition of even 0.1 wt.% Ru resulted in an obvious enhancement of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis activity.

  3. Comparative study of regulated and unregulated gaseous emissions during NEDC in a light-duty diesel engine fuelled with Fischer Tropsch and biodiesel fuels

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this study, regulated and unregulated gaseous emissions and fuel consumption with five different fuels were tested in a 4-cylinder, light-duty diesel EURO IV typically used for the automotive vehicles in Europe. Three different biodiesel fuels obtained from soybean oil, rapeseed oil and palm oil, a Fischer Tropsch fuel and an ultra low sulphur diesel were studied. The test used was the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), this allowed tests to be carried out on an engine ...

  4. Influencia del soporte catalítico en la producción de combustibles sintéticos vía Fischer-Tropsch

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz López, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The present work is part of a research program that deals with the study of catalysts and their use in high-pressure reactions of industrial interest that is being developed in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Castilla-la Mancha. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is a heterogeneously catalyzed polymerization process, which converts syngas (CO and H2) into a wide variety of hydrocarbons. In this reaction, a great number of desired (paraffins, olefins and alcohols) ...

  5. Model studies of secondary hydrogenation in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis studied by cobalt catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaserud, Christian

    2003-07-01

    Mass transfer effects are very important in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. In order to study the FT synthesis without the influence of any transport limitations, cobalt foils have been used as model catalysts. The effect of pretreatment (number of calcinations and different reduction times) for cobalt foil catalysts at 220 {sup o}C, 1 bar and H{sub 2}/CO = 3 has been studied in a microreactor. The foils were examined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the catalytic activity of the cobalt foil increases with the number of pretreatments possibly due to an increase in the surface area of the cobalt foil. The SEM results support the assumption that the surface area of the cobalt foil increases with the number of pretreatments. The reduction time was also found to influence the catalytic activity of the cobalt foil. Highest activity was obtained using a reduction time of only five min (compared to one and thirty min). The decrease in activity after reduction for thirty min compared to five min was suggested to be due to restructuring of the surface of the cobalt foil and a reduction time of only 1 min was not enough to reduce the cobalt foil sufficiently. Time of reduction did also influence the product distribution. Increased reduction time resulted in a lower selectivity to light products and increased selectivity to heavier components. The paraffin/olefin ratio increased with increasing CO-conversion also for cobalt foils. The paraffin/olefin ratio also increased when the reduction period of the cobalt foil was increased at a given CO-conversion. Hydrogenation of propene to propane has been studied as a model reaction for secondary hydrogenation of olefins in the FT synthesis. The study has involved promoted and unpromoted cobalt FT catalysts supported on different types of supports and also unsupported cobalt. Hydrogenation of propene was carried out at 120 {sup o}C, 1.8 bar and H{sub 2}/C{sub 3}H{sub 6} 6 in a fixed bed microreactor. The rate

  6. Experimental Studies and Modeling of Synthesis Gas Production and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Hamid

    2012-07-01

    In this work, an investigation on the production of synthetic fuel from gaseous hydrocarbons (HCs)/bio-HCs and liquid bio-HCs on a small-scale unit has been carried out. The research project consists of two major parts, a modified version of a plasma-assisted catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) gliding arc (GlidArc) reactor and a thermally stable single-tube fixed-bed Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor. The potential for the CPO of methane to produce synthesis gas (syngas) was studied experimentally and thermodynamically at a fixed pressure (1 bar) and electric power (0.3 kw). The investigations were performed in a partially adiabatic plasma-assisted (nonthermal) GlidArc reactor, using a Ni-based catalyst. Two cases were studied: in the first, normal air (molar ratio of O2/N2=21/79) was used, whereas enriched air (O2/N2=40/60) was utilized in the second. The individual effect of the O2/CH4 molar ratio, gas hour space velocity (GHSV) and bed exiting temperature (Texit) was studied for both cases. The main trends of the CH4 conversion, the syngas (H2 and CO) yield and the thermal efficiency of the reactor based on the lower heating value (LHV) were analyzed and compared. A numerical investigation of the CPO of methane to syngas using a GlidArc reactor was also studied. A 2D heterogeneous plug-flow model with radial dispersion and no gradients inside the catalyst pellet are used, including the transport equations for the gas and solid phase and reaction rate equations. The governing equations of this model formed a set of stationary differential algebraic equations coupled with the non-linear algebraic equations, and were solved numerically using in-house MATLAB code. Model results of CPO of methane were compared to previous experimental data with the GlidArc reactor found in the literature. A close match between the calculated and experimental results for temperature, reactant (CH4 and O2) conversion, H2 and CO yields and species molefraction were obtained. The developed

  7. Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry. Final report : January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-04-11

    Argonne National Laboratory carried out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry-specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it was desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. It was desired that selectivity be directed toward producing diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. The original goal was to produce shape-selective catalysts that had the potential to limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' This cage would also restrict their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. The first stage of this program was to prepare and evaluate iron-containing particulate catalysts. Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity and strength was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. Since there was no improvement, the program plan was modified as discussed below. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those

  8. Study of (Fe/HZM-5) catalyst be used in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: preparation and characterization; Estudo do catalisador (Fe/HZSM-5) a ser utilizado na sintese de Fischer-Tropsch: preparacao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Arthur C. [Universidade Estadual do Maranhao (UEMA0), MA (Brazil); Sousa, Bianca V. de; Lima, Wellington S.; Rodrigues, Meiry G.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this work it was developed an iron catalyst supported on the ZSM-5 zeolite to be used in the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS). The NH{sub 4}{sup +}ZSM-5 zeolitic support was submitted to the wet impregnation, using the 0.1 M of the Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.9H{sub 2}O solution to obtain the Fe/NH{sub 4}{sup +}ZSM-5 sample in the content of iron 5% wt. After, the material was submitted for the drying process and in the following, for the calcination one, obtaining the Fe/HZSM-5 form. The EDS characterization analyses showed that in the Fe/HZSM-5 sample the iron is in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} form and that the impregnation and calcination processes did not cause significant exchanges in the zeolitic support framework. The results of the N{sub 2} physical adsorption of the 5% Fe/HZSM-5 showed the presence of the micropores and mesopores. From these results, the obtained material (5% Fe/HZSM-5) presents a great potential to be used like a catalyst in the FTS. (author)

  9. Raising distillate selectivity and catalyst life time in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis by using a novel dual-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a novel dual bed reactor Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was studied by using two diff rent cobalt catalysts. An alkali-promoted cobalt catalyst was used in the first bed of a fixed-bed reactor followed by a Raiment promoted cobalt catalyst in the second bed. The activity, product selectivity and accelerated deactivation of the system were assessed and compared with a conventional single bed reactor system. The methane selectivity in the dual-bed reactor was about 18.9% less compared to that of the single-bed reactor. The C5+ selectivity for the dual-bed reactor was 10.9% higher than that of the single-bed reactor. Accelerated deactivation of the catalysts in the dual-bed reactor was 42% lower than that of the single-bed reactor. It was revealed that the amount of catalysts activity recovery after regeneration at 400degC in the dual-bed system is higher than that of the single-bed system

  10. Performance characterization of CNTs and γ-Al2O3 supported cobalt catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sardar; Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts were prepared via a wet impregnation method. Different physicochemical properties of the samples were revealed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and carbon dioxide desorption (CO2-desorption). Fischer-Tropsch reaction (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 220°C and 1 atm, with H2/ CO = 2v / v and space velocity, SV of 12L/g.h for 5 h. Various characterization techniques revealed that there was a stronger interaction between Co and Al2O3 support compared to that of CNTs support. CNTs support increased the reducibility and decreased Co particle size. A significant increase in % CO conversion and FTS reaction rate was observed over CNTs support compared to that of Co / Al2O3. Co/CNTs resulted in higher C5+ hydrocarbons selectivity compared to that of Co / Al2O3 catalyst. CNTs are a better support for Co compared to Al2O3.

  11. Incorporation of Reaction Kinetics into a Multiphase, Hydrodynamic Model of a Fischer Tropsch Slurry Bubble Column Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Guillen, PhD; Anastasia Gribik; Daniel Ginosar, PhD; Steven P. Antal, PhD

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). The CMFD model is fundamentally based which allows it to be applied to different industrial processes and reactor geometries. The NPHASE CMFD solver [1] is used as the robust computational platform. Results from the CMFD model include gas distribution, species concentration profiles, and local temperatures within the SBCR. This type of model can provide valuable information for process design, operations and troubleshooting of FT plants. An ensemble-averaged, turbulent, multi-fluid solution algorithm for the multiphase, reacting flow with heat transfer was employed. Mechanistic models applicable to churn turbulent flow have been developed to provide a fundamentally based closure set for the equations. In this four-field model formulation, two of the fields are used to track the gas phase (i.e., small spherical and large slug/cap bubbles), and the other two fields are used for the liquid and catalyst particles. Reaction kinetics for a cobalt catalyst is based upon values reported in the published literature. An initial, reaction kinetics model has been developed and exercised to demonstrate viability of the overall solution scheme. The model will continue to be developed with improved physics added in stages.

  12. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Type Synthesis Products: Are they Similar to Organics in Chondritic Meteorites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Locke, Darren R.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis of organic compounds has been hypothesized to occur in the early solar nebula that formed our Solar System. FTT is a collection of abiotic chemical reactions that convert a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen over nano-catalysts into hydrocarbons and other more complex aromatic compounds. We hypothesized that FTT can generate similar organic compounds as those seen in chondritic meteorites; fragments of asteroids that are characteristic of the early solar system. Specific goals for this project included: 1) determining the effects of different FTT catalyst, reaction temperature, and cycles on organic compounds produced, 2) imaging of organic coatings found on the catalyst, and 3) comparison of organic compounds produced experimentally by FTT synthesis and those found in the ordinary chondrite LL5 Chelyabinsk meteorite. We used Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (PY-GCMS) to release organic compounds present in experimental FTT and meteorite samples, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to take images of organic films on catalyst grains.

  13. Purification Influence of Synthesis Gas Derived from Methanol Cracking on the Performance of Cobalt Catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; Shengying Liu; Yulan Wang; Kegong Fang; Jiangang Chen; Yuhan Sun

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis gas derived from methanol cracking (SGMC) was applied as simulating feedstock of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) in laboratory. With MS and GC detector, a trifle of sulfur compounds,a small amount of oxygenates including H2O, CH3OH, DME and CO2 as well as a few of low carbon alkanes were found in the SGMC. After purification, the sulfur compounds, H2O, CH3OH and DME could be eliminated efficiently from the SGMC while CO2 and the low carbon alkanes were partly removed.When the unpurified SGMC, the desufurized SGMC and the totally purified SGMC were sequentially applied in cobalt-based FTS, the catalytic performance of Co/ZrO2/SiO2 catalyst was gradually improved corresponding to the degree of purification. The untreated SGMC led to the serious deactivation of the cobalt catalyst, the partially treated SGMC slowed down the deactivation rate and the totally purified SGMC resulted in little deactivation of the catalyst, which was similar to what the pure synthesis gas(the mixture of pure H2 and CO) did. The results indicated that the SGMC should be purified and the purification course used in this paper was effective for the SGMC. Furthermore, the totally purified SGMC could substitute for the pure synthesis gas in cobalt FTS.

  14. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of liquid fuels from coal to minimize carbon dioxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science and Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering

    2011-08-15

    Synthesis gas (syngas) produced from coal typically has hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratios in the range of approximately 0.7-1.1, depending on the gasification method. In order to produce liquid fuels from this syngas by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), these ratios must be raised to 2.0 or higher. If this is accomplished by the water-gas shift reaction, the traditional method, large emissions of carbon dioxide are produced. In this paper, it is shown that catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous C1-C4 products of FT synthesis and recycling of the resulting hydrogen to the syngas feed-stream can increase the H{sub 2}/CO ratio to the desired values with little or no production of carbon dioxide. All carbon from the CDH reaction is in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The amounts of hydrogen and MWCNT produced, carbon dioxide emissions avoided, and water saved are calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day FTS-CDH plant and it is demonstrated that the energy balance for the process is favorable. Methods of utilizing the large quantity of MWCNT produced are discussed. 50 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Comparison of PM emissions from a commercial jet engine burning conventional, biomass, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D

    2011-12-15

    Rising fuel costs, an increasing desire to enhance security of energy supply, and potential environmental benefits have driven research into alternative renewable fuels for commercial aviation applications. This paper reports the results of the first measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a CFM56-7B commercial jet engine burning conventional and alternative biomass- and, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T)-based fuels. PM emissions reductions are observed with all fuels and blends when compared to the emissions from a reference conventional fuel, Jet A1, and are attributed to fuel properties associated with the fuels and blends studied. Although the alternative fuel candidates studied in this campaign offer the potential for large PM emissions reductions, with the exception of the 50% blend of F-T fuel, they do not meet current standards for aviation fuel and thus cannot be considered as certified replacement fuels. Over the ICAO Landing Takeoff Cycle, which is intended to simulate aircraft engine operations that affect local air quality, the overall PM number-based emissions for the 50% blend of F-T fuel were reduced by 34 ± 7%, and the mass-based emissions were reduced by 39 ± 7%.

  16. Studies on accelerated deactivation of ruthenium-promoted alumina-supported alkalized cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shohreh Tehrani; Mohamad Irani; Ahmad Tavasoli; Yadollah Mortazavi; Abbas A.Khodadadi; Ali Nakhaei Pour

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated deactivation of ruthenium-promoted alumina-supported alkalized cobalt(K-Ru-Co/-γ-Al2O3)Fischer-Tropsch(FT)synthesis catalyst along the catalytic bed over 120 h of time-on-stream(TOS)was investigated.Catalytic bed was divided into three parts and structural changes of the spent catalysts collected from each catalytic bed after FT synthesis were studied using different techniques.Rapid deactivation was observed during the reaction due to high reaction temperature and low feed flow rates.The physico-chemical properties of the catalyst charged in the Bed #1 of the reactor did not change significantly.Interaction of cobalt with alumina and the formation of CoAl2O4 increased along the catalytic bed.Reducibility percentage decreased by 4.5%,7.5% and 12.9% for the catalysts in the Beds #1,#2 and #3,respectively.Dispersion decreased by 8.8%,14.4% and 26.6% for the catalysts in the Beds #1,#2 and #3,respectively.Particle diameter increased by 0.6%,2.4% and 10.4% for the catalysts in the Beds #1,#2 and #3,respectively,suggesting higher rate of sintering at the last catalytic bed.The amount of coke at the last catalytic bed was significantly higher than those of Beds #1 and #2.

  17. Effect of Potassium Addition on Coprecipitated Iron Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using Bio-oil-syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-xiang; Dong, Ting; Kan, Tao; Li, Quan-xin

    2008-04-01

    The effects of potassium addition and the potassium content on the activity and selectivity of coprecipitated iron catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were studied in a fixed bed reactor at 1.5 MPa, 300°C, and contact time (W/F) of 12.5 gcath/mol using the model bio-oil-syngas of H2/CO/CO2/N2 (62/8/25/5, vol%). It was found that potassium addition increases the catalyst activity for FTS and the reverse water gas shift reaction. Moreover, potassium increases the average molecular weight (chain length) of the hydrocarbon products. With the increase of potassium content, it was found that CH4 selectivity decreases and the selectivity of liquid phase products (C5+) increases. The characteristics of FTS catalysts with different potassium content were also investigated by various characterization measurements including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area. Based on experimental results, 100Fe/6Cu/16Al/6K (weight ratio) was selected as the optimal catalyst for FTS from bio-oil-syngas. The results indicate that the 100Fe/6Cu/16Al/6K catalyst is one of the most promising candidates to directly synthesize liquid bio-fuel using bio-oil-syngas.

  18. Effect of Potassium Addition on Coprecipitated Iron Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using Bio-oil-syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-xiang Wang; Ting Dong; Tao Kan; Quan-xin Li

    2008-01-01

    The effects of potassium addition and the potassium content on the activity and selectivity of coprecipitated iron catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were studied in a fixed bed reactor at 1.5 MPa,300℃, and contact time (W/F) of 12.5 gcath/mol using the model bio-oil-syngas of H2/CO/CO2/N2 (62/8/25/5, vol%).It was found that potassium addition increases the catalyst activity for FTS and the reverse water gas shift reaction.Moreover,potassium increases the average molecular weight (chain length) of the hydrocarbon products.With the increase of potassium content,it was found that CH4 selectivity decreases and the selectivity of liquid phase products (C5+) increases.The characteristics of FTS catalysts with different potassium content were also investigated by various characterization measurements including X-ray diffraction,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area.Based on experimental results,100Fe/6Cu/16Al/6K (weight ratio) was selected as the optimal catalyst for FTS from bio-oil-syngas. The results indicate that the 100Fe/6Cu/16Al/6K catalyst is one of the most promising candidates to directly synthesize liquid bio-fuel using bio-oil-syngas.

  19. Isothermal Kinetics Modelling of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over the Spray-Dried Fe-Cu-K Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Guo; Ying Liu; Jie Chang; Liang Bai; Yuanyuan Xu; Hongwei Xiang; Yongwang Li

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal kinetics of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) over Fe-Cu-K spray-dried catalyst was studied in a spinning basket reactor. The experiments were carried out at a constant temperature of 523 K, n(H2)/n(CO) feed ratios of 0.8-2.0, reactor pressures of 1.1-2.5 MPa, and space velocity of 0.556× 10-3 Nm3/kgcat.s. Kinetic model for hydrocarbon formation was derived on the basis of simplified carbide mechanism to reduce the number of parameters. Two individual rate constants for methane and ethene were considered. Furthermore, the model was modified empirically by non-intrinsic effect, such as physisorption and fictitious olefin pressures that were taken into account, and the influences of secondary reaction of α-olefins on product distribution. The simulation results showed that the experimental phenomena of FTS and the deviations from ASF distribution, such as the relatively high yield of methane and low yield of ethene observed experimentally could be depicted basically.

  20. Determination of the Effect of Coal/Biomass-Derived Syngas Contaminants on the Performance of Fischer-Tropsch and Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembly, Jason; Cooper, Matthew; Farmer, Justin; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

    2010-12-31

    Today, nearly all liquid fuels and commodity chemicals are produced from non-renewable resources such as crude oil and natural gas. Because of increasing scrutiny of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions produced using traditional fossil-fuel resources, the utilization of alternative feedstocks for the production of power, hydrogen, value-added chemicals, and high-quality hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel and substitute natural gas (SNG) is critical to meeting the rapidly growing energy needs of modern society. Coal and biomass are particularly attractive as alternative feedstocks because of the abundant reserves of these resources worldwide. The strategy of co-gasification of coal/biomass (CB) mixtures to produce syngas for synthesis of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels offers distinct advantages over gasification of either coal or biomass alone. Co-feeding coal with biomass offers the opportunity to exploit economies of scale that are difficult to achieve in biomass gasification, while the addition of biomass to the coal gasifier feed leverages proven coal gasification technology and allows CO{sub 2} credit benefits. Syngas generated from CB mixtures will have a unique contaminant composition because coal and biomass possess different concentrations and types of contaminants, and the final syngas composition is also strongly influenced by the gasification technology used. Syngas cleanup for gasification of CB mixtures will need to address this unique contaminant composition to support downstream processing and equipment. To investigate the impact of CB gasification on the production of transportation fuels by FT synthesis, RTI International conducted thermodynamic studies to identify trace contaminants that will react with water-gas-shift and FT catalysts and built several automated microreactor systems to investigate the effect of single components and the synergistic effects of multiple contaminants on water-gas-shift and FT catalyst performance. The contaminants

  1. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  2. Lump Kinetic Analysis of Syngas Composition Effect on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt and Cobalt-Rhenium Alumina Supported Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Tristantini

    2016-03-01

    Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 10th February 2016; Accepted: 16th February 2016 How to Cite: Tristantini, D., Suwignjo, R.K. (2016. Lump Kinetic Analysis of Syngas Composition Effect on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt and Cobalt-Rhenium Alumina Supported Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 84-92. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.424.84-92 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.424.84-92

  3. Effects of Catalyst Preparation on Hydrocarbon Product Distribution in Hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch Product with Low Pt-Loaded Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiaki Hanaoka; Tomohisa Miyazawa; Katsuya Shimura; Satoshi Hirata

    2015-01-01

    For the effective production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel in the hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) product, the catalytic performance of Pt-loaded catalysts with low Pt content was investigated using an autoclave at 250 °C, an initial H2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, and a reaction time of 1 h. A screening study using Pt-loaded catalysts with a Pt content of 0.1 wt. % indicated that zeolite supports were more favorable for jet fuel (carbon numbers 9–15) production than amorphous oxide supports....

  4. Effect of K promoter on the structure and catalytic behavior of supported iron-based catalysts in fischer-tropsch synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. M Farias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of K addition on the performance of supported Fe catalysts for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis (FTS were studied in a slurry reactor at 240 to 270ºC, 2.0 to 4.0 MPa and syngas H2/CO = 1.0. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption, H2 temperature programmed reduction, X - ray diffraction, X - ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and dispersive X - ray spectroscopy. A strong interaction was observed between Fe and K, which inhibited the reduction of Fe catalyst. Addition of potassium increased the production of heavy hydrocarbons (C20+.

  5. Kinetically Relevant Steps and H2/D2 Isotope Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Fe and Co Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, Manuel; Li, Anwu; Nabar, Rahul P.; Nilekar, Anand U.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Iglesia, Enrique

    2010-11-25

    H2/D2 isotope effects on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) rate and selectivity are examined here by combining measured values on Fe and Co at conditions leading to high C5+ yields with theoretical estimates on model Fe(110) and Co(0001) surfaces with high coverages of chemisorbed CO (CO*). Inverse isotope effects (rH/rD < 1) are observed on Co and Fe catalysts as a result of compensating thermodynamic (H2 dissociation to H*; H* addition to CO* species to form HCO*) and kinetic (H* reaction with HCO*) isotope effects. These isotopic effects and their rigorous mechanistic interpretation confirm the prevalence of H-assisted CO dissociation routes on both Fe and Co catalysts, instead of unassisted pathways that would lead to similar rates with H2 and D2 reactants. The small contributions from unassisted pathways to CO conversion rates on Fe are indeed independent of the dihydrogen isotope, as is also the case for the rates of primary reactions that form CO2 as the sole oxygen rejection route in unassisted CO dissociation paths. Isotopic effects on the selectivity to C5+ and CH4 products are small, and D2 leads to a more paraffinic product than does H2, apparently because it leads to preference for chain termination via hydrogen addition over abstraction. These results are consistent with FTS pathways limited by H-assisted CO dissociation on both Fe and Co and illustrate the importance of thermodynamic contributions to inverse isotope effects for reactions involving quasi-equilibrated H2 dissociation and the subsequent addition of H* in hydrogenation catalysis, as illustrated here by theory and experiment for the specific case of CO hydrogenation.

  6. Effect of mass transfer limitations on catalyst performance during reduction and carburization of iron based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akbar; Zamaniyan; Yadollah; Mortazavi; Abbas; Ali; Khodadadi; Ali; Nakhaei; Pour

    2013-01-01

    Existence of intraparticle mass transfer limitations under typical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has been reported previously,but there is no suitable study on the existence of intraparticle diffusion limitations under pretreatment steps (reduction and activation) and their effect on catalytic performance for iron based catalysts.In this study,Fe-Cu-La-SiO2 catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method.To investigate the intraparticle mass transfer limitation under reduction,activation and reaction steps,and its effect on catalytic performance,catalyst pellets with different sizes of 6,3,1 and 0.5 mm have been prepared.All catalysts were calcined,pretreated and tested under similar conditions.The catalysts were activated in hydrogen (5%H2in N2) at 450℃ for 3 h and exposed to syngas (H2/CO=1) at 270℃ and atmospheric pressure for 40 h.Afterwards,FTS reaction tests were performed for approximately 120 h to reach steady state conditions at 290℃,17 bar and a feed flow (syngas H2/CO=1) rate of 3 L/h (STP).Using small pellets resulted in higher CO conversion,FT reaction rate and C5+ productivity as compared with larger pellets.The small pellets reached steady state conditions just 20 h after starting the reaction.Whereas for larger pellets,CO conversion,FT reaction rate and C5+ productivity increased gradually,and reached steady state and maximum values after 120 h of operation.The results illustrate that mass transfer limitations exist not only for FTS reaction but also for the reduction and carburization steps which lead to various phase formation through catalyst activation.Also the results indicate that some effects of mass transfer limitations in activation step,can be compensated in the reaction step.The results can be used for better design of iron based catalyst to improve the process economy.

  7. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanenchuk, C.A.; Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1990-12-31

    A Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was operated simultaneously with a Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift catalyst in a slurry reactor for over 400 hours. The process conditions were held constant at a temperature of 240{degrees}C, a pressure of 0.79 MPa, and a 1.1 H{sub 2}/CO feed of 0.065 Nl/min-g.cat. The Fischer-Tropsch activity remained constant at the level predicted by the operation of the Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} catalyst alone. The water-gas-shift reaction was near equilibrium. The hydrocarbon product distribution of the combined catalyst system was stable and matched that of the CO/MgO/SiO{sub 2} operating alone under similar conditions. The combined catalyst system exhibited a high selectivity to n-alkanes. Neither catalysts`s operation appeared to have a detrimental effect on that of the other, showing promise for future option.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-09-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The

  9. ATOMIC-SCALE DESIGN OF IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS: A COMBINED COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, EXPERIMENTAL, AND MICROKINETIC MODELING APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manos Mavrikakis; James A. Dumesic; Amit A. Gokhale; Rahul P. Nabar; Calvin H. Bartholomew; Hu Zou; Brian Critchfield

    2005-03-22

    Efforts during this first year focused on four areas: (1) searching/summarizing published FTS mechanistic and kinetic studies of FTS reactions on iron catalysts; (2) construction of mass spectrometer-TPD and Berty CSTR reactor systems; (3) preparation and characterization of unsupported iron and alumina-supported iron catalysts at various iron loadings (4) Determination of thermochemical parameters such as binding energies of reactive intermediates, heat of FTS elementary reaction steps, and kinetic parameters such as activation energies, and frequency factors of FTS elementary reaction steps on a number of model surfaces. Literature describing mechanistic and kinetic studies of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts was compiled in a draft review. Construction of the mass spectrometer-TPD system is 90% complete and of a Berty CSTR reactor system 98% complete. Three unsupported iron catalysts and three alumina-supported iron catalysts were prepared by nonaqueous-evaporative deposition (NED) or aqueous impregnation (AI) and characterized by chemisorption, BET, extent-of-reduction, XRD, and TEM methods. These catalysts, covering a wide range of dispersions and metal loadings, are well-reduced and relatively thermally stable up to 500-600 C in H{sub 2}, thus ideal for kinetic and mechanistic studies. The alumina-supported iron catalysts will be used for kinetic and mechanistic studies. In the coming year, adsorption/desorption properties, rates of elementary steps, and global reaction rates will be measured for these catalysts, with and without promoters, providing a database for understanding effects of dispersion, metal loading, and support on elementary kinetic parameters and for validation of computational models that incorporate effects of surface structure and promoters. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art self-consistent Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods, we have extensively studied the thermochemistry and kinetics of various elementary steps on

  10. A Study on Conceptual Design of Fischer-Tropsch Reactors in GTL Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GTL (Gas-to-liquid process is becoming an attractive technology which can produce liquid petroleum products using natural gas. As a part of preliminary design of GTL-FPSO application, process simulation analysis for conceptual design and optimization of reformers and F-T reactors are performed in GTL-FPSO applications by implementing the user made subroutine programs of kinetic equations into PRO/II PROVISION simulator. As for the F-T reactors, Plug Flow Reactor (PFR model is used with detailed kinetics equations over two different Fe based catalysts (Fe-Cu-K and K/Fe-Cu-Al. Dry reformer is also studied with Plug Flow Reactor (PFR model. In this study, simulation results are compared with available experimental data and found well agreed with experimental data for both reformer and FT reactor. The Peng-Robinson equation of state is also used to calculate the vapor phase non-idealities and vapor-liquid equilibrium. The optimum operating conditions and process simulation analysis are also presented.

  11. 高熔点费托合成蜡的应用及发展趋势%Application and Development Tendency of Fischer-Tropsch Hard Wax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    双玥

    2012-01-01

    分析了国内外高熔点费托(F—T)合成蜡的生产及消费情况,描述了该产品良好的应用前景。通过对投入高熔点F—T合成蜡生产的风险分析,提出应注重实现我国高熔点F—T合成蜡全产业链的突破。%To analyze the status of overseas and domestic production and consumption of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) hard wax. To introduce the good application prospect of this wax. Based on the risk analysis of F-T hard wax production, it was proposed that we should focus on achieving the breakthrough in the whole industry chain of F-T hard wax.

  12. Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Suli; Huang, Chengdu; Lv, Jing; Li, Zhenhua

    2012-01-01

    Co-based catalysts were prepared by using dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as an alternative method to conventional thermal calcination. The characterization results of N2-physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalysts prepared by DBD plasma had a higher specific surface area, lower reduction temperature, smaller particle size and higher cobalt dispersion as compared to calcined catalysts. The DBD plasma method can prevent the sintering and aggregation of active particles on the support due to the decreased treatment time (0.5 h) at lower temperature compared to the longer thermal calcination at higher temperature (at 500° C for 5 h). As a result, the catalytic performance of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on DBD plasma treated Co/SiO2 catalyst showed an enhanced activity, C5+ selectivity and catalytic stability as compared to the conventional thermal calcined Co/SiO2 catalyst.

  13. Effect of reaction conditions and kinetic study on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over fused Co-Ni/Al2 O3 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Nikparsa; A.A Mirzaei; H.Atashi

    2014-01-01

    Co-Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by the fusion method and used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The catalysts were characterized by means of nitrogen sorption and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of some reaction conditions such as temperature, pressure and H2/CO feed ratio on the catalytic performance of Co-Ni/Al2O3 in CO hydrogenation was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. The results indicate that the optimum reaction conditions are 250℃, 0. 3 MPa, H2/CO feed ratio of 2. 0, and GHSV of 3 000 h-1 . Kinetically, the reaction rate was correlated with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson type models. The activation energy for the best fitted model is 88. 41 kJ/mol, suggesting that the intra-particle mass transport is not significant.

  14. Development of an Innovative XRD-DRIFTS Prototype Allowing Operando Characterizations during Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Based Catalysts under Representative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalbert Julien

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An original system combining both X-Ray Diffraction and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy was developed with the aim to characterize Fischer-Tropsch catalysts in relevant reaction conditions. The catalytic properties of a model PtCo/silica catalyst tested with this prototype have shown to be in the same range of those obtained in similar conditions with classical fixed-bed reactors. No bulk cobalt oxidation nor sintering were observed on operando XRD patterns. The formation of linear carbonyls and adsorbed hydrocarbons species at the surface of the catalyst was observed on operando DRIFT spectra. The surface of the catalyst was also suspected to be covered with carbon species inducing unfavorable changes in selectivity.

  15. A History of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Upgrading at BP--from Catalyst Screening Studies to Full Scale Demonstration in Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Conversion of Fischer-Tropsch wax into high quality synthetic crude or finished transportation fuels such as premium diesel has been studied over the past 15 years within BP. Catalyst screening and selection was carried out in dedicated micro-reactors and pilot plants, whose designs are critical to the performance selection. Variation in catalyst composition and defining the gas to oil feed ratios with the operating temperature are a few of the parameters studied. Product selection and maximizing diesel yield combined with stability (catalyst life) were the ultimate drivers. The selected catalyst was then tested under commercial conditions in a dedicated 300 barrel per day demonstration plant. The products were also tested in engines to assess their combustion characteristics.

  16. Advance in Supercritical Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis%超临界费-托合成进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐浩东; 韩文锋; 沈菊李; 刘化章

    2005-01-01

      综述了近年来有关超临界相费-托合成的研究进展,主要介绍了气相、液相和超临界费-托合成对 CO 转化率、产物选择性、催化剂床层局部过热等方面的影响。同时介绍了超临界介质种类、催化剂种类、助剂、压力以及体系中加入α-烯烃等因素对超临界费-托合成反应活性和产物选择性的影响。超临界介质能使反应物和产物在催化剂颗粒内部快速传递并使蜡在催化剂表面原位萃取,使合成气的转化率、α-烯烃和大分子产物的选择性较气相和液相反应有所增加。同时由于超临界介质有利于减轻催化剂床层的局部过热,使甲烷和CO2的选择性降低,且延长了催化剂使用寿命。%  The development of supercritical phase F-T synthesis has been reviewed in this paper. It compares the CO conversion, selectivity of products, local superheating of catalyst surface in gas-phase, liquid-phase and supercritical-phase F-T synthesis. The effects of supercritical medium, catalysts, promoter, pressure and α-olefin co-feeding on the activity and selectivity in supercritical- phase F-T synthesis were introduced. In the supercritical phase F-T reaction, rapid transportation of reactants and products to the inside of catalyst bed and pellet and in situ wax extraction from catalyst by supercritical fluid were accomplished. It was observed that syngas conversion, α-olefin selectivity, and heavy hydrocarbon production could be enhanced in supercritical-phase F-T synthesis process compared to gas-phase and liquid-phase F-T synthesis. In addition, local superheating of catalyst surface was alleviated in supercritical phase F-T synthesis and decreasing of selectivity of methane and CO2 and longer catalyst lifetime resulted.

  17. Six-flow operations for catalyst development in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Bridging the gap between high-throughput experimentation and extensive product evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartipi, Sina, E-mail: S.Sartipi@tudelft.nl, E-mail: J.Gascon@tudelft.nl; Jansma, Harrie; Bosma, Duco; Boshuizen, Bart; Makkee, Michiel; Gascon, Jorge, E-mail: S.Sartipi@tudelft.nl, E-mail: J.Gascon@tudelft.nl; Kapteijn, Freek [Department of Chemical Engineering, Catalysis Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Design and operation of a “six-flow fixed-bed microreactor” setup for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is described. The unit consists of feed and mixing, flow division, reaction, separation, and analysis sections. The reactor system is made of five heating blocks with individual temperature controllers, assuring an identical isothermal zone of at least 10 cm along six fixed-bed microreactor inserts (4 mm inner diameter). Such a lab-scale setup allows running six experiments in parallel, under equal feed composition, reaction temperature, and conditions of separation and analysis equipment. It permits separate collection of wax and liquid samples (from each flow line), allowing operation with high productivities of C5+ hydrocarbons. The latter is crucial for a complete understanding of FTS product compositions and will represent an advantage over high-throughput setups with more than ten flows where such instrumental considerations lead to elevated equipment volume, cost, and operation complexity. The identical performance (of the six flows) under similar reaction conditions was assured by testing a same catalyst batch, loaded in all microreactors.

  18. Performance characterization of CNTs and γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported cobalt catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Sardar, E-mail: alikhan-635@yahoo.com [Centralized Analytical Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd, E-mail: noorasmawati-mzabidi@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Catalysts were prepared via a wet impregnation method. Different physicochemical properties of the samples were revealed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), temperature programmed reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR) and carbon dioxide desorption (CO{sub 2}-desorption). Fischer-Tropsch reaction (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 220°C and 1 atm, with H{sub 2}/CO = 2v/v and space velocity, SV of 12L/g.h for 5 h. Various characterization techniques revealed that there was a stronger interaction between Co and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support compared to that of CNTs support. CNTs support increased the reducibility and decreased Co particle size. A significant increase in % CO conversion and FTS reaction rate was observed over CNTs support compared to that of Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Co/CNTs resulted in higher C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons selectivity compared to that of Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. CNTs are a better support for Co compared to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  19. Effects of Catalyst Preparation on Hydrocarbon Product Distribution in Hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch Product with Low Pt-Loaded Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Hanaoka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For the effective production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel in the hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT product, the catalytic performance of Pt-loaded catalysts with low Pt content was investigated using an autoclave at 250 °C, an initial H2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, and a reaction time of 1 h. A screening study using Pt-loaded catalysts with a Pt content of 0.1 wt. % indicated that zeolite supports were more favorable for jet fuel (carbon numbers 9–15 production than amorphous oxide supports. The small particle size of the supported Pt particles and the high amount of medium acid sites for the supports led to higher performance of the Pt-loaded zeolite catalysts. In the hydrocracking reaction over Pt catalysts using the zeolite support with the high amount of medium acid sites, the yields of the corresponding jet fuel at 0.02 and 0.1 wt. % were almost the same. Pt-loaded catalysts with a Pt content of 0.02 wt. % were prepared using water-in-oil (w/o microemulsions and their particle size was controlled between 1.0 and 2.6 nm. While the yield of the corresponding jet fuel was independent of Pt particle size, smaller Pt particles typically promoted the production of lighter hydrocarbons.

  20. [Emission characteristics of a diesel car fueled with coal based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel and fossil diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Cheng, Liang; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Lou, Di-Ming

    2012-11-01

    According to the first type test cycle of China national standard GB 18352.3-2005, the CO, NO(x), HC, PM and CO2 emission characteristics of a PASSAT diesel car fueled with Shanghai local IV diesel, coal based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel, and the blends of coal based F-T diesel and Shanghai local IV diesel up to 10% and 50% by volume were analyzed respectively. And the environmental impacts such as decreased air quality, health impact, photochemical ozone, global warming, and acidification that could be caused by CO, NO(x), HC, PM and CO2 emission of the diesel car were also assessed. The results showed that under GB 18352.3-2005 No. 1 test driving cycle, which consisted of four urban driving cycles and one extra urban driving cycle, the CO, HC, PM and CO2 emissions were released mainly in the urban driving cycles whereas the NO(x) emissions occurred mainly in the extra urban driving cycle. Compared with Shanghai local IV diesel, all of the CO, NO(x), HC, PM and CO2 emissions of the diesel car decreased to different extents when fueled with coal based F-T diesel blends. Moreover, the aerosol generation potential, global warming potential and acidification potential of F-T diesel fueled diesel car were also reduced. To sum up, coal based F-T diesel would be one of the alternative fuels to diesel in China. PMID:23323400

  1. Preparation for Pt-Loaded Zeolite Catalysts Using w/o Microemulsion and Their Hydrocracking Behaviors on Fischer-Tropsch Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Hanaoka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pt-loaded β-type zeolite catalysts with constant Pt content (0.11 wt.% and similar pore structure were prepared using a water-in-oil (w/o microemulsion. The effect of Pt particle synthesis conditions using microemulsion (a type of Pt complex-forming agents and the molar ratio of complex-forming agent to Pt4+ on loaded Pt particle size was investigated. The Pt particle size of the Pt catalyst using tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC as a complex-forming agent with the molar TEAC/Pt ratio 10 was the minimum value (3.8 nm, and was much smaller than that (6.7 nm prepared by the impregnation method. The utilization of the complex-forming agent of which hydrophobic groups occupied a small volume and the appropriate complex-forming agent/Pt ratio were favorable for synthesis of small Pt particles. The effect of loaded Pt particle size on the hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT product was investigated using the Pt-loaded zeolite catalysts at 250 °C with an initial H2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, and reaction time of 1 h. The Pt catalyst with a Pt particle size of 4.2 nm prepared using the microemulsion exhibited the maximum corresponding jet fuel yield (30.0%, which was higher than that of the impregnated catalyst.

  2. Fischer-Tropsch-Type Production of Organic Materials in the Solar Nebula: Studies Using Graphite Catalysts and Measuring the Trapping of Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.; Lucas, Christopher; Kimura, Yuki; Hohenberg, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The formation of abundant carbonaceous material in meteorites is a long standing problem and an important factor in the debate on the potential for the origin of life in other stellar systems. The Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) catalytic reduction of CO by hydrogen was once the preferred model for production of organic materials in the primitive solar nebula. We have demonstrated that many grain surfaces can catalyze both FTT and HB-type reactions, including amorphous iron and magnesium silicates, pure silica smokes as well as several minerals. Graphite is not a particularly good FTT catalyst, especially compared to iron powder or to amorphous iron silicate. However, like other silicates that we have studied, it gets better with exposure to CO. N2 and H2 over time: e.g., after formation of a macromolecular carbonaceous layer on the surfaces of the underlying gains. While amorphous iron silicates required only 1 or 2 experimental runs to achieve steady state reaction rates, graphite only achieved steady state after 6 or more experiments. We will present results showing the catalytic action of graphite grains increasing with increasing number of experiments and will also discuss the nature of the final "graphite" grains aster completion of our experiments.

  3. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gases in a gas-to-liquids process combined with CO2/steam-mixed reforming and Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chundong; Jun, Ki-Won; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Yun-Jo; Kang, Seok Chang

    2014-07-15

    Two process models for carbon dioxide utilized gas-to-liquids (GTL) process (CUGP) mainly producing light olefins and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthetic oils were developed by Aspen Plus software. Both models are mainly composed of a reforming unit, an F-T synthesis unit and a recycle unit, while the main difference is the feeding point of fresh CO2. In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. Meanwhile, CO2 hydrogenation is conducted via reverse water gas shift on the Fe-based catalysts in the F-T synthesis unit to produce hydrocarbons. After F-T synthesis, the unreacted syngas is recycled to F-T synthesis and reforming units to enhance process efficiency. From the simulation results, it was found that the carbon efficiencies of both CUGP options were successfully improved, and total CO2 emissions were significantly reduced, compared with the conventional GTL processes. The process efficiency was sensitive to recycle ratio and more recycle seemed to be beneficial for improving process efficiency and reducing CO2 emission. However, the process efficiency was rather insensitive to split ratio (recycle to reforming unit/total recycle), and the optimum split ratio was determined to be zero.

  4. On the Use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Synthetic Calibration Spectra to Quantify Gas Concentrations in a Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Frank T; Johnson, Natasha M; Nuth, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    One possible origin of prebiotic organic material is that these compounds were formed via Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen on silicate and oxide grains in the warm, inner-solar nebula. To investigate this possibility, an experimental system has been built in which the catalytic efficiency of different grain-analog materials can be tested. During such runs, the gas phase above these grain analogs is sampled using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. To provide quantitative estimates of the concentration of these gases, a technique in which high-resolution spectra of the gases are calculated using the High-Resolution Transmission Molecular Absorption (HITRAN) database is used. Next, these spectra are processed via a method that mimics the processes giving rise to the instrumental line shape of the FT-IR spectrometer, including apodization, self-apodization, and broadening due to the finite resolution. The result is a very close match between the measured and computed spectra. This technique was tested using four major gases found in the FTT reactions: carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, and water. For the ranges typical of the FTT reactions, the carbon monoxide results were found to be accurate to within 5% and the remaining gases accurate to within 10%. These spectra can then be used to generate synthetic calibration data, allowing the rapid computation of the gas concentrations in the FTT experiments. PMID:26449809

  5. Preparation of Fe-Mn/K/Al2O3 Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst and Its Catalytic Kinetics for the Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Fazlollahi; M.Sarkari; H.Gharebaghi; H.Atashi; M.M.Zarei; A.A.Mirzaei; W.C.Hecker

    2013-01-01

    A K promoted iron-manganese catalyst was prepared by sol-gel method,and subsequently was tested for hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to light olefins.The kinetic experiments on a well-characterized Fe-Mn/K/Al2O3 catalyst were performed in a fixed-bed micro-reactor in a temperature range of 280-380 ℃,pressure range of 0.1-1.2 MPa,H2/CO feed molar ratio range of 1-2.1 and a space velocity range of 2000-7200 h-1.Considering the mechanism of the process and Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hogan-Watson (LHHW) approach,unassisted CO dissociation and H-assisted CO dissociation mechanisms were defined.The best models were obtained using non-linear regression analysis and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.Consequently,4 models were considered as the preferred models based on the carbide mechanism.Finally,a model was proposed as a best model that assumed the following kinetically relevant steps in the iron-Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis:(1) CO dissociation occurred without hydrogen interaction and was not a rate-limiting step; (2) the first hydrogen addition to surface carbon was the rate-determining steps.The activation energy and adsorption enthalpy were calculated 40.0 and-30.2 kJ· mol-1,respectively.

  6. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

    2010-09-30

    The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

  7. Preparation of Nano-Sized γ-Al2O3 Supported Iron Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis by Solvated Metal Atom Impregnation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two types of small iron clusters supported on γ-Al2O3-RT(dehydroxylated at room temperature) and γ-Al2O3-800 (dehydroxylated at 800 ℃) were prepared by solvated metal atom impregnation (SMAI) techniques. The iron atom precursor complex, bis(toluene)iron(0) formed in the metal atom reactor, was impregnated into γ-Al2O3 having different concentrations of surface hydroxyl groups to study the effect of surface hydroxylation on the crucial stage of iron cluster formation. Catalysts prepared in this way were characterized by TEM, M(o)ssbauer, and chemisorption measurements, and the results show that higher concentration of surface hydroxyl groups of γ-Al2O3-RT favors the formation of more positively charged supported iron cluster Fen/γ-Al2O3-RT, and the lower concentration of surface hydroxyl groups of γ-Al2O3-800 favors the formation of basically neutral supported iron cluster Fen/γ-Al2O3-800. The measured results also indicate that the higher concentration of surface hydroxyl groups causes the rapid decomposition of precursor complex, bis(toluene)iron(0), and favors the formation of relatively large iron cluster. Consequently, these two types of catalysts show different catalytic properties in Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The catalytic pattern of Fen/γ-Al2O3-RT in F-T reaction is similar to that of the unreduced α-Fe2O3 and that of Fen/γ-Al2O3-800 is similar to that of the reduced α-Fe2O3.

  8. Effects of the ratio of Fe to Co over Fe-Co/SiO2 bimetallic catalysts on their catalytic performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangdong Ma; Qiwen Sun; Weiyong Ying; Dingye Fang

    2009-01-01

    The Fe-Co/SiO2 bimetallic catalysts with different ratios of Fe to Co were prepared by aqueous incipient wetness impregnation. The catalysts of 10%Fe:0%Co/SiO2, 10%Fe:6%Co/SiO2, 10%Fe:2%Co/SiO2, 10%Fe: 10%Co/SiO2, 6%Fe: 10%Co/SiO2, 2%Fe: 10%Co/SiO2 and 0%Fe: 10%Co/SiO2 by mass were tested in a fixed reactor by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Activity and hydrocarbon distribution were found to be determined by the ratio of iron to cobalt of the catalysts. Higher iron content inhibited the activity, whereas higher cobalt content enhanced the activity of the Fe-Co/SiO2 catalysts. On the other hand, for the catalysts of 10%Fe:6%Co/SiO2, 10%Fe: 10%Co/SiO2, 6%Fe: 10%Co/SiO2, and 2%Fe: 10%Co/SiO2, the total C2-C4 fraction increased (from 10.65% to 26.78%) and C5+ fraction decreased (from 75.75% to 57.63%) at 523 K. Temperature programmed reduction revealed that the addition of cobalt enhanced the reducibility of the Fe-Co/SiO2 catalyst. Metal oxides were present in those catalysts as shown by XRD. The Fe-Co alloy phase was found in the 2%Fe: 10%Co/SiO2, 6%Fe: 10%Co/SiO2, 10%Fe:10%Co/SiO2, 10%Fe:6%Co/SiO2 catalysts and their crystals were perfect.

  9. Effect of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O content in syngas on activity and selectivity of a cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poehlmann, F.; Kaiser, P.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    When liquid hydrocarbons are to be used as CO{sub 2} neutral storage media for electrical energy, it is necessary to convert CO{sub 2} from e.g. flue gas and hydrogen from water electrolysis to synthesis gas (CO/H{sub 2}). This can be achieved by a high temperature reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Due to thermodynamic limitations, the product gas of RWGS reactors operated at technically feasible temperatures of around 900 C will always contain significant amounts of water and carbon dioxide, which can influence the activity of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts for the actual hydrocarbon production. In this study, a commercial cobalt catalyst was investigated under low temperature FTS conditions (2.5 MPa, 215 C) regard to activity and selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. A continuous flow apparatus including a fixed-bed reactor for the synthesis step was used to conduct all experiments. The experimental data reveals that the CO/CO{sub 2}-ratio does not affect the activity and product selectivity until the CO{sub 2}-concentration reaches 75 vol.-% (CO{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2})). On increasing the carbon dioxide concentration to 100 vol.-% (H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} = 2), the methane selectivity rose up to 70 % and even above. Addition of water caused an initial loss of activity. After the initial loss of activity the FT catalyst activity was found to remain constant, irrespectively of if the water was removed from the feed or not. Thus, the deactivation was permanent. (orig.)

  10. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Products and Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites by Stepwise Pyrolysis-GCMS: Organics in the Early Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic generation of complex organic compounds, in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system, is hypothesized by some to occur via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. In its simplest form, FT synthesis involves the low temperature (synthesis has been utilized in the gas-to-liquid process to convert syngas, produced from coal, natural gas, or biomass, into paraffin waxes that can be cracked to produce liquid diesel fuels. In general, the effect of increasing reaction temperature (>300degC) produces FT products that include lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. We have begun to experimentally investigate FT synthesis in the context of abiotic generation of organic compounds in the early solar nebula. It is generally thought that the early solar nebula included abundant hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and nano-particulate matter such as iron and metal silicates that could have catalyzed the FT reaction. The effect of FT reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experiment duration on the resulting products is being investigated. These solid organic products are analyzed by thermal-stepwise pyrolysis-GCMS and yield the types and distribution of hydrocarbon compounds released as a function of temperature. We show how the FT products vary by reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experimental duration and compare these products to organic compounds found to be indigenous to ordinary chondrite meteorites. We hypothesize that the origin of organics in some chondritic meteorites, that represent an aggregation of materials from the early solar system, may at least in part be from FT synthesis that occurred in the early solar nebula.

  11. Gaseous product mixture from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as an efficient carbon feedstock for low temperature CVD growth of carbon nanotube carpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkhelfe, Haider; Carpena-Núñez, Jennifer; Back, Tyson C; Amama, Placidus B

    2016-07-21

    Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets from Fe and Fe-Cu catalysts using a gaseous product mixture from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS-GP) as a superior carbon feedstock is demonstrated. This growth approach addresses a persistent issue of obtaining thick CNT carpets on temperature-sensitive substrates at low temperatures using a non-plasma CVD approach without catalyst pretreatment and/or preheating of the carbon feedstock. The efficiency of the process is evidenced by the highly dense, vertically aligned CNT structures from both Fe and Fe-Cu catalysts even at temperatures as low as 400 °C - a record low growth temperature for CNT carpets obtained via conventional thermal CVD. The grown CNTs exhibit a straight morphology with hollow interior and parallel graphitic planes along the tube walls. The apparent activation energies for CNT carpet growth on Fe and Fe-Cu catalysts are 0.71 and 0.54 eV, respectively. The synergistic effect of Fe and Cu show a strong dependence on the growth temperature, with Cu being more influential at temperatures higher than 450 °C. The low activation energies and long catalyst lifetimes observed are rationalized based on the unique composition of FTS-GP and Gibbs free energies for the decomposition reactions of the hydrocarbon components. The use of FTS-GP facilitates low-temperature growth of CNT carpets on traditional (alumina film) and nontraditional substrates (aluminum foil) and has the potential of enhancing CNT quality, catalyst lifetime, and scalability. PMID:27353432

  12. Cobalt supported on CNTs-covered γ-and nano-structured alumina catalysts utilized for wax selective Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza Hemmati; Mohammad Kazemeini; Farhad Khorasheh; Jamshid Zarkesh; Alimorad Rashidi

    2012-01-01

    Cobalt supported on carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-covered alumina has been recently developed and successfully utilized as a catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS).Problems associated with shaping of Co/CNTs into extrudates or pellets as well as catalyst attrition rendered these materials unfavorable for industrial applications.In this investigation regular γ-and nano-structured (N-S) alumina as well as CNTs-covered regular γ-and N-S-alumina supports were impregnated by cobalt nitrate solution to make new cobalt-based catalysts which were also promoted by Ru.The catalysts were characterized and tested in a micro reactor to evaluate their applicability in FTS.γ-Al2O3 was prepared by calcination of bohemite and N-S-Al2O3 was prepared by sol-gel method using aluminum chloride as starting material.Catalyst evaluations indicated that N-S-Al2O3 was superior to regular γ-Al2O3 and that CNTs-covered alumina supports were favored over non-covered ones in terms of activity and heavy hydrocarbon selectivity.These were justified by porosimetric characteristics of the catalysts and existence of CNTs points of view.CNTs-covered catalysts also showed higher wax selectivity and better resistance to deactivation.Furthermore,TPR analysis indicated that the cobalt aluminate phase,which is responsible for the permanent deactivation of alumina supported Co-based catalysts,did not form on alumina supported Co-based catalysts covered with CNTs due to weaker interactions between cobalt and alumina.

  13. Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and oil use by DME (di-methyl ether) and FT (Fischer-Tropsch) diesel production in chemical pulp mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using energy systems analysis, we examine the potential to reduce CO2 emissions and oil use by integrating motor biofuel production with pulp mills. BLG-DME (black liquor gasification with di-methyl ether production) is compared with solid biomass gasification with BIG-FT (solid biomass gasification with Fischer-Tropsch fuel production). The studied systems are expanded with stand-alone production of biomass-based electricity and motor fuel so that they yield the same functional unit in terms of motor fuel and electricity as well as pulp or paper product, in order to facilitate comparison. More motor biofuel can be produced in integration with the studied mills with BLG-DME than with BIG-FT because the black liquor flow is large compared with other fuel streams in the mill and the integration potential for BIG-FT is limited by the mill’s heat demand. When both systems are required to produce the same functional unit, the BLG-DME system achieves higher system efficiency and larger reductions in CO2 emissions and oil use per unit of biomass consumed. In general, integration of motor biofuel production with a pulp mill is more efficient than stand-alone motor biofuel production. Larger reductions in CO2 emissions or oil use can, however, be achieved if biomass replaces coal or oil in stationary applications. -- Highlights: ► CO2 emission and oil use reductions quantified for pulp mill-based biorefineries. ► Black liquor gasification gives larger reductions than solid biomass gasification. ► Lower mill steam demand increases the black liquor gasification advantage. ► Biomass directly replacing coal or oil in stationary plants gives larger reductions.

  14. Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination%Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白素丽; 黄承都; 吕静; 李振花

    2012-01-01

    Co-based catalysts were prepared by using dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as an alternative method to conventional thermal calcination. The characterization results of N2-physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalysts prepared by DBD plasma had a higher specific surface area, lower reduction temperature, smaller particle size and higher cobalt dispersion as compared to calcined catalysts. The DBD plasma method can prevent the sintering and aggregation of active particles on the support due to the decreased treatment time (0.5 h) at lower temperature compared to the longer thermal calcination at higher temperature (at 500~C for 5 h). As a result, the catalytic performance of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on DBD plasma treated Co/Si02 catalyst showed an enhanced activity, C5+ selectivity and catalytic stability as compared to the conventional thermal calcined Co/SiO2 catalyst.

  15. Thermodynamics of hydrocracking and isomerization reaction of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude%费托合成油品加氢裂化异构化反应的热力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建民; 孙启文; 张宗森; 庞利峰

    2014-01-01

    利用 Benson 基团贡献法和 ABWY 法计算了费托合成油品的标准摩尔生成焓、标准熵及摩尔定压热容等基础数据,在298-750 K,对费托合成油品加氢裂化异构化反应体系的反应焓、吉布斯自由能以及平衡常数等热力学数据进行了计算;对体系中各反应的热力学可能性与生成顺序进行了判断以及各反应的热力平衡与限度进行了分析。结果表明:费托合成油品加氢裂化异构化反应是放热反应,低温时大部分反应在热力学上均能够自发的进行,且平衡常数均较大,能够进行到较高的程度;从热力学上看,升高温度不利于加氢裂化异构化反应的进行,适宜反应温度的选择应兼顾各种反应的进行;烯烃比烷烃更容易发生加氢裂化异构化反应;所获得的热力学数据可为费托合成油品加氢裂化异构化工艺研究、反应器开发以及新型催化剂研制等提供理论依据。%The standard molar enthalpy of formation,the standard entropy and isobaric molar heat capacity of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude were estimated by Benson group contribution method and ABWY method.The enthalpy change,Gibbs free energy change and equilibrium constant of hydrocracking and isomerization reaction of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude were calculated as a function of the temperature from 298 K to 750 K.The thermodynamic possibility and formation sequences of hydrocracking and isomerization reaction of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude were judged.Meanwhile,the thermodynamic equilibrium and the limit of different reaction steps were also analyzed. The results show that the hydrocracking and isomerization reaction of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude is an exothermic reaction,most of which are spontaneous at low temperature and can reach to a deep extent.Improving the temperature is not good for hydrocracking and isomerization reaction from a thermodynamic point of view.The choice of the suitable temperature should take

  16. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in slurry-phase reactors over Mn- and Zr-modified Co/SiO2 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis was carried out in a gas-flowed slurry-phase reaction system over Mn- and Zr-modified Co/SiO2 catalysts. A 0.5 L stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) was used for catalyst screening and a 12.5 L slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) was used for trial pilot operation. While using the 0.5 L reactor for catalyst screening, Co supported on the SiO2 with an average pore size of 10 nm showed a high catalytic performance for the F-T synthesis due to the suitable Co particle size in the catalyst. Zr promoter improved the activity and Mn promoter improved the stability of Co/SiO2 catalyst for the F-T synthesis. H2-TPR profiles indicated that Zr and Mn promoters improved the reduction degree of Co3O4 particles (on SiO2 surface) to Co0 active species in H2 flow at low temperature. While using the 12.5 L reactor for trial pilot operation over Mn-Zr-Co/SiO2 catalyst, the space-time yield (STY) of C5+ hydrocarbons (liquid fuel) showed almost the same values when various solvents (n-C16H34, n-C14H30, diesel from petrol station, F-T crude oil) were used. Diesel and F-T crude oil are suitable for using in a large-scaled F-T synthesis plant owing to the low prices. Mn-Zr-Co/SiO2 catalyst achieved a STY of C5+ hydrocarbons larger than 1000 g-C5+ kg-cat-1 h-1 in the 12.5 L reactor. The production capacity of liquid fuel from the 12.5 L reactor reached to 15.6 L per day (assumed for 24 h continuous operation). The stirring was very important for the F-T synthesis both reaction in the 0.5 L reactor and reaction in the 12.5 L reactor. The shape of slurry reactor also influenced the CO conversion for the F-T synthesis: reaction in the 12.5 L SBCR gave a higher CO conversion than that of reaction in the 0.5 L STSR (at the same W/F value under the same stirring speed) because the slender column reactor (SBCR) extended the residue time of reaction gas in the slurry-phase containing catalyst. (author)

  17. Carbon isotopic fractionations during the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis%费托合成反应中的碳同位素分馏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪云燕; 靳永斌

    2011-01-01

    To understand the carbon isotope fractionation during the mineral-catalized Fischer-Traopsch synthesis of hydrocarbons under hydrothermal conditions, experiments on formic acid were carried out under 300 ℃ and 35 MPa using gold tubes in the presence of Fe as a catalyst.The experiments were composed of two groups: with and without water.Due to the limited volume of gold tubes, only methane was available for isotopic analyses among all produced hydrocarbons.The results demonstrate that CO2 is the gas most enriched in 13C whereas methane is the gas most depleted in 13C.Moreover,methane became more and more depleted in 13C with the increase of reaction time.The carbon isotopic fractionation between CO2 and CH4 (α(CO2-CH4)) reached 1.052-1.059 at 144 h, which is similar to those of microbial reduction of CO2 to CH4 by methanogenic bacteria (1.048-1.079).This implies that the carbon isotopic fractionation during the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is controlled by kinetic isotopic effects.%为了深入研究费托合成反应中的碳同位素分馏,在300℃和35 MPa条件下,以Fe粉为催化剂,利用密闭黄金管对甲酸进行了费托合成实验.实验分为加水和不加水两组.由于金管客积有限,实验中烷烃类产物的碳同位素只测试到甲烷.两组实验都显示,CO2是最富集13C的气体,而甲烷则最贫13C,并且随着反应的进行变得越来越贫13C.在第144 h时CO2与甲烷之间的碳同位素分馏α(CO2-CH4)达到1.052~1.059,与产甲烷菌将CO2还原为CH4过程中所发生的碳同位素分馏(1.048~1.079)相似.实验表明费托合成实验过程受到碳同位素动力学的控制.图4表3参70

  18. Technological Advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  19. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H

  20. Extension of the Single-Event Methodology to Metal Catalysis: Application to Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Extension de la méthodologie des événements constitutifs à la catalyse métallique : Application à la synthèse Fischer-Tropsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano-Blanco G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The single-event methodology has been extended to metal catalysis using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on an iron-based catalyst as case study. The reaction mechanism has been assessed in terms of elementary steps that could be categorized in reaction families such as reductive elimination, β-hydride elimination and methylene insertion. A computer code has been developed for the generation of the reaction network containing these elementary steps. The representation of reacting and intermediate species explicitly takes into account metal-carbon bonds as well as the presence of oxygen. The model has been validated using iron-based catalytic data at 623 K, 0.6 to 2.1 MPa, inlet molar H2/CO ratio between 2 and 6. 14 parameters, among which 10 activation energies and 4 atomic chemisorption enthalpies have been adjusted to the experimental data. Experimentally observed trends in alkane and 1-alkene product yields with the carbon number were adequately reproduced as well as the individual molar yields of the non-hydrocarbon products. La méthodologie par événements constitutifs a été étendue à la catalyse métallique en utilisant la synthèse Fischer-Tropsch sur un catalyseur au fer comme cas d'étude. Le mécanisme réactionnel a été décomposé en étapes élémentaires qui peuvent être classées par type de réactions, telles que l'élimination réductrice, l'élimination d'hydrure en β, et l'insertion de groupe méthylène. Un code de calcul a été développé pour générer le réseau réactionnel impliquant ces étapes élémentaires. La représentation des réactifs et des espèces intermédiaires prend en compte explicitement les liaisons carbone-métal et inclut la présence d'atomes d'oxygène. Le modèle a été validé sur une base de données obtenues sur un catalyseur à base de fer à 623 K, sur une plage de 0,6 à 2,1 MPa, un ratio H2/CO en entrée variant de 2 à 6. Quatorze paramètres, dont 10 énergies d'activation et 4

  1. The application of inelastic neutron scattering to explore the significance of a magnetic transition in an iron based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst that is active for the hydrogenation of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringham, Robbie; McFarlane, Andrew R.; Lennon, David, E-mail: David.Lennon@Glasgow.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Joseph Black Building, Glasgow, Scotland G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); MacLaren, Donald A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, The Kelvin Building, Glasgow, Scotland G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Webb, Paul B.; Tooze, Robert P. [Sasol Technology UK Ltd., Purdie Building, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Taylor, Jon; Ewings, Russell A.; Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-07

    An iron based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst is evaluated using CO hydrogenation at ambient pressure as a test reaction and is characterised by a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), powder X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed oxidation, Raman scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The INS spectrum of the as-prepared bulk iron oxide pre-catalyst (hematite, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is distinguished by a relatively intense band at 810 cm{sup −1}, which has previously been tentatively assigned as a magnon (spinon) feature. An analysis of the neutron scattering intensity of this band as a function of momentum transfer unambiguously confirms this assignment. Post-reaction, the spinon feature disappears and the INS spectrum is characterised by the presence of a hydrocarbonaceous overlayer. A role for the application of INS in magnetic characterisation of iron based FTS catalysts is briefly considered.

  2. 费托合成反应体系的热力学计算与分析%Thermodynamic calculation and analysis of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建民; 孙启文; 高腾飞; 岳建平; 庞利峰

    2012-01-01

    By using Benson group contribution method and ABWY method, the standard enthalpy of formation, standard entropy and isobaric molar heat capacity of Fischer-Tropsch ( F-T) synthesis products were estimated. The enthalpy change, Gibbs free energy change and equilibrium constant of F-T synthesis reaction system were calculated in detail as a function of temperature. The thermodynamic equilibrium and the limit of different reaction steps were analyzed. The thermodynamic feasibility and formation sequence of alkane, alkene, and oxygen-containing organic compounds were judged. The effects of temperature and mole ratio of H2 to CO on the equilibrium conversion were investigated. The results show that F-T synthesis is an exothermic reaction; most F-T synthesis reactions are spontaneous at low temperature and can reach to a deep extent, while most reactions generating alkane, alkene, alcohol and acid can not go along spontaneously at high temperature ( more than 635 K). The equilibrium conversion increases with the increase of mole ratio of H2 to CO, and decreases with the increase of temperature. The thermodynamic data obtained have important reference value to the study of F-T synthesis process and catalyst development.%利用Benson基团贡献法和ABWY法估算了费托合成产物的标准生成焓、标准熵和摩尔定压热容,对费托合成反应体系的热力学性质进行了详尽的计算,得到不同反应温度下的反应焓、吉布斯自由能以及反应平衡常数等热力学性质.分析了不同反应步骤的热力平衡与限度,对反应生成烷烃、烯烃、含氧有机化合物的热力学可能性与生成顺序进行了判断,考察了温度和H2与CO摩尔比对合成气平衡转化率的影响.结果表明:费托合成反应是放热反应,低温时大部分反应在热力学上都能够自发地进行,并运行到很高的程度;高温时(大于635 K)生成烷烃、烯烃、醇及酸的大部分反应在热力学上不能自发进行

  3. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  4. Exergy analysis of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis unit apparatus during coal indirect liquefaction%煤间接液化中费托合成单元装置的(火用)分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建民; 孙启文; 岳建平; 庞利峰

    2012-01-01

    在基于PRO/Ⅱ对低温费托合成系统进行模拟及优化的基础上,采用(火用)热力学分析方法,对低温费托合成系统进行了(火用)量衡算,分析了系统中各主要能耗单元的(火用)效率和(火用)损失状况.计算结果表明,系统中(火用)损失最大的过程是费托合成反应过程.费托合成反应器是(火用)损失最大的设备,(火用)效率为86.80%,(火用)损失占了总损失的85.15%;冷凝液回流泵(火用)效率最低,只有6.71%;(火用)效率最高的为石蜡收集槽、石蜡泵、石蜡中间槽等,几乎没有(火用)损失.采用(火用)热力学分析方法可以更准确地揭示系统中各环节和设备的最大(火用)损失,为改进设备、节约能源提供目标和对策.%Based on the PRO/ II simulation and optimization results of low temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) system, the exergy thermodynamic analysis was applied to calculate the exergy distribution of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis system. The exergy efficiency and exergy losses of this system were also analyzed. The results show that FTS reaction process is the largest exergy loss process. The equipment with the maximum exergy loss is FTS reactor,with exergy efficiency 86. 80% , sharing 85. 15% of total exergy loss;the condensate backflow pump has the lowest exergy efficiency,which is only 6. 71% ;the exergy efficiencies of wax collection tank,wax pump and wax intermediate tank are the highest, which have no exergy loss nearly. By using exergy analysis method, it can be more accurate and convenient to uncover the process and devices with the maximal exergy loss, which can set up the target and provide suggestions for equipment improving and energy saving.

  5. Synthesis of Hydrocarbons from H2-Deficient Syngas in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Co-Based Catalyst Coupled with Fe-Based Catalyst as Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of metal species in an Fe-based catalyst on structural properties were investigated through the synthesis of Fe-based catalysts containing various metal species such, as Mn, Zr, and Ce. The addition of the metal species to the Fe-based catalyst resulted in high dispersions of the Fe species and high surface areas due to the formation of mesoporous voids about 2–4 nm surrounded by the catalyst particles. The metal-added Fe-based catalysts were employed together with Co-loaded beta zeolite for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from syngas with a lower H2/CO ratio of 1 than the stoichiometric H2/CO ratio of 2 for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS. Among the catalysts, the Mn-added Fe-based catalyst exhibited a high activity for the water-gas shift (WGS reaction with a comparative durability, leading to the enhancement of the CO hydrogenation in the FTS in comparison with Co-loaded beta zeolite alone. Furthermore, the loading of Pd on the Mn-added Fe-based catalyst enhanced the catalytic durability due to the hydrogenation of carbonaceous species by the hydrogen activated over Pd.

  6. Effects of Co/AC catalyst on alcohol products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis%Co/AC催化剂对F-T合成醇产物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊亮; 于广欣; 孙玉平

    2015-01-01

    Activated carbon supported cobalt based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by vacuum impregnation method. The influence of reaction temperatures,reaction pressure and raw gas space velocity on alcohol product of F-T synthesis was invetigated in a slurry reactor. The results showed that the increase of reaction temperature was beneficial to the production of long-chain hydrocarbon and alcohols;the selectivity to alcohols enhanced with the increase of reaction pressure,but the selectivity to alcohols changed little when the reaction pressure was increased to 3 . 0 MPa;although the content of alcohols in the liquid products enhanced with the increase of GHSV,the distribution of alcohols was not changed.%以活性炭为载体,采用真空浸渍法制备Co/AC催化剂,在浆态床反应器中考察反应温度、反应压力和空速等条件对F-T合成醇产物的影响.结果表明,升高反应温度对长链烃和醇的生成有利,醇类的选择性随着反应压力的增大而提高,但反应压力增至3 . 0 MPa后,继续增加反应压力对醇类选择性变化不大;随着空速的增大,液相产物中醇含量虽然增加,但醇的分布无变化.

  7. Treatment of Fischer-Tropsch wastewater by expanded granular sludge bed(EGSB) reactor%EGSB反应器处理煤制油费托合成废水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍金伟; 汪诚文; 于海

    2015-01-01

    开展了膨胀颗粒污泥床(EGSB)反应器处理煤制油费托合成废水的试验研究.启动过程先以费托合成废水稀释水样作为反应器进水,并逐步降低稀释比,直至以费托合成原水作为进水.试验结果表明,反应体系pH和容积负荷对EGSB反应器启动的影响较大,启动过程中应控制反应器内pH为7.0~8.5,容积负荷在29 kg/(m3·d)以内.%The expanded granular sludge bed(EGSB) reactor has been used for treating Fischer-Tropsch(F-T) waste-water.In the start-up process,the F-T wastewater diluted water samples should firstly be used as the influent of the reactor,and the dilution ratio should be lowered gradually,till F-T wastewater is used as influent.The experimental results show that the pH and volume load of the reactor system have rather serious in fluences on the start-up of EGSB reactor.In the start-up process,the pH in the reactor should be controlled as 7.0-8.5,and the volume load should be controlled as lower than 29 kg/(m3·d).

  8. ACR-700 advanced technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L.; Turner, C.W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Yu, S.K.W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Olmstead, R.; Speranzini, R.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    A successful advanced reactor plant will have optimized economics including reduced operating and maintenance costs, improved performance, and enhanced safety. Incorporating improvements based on advanced technologies ensures cost, safety and operational competitiveness of the ACR-700. These advanced technologies include modern configuration management; construction technologies; operational technology for the control centre and information systems for plant monitoring and analysis. This paper summarizes the advanced technologies used to achieve construction and operational improvements to enhance plant economic competitiveness, advances in the operational technology used for reactor control, and presents the development of the Smart CANDU suite of tools and its application to existing operating reactors and to the ACR-700. (author)

  9. CoZr/AC@ZSM-5核壳结构催化剂费-托合成反应特性%Performance of Core-Shell Structured CoZr/AC@ZSM-5 Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永华; 程党国; 陈丰秋; 詹晓力

    2013-01-01

    The core-shell structured CoZr/AC@ZSM-5 catalysts were prepared with hydrothermal synthesis, and then they were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray Diffraction, Brunauer Emmett Teller and NH3-temperature programmed desorption methods. The catalyst performance was evaluated in a fixed-bed reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process. Compared to CoZr/AC catalyst without surrounding ZSM-5 membrane, the micro-pore structure of ZSM-5 zeolite membrane slows down the internal diffusion of syngas. Therefore, the selectivity of light hydrocarbon increases, and the selectivity of heavy hydrocarbons and alcohols decreases. The mechanism analysis indicates that the micro-pore structure of zeolite membrane facilitates the hydrogenation reactions, while it suppresses the carbon chain growth and CO insertion reactions, In addition, ZSM-5 zeolite membrane has certain hydrocracking ability.%采用水热合成法制各了核壳结构的CoZr/AC@ZSM-5催化剂,并用扫描电镜、X射线衍射仪、比表面积、孔结构测定仪和化学吸附仪等对催化剂的形貌和结构进行了表征.在固定床反应器上对其费-托合成反应的性能进行了考察.与无ZSM-5包覆的CoZr/AC催化剂相比较,核壳型催化剂分子筛膜微孔结构的存在削弱了合成气由核外至核内的扩散,低碳烃的选择性得到提高,而重质烃和醇类的生成得到抑制.反应机理分析表明,核壳型催化剂上的ZSM-5分子筛膜的微孔结构促进了加氢反应,削弱了碳链增长和CO插入反应的进行,同时该膜也具有一定的催化裂化作用.

  10. An Investigation into the Effects of Mn Promotion on the Activity and Selectivity of Co/SiO2 for Fischer - Tropsch Synthesis: Evidence for Enhanced CO Adsorption and Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gregory R.; Werner, Sebastian; Bell, Alexis T. (LBNL); (UCB)

    2016-03-04

    Mn is an effective promoter for improving the activity and selectivity of Co-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts, but the mechanism by which this promoter functions is poorly understood. The work reported here was aimed at defining the manner in which Mn interacts with Co and determining how these interactions affect the activity and selectivity of Co. Detailed measurements are reported for the kinetics of FTS as a function of Mn/Co ratio, temperature, and reactant partial pressure. These data are described by a single, two-parameter rate expression. Mn promotion was found to increase both the apparent rate constant for CO consumption and the CO adsorption constant. Further evidence for enhanced CO adsorption and dissociation was obtained from measurements of temperature-programmed desorption of CO and CO disproportionation rates, respectively. Our quantitative analysis of elemental maps obtained by STEM-EDS revealed that the promoter accumulates preferentially on the surface of Co nanoparticles at low Mn loadings, resulting in a rapid onset of improvements in the product selectivity as the Mn loading increases. For catalysts prepared with loadings higher than Mn/Co = 0.1, the additional Mn accumulates in the form of nanometer-scale particles of MnO on the support. In situ IR spectra of adsorbed CO show that Mn promotion increases the abundance of adsorbed CO with weakened C-O bonds. Furthermore, it is proposed that the cleavage of the C-O bond is promoted through Lewis acid-base interactions between the Mn2+ cations located at the edges of MnO islands covering the Co nanoparticles and the O atom of CO adsorbates adjacent to the MnO islands. The observed decrease in selectivity to CH4 and the increased selectivity to C5+ products with increasing Mn/Co ratio are attributed to a decrease in the ratio of adsorbed H to CO on the surface of the supported Co nanoparticles.

  11. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ju Lan; Gang-Shan Fu; Stephen J.H. Yang; Jeff J.S. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile tech...

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  13. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile technologies and social media towards learner centered learning. This editorial note provides an overview of relevant issues discussed in this special issue.

  14. Advanced uranium enrichment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Gas Centrifuge and Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation methods are described. The status and potential of the technologies are summarized, the programs outlined, and the economic incentives are noted. How the advanced technologies, once demonstrated, might be deployed so that SWV costs in the 1990s can be significantly reduced is described

  15. Effect of ruthenium addition on the performance of Co/SiO2 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis%Ru添加对Co/SiO2费托合成催化剂性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱成武; 吴宝山; 常强; 李永旺

    2015-01-01

    用初湿含浸法制备了不同Ru添加量的Co/SiO2模型催化剂,然后进行N2物理吸附、XRD、H2-TPD、DRIFTS等表征和微分固定床费托( F-T)反应评价。 F-T反应结果表明,催化剂中添加Ru后,CO转化率显著提高,TOF值增大,CO2和CH4选择性降低,烯/烷比( O/P)降低。 FT-IR表征说明,催化剂添加Ru后Co-O键的强度减弱,相对应的H2-TPR也表明,催化剂的还原度得到显著提高。还原后的催化剂XRD结果进一步证实,加入Ru后,催化剂无钴氧化物被检出,并且当Ru添加量为0.5%(质量分数)时催化剂中金属钴主要以六方密堆(hcp)形式存在。 CO-DRIFTS结果显示,Ru的加入使CO的吸收峰发生红移,即Ru促进了CO的解离。 H2-TPD结果则表明,随着Ru添加量的增加,催化剂表面COads/ Cos 和CO*/ Cos 增大,这是CH4选择性降低的主要原因。%Three Co/SiO2 catalysts doped with different amounts of Ru were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. These catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption, XRD, H2-TPD, DRIFTS, etc.; their catalytic performance in Fischer-Tropsch ( F-T) synthesis was investigated in a micro fixed-bed reactor. The F-T reaction results showed that the Co/SiO2 catalysts doped with Ru exhibit higher CO conversion, higher turnover frequency ( TOF) , lower selectivity to CO2 and CH4 , as well as lower ratio of olefin to paraffin, in comparison with undoped Co/SiO2 . FT-IR spectra indicated that the Co-O bond in the as-prepared catalyst is weakened by the addition of Ru, which facilitates the reduction of the Co/SiO2 catalysts;such results are also supported by the H2-TPR profiles and XRD patterns of the reduced catalysts. The main cobalt phase in the reduced catalyst with 0. 5% (by weight) of Ru is in a hexagonal close packing (hcp) structure. CO-DRIFTS results revealed that the peak of linearly adsorbed CO is red-shifted by the addition of Ru, suggesting an improvement on the dissociation of adsorbed CO. CO-TPD results showed

  16. 柴油轿车燃用煤基F-T合成油的排放特性%Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Car Fueled with Coal Based Fischer-Tropsch(F-T) Diesel and Fossil Diesel Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志远; 程亮; 谭丕强; 楼狄明

    2012-01-01

    依据GB 18352.3-2005Ⅰ型试验循环,对帕萨特柴油轿车燃用沪四柴油、煤基F-T合成油、体积混合比例分别为10%和50%的煤基F-T合成油-沪四柴油混合燃料的CO、NOx、HC、PM和CO2排放特性进行了试验研究,分析了该车燃用F-T合成油尾气污染物排放的环境影响特性.结果表明,GB 18352.3-2005Ⅰ型试验循环中,该车燃用煤基F-T合成油-沪四柴油混合燃料城区行驶循环排放的CO、HC、PM和CO2相对较高,城郊行驶循环排放的NOx相对较高;与沪四柴油比较,该柴油轿车燃用煤基F-T合成油-沪四柴油混合燃料后,其CO、NOx、HC、PM和CO2排放均有不同程度的降低,且产生气溶胶、酸化、全球变暖等环境影响的潜力减小.煤基F-T合成油是一种较理想的柴油替代/补充燃料.%According to the first type test cycle of China national standard GB 18352.3-2005,the CO,NOx,HC,PM and CO2 emission characteristics of a PASSAT diesel car fueled with Shanghai local Ⅳ diesel,coal based Fischer-Tropsch(F-T) diesel,and the blends of coal based F-T diesel and Shanghai local Ⅳ diesel up to 10% and 50% by volume were analyzed respectively.And the environmental impacts such as decreased air quality,health impact,photochemical ozone,global warming,and acidification that could be caused by CO,NOx,HC,PM and CO2 emission of the diesel car were also assessed.The results showed that under GB 18352.3-2005 No.1 test driving cycle,which consisted of four urban driving cycles and one extra urban driving cycle,the CO,HC,PM and CO2 emissions were released mainly in the urban driving cycles whereas the NOx emissions occurred mainly in the extra urban driving cycle.Compared with Shanghai local Ⅳ diesel,all of the CO,NOx,HC,PM and CO2 emissions of the diesel car decreased to different extents when fueled with coal based F-T diesel blends.Moreover,the aerosol generation potential,global warming potential and acidification potential of F-T diesel fueled diesel

  17. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  18. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. PowerEnerCat was unable to raise their cash contribution for the project, and the work was stopped. This report summarizes some of the progress of the project and the concepts that were intended for experimental tests.

  19. Fluidized Bed Gasification as a Mature And Reliable Technology for the Production of Bio-Syngas and Applied in the Production of Liquid Transportation Fuels—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H.M. Verkooijen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the renewable and potentially sustainable energy sources and has many possible applications varying from heat generation to the production of advanced secondary energy carriers. The latter option would allow mobile services like the transportation sector to reduce its dependency on the fossil fuel supply. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of the fluidization technology applied for the gasification of biomass aimed at the production of gas for subsequent synthesis of the liquid energy carriers via, e.g., the Fischer-Tropsch process. It discusses the advantages of the gasification technology over combustion, considers the size of the conversion plant in view of the local biomass availability, assesses the pros and cons of different gasifier types in view of the application of the product gas. Subsequently the article focuses on the fluidized bed technology to discuss the main process parameters and their influence on the product composition and the operability of the gasifier. Finally a synthesis process (FT is introduced shortly to illustrate the necessary gas cleaning steps in view of the purity requirements for the FT feed gas.

  20. Technological advances transforming rheumatology

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, William H.; Mao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances over the past decade have revolutionized many areas of rheumatology, ranging from diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic development to the mechanistic understanding of rheumatic diseases. This overview highlights key technological innovations and discusses the major impact that these developments are having on research and clinical practice.

  1. Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, William M

    2007-03-01

    Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (OTCBB: ACTC) is a biotechnology company applying novel human embryonic stem cell technologies in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We believe that regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the field by enabling scientists to produce human cells of any kind for use in a wide array of therapies.

  2. ULTRACLEAN FUELS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: ADVANCES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E.

    2013-06-17

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  3. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  4. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  5. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  6. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  7. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...... it possible to examine surfaces all the way down to their atomic layers and also to perform realistic durability tests. The many surface techniques are described in clear and simple language, and the book is richly illustrated with detailed drawings and photos. It also deals with replacing environmentally...... of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces....

  8. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. This powerful technology will also...

  9. Advanced finite element technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wriggers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The book presents an overview of the state of research of advanced finite element technologies. Besides the mathematical analysis, the finite element development and their engineering applications are shown to the reader. The authors give a survey of the methods and technologies concerning efficiency, robustness and performance aspects. The book covers the topics of mathematical foundations for variational approaches and the mathematical understanding of the analytical requirements of modern finite element methods. Special attention is paid to finite deformations, adaptive strategies, incompressible, isotropic or anisotropic material behavior and the mathematical and numerical treatment of the well-known locking phenomenon. Beyond that new results for the introduced approaches are presented especially for challenging nonlinear problems.

  10. Buildings for advanced technology

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, E; Murday, James

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the design and construction of buildings for nanoscale science and engineering research. The information provided in this book is useful for designing and constructing buildings for such advanced technologies as nanotechnology, nanoelectronics and biotechnology. The book outlines the technology challenges unique to each of the building environmental challenges outlined below and provides best practices and examples of engineering approaches to address them: • Establishing and maintaining critical environments: temperature, humidity, and pressure • Structural vibration isolation • Airborne vibration isolation (acoustic noise) • Isolation of mechanical equipment-generated vibration/acoustic noise • Cost-effective power conditioning • Grounding facilities for low electrical interference • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)/Radio frequency interference (RFI) isolation • Airborne particulate contamination • Airborne organic and chemical contamination • Environment, safety a...

  11. State Technologies Advancement Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Terry

    2012-01-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative (STAC) which allowed the states and DOE to move RDD&D forward using an innovative competitive project selection and funding process. A cooperative agreement between DOE and NASEO served as the contracting instrument for this innovative federal-state partnership obligating funds from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy to plan, fund, and implement RDD&D projects that were consistent with the common priorities of the states and DOE. DOE's Golden Field Office provided Federal oversight and guidance for the STAC cooperative agreement. The STAC program was built on the foundation of prior Federal-State efforts to collaborate on and engage in joint planning for RDD&D. Although STAC builds on existing, successful programs, it is important to note that it was not intended to replace other successful joint DOE/State initiatives such as the State Energy Program or EERE Special Projects. Overall the STAC process was used to fund, through three competitive solicitations, 35 successful multi-state research, development, deployment, and demonstration projects with an overall average non-federal cost share of 43%. Twenty-two states were awarded at least one prime contract, and organizations in all 50 states and some territories were involved as subcontractors in at least one STAC project. Projects were funded in seven program areas: (1) Building Technologies, (2) Industrial Technologies, (3) Transportation Technologies, (4) Distributed Energy

  12. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  13. Advancement in Engineering Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar;

    2016-01-01

    but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment's, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected...

  14. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...

  15. Nuclear propulsion technology advanced fuels technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Walter A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced fuels technology are presented. Topics covered include: nuclear thermal propulsion reactor and fuel requirements; propulsion efficiency and temperature; uranium fuel compounds; melting point experiments; fabrication techniques; and sintered microspheres.

  16. Advanced fuel technology and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Advisory Group Meeting on Advanced Fuel Technology and Performance was to review the experience of advanced fuel fabrication technology, its performance, peculiarities of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle with regard to all types of reactors and to outline the future trends. As a result of the meeting recommendations were made for the future conduct of work on advanced fuel technology and performance. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 20 papers in this issue

  17. New advances in erectile technology

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Marshall J.; Lin, Haocheng; Wang, Run

    2014-01-01

    New discoveries and technological advances in medicine are rapid. The role of technology in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) will be widened and more options will be available in the years to come. These erectile technologies include external penile support devices, penile vibrators, low intensity extracorporeal shockwave, tissue engineering, nanotechnology and endovascular technology. Even for matured treatment modalities for ED, such as vacuum erectile devices and penile implants,...

  18. Advances in production technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  19. Advances in photovoltaic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G. A.; Bailey, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost in the last 10 years are presented. The potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space is examined, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the needs of satellite solar power systems. Attention is given to single-crystal cells, concentrator and cascade cells, and thin-film solar cells.

  20. Influence of Preparation Methods on Catalytic Performance of Double Mesoporous Co-Based Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis%制备方法对双介孔钴基催化剂结构及其费-托反应性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊刚; 孙予罕; 李德宝; 侯博; 贾丽涛; 贾利宏; 孙志强; 刘斌; 郭金刚; 任润厚

    2011-01-01

    A series of cobalt-based catalyst samples supported on double mesoporous MCM-41 for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were prepared using three methods, incipient-wetness impregnation (IWI), vapor-induced hydrolysis (VIH), and excessive impregnation (EI). The catalyst samples were characterized by N2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and Raman spectroscopy. The N2 physisorption results showed that the samples prepared by IWI and VIH retained the double mesoporous character. and the cobalt particles were mainly located in the pore. The FTS results showed that the reducibility and dispersion of active species of the samples prepared by IWI and EI were very high. The catalyst prepared by IWI had the smallest Co3O4 crystallite size and the highest dispersion and showed higher FTS activity, lower CH4 selectivity and higher C5+ selectivity.%以双介孔分布MCM-41分子筛为载体,采用等体积浸渍、氨水气相诱导水解和过量浸渍法制备了费-托合成钴摹催化剂,并考察了它们的孔结构、活性物种分布及费-托合成催化性能.结粜表明,采用等体积浸渍法和氨水气相诱导水解法制备的催化剂都保持了较好的双介孔特性,Co颗粒人部分位于分子筛的孔道内部.过量浸渍法和等体积浸渍法制备的催化剂上Co物种的还原度和分散度均较高,尤其后者上Co分散度更高,因而具有较低的CH4选择性和较高的C5+选择性.

  1. 钴系复合催化材料在费托反应前后的结构变化研究∗%Investigation on the structural changes of cobalt-based catalytic composite materials before and after Fischer-Tropsch reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢宇; 薛莹莹; 刘振新; 吴德鹏; 方少明

    2015-01-01

    钴系催化材料在费托合成中的反应已有较多研究文献,但对费托反应前后由于水热环境导致钴系催化材料发生结构变化的研究则很少.应用场发射扫描电子显微镜研究了3种新鲜制备的钴系复合催化材料的织构特征,应用粉末 X 射线衍射技术研究了费托反应前后3种钴系催化材料的结构变化;并且发现含有氧化铝成分的样品在经历费托反应的水热环境之后均在衍射角(2θ)为21.5和23.8°处出现新物相的衍射峰,即形成某种结晶性水合氧化铝;该新物相可能与被 H 2 O 氧化的钴物种发生反应生成无催化活性的CoAl2 O 4相而导致钴催化剂的衰减失活.%There are many literature about the reactions of cobalt-based catalytic materials in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS).However,the literature about the structural changes of cobalt-based materials before and af-ter the FTS reactions due to the hydrothermal environments is sparse.This article applied FESEM to study the texture features of three freshly-prepared cobalt-based composite materials and employed powder XRD to inves-tigate the structural changes of the three cobalt-based catalytic materials.It was found that the samples contai-ning alumina will form the diffraction peaks of new species at 2θ of 21.5 and 23.8°,which might be some kind of crystalline hydrated alumina.This type of new species might react with the cobalt species formed by H 2 O oxida-tion and produce non-catalytic CoAl2 O 4 phase which was one cause of deactivation or decay of cobalt catalysts.

  2. Advanced composites technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTeresa, S J; Groves, S E; Sanchez, R J

    1998-10-01

    The development of fiber composite components in next-generation munitions, such as sabots for kinetic energy penetrators and lightweight cases for advanced artillery projectiles, relies on design trade-off studies using validated computer code simulations. We are developing capabilities to determine the failure of advanced fiber composites under multiaxial stresses to critically evaluate three-dimensional failure models and develop new ones if necessary. The effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on failure of composites are being investigated using a high-pressure testing system that incorporates several unique features. Several improvements were made to the system this year, and we report on the first tests of both isotropic and fiber composite materials. The preliminary results indicate that pressure has little effect on longitudinal compression strength of unidirectional composites, but issues with obtaining reliable failures in these materials still remain to be resolved. The transverse compression strength was found to be significantly enhanced by pressure, and the trends observed for this property and the longitudinal strength are in agreement with recent models for failure of fiber composites.

  3. Advanced Metasearch Engine Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Weiyi

    2010-01-01

    Among the search tools currently on the Web, search engines are the most well known thanks to the popularity of major search engines such as Google and Yahoo!. While extremely successful, these major search engines do have serious limitations. This book introduces large-scale metasearch engine technology, which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the major search engines. Essentially, a metasearch engine is a search system that supports unified access to multiple existing search engines by passing the queries it receives to its component search engines and aggregating the returned

  4. [Technological advances in neurorehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Josefina; Núñez-Gaona, Marco Antonio; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Neurological rehabilitation arose as formal method in the 60's, for the therapeutic treatment of patients with stroke or spinal cord injury, which develop severe sequelae that affect their motor and sensory abilities. Although the Central Nervous System has plasticity mechanisms for spontaneous recovery, a high percentage of patients should receive specialized therapies to regain motor function, such as Constraint Induced Movement Therapy or Upright physical Therapy. The neurorehabilitation has undergone drastic changes over the last two decades due to the incorporation of computer and robotic electronic devices, designed to produce positive changes in cortical excitability of the cerebral hemisphere damaged and so to improve neuroplasticity. Among equipment, we can mention those for electrotherapy devices, apparatus for transcranial magnetic stimulation, the robotic lower limb orthoses, robot for upper limb training, systems for functional electrical stimulation, neuroprosthesis and brain computer interfaces. These devices have caused controversy because of its application and benefits reported in the literature. The aim of Neurorehabilitation technologies is to take advantage of the functional neuromuscular structures preserved, and they compensate or re-learn the functions that previously made the damaged areas. The purpose of this article is to mention some clinical applications and benefits that these technologies offer to patients with neuronal injury.

  5. Advanced information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential risk of critical situations at hazardous industrial plants has drawn increased attention to emergency organisations. The emphasis on these organisations is to minimise the environmental effects of serious, although unlikely, disturbances in operation. Experience gained from previous incidents and emergency drills has revealed the complexity that must be faced in making these organisations work properly. Modern information technology may be used in order to develop more reliable preparedness systems. These problems are being treated in a joint Nordic project, NKA/INF, with participating research institutes from Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The project started in 1985 and is expected to be finished in 1989. This report gives an overview of the project and a short description of the conceptual ideas behind the project. (author)

  6. Advanced solar thermal receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudirka, A. A.; Leibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Development of advanced receiver technology for solar thermal receivers designed for electric power generation or for industrial applications, such as fuels and chemical production or industrial process heat, is described. The development of this technology is focused on receivers that operate from 1000 F to 3000 F and above. Development strategy is mapped in terms of application requirements, and the related system and technical requirements. Receiver performance requirements and current development efforts are covered for five classes of receiver applications: high temperature, advanced Brayton, Stirling, and Rankine cycle engines, and fuels and chemicals.

  7. Advanced Aerogel Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The JPL Aerogel Laboratory has made aerogels for NASA flight missions, e.g., Stardust, 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers and the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory, as well as NASA research projects for the past 14 years. During that time it has produced aerogels of a range of shapes, sizes, densities and compositions. Research is ongoing in the development of aerogels for future sample capture and return missions and for thermal insulation for both spacecraft and scientific instruments. For the past several years, the JPL Aerogel Laboratory has been developing, producing and testing a new composite material for use as the high temperature thermal insulation in the Advanced Sterling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) being developed by Lockheed Martin and NASA. The composite is made up of a glass fiber felt, silica aerogel, Titania powder, and silica powder. The oxide powders are included to reduce irradiative heat transport at elevated temperatures. These materials have thermal conductivity values that are the same as the best commercially produced high temperature insulation materials, and yet are 40% lighter. By greatly reducing the amount of oxide powder in the composite, the density, and therefore for the value of the thermal conductivity, would be reduced. The JPL Aerogel Laboratory has experimented with using glass fiber felt, expanded glass fiber felt and loose fibers to add structural integrity to silica aerogels. However, this work has been directed toward high temperature applications. By conducting a brief investigation of the optimal combination of fiber reinforcement and aerogel density, a durable, extremely efficient thermal insulation material for ambient temperature applications would be produced. If a transparent thermal insulation is desired, then aerogel is an excellent candidate material. At typical ambient temperatures, silica aerogel prevents the transport of heat via convection and conduction due to its highly porous nature. To prevent irradiative thermal

  8. Advanced Technology for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Technology for Engineering Education, held at the Peninsula Graduate Engineering Center, Hampton, Virginia, February 24-25, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced technologies for engineering education and to explore the possibility of forming a consortium of interested individuals/universities for curriculum reform and development using advanced technologies. The presentations covered novel delivery systems and several implementations of new technologies for engineering education. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

  9. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  10. Advances in PCB decontamination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1985 several million kilograms of PCB equipment and millions of litres of PCB contaminated oil have been processed in Canada for reduction of PCB concentrations below government guidelines. Advances in extraction and metal recovery from electrical equipment, chemical dechlorination and distillation of PCB-contaminated oils were the significant technological options utilized. For example, using the Decontaksolv technology owners of PCB equipment in Canada have decontaminated three million kilograms of electrical equipment, which resulted in the reintegration of 2.7 million kilograms of useful metals (steel, copper, aluminium) into the economic circuit. The equipment decontaminated included transformers, electromagnets, relays, radiators, circuit breakers, tanks, pipes, valves, and drums. The most recent advances in this technology include improvements that makes the economical processing of capacitors, possible. Chemical dechlorination has virtually eliminated PCB-contaminated oils which are normally present in large transformers, to the point where some service companies have curtailed or discontinued their oil decontamination activities in Canada. Recent advances in this technology center around techniques for the decontamination of waste hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent, dielectric fluids. Two example projects to illustrate recent advances have been briefly described

  11. Pilot Study of Syngas Effective Raiio on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis%合成气有效分率对费托合成反应影响中试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪学; 石玉林; 谢晶; 程时富; 李导

    2011-01-01

    模拟以氮气为煤粉输送介质的壳牌煤粉气化技术生产的合成气,利用神华自主知识产权低温浆态床费托合成工业沉淀铁系催化剂SFT418,在CEU中试装置上实施了合成气有效分率对催化剂SFT418费托合成性能影响试验.结果表明:合成气有效气体分率高、费托反应CO和H2转化率(无论是单程还是总转化率)高、时空产率高、烯/烷质量比高,而CO2和CH4选择性相对较低。%Simulating syngas which was from SHELL powdered coal gasification technology production and utilizing low temperature F-T synthesis Fe based catalysts of Shenhua Group, pilot plant test of syngas effective ratio on SFT418 catalyst performance effects was carried into execution. The test results indicate that with an increase of syngas effective ratio, mass ratio of olefin and alkane, CO conversion, H2 conversion and space time yield of F-T synthesis reaction increase, but CO2 and CH4 selectivity is lower comparatively.

  12. SP-100 advanced technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the triagency SP-100 Program is to develop long-lived, compact, lightweight, survivable nuclear reactor space power systems for application to the power range 50 kWe to 1 MWe. The successful development of these systems should enable or significantly enhance many of the future NASA civil and commercial missions. The NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program strongly augments the parallel SP-100 Ground Engineering System Development program and enhances the chances for success of the overall SP-100 program. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key technical elements of the Advanced Technology Program and the progress made in the initial year and a half of the project

  13. Large floating structures technological advances

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, BT

    2015-01-01

    This book surveys key projects that have seen the construction of large floating structures or have attained detailed conceptual designs. This compilation of key floating structures in a single volume captures the innovative features that mark the technological advances made in this field of engineering, and will provide a useful reference for ideas, analysis, design, and construction of these unique and emerging urban projects to offshore and marine engineers, urban planners, architects and students.

  14. Advanced tufted carpet patterning technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After a review of the tufting industry's development, and a brief introduction to available systems for producing patterned tufted carpets, the principle of ICN (Individually Controlled Needle) and the related advanced tufting technology Colortec are presented. Finally, Colortec machine, Axminster weaving machine, and Wilton loom are compared. It is believed that the Cobble Colortec machine is a significant jump forward in the tufted carpets industry as it now allows access to all major carpet markets in a competitive fashion.

  15. Development of Fischer-Tropsch catalysis for gasified biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Lögdberg, Sara

    2007-01-01

    In order to secure the energy supply to an increasing population and at the same time limit the damage to Earth, i.e. avoiding a fatal climate change as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (primarily CO2), immediate action is necessary. This includes reducing the energy consumption, increasing the energy conversion efficiency, and using renewable energies. The transport sector is the one most dependent on fossil energy and it stands for a significant part of the energy con...

  16. Attrition Resistant Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Based on FCC Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyiga, Adeyinka

    2010-02-05

    Commercial spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts provided by Engelhard and Albemarle were used as supports for Fe-based catalysts with the goal of improving the attrition resistance of typical F-T catalysts. Catalysts with the Ruhrchemie composition (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/25 spent FCC on mass basis) were prepared by wet impregnation. XRD and XANES analysis showed the presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in calcined catalysts. FeC{sub x} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were present in the activated catalysts. The metal composition of the catalysts was analyzed by ICP-MS. F-T activity of the catalysts activated in situ in CO at the same conditions as used prior to the attrition tests was measured using a fixed bed reactor at T = 573 K, P = 1.38 MPa and H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 0.67. Cu and K promoted Fe supported over Engelhard provided spent FCC catalyst shows relatively good attrition resistance (8.2 wt% fines lost), high CO conversion (81%) and C{sub 5}+ hydrocarbons selectivity (18.3%).

  17. Center for Advanced Separation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, Rick

    2013-09-30

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation’s GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, CAST is now a five-university consortium – Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah and Montana Tech, - that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FE0000699, Center for Advanced Separation Technology. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in two broad areas: Advanced Pre-Combustion Clean Coal Technologies and Gas-Gas Separations. Distribution of funds is handled via competitive solicitation of research proposals through Site Coordinators at the five member universities. These were reviewed and the selected proposals were forwarded these to the DOE/NETL Project Officer for final review and approval. The successful projects are listed below by category, along with abstracts from their final reports.

  18. Advances in SIS receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerking, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Significant advances in SIS receiver technology since the last Asilomar meeting include: superconductor materials, integrated inductive tuning elements, and planar mounting structures. The effect of these advances is to push the upper frequency operating limit from about 600 to 1500 GHz, and to enhance the feasibility of focal plane arrays of heterodyne receivers. A fundamental high frequency operating limit of SIS mixers is set by the superconducting energy gap. A practical limitation for high frequency operation of SIS junctions is their parasitic capacitance and resistance. The performance of the mixer will be degraded by the Resistor-Capacitor rolloff. Several designs were reported for inductive elements integrated on the same substrate as the SIS junctions to tune out the bulk junction capacitance. Most millimeter SIS-based heterodyne receivers have used waveguide coupling structures. Technology has advanced to the state where programs that have a high probability of success can be defined to produce arrays of SIS receivers for frequencies as high as 1500 GHz.

  19. Advanced USC technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Masafumi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). High Temperature Materials Center

    2010-07-01

    The 600deg-C class Ultra Super-Critical(USC) steam condition technology was mainly developed through projects led by J-Power in the '80s and 90s'. In 2001, the project was successfully finished with newly developed 9-12% chromium steels. These materials were selected for the major parts of the USC power plants in Japan and almost half of the coal power plants have the USC steam condition today. However, aged plants, which were built in the '70s and early '80s will reach the point where they will need to be rebuilt or refurbished in the near future. The steam temperatures of the older plants are 538 deg-C or 566deg-C. We did a case study, retrofitting these plants with the USC and an advanced USC technology that takes a 700deg-C class steam temperature to increase thermal efficiency and to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The study showed that the advanced USC Technology(A-USC) is suitable for the retrofitting of aged plants and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 15%. The Japanese government launched the ''Cool Earth-Innovative Energy Technology Program'' in 2008 March to promote international cooperation and actively contribute to substantial global greenhouse gas emissions reductions. 21 technologies that will contribute to substantial reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions by efficiency improvement and low carbonization were selected. The A-USC that aims at 46% (net, HHV) thermal efficiency of coal power generation is included in the technologies. We started a large-scale development project of the A-USC technology in 2008 August. 700deg-C class boiler, turbine and valve technologies, which include high temperature material technology, will be developed. Some candidate materials for boilers are being tested. Turbine rotor and casing materials are being developed and tested, as well. Two years from the beginning of the project, we have obtained some useful test results regarding the candidate materials. (orig.)

  20. Advances in Genome Biology & Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Albert, Jon R. Armstrong, Raymond K. Auerback, W. Brad Barbazuk, et al.

    2007-12-01

    This year's meeting focused on the latest advances in new DNA sequencing technologies and the applications of genomics to disease areas in biology and biomedicine. Daytime plenary sessions highlighted cutting-edge research in areas such as complex genetic diseases, comparative genomics, medical sequencing, massively parallel DNA sequencing, and synthetic biology. Technical approaches being developed and utilized in contemporary genomics research were presented during evening concurrent sessions. Also, as in previous years, poster sessions bridged the morning and afternoon plenary sessions. In addition, for the third year in a row, the Advances in Genome Biology and Technology (AGBT) meeting was preceded by a pre-meeting workshop that aimed to provide an introductory overview for trainees and other meeting attendees. This year, speakers at the workshop focused on next-generation sequencing technologies, including their experiences, findings, and helpful advise for others contemplating using these platforms in their research. Speakers from genome centers and core sequencing facilities were featured and the workshop ended with a roundtable discussion, during which speakers fielded questions from the audience.

  1. Advances in nondestructive evaluation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research at NASA Langley's Materials Characterization Instrumentation Section has followed the philosophy of improving the science base of nondestructive evaluation and advancing the state of the art of quantitative interpretability of physical measurements of materials. Details of several R&D programs choosen to highlight the last several years are given. Applications of these technologies are presented in the area of stress measurement, characterization of metal heat treatment, and evaluation of material internal structure. A second focus of the program is on quantitative transducers/measurements that have resulted in better data in irregular inhomogeneous materials such as composites. Examples are presented of new capabilities resulting from these advances that include fatigue and impact damage evaluation.

  2. [Technological advances: the coming radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, César; Ortega, Dulia

    2002-06-01

    We are living in a changing world, acknowledging all kinds of changes: social, technological, and ethical. This is the environment encircling medical and radiological work: demanding, with high expectations and a cohort of amazing technological advances, in all areas of human knowledge. We need to make the necessary reflections about these faster and faster changes. Radiology, as an important part of clinical work, is facing no minor challenges: technological and other most prevalent like: Who will be specialists in the next future? How are we prepared to face the radiological teaching and formation of radiologists? How to finance this technological developments? Meanwhile, in our context of an underdeveloped country, this sounds as far as the Moon, but changes will reach us sooner or later. We must resolve some problems that are a little bit more basic, such as a good level of education and health care for our people, then we will be ready to incorporate some of these amazing new technologies. PMID:12194695

  3. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  4. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Craig S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  5. Advances in traction drive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Anderson, N. E.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Traction drives are traced from early uses as main transmissions in automobiles at the turn of the century to modern, high-powered traction drives capable of transmitting hundreds of horsepower. Recent advances in technology are described which enable today's traction drive to be a serious candidate for off-highway vehicles and helicopter applications. Improvements in materials, traction fluids, design techniques, power loss and life prediction methods will be highlighted. Performance characteristics of the Nasvytis fixed-ratio drive are given. Promising future drive applications, such as helicopter main transmissions and servo-control positioning mechanisms are also addressed.

  6. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  7. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main

  8. Latest Technology Advances in Cosmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageen Arora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available World consumers are looking for personal care products that supply multiple benefits with minimal efforts. They also expect the latest technology advances to be incorporated into innovative formulations. The trend toward therapeutic cosmetics will lead to a better understanding of modern ingredients and their assessment techniques. To obtain skin care formulations with real consumer-perceivable benefits and to optimize sensory attributes, formulators are resorting to technology that until recently was exclusively used in cosmetic products. Various formulations comes under special delivery systems like Vesicular, Particulate systems, emulsions type Particulate type and other delivery systems along with their applications are shown in this article, as it results in an economic uplift of cosmetic industry in various parts of the world. Little evidence is seen that nanoparticles in cosmetics and sunscreen might be a problem at this time and its need is further explored for a better understanding of these novel technologies. Thus, novel cosmaceutical delivery systems reviewed here possess enormous potential as next-generation smarter carrier systems.

  9. China Pushes Ahead with Technology for "Conversion of Coal into Oil"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Chinese's Academy of Sciences has recently announced an R&D project of a pilot plant scale process on the basis of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis technology developed in the Institute of Coal Chemistry (ICC),according to the recent reports from the Chinese news media.Currently, major breakthroughs have been made in the low cost catalyst production, the efficient reactor design, and the process integration, Sun Yuhan, director of ICC, said recently. He added that recent technology developed in ICC has greatly reduced the cost ofsynthesis part in the whole process, indicating the economic and environmental feasibility for the development of commercial complexes in China, and a pilot plant test is under way in coalenriched Shanxi province.

  10. Advances in medical diagnostic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Khin Wee; Mohamad Salim, Maheza Irna; Ong, Sang-Bing; Utama, Nugraha Priya; Myint, Yin Mon; Mohd Noor, Norliza; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the most recent findings and knowledge in advanced diagnostics technology, covering a wide spectrum including brain activity analysis, breast and lung cancer detection, echocardiography, computer aided skeletal assessment to mitochondrial biology imaging at the cellular level. The authors explored magneto acoustic approaches and tissue elasticity imaging for the purpose of breast cancer detection. Perspectives in fetal echocardiography from an image processing angle are included. Diagnostic imaging in the field of mitochondrial diseases as well as the use of Computer-Aided System (CAD) are also discussed in the book. This book will be useful for students, lecturers or professional researchers in the field of biomedical sciences and image processing.

  11. General survey of Korean advanced technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book includes advanced technology, world trend of advanced technology, technological innovation study for strengthening international competitiveness, patterns of Korea industrialization and its causes, structures of Korea electronic equipment and development direction, middle and long-term prospects of home appliance, the world of computer, current situation and prospect of robot industry, homework for strengthening international competitiveness of machine industry, direction for rationalization of materials industry, current situations of technical textile, future technology of developed countries, and trend of Korea technological activities.

  12. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  13. Advanced Training Technologies and Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Training Technologies and Learning Environments held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 9-10, 1999. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees were from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objective of the workshop was to assess the status and effectiveness of different advanced training technologies and learning environments.

  14. LTE-advanced air interface technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xincheng

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities are at hand for professionals eager to learn and apply the latest theories and practices in air interface technologies. Written by experienced researchers and professionals, LTE-Advanced Air Interface Technology thoroughly covers the performance targets and technology components studied by 3GPP for LTE-Advanced. Besides being an explanatory text about LTE-Advanced air interface technology, this book exploits the technical details in the 3GPP specification, and explains the motivation and implication behind the specifications.After a general description of wireless cellular techno

  15. Advances in information technologies for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Tarricone, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    Talks about the achieved and potentially obtainable advances in electromagnetics with innovative IT technologies. This work contains tutorial chapters, which introduce technologies, such as parallel and distributed computing, object-oriented technologies, grid computing, semantic grids, agent based computing and service-oriented architectures.

  16. Advanced laptop and small personal computer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger L.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced laptop and small personal computer technology is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following areas of hand carried computers and mobile workstation technology are covered: background, applications, high end products, technology trends, requirements for the Control Center application, and recommendations for the future.

  17. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birur, Gaj; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's new emphasis on human exploration program for missions beyond LEO requires development of innovative and revolutionary technologies. Thermal control requirements of future NASA science instruments and missions are very challenging and require advanced thermal control technologies. Limited resources requires organizations to cooperate and collaborate; government, industry, universities all need to work together for the successful development of these technologies.

  18. Isotope separation and advanced manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Kan, T.

    This is the fourth issue of a semiannual report for the Isotope Separation and Advanced Materials Manufacturing (ISAM) Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Primary objectives include: (1) the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (UAVLIS) process, which is being developed and prepared for deployment as an advanced uranium enrichment capability; (2) Advanced manufacturing technologies, which include industrial laser and E-beam material processing and new manufacturing technologies for uranium, plutonium, and other strategically important materials in support of DOE and other national applications. This report features progress in the ISAM Program from October 1993 through March 1994.

  19. Low speed propellers: Impact of advanced technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1980-01-01

    Sensitivity studies performed to evaluate the potential of several advanced technological elements on propeller performance, noise, weight, and cost for general aviation aircraft are discussed. Studies indicate that the application of advanced technologies to general aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft an average of ten percent, meeting current regulatory noise limits. Through the use of composite blade construction, up to 25 percent propeller weight reduction can be achieved. This weight reduction in addition to seven percent propeller efficiency improvements through application of advanced technologies result in four percent reduction in direct operating costs, ten percent reduction in aircraft acquisition cost, and seven percent lower gross weight for general aviation aircraft.

  20. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature manufacturing technology to enable fabrication of single-piece integrally-stiffened launch vehicle structures to replace expensive, heavy, and...

  1. Advanced location-based technologies and services

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Hassan A

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid increase in the number of mobile device users worldwide, location-based services (LBSs) have become pervasive, and the demand for them will continue to grow. Exploring recent changes in the technology and its uses, Advanced Location-Based Technologies and Services takes an in-depth look at new and existing technologies, techniques, applications, and opportunities. Under the editorial guidance of Hassan Karimi, with contributions from experts in the field, the book examines the breadth and depth of advanced LBS technologies and techniques. The book provides up-to-date informati

  2. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Manufacturing Initiative Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA supports the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO). Hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) the AMNPO is...

  3. Costs and Benefits of Advanced Aeronautical Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, J. C.; Denny, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Programs available from COSMIC used to evaluate economic feasibility of applying advanced aeronautical technology to civil aircraft of future. Programs are composed of three major models: Fleet Accounting Module, Airframe manufacturer Module, and Air Carrier Module.

  4. LTE-Advanced Relay Technology and Standardization

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Yifei

    2013-01-01

    LTE-Advanced Relay Technology and Standardization provides a timely reference work for relay technology with the finalizing of LTE Release 10 specifications. LTE-Advanced is quickly becoming the global standard for 4G cellular communications. The relay technology, as one of the key features in LTE-Advanced, helps not only to improve the system coverage and capacity, but also to save the costs of laying wireline backhaul. As a leading researcher in the field of LTE-Advanced standards, the author provides an in-depth description of LTE-A relay technology, and explains in detail the standard specification and design principles.     Readers from both academic and industrial fields can find sections of interest to them: Sections 2 & 4 could benefit researchers in academia and those who are engaged in exploratory work, while Sections 3 & 4 are more useful to engineers. Dr. Yifei Yuan is the Technical Director at the Standards Department of ZTE Inc.

  5. Innovative Experimental Particle Physics through Technological Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Harry W. K.

    2005-01-01

    This mini-course gives an introduction to the techniques used in experimental particle physics with an emphasis on the impact of technological advances. The basic detector types and particle accelerator facilities will be briefly covered with examples of their use and with comparisons. The mini-course ends with what can be expected in the near future from current technology advances. The mini-course is intended for graduate students and post-docs and as an introduction to experimental techniq...

  6. Advances in gene technology: Human genetic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, W.A.; Ahmad, F.; Black, S.; Schultz, J.; Whelan, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the papers presented at the conference on the subject of ''advances in Gene technology: Human genetic disorders''. Molecular biology of various carcinomas and inheritance of metabolic diseases is discussed and technology advancement in diagnosis of hereditary diseases is described. Some of the titles discussed are-Immunoglobulin genes translocation and diagnosis; hemophilia; oncogenes; oncogenic transformations; experimental data on mice, hamsters, birds carcinomas and sarcomas.

  7. Advanced technologies for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Master slave manipulators (MSMs), in-cell cranes and power manipulators are the general-purpose remote handling tools used in nuclear industry. In-cell cranes and power manipulators can handle heavy objects; whereas MSMs can handle objects with precision and dexterity. The department had identified the importance of indigenising these technologies and developed a variety of mechanical MSMs and Servo Manipulators. This paper traces the history and evolution of these technologies. It also mentions about the telepresence technologies that are set to transform the operator's experience of manipulation by bringing in visual, haptic and aural immersion in the slave environment. (author)

  8. Rotorcraft technology at Boeing Vertol: Recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Dadone, Leo; Wiesner, Robert

    1988-01-01

    An overview is presented of key accomplishments in the rotorcraft development at Boeing Vertol. Projects of particular significance: high speed rotor development and the Model 360 Advanced Technology Helicopter. Areas addressed in the overview are: advanced rotors with reduced noise and vibration, 3-D aerodynamic modeling, flight control and avionics, active control, automated diagnostics and prognostics, composite structures, and drive systems.

  9. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Geetanjali; Sonka, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on a specific project, employing new technological capabilities to better transfer expert knowledge. The specific project considered for the paper is the World Initiative for Soy in Human Health (WISHH), a Multi Organization Enterprise promoting the use of soy and soy products in humanitarian and development aid around the world. VisIT, which stands for Visualization of Information Technology, is a potentially powerful organizational tool. It is compared against the traditi...

  10. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  11. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.

  12. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Greebler, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology Volume 4 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of advanced reactor concepts. This book discusses the advances in various areas of general applicability, including modern perturbation theory, optimal control theory, and industrial application of ionizing radiations.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the technology of sodium-cooled fast breeder power reactors and gas-cooled power reactors. This text then examines the key role of reactor safety in the development of fast breeder reactors. Other chapt

  13. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  14. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  15. Assurance Technology Challenges of Advanced Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, E. James

    2004-01-01

    The initiative to explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system to revisit the moon and Mars post enormous technological challenges to the nation's space agency and aerospace industry. Key areas of technology development needs to enable the endeavor include advanced materials, structures and mechanisms; micro/nano sensors and detectors; power generation, storage and management; advanced thermal and cryogenic control; guidance, navigation and control; command and data handling; advanced propulsion; advanced communication; on-board processing; advanced information technology systems; modular and reconfigurable systems; precision formation flying; solar sails; distributed observing systems; space robotics; and etc. Quality assurance concerns such as functional performance, structural integrity, radiation tolerance, health monitoring, diagnosis, maintenance, calibration, and initialization can affect the performance of systems and subsystems. It is thus imperative to employ innovative nondestructive evaluation methodologies to ensure quality and integrity of advanced space systems. Advancements in integrated multi-functional sensor systems, autonomous inspection approaches, distributed embedded sensors, roaming inspectors, and shape adaptive sensors are sought. Concepts in computational models for signal processing and data interpretation to establish quantitative characterization and event determination are also of interest. Prospective evaluation technologies include ultrasonics, laser ultrasonics, optics and fiber optics, shearography, video optics and metrology, thermography, electromagnetics, acoustic emission, x-ray, data management, biomimetics, and nano-scale sensing approaches for structural health monitoring.

  16. TASTEX: Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1978 to 1981 the Governments of France, Japan and the United States of America cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the TASTEX (Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise) programme. The aim of this programme was to improve the technology for the application of international safeguards at reprocessing facilities, and the results are presented in the present report

  17. Development of the advanced CANDU technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Choi, J. H.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, S. N.; Jo, C. H.; Paik, J. S.; On, M. R.; Park, H. S.; Kim, S. R. [Korea Electric Power Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the advanced design technology to improve safety, operability and economy and to develop and advanced safety evaluation system. More realistic and reasonable methodology and modeling was employed to improve safety margin in containment analysis. Various efforts have been made to verify the CATHENA code which is the major safety analysis code for CANDU PHWR system. Fully computerized prototype ECCS was developed. The feasibility study and conceptual design of the distributed digital control system have been performed as well. The core characteristics of advanced fuel cycle, fuel management and power upgrade have been studied to determine the advanced core. (author). 77 refs., 51 tabs., 108 figs.

  18. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

    2000-11-30

    This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

  19. Advanced materials and technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, V.K.; Alander, T.K.R. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1995-12-31

    The contents of the proceedings consist of three chapters, of which, the first discusses common megatrends, both nationally and globally, in different fields of materials technology. The second chapter is dealing with novel production and processing of base metals and, finally, the third chapter is related with current achievements and future goals of electronic, magnetic, optical and coating materials and their processing

  20. Recent advances in hypersonic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will focus on recent advances in hypersonic aerodynamic prediction techniques. Current capabilities of existing numerical methods for predicting high Mach number flows will be discussed and shortcomings will be identified. Physical models available for inclusion into modern codes for predicting the effects of transition and turbulence will also be outlined and their limitations identified. Chemical reaction models appropriate to high-speed flows will be addressed, and the impact of their inclusion in computational fluid dynamics codes will be discussed. Finally, the problem of validating predictive techniques for high Mach number flows will be addressed.

  1. Advances in liquid phase technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jijin, P.J.A. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH) process uses a slurry reactor to convert synthesis gas (primarily a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) to methanol. Through its superior heat management, the process is ultimately suitable to handle synthesis gas generated through gasification of natural gas and other materials, such as coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes and other environmentally disadvantaged hydrocarbon feedstocks. Apart from production of chemical grade methanol, the process provides economic advantages in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation application. Coproduction of power and methanol via the IGCC and the LPMEOH process provides opportunities for energy storage for peak-shaving of electrical demand and/or clean fuel for export. The LPMEOH technology has been developed since the 1980`s, extensively proven in a process development unit in LaPorte, Texas and elected for demonstration under The Clean Coal Technology Program. The slurry reactor being demonstrated is also suitable for other exothermic synthesis gas conversion reactions, like synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and other alcohols/oxygenates. This paper presents an overview of LPMEOH and other liquid phase technology aspects and highlights the demonstration project at Eastman Chemical Company`s coal gasification facility in Kingsport, Tennessee. Commercial aspects of the LPMEOH process are also discussed.

  2. 78 FR 292 - Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology (VCAT or Committee), National Institute of Standards...

  3. 76 FR 59659 - Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology (VCAT or Committee), National Institute of Standards...

  4. 77 FR 59592 - Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology (VCAT or Committee), National Institute of Standards...

  5. 76 FR 29195 - Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology (VCAT or Committee), National Institute of Standards...

  6. Advances in core drilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, G.

    Some notable technical advances in drill design were reported at the meeting, held in Canada August 30-September 1, 1982, at the University of Calgary. Chief amongst these was a battery powered, computer assisted electromechanical core drill which has recently been used by the Danes in Greenland to continuously core to the base of the ice sheet at 2038 m. This is the deepest coring operation so far on the Greenland ice sheet. (The record for deep glacier drilling is held by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory for the continuous coring through 2164 m of ice to bedrock at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in 1968). In early 1982, a current Soviet core drilling operation was reported to be at a depth of 2000 m at Vostok station, Antarctica, where the total ice thickness is about 4000 m; the goal of core drilling the entire ice thickness there could be achieved before the end of 1983.

  7. Modern Imaging Technology: Recent Advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.

    2004-06-18

    This 2-day conference is designed to bring scientist working in nuclear medicine, as well as nuclear medicine practitioners together to discuss the advances in four selected areas of imaging: Biochemical Parameters using Small Animal Imaging, Developments in Small Animal PET Imaging, Cell Labeling, and Imaging Angiogenesis Using Multiple Modality. The presentations will be on molecular imaging applications at the forefront of research, up to date on the status of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as in related imaging areas. Experts will discuss the basic science of imaging techniques, and scheduled participants will engage in an exciting program that emphasizes the current status of molecular imaging as well as the role of DOE funded research in this area.

  8. Modern Imaging Technology: Recent Advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2-day conference is designed to bring scientist working in nuclear medicine, as well as nuclear medicine practitioners together to discuss the advances in four selected areas of imaging: Biochemical Parameters using Small Animal Imaging, Developments in Small Animal PET Imaging, Cell Labeling, and Imaging Angiogenesis Using Multiple Modality. The presentations will be on molecular imaging applications at the forefront of research, up to date on the status of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as in related imaging areas. Experts will discuss the basic science of imaging techniques, and scheduled participants will engage in an exciting program that emphasizes the current status of molecular imaging as well as the role of DOE funded research in this area

  9. Directions in advanced reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful nuclear power plant concepts must simultaneously performance in terms of both safety and economics. To be attractive to both electric utility companies and the public, such plants must produce economical electric energy consistent with a level of safety which is acceptable to both the public and the plant owner. Programs for reactor development worldwide can be classified according to whether the reactor concept pursues improved safety or improved economic performance as the primary objective. When improved safety is the primary goal, safety enters the solution of the design problem as a constraint which restricts the set of allowed solutions. Conversely, when improved economic performance is the primary goal, it is allowed to be pursued only to an extent which is compatible with stringent safety requirements. The three major reactor coolants under consideration for future advanced reactor use are water, helium and sodium. Reactor development programs focuses upon safety and upon economics using each coolant are being pursued worldwide. These programs are discussed

  10. Advanced neutral-beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive development will be required to achieve the 50- to 75-MW, 175- to 200-keV, 5- to 10-sec pulses of deuterium atoms envisioned for ETF and INTOR. Multi-megawatt injector systems are large (and expansive); they consist of large vacuum tanks with many square meters of cryogenic pumping panels, beam dumps capable of dissipating several megawatts of un-neutralized beam, bending magnets, electrical power systems capable of fast turnoff with low (capacity) stored energy, and, of course, the injector modules (ion sources and accelerators). The technology requirements associated with these components are described

  11. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2005-11-04

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  12. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-05-15

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  13. Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-09-30

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  14. Recent advances in CIM technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatkov B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the PIM (Powder Injection Moulding technology is described in brief. After that the benefits and advantages were analyzed and summarized. Ceramic injection moulding (CIM process was analyzed in more detail: CIM- alumina, CIM-zirconia and CIM ferrites as the most common technical ceramics in CIM ceramic parts production, medical applications and accessories in chemical laboratories, and cores in electronic inductive components. After that our results for CIM barium hexaferrite and piezo ceramics (barium titanate are given. The main powder characteristics, the shrinkage and density and the main electrical characteristics of the sintered samples were compared for the isostatically pressed PM (powder metallurgy and CIM formed samples. SEM fractographs of CIM and PM samples are given for CIM green parts, debinded (white parts and sintered parts, and PM green parts and sintered parts. The results obtained were compared to literature data before they were applied in ceramic components production.

  15. Robotics Technology Development Program Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Need-based cross cutting technology is being developed which is broadly applicable to the clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste within the US Department of Energy's complex. Highly modular, reusable technologies which plug into integrated system architectures to meet specific robotic needs result from this research. In addition, advanced technologies which significantly extend current capabilities such as automated planning and sensor-based control in unstructured environments for remote system operation are also being developed and rapidly integrated into operating systems

  16. Development of advanced PWR system analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. D.; Kim, S. O.; Jung, B. D.; Kim, Y. I.; Chang, M. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, J. H.

    1997-12-31

    The scope of this project is to establish the basic analysis technologies for the advanced designed with the passive and inherent safety concepts. The scope is extended to the application of these technologies to the performance and safety analysis of the passive reactor. Since the different design concepts are applied depending on the reactor power, the study is conducted for the small and medium sized integral reactor as well as the large scale passive reactors by focusing on the analysis technology development for the passive components. The design concepts which can be applied for the safety enhancement of the domestic advanced reactor are developed through evaluating the technical information of the overseas advanced reactor concepts.

  17. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  18. Technological Advances in Psychiatric Nursing: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and treating mental illness has improved in many ways as a result of the fast pace of technological advances. The technologies that have the greatest potential impact are those that (1) increase the knowledge of how the brain functions and changes based on interventions, (2) have the potential to personalize interventions based on understanding genetic factors of drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics, and (3) use information technology to provide treatment in the absence of an adequate mental health workforce. Technologies are explored for psychiatric nurses to consider. Psychiatric nurses are encouraged to consider the experiences of psychiatric patients, including poor health, stigmatization, and suffering.

  19. Technological advances for studying human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.

    1990-01-01

    Technological advances for studying human behavior are noted in viewgraph form. It is asserted that performance-aiding systems are proliferating without a fundamental understanding of how they would interact with the humans who must control them. Two views of automation research, the hardware view and the human-centered view, are listed. Other viewgraphs give information on vital elements for human-centered research, a continuum of the research process, available technologies, new technologies for persistent problems, a sample research infrastructure, the need for metrics, and examples of data-link technology.

  20. Technologies for Advanced Induction Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, M A; Autrey, D; Duncan, G; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Hanks, R; Kamin, G; Sangster, C; Sharp, W; Williams, C

    2000-01-01

    To harness fusion energy is one of today's greatest technological challenges, and one well worth pursuing. Success in the development of fusion power would result in a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. The fusion reaction, the process that powers the sun and the stars, can be duplicated on Earth. However, to date these fusion processes have been the products of large-scale experimental efforts. They have yet to achieve fusion in a manner that is cost effective and efficient enough to be applied in a commercial reactor. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been centrally involved in the Nation's inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program for over 25 years. Much of the focus of the LLNL ICF Program has been the well-known effort to develop high power, short wavelength laser drivers to create the conditions necessary for the fusion process. But the ICF Program has also been investigating, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the potential of heavy-ion accelerato...

  1. Advances in software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kakuda, Hiroyasu; Ohno, Yoshio

    1992-01-01

    Advances in Software Science and Technology, Volume 3 provides information pertinent to the advancement of the science and technology of computer software. This book discusses the various applications for computer systems.Organized into two parts encompassing 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the development of a system of writing tools called SUIKOU that analyzes a machine-readable Japanese document textually. This text then presents the conditioned attribute grammars (CAGs) and a system for evaluating them that can be applied to natural-language processing. Other chapters c

  2. Advances in software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Yoshio; Kamimura, Tsutomu

    1991-01-01

    Advances in Software Science and Technology, Volume 2 provides information pertinent to the advancement of the science and technology of computer software. This book discusses the various applications for computer systems.Organized into four parts encompassing 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of categorical frameworks that are widely used to represent data types in computer science. This text then provides an algorithm for generating vertices of a smoothed polygonal line from the vertices of a digital curve or polygonal curve whose position contains a certain amount of error. O

  3. Advances in software science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hikita, Teruo; Kakuda, Hiroyasu

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Software Science and Technology, Volume 4 provides information pertinent to the advancement of the science and technology of computer software. This book discusses the various applications for computer systems.Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the historical survey of programming languages for vector/parallel computers in Japan and describes compiling methods for supercomputers in Japan. This text then explains the model of a Japanese software factory, which is presented by the logical configuration that has been satisfied by

  4. Advanced sensing technology in environmental field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakida, Shin-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of advanced sensing technology in environmental fields, environmental issues were discussed as several categories, such as local environmental issues in the 1970s, global environmental issues in the 1980s, living environmental issues in the 2000s and environmental stress issues in near future, which are of increasing interest in Japan. Using advanced sensing technologies, such as electrochemical sensors, chemically-sensitive field-effect transistors (ChemFETs) based on micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) micromachining technology and subsequently electrophoretic separation and microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip using MEMS technology, we have steered several kinds of environmental monitoring projects timely in response to the environmental issues for over the last 25 years. Among the local environmental issues, the global environmental issues and the living environmental issues, some fruits of R&D project will be introduced. Finally, our latest concern of the environmental stress monitoring was discussed and preliminary results were also introduced.

  5. 75 FR 52472 - Spectrum Requirements for Advanced Medical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 95 Spectrum Requirements for Advanced Medical Technologies AGENCY: Federal... total of five megahertz of contiguous spectrum for advanced wireless medical radiocommunication devices... (1996). \\2\\ See Investigation of the Spectrum Requirements for Advanced Medical Technologies,...

  6. TECHcitement: Advances in Technological Education, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    This edition of "TECHcitement" contains the following articles: (1) ATE Program Leads to Student Success; (2) Doing Whatever It Takes for Aquaculture; (3) The Bridge to Biotech; (4) Girls See What They Can Do With Technology at Camp; (5) Students Advancing Solutions to Business Problems; (6) CREATE Recreates Technical Education in California; (7)…

  7. Advanced Technological Education Survey 2010 Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Lori; Westine, Carl; Gullickson, Arlen

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes data gathered in the 2010 survey of National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) grant recipients. Conducted by EvaluATE, the evaluation resource center for the ATE program located at The Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University, this was the eleventh annual survey of ATE projects and…

  8. Advanced Technological Education Survey 2012 Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Lori; Smith, Corey; Westine, Carl; Gullickson, Arlen

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes data gathered in the 2012 survey of National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) grant recipients. Conducted by EvaluATE, the evaluation resource center for the ATE program located at The Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University, this was the thirteenth annual survey of ATE projects…

  9. Advanced Technological Education Survey 2011 Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Lori; Westine, Carl; Gullickson, Arlen

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes data gathered in the 2011 survey of National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) grant recipients. Conducted by EvaluATE, the evaluation resource center for the ATE program located at The Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University, this was the twelfth annual survey of ATE projects and…

  10. Why Video? How Technology Advances Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of video to enhance qualitative research. Advances in technology have improved our ability to capture lived experiences through visual means. I reflect on my previous work with individuals living with HIV/AIDS, the results of which are described in another paper, to evaluate the effectiveness of video as a medium that…

  11. TECHcitement: Advances in Technology Education, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Madeline

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents the following articles: (1) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Develops Student Recruitment and Retention Strategies; (2) Marketer Advises Tech Educators Appeal to Teens' Emotions, Desires to Do Something Important; (3) Digital Bridge Academy Gets At-Risk Students on Paths to Knowledge-Based Careers; (4) Project…

  12. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh; Wilson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) development effort was initiated by NASA Glenn Research Center with contractor Sunpower, Inc., to develop high-efficiency thermal-to-electric power conversion technology for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs). Early successful performance demonstrations led to the expansion of the project as well as adoption of the technology by the Department of Energy (DOE) and system integration contractor Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company as part of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight project. The ASRG integrates a pair of ASCs to convert the heat from a pair of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules into electrical power. The expanded NASA ASC effort included development of several generations of ASC prototypes or engineering units to help prepare the ASC technology and Sunpower for flight implementation. Sunpower later had two parallel contracts allowing the last of the NASA engineering units called ASC-E3 to serve as pathfinders for the ASC-F flight convertors being built for DOE. The ASC-E3 convertors utilized the ASC-F flight specifications and were built using the ASC-F design and process documentation. Shortly after the first ASC-F pair achieved initial operation, due to budget constraints, the DOE ASRG flight development contract was terminated. NASA continues to invest in the development of Stirling RPS technology including continued production of the ASC-E3 convertors, seven of which have been delivered with one additional unit in production. Starting in fiscal year 2015, Stirling Convertor Technology Maturation has been reorganized as an element of the RPS Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project and long-term plans for continued Stirling technology advancement are in reformulation. This paper provides a status on the ASC project, an overview of advancements made in the design and production of the ASC at Sunpower, and a summary of acceptance tests, reliability tests, and tactical

  13. Accelerators for the advanced radiation technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam irradiation facilities are now under construction for the advanced radiation technology (ART) project in Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) JAERI. The project is intended to make an effective use of ion beams, especially ion beams, in the research field of radiation application technology. The TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities include four ion accelerators to produce almost all kinds of energetic ions in the periodic table. The facilities are also provided with several advanced irradiation means and act as very powerful accelerator complex for material development. Specifically, this report presents an outline of the ART project, features of TIARA as accelerator facilities dedicated to material development, the AVF cyclotron under construction (Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Model 930), tandem accelerator, microbeam, and experimental instruments used. (N.K.)

  14. Advanced technologies: Trends and implications for security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the world moves towards the close of the twentieth century, three technological trends will strongly influence security. In order of importance they are: first, the increasing globalization of the ability to develop and use high technology, much of which has both civilian and military applications; secondly, the broad dissemination of militarily-relevant technology world-wide; and thirdly, the continued development by the United States and the USSR (and a few other nations) of advanced technology for military applications. The military balance between the super-Powers and their allies has been strongly rooted in advancing military technology. Great changes in technology have resulted in adjustments -mostly in limited aspects such as the armour/ anti-armour balance - but have not caused it to change wildly. This seems likely to remain the case for the foreseeable future. There are arguments that Western technology has been a prime causative factor behind Soviet willingness to engage in negotiations to reduce forces. They claim that fear of the Strategic Defense Initiative is behind progress in the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks, and that perceived Western mastery of the technology for systems combining quick reaction, deep strike and high kill probabilities led the Soviet Union to reassess its potential for a successful land campaign in Europe. If current arms control negotiations are successful, the momentum is maintained, and other political changes take hold, the military balance could be taken to a point where ft would not be very sensitive to technological change. One should be aware that the arms control negotiations are very complex, primarily because of technological issues, and we should not yet bank on it all working out well. If it fails, the military technical competition will heat up again. Even under a strict arms control regime we can expect the competition to continue as each side seeks to develop counters to what ft sees as the other side

  15. Huawei Introduces Advanced relecom Technology to Uzbekistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    SINCE entering Uzbekistan in 1999, Huawei has grown into the country's biggest supplier of telecommunications equipment. Not only has Huawei introduced 3G technology to Uzbekistan, in cooperation with a local tele- tom operator, it has also deployed the eountry's first LTE (Long Term Evo- lution) network. After moving its Central Asian headquarters to Uzbekistan, Huawei expanded its business and brought advanced telecom technology to the host coun- try, which has improved Uzbekistan's overall technological level and local economic development.

  16. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  17. Recent advances in imaging technologies in dentistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naseem; Shah; Nikhil; Bansal; Ajay; Logani

    2014-01-01

    Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools,specially imaging methods, have become mandatory.From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation(brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry.

  18. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  19. Development of advanced neutron beam technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, B. S.; Lee, J. S.; Sim, C. M. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this work is to timely support the national science and technology policy through development of the advanced application techniques for neutron spectrometers, built in the previous project, in order to improve the neutron spectrometer techniques up to the world-class level in both quantity and quality and to reinforce industrial competitiveness. The importance of the research and development (R and D) is as follows: 1. Technological aspects - Development of a high value-added technology through performing the advanced R and D in the broad research areas from basic to applied science and from hard to soft condensed matter using neutron scattering technique. - Achievement of an important role in development of the new technology for the following industries aerospace, defense industry, atomic energy, hydrogen fuel cell etc. by the non-destructive inspection and analysis using neutron radiography. - Development of a system supporting the academic-industry users for the HANARO facility 2. Economical and Industrial Aspects - Essential technology in the industrial application of neutron spectrometer, in the basic and applied research of the diverse materials sciences, and in NT, BT, and IT areas - Broad impact on the economics and the domestic and international collaborative research by using the neutron instruments in the mega-scale research facility, HANARO, that is a unique source of neutron in Korea. 3. Social Aspects - Creating the scientific knowledge and contributing to the advanced industrial society through the neutron beam application - Improving quality of life and building a national consensus on the application of nuclear power by developing the RT fusion technology using the HANARO facility. - Widening the national research area and strengthening the national R and D capability by performing advanced R and D using the HANARO facility.

  20. Development of advanced neutron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to timely support the national science and technology policy through development of the advanced application techniques for neutron spectrometers, built in the previous project, in order to improve the neutron spectrometer techniques up to the world-class level in both quantity and quality and to reinforce industrial competitiveness. The importance of the research and development (R and D) is as follows: 1. Technological aspects - Development of a high value-added technology through performing the advanced R and D in the broad research areas from basic to applied science and from hard to soft condensed matter using neutron scattering technique. - Achievement of an important role in development of the new technology for the following industries aerospace, defense industry, atomic energy, hydrogen fuel cell etc. by the non-destructive inspection and analysis using neutron radiography. - Development of a system supporting the academic-industry users for the HANARO facility 2. Economical and Industrial Aspects - Essential technology in the industrial application of neutron spectrometer, in the basic and applied research of the diverse materials sciences, and in NT, BT, and IT areas - Broad impact on the economics and the domestic and international collaborative research by using the neutron instruments in the mega-scale research facility, HANARO, that is a unique source of neutron in Korea. 3. Social Aspects - Creating the scientific knowledge and contributing to the advanced industrial society through the neutron beam application - Improving quality of life and building a national consensus on the application of nuclear power by developing the RT fusion technology using the HANARO facility. - Widening the national research area and strengthening the national R and D capability by performing advanced R and D using the HANARO facility

  1. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høibye, L; Clauson-Kaas, J; Wenzel, H; Larsen, H F; Jacobsen, B N; Dalgaard, O

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment, which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances and three advanced treatment methods; sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment is the most advantageous advanced treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regards to removal of heavy metals.

  2. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  3. Advances in Bioprinting Technologies for Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Dafydd O; Farré-Guasch, Elisabet; Helder, Marco N; Gibbs, Susan; Forouzanfar, Tymour; van Zuijlen, Paul P; Wolff, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in craniofacial reconstruction have shown important advances in both the materials and methods used. While autogenous tissue is still considered to be the gold standard for these reconstructions, the harvesting procedure remains tedious and in many cases causes significant donor site morbidity. These limitations have subsequently led to the development of less invasive techniques such as 3D bioprinting that could offer possibilities to manufacture patient-tailored bioactive tissue constructs for craniofacial reconstruction. Here, we discuss the current technological and (pre)clinical advances of 3D bioprinting for use in craniofacial reconstruction and highlight the challenges that need to be addressed in the coming years.

  4. Advances in Bioprinting Technologies for Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Dafydd O; Farré-Guasch, Elisabet; Helder, Marco N; Gibbs, Susan; Forouzanfar, Tymour; van Zuijlen, Paul P; Wolff, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in craniofacial reconstruction have shown important advances in both the materials and methods used. While autogenous tissue is still considered to be the gold standard for these reconstructions, the harvesting procedure remains tedious and in many cases causes significant donor site morbidity. These limitations have subsequently led to the development of less invasive techniques such as 3D bioprinting that could offer possibilities to manufacture patient-tailored bioactive tissue constructs for craniofacial reconstruction. Here, we discuss the current technological and (pre)clinical advances of 3D bioprinting for use in craniofacial reconstruction and highlight the challenges that need to be addressed in the coming years. PMID:27113634

  5. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1970-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 5 presents the underlying principles and theory, as well as the practical applications of the advances in the nuclear field. This book reviews the specialized applications to such fields as space propulsion.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the design and objective of the Fast Flux Test Facility to provide fast flux irradiation testing facilities. This text then examines the problem in the design of nuclear reactors, which is the analysis of the spatial and temporal behavior of the neutron and temperature dist

  6. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Greebler, Paul

    1966-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 3 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book presents the advances in the atomic energy field.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the use of pulsed neutron sources for the determination of the thermalization and diffusion properties of moderating as well as multiplying media. This text then examines the effect of nuclear radiation on electronic circuitry and its components. Other chapters consider radiation effects in various inorganic solids, with empha

  7. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  8. Advances in Robotic Servicing Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefke, Gardell G.; Janas, Alex; Pellegrino, Joseph; Sammons, Matthew; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) has matured robotic and automation technologies applicable to in-space robotic servicing and robotic exploration over the last six years. This paper presents the progress of technology development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center Servicing Technology Center and on the ISS, with an emphasis on those occurring in the past year. Highlighted advancements are design reference mission analysis for servicing in low Earth orbit (LEO) and asteroid redirection; delivery of the engineering development unit of the NASA Servicing Arm; an update on International Space Station Robotic Refueling Mission; and status of a comprehensive ground-based space robot technology demonstration expanding in-space robotic servicing capabilities beginning fall 2015.

  9. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTT's automotive technology programs. This project is managed by ORNL and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DoD, and industry. Research is discussed under the following topics; Turbomilling of SiC Whiskers; microwave sintering of silicon nitride; and milling characterization; processing of monolithics; silicon nitride matrix; oxide matrix; silicate matrix; thermal and wear coatings; joining; design; contact interfaces; time-dependent behavior; environmental effects; fracture mechanics; nondestructive evaluation; and technology transfer. References, figures, and tables are included with each topic.

  10. Cooperative technology development: An approach to advancing energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology development requires an enormous financial investment over a long period of time. Scarce national and corporate resources, the result of highly competitive markets, decreased profit margins, wide currency fluctuations, and growing debt, often preclude continuous development of energy technology by single entities, i.e., corporations, institutions, or nations. Although the energy needs of the developed world are generally being met by existing institutions, it is becoming increasingly clear that existing capital formation and technology transfer structures have failed to aid developing nations in meeting their growing electricity needs. This paper will describe a method for meeting the electricity needs of the developing world through technology transfer and international cooperative technology development. The role of nuclear power and the advanced passive plant design will be discussed. (author)

  11. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 7 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book discusses the safe and beneficial development of land-based nuclear power plants.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of irradiation-induced void swelling in austenitic stainless steels. This text then examines the importance of various transport processes for fission product redistribution, which depends on the diffusion data, the vaporization properties, and the solubility in the fuel matrix. Other chapters co

  12. Advances in HTGR spent fuel treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GA Technologies, Inc. has been investigating the burning of spent reactor graphite under Department of Energy sponsorship since 1969. Several deep fluidized bed burners have been used at the GA pilot plant to develop graphite burning techniques for both spent fuel recovery and volume reduction for waste disposal. Since 1982 this technology has been extended to include more efficient circulating bed burners. This paper includes updates on high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel cycle options and current results of spent fuel treatment testing for fluidized and advanced circulating bed burners

  13. Advances and trends in computational structures technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Venneri, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The major goals of computational structures technology (CST) are outlined, and recent advances in CST are examined. These include computational material modeling, stochastic-based modeling, computational methods for articulated structural dynamics, strategies and numerical algorithms for new computing systems, multidisciplinary analysis and optimization. The role of CST in the future development of structures technology and the multidisciplinary design of future flight vehicles is addressed, and the future directions of CST research in the prediction of failures of structural components, the solution of large-scale structural problems, and quality assessment and control of numerical simulations are discussed.

  14. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 9 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book discusses the safe and beneficial development of land-based nuclear power plants.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the possible consequences of a large-scale release of radioactivity from a nuclear reactor in the event of a serious accident. This text then discusses the extension of conventional perturbation techniques to multidimensional systems and to high-order approximations of the Boltzmann equation.

  15. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1972-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 6 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear steam generator, oscillations, fast reactor fuel, gas centrifuge, thermal transport system, and fuel cycle.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the high standards of technical safety for Europe's first nuclear-propelled merchant ship. This text then examines the state of knowledge concerning qualitative results on the behavior of the solutions of the nonlinear poin

  16. Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-02-01

    Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.

  17. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment......, which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination...... and three advanced treatment methods: sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment are the most advantageous advanved treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms...

  18. Recent technological advancements in breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is becoming increasingly common as an imaging tool for the detection and characterization of breast tumors. This paper provides an overview of recent technological advancements, especially those that may have an impact in clinical applications in the field of breast ultrasound in the near future. These advancements include close to 100% fractional bandwidth high frequency (5-18MHz) 2D and 3D arrays, automated breast imaging systems to minimize the operator dependence and advanced processing techniques, such as those used for detection of microcalcifications. In addition, elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations that are expected to further enhance the clinical importance of ultrasound based breast tumor screening are briefly reviewed. These techniques have shown initial promise in clinical trials and may translate to more comprehensive clinical adoption in the future. PMID:27179143

  19. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances......As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regards to removal of heavy metals. Key words | advanced wastewater treatment, life cycle assessment, MBR, ozone treatment, sand...

  20. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  1. Technological advances in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milan; Vosmik; Jiri; Petera; Igor; Sirak; Miroslav; Hodek; Petr; Paluska; Jiri; Dolezal; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and surgery represent the main treatment modalities in esophageal cancer.The goal of modern radiotherapy approaches,based on recent technological advances,is to minimize post-treatment complications by improving the gross tumor volume definition (positron emission tomography-based planning),reducing interfraction motion (image-guided radiotherapy) and intrafraction motion (respiratory-gated radiotherapy),and by better dose delivery to the precisely defined planning ...

  2. Medical technology advances from space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  3. RUBIN Microsatellites for Advanced Space Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    The first new space technology demonstration payload BIRD-RUBIN was developed by OHB- System in co-operation with students from the University of Applied Sciences, Bremen, and was successfully launched July 15th, 2000 together with the scientific satellites CHAMP and MITA onboard a COSMOS 3M launcher. The BIRD-RUBIN mission has tested the telematics technology in space via ORBCOMM network. Small data packages were sent by the hatbox sized system to the ORBCOMM satellite net, then transmitted further on to the ground stations and from that point entered into the internet. The payload user could retrieve the data direct via email account and was able to send commands back to payload in orbit. The next micro satellite RUBIN-2 for advanced space technology demonstration will be launched at the end of 2002 as "secondary" payload on the Russian launcher DNEPR. The RUBIN-2 micro satellite platform will use again the inter-satellite communication mode via Orbcomm network and offers an orbital testbed with low cost, bi-directional and near real-time Internet access. In parallel to the further inter satellite link experiments using Orbcomm, several additional leading edge technology experiments will be done onboard Rubin-2 (electrical propulsion, two loop miniaturized thermal control system, GPS navigation, LI-Ion Battery, etc.). This paper provides an overview of RUBIN micro satellites for advanced space technology demonstrations. The main results of the first BIRD-RUBIN experiment and the goals of the second Rubin-2 mission are described. The potential of low cost technology demonstration missions using Internet and inter satellite communication technology via commercial satellite systems and the piggyback flight opportunities on Russian launchers are discussed.

  4. Gas-to-liquid technologies: India's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-to-liquid (GTL) technologies are capable of converting gas to clean, useful liquid hydrocarbons and thus suitable for addressing problems of remote gas utilization, increase in crude oil price, depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution. The Indian state of Tripura is considered to be the richest province with 26 billion cubic meters of gas reserves. Neighboring country Myanmar has huge gas reserves but these reserves remain unutilized mainly because of land-locked situation. GTL is a well developed and proven technology and it is an important option for moving natural gas to the market place. GTL options include not only the well-known production of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis liquids but also the production of oxygen containing fuels, fuel additives and chemicals, such as methanol and DME. An alternative, promising option to convert surplus gas is the direct route of methane conversion, which is more energy efficient than the indirect route since it bypasses the energy intensive endothermic steam reforming step of syngas formation. On-site conversion to liquid products of commercial importance using direct route would make transportation of these natural deposits much more economical and practical. In this paper an attempt has been made to review recent developments in syngas technologies, direct routes of methane conversion into useful liquids, and status of both existing and future developments in GTL industry around the world. Finally challenges in GTL technology are discussed. (author)

  5. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  6. National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-06-15

    The second meeting of Federal agency representatives interested in the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program took place on June 15, 1993. The Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hosted the meeting at the Washington, D.C., offices of DOE. Representatives from the National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Bureau of Mines, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, and various offices within the Department of Energy attended. For a complete list of attendees see Attachment A. The purpose of the meeting was: (1) to cover the status of efforts to gain formal approval for NADET, (2) to brief participants on events since the last meeting, especially two recent workshops that explored research needs in drilling and excavation, (3) to review some recent technological advances, and (4) to solicit statements of the importance of improving drilling and excavation technologies to the missions of the various agencies. The meeting agenda is included as Attachment B.

  7. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  8. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birur, Gaj

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of thermal control technology at JPL and NASA.It shows the active spacecraft that are in vairous positions in the solar syatem, and beyond the solar system and the future missions that are under development. It then describes the challenges that the past missions posed with the thermal control systems. The various solutions that were implemented duirng the decades prior to 1990 are outlined. A review of hte thermal challenges of the future misions is also included. The exploration plan for Mars is then reviewed. The thermal challenges of the Mars Rovers are then outlined. Also the challenges of systems that would be able to be used in to explore Venus, and Titan are described. The future space telescope missions will also need thermal control technological advances. Included is a review of the thermal requirements for manned missions to the Moon. Both Active and passive technologies that have been used and will be used are reviewed. Those that are described are Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops (MPFL), Loop Heat Pipes, an M3 Passive Cooler, Heat Siwtch for Space and Mars surface applications, phase change material (PCM) technology, a Gas Gap Actuateor using ZrNiH(x), the Planck Sorption Cooler (PCS), vapor compression -- Hybrid two phase loops, advanced pumps for two phase cooling loops, and heat pumps that are lightweight and energy efficient.

  9. Advances in Information Technology and Industry Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    With success of ICEEE 2010 in Wuhan, China, and December 4 to 5, 2010, the second International Conference of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICEEE 2011) will be held in Macau, China, and December 1 to 2, 2011. ICEEE is an annual conference to call together researchers, engineers, academicians as well as industrial professionals from all over the world to present their research results and development activities in Electrical and Electronics Engineering along with Computer Science and Technology, Communication Technology, Artificial Intelligence, Information Technology, etc.   This year ICEEE is sponsored by International Industrial Electronics Center, Hong Kong. And based on the deserved reputation, more than 750 papers have been submitted to ICEEE 2011, from which about 94 high quality original papers have been selected for the conference presentation and inclusion in the “Advanced Computer, Communication, and Control” book based on the referees’ comments from peer-refereed. All the papers wi...

  10. Advanced DNA assembly technologies in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetanova, Billyana; Peng, Lansha; Liang, Xiquan; Li, Ke; Hammond, Linda; Peterson, Todd C; Katzen, Federico

    2012-05-01

    Recombinant DNA technologies have had a fundamental impact on drug discovery. The continuous emergence of unique gene assembly techniques resulted in the generation of a variety of therapeutic reagents such as vaccines, cancer treatment molecules and regenerative medicine precursors. With the advent of synthetic biology there is a growing need for precise and concerted assembly of multiple DNA fragments of various sizes, including chromosomes. In this article, we summarize the highlights of the recombinant DNA technology since its inception in the early 1970s, emphasizing on the most recent advances, and underscoring their principles, advantages and shortcomings. Current and prior cloning trends are discussed in the context of sequence requirements and scars left behind. Our opinion is that despite the remarkable progress that has enabled the generation and manipulation of very large DNA sequences, a better understanding of the cell's natural circuits is needed in order to fully exploit the current state-of-the-art gene assembly technologies.

  11. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh W. Rimmer

    2004-05-12

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the seventeen subprojects awarded in the first year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices. Due to the time taken up by the solicitation/selection process, these cover the initial 6-month period of project activity only. The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 1999, U.S. mining operations produced $66.7 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $533 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, this endeavor has been expanded into a seven-university consortium--Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah, Montana Tech, New Mexico Tech and University of Nevada, Reno--that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation (2) Solid-liquid separation (3) Chemical/Biological Extraction (4) Modeling and Control, and (5) Environmental Control.

  12. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  13. International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education

    CERN Document Server

    Advanced Information Technology in Education

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. With the development of computers and advanced technology, the human social activities are changing basically. Education, especially the education reforms in different countries, has been experiencing the great help from the computers and advanced technology. Generally speaking, education is a field which needs more information, while the computers, advanced technology and internet are a good information provider. Also, with the aid of the computer and advanced technology, persons can make the education an effective combination. Therefore, computers and advanced technology should be regarded as an important media in the modern education. Volume Advanced Information Technology in Education is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of computers and advanced technology in education to d...

  14. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2010-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the business plan of the Ministry of Advanced Education and Technology for 2010 to 2013. Advanced Education and Technology supports the advanced learning system by providing funding for advanced learning providers, coordinating and approving programs of study at public institutions, licensing and approving programs at private…

  15. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section 611.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to demonstrate that a vehicle is...

  16. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V. [ed.; Feinberg, O.; Morozov, A. [Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Devell, L. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-07-01

    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary.

  17. Technological Advances in Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ughratdar, Ismail; Samuel, Michael; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2015-01-01

    Functional and stereotactic neurosurgery has always been regarded as a subspecialty based on and driven by technological advances. However until recently, the fundamentals of deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware and software design had largely remained stagnant since its inception almost three decades ago. Recent improved understanding of disease processes in movement disorders as well clinician and patient demands has resulted in new avenues of development for DBS technology. This review describes new advances both related to hardware and software for neuromodulation. New electrode designs with segmented contacts now enable sophisticated shaping and sculpting of the field of stimulation, potentially allowing multi-target stimulation and avoidance of side effects. To avoid lengthy programming sessions utilising multiple lead contacts, new user-friendly software allows for computational modelling and individualised directed programming. Therapy delivery is being improved with the next generation of smaller profile, longer-lasting, re-chargeable implantable pulse generators (IPGs). These include IPGs capable of delivering constant current stimulation or personalised closed-loop adaptive stimulation. Post-implantation Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has long been an issue which has been partially overcome with 'MRI conditional devices' and has enabled verification of DBS lead location. Surgical technique is considering a shift from frame-based to frameless stereotaxy or greater role for robot assisted implantation. The challenge for these contemporary techniques however, will be in demonstrating equivalent safety and accuracy to conventional methods. We also discuss potential future direction utilising wireless technology allowing for miniaturisation of hardware.

  18. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary

  19. Advanced Technology System Scheduling Governance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carnes, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoang, Thuc [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vigil, Manuel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-11

    In the fall of 2005, the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program appointed a team to formulate a governance model for allocating resources and scheduling the stockpile stewardship workload on ASC capability systems. This update to the original document takes into account the new technical challenges and roles for advanced technology (AT) systems and the new ASC Program workload categories that must be supported. The goal of this updated model is to effectively allocate and schedule AT computing resources among all three National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories for weapons deliverables that merit priority on this class of resource. The process outlined below describes how proposed work can be evaluated and approved for resource allocations while preserving high effective utilization of the systems. This approach will provide the broadest possible benefit to the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP).

  20. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P. [Batelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  1. Recent advances in magnetostrictive particulate composite technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Wade J.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.; Carman, Gregory P.

    2002-07-01

    Recently, there have been significant advances in using magnetostrictive particles in a polymer matrix; finding uses in many applications, both as an active transducer and a passive damper. Termed magnetostrictive particulate composites (MPC), the material provides capabilities identical or superior to the monolithic material. Fortis Technologies has been pursuing improvements in the application and fabrication of this innovative material. The MPC technology provides a passive, broadband, large temperature range, high stiffness, dampling material to be used where current technologies fall short. Damping applications of this technology include sporting goods, power/hand tools, space launch and satellite design, noise abatement and vibration isolation. Energy absorption of the composites has been measured and is approaching that of the monolithic material. The material can also be actively controlled by a magnetic field, producing a transducer that can be used for sonar applications. The advantage of this technology over those currently in use is the large power density at relatively low frequencies and the ease of fabrication, allowing less expensive and more effective conformal arrays. Effective strain output and piezomagnetic coefficients have been measured, as have its dynamic properties. The results show significant improvement of the strain output and piezomagnetic coefficients, approaching the monolithic material.

  2. Advanced Technology Development for Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2004-01-01

    A high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for use on potential NASA Space Science missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). These missions may include providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions or power for unmanned Mars rovers. GRC is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and the overall power system. Performance and mass improvement goals have been established for second- and thirdgeneration Stirling radioisotope power systems. Multiple efforts are underway to achieve these goals, both in-house at GRC and under various grants and contracts. The status and results to date for these efforts will be discussed in this paper. Cleveland State University (CSU) is developing a multi-dimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code, capable of modeling complete convertors. A 2-D version of the code is now operational, and validation efforts at both CSU and the University of Minnesota are complementing the code development. A screening of advanced superalloy, refractory metal alloy, and ceramic materials has been completed, and materials have been selected for creep and joining characterization as part of developing a high-temperature heater head. A breadboard characterization is underway for an advanced controller using power electronics for active power factor control with a goal of eliminating the heavy tuning capacitors that are typically needed to achieve near unity power factors. Key Stirling developments just initiated under recent NRA (NASA Research Announcement) awards will also be discussed. These include a lightweight convertor to be developed by Sunpower Inc. and an advanced microfabricated regenerator to be done by CSU.

  3. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, R

    2002-05-09

    The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate was created in July 2000 by Bruce Tarter, Director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Director called for the new organization to execute and support programs that apply cutting-edge physics and advanced technology to develop integrated solutions to problems in national security, fusion energy, information science, health care, and other national grand challenges. When I was appointed a year later as the PAT Directorate's first Associate Director, I initiated a strategic planning project to develop a vision, mission, and long-term goals for the Directorate. We adopted the goal of becoming a leader in frontier physics and technology for twenty-first-century national security missions: Stockpile Stewardship, homeland security, energy independence, and the exploration of space. Our mission is to: (1) Help ensure the scientific excellence and vitality of the major LLNL programs through its leadership role in performing basic and applied multidisciplinary research and development with programmatic impact, and by recruiting and retaining science and technology leaders; (2) Create future opportunities and directions for LLNL and its major programs by growing new program areas and cutting-edge capabilities that are synergistic with, and supportive of, its national security mission; (3) Provide a direct conduit to the academic and high-tech industrial sectors for LLNL and its national security programs, through which the Laboratory gains access to frontier science and technology, and can impact the science and technology communities; (4) Leverage unique Laboratory capabilities, to advance the state universe. This inaugural PAT Annual Report begins a series that will chronicle our progress towards fulfilling this mission. I believe the report demonstrates that the PAT Directorate has a strong base of capabilities and accomplishments on which to build in meeting its goals. Some of the highlights

  4. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2001 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate was created in July 2000 by Bruce Tarter, Director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Director called for the new organization to execute and support programs that apply cutting-edge physics and advanced technology to develop integrated solutions to problems in national security, fusion energy, information science, health care, and other national grand challenges. When I was appointed a year later as the PAT Directorate's first Associate Director, I initiated a strategic planning project to develop a vision, mission, and long-term goals for the Directorate. We adopted the goal of becoming a leader in frontier physics and technology for twenty-first-century national security missions: Stockpile Stewardship, homeland security, energy independence, and the exploration of space. Our mission is to: (1) Help ensure the scientific excellence and vitality of the major LLNL programs through its leadership role in performing basic and applied multidisciplinary research and development with programmatic impact, and by recruiting and retaining science and technology leaders; (2) Create future opportunities and directions for LLNL and its major programs by growing new program areas and cutting-edge capabilities that are synergistic with, and supportive of, its national security mission; (3) Provide a direct conduit to the academic and high-tech industrial sectors for LLNL and its national security programs, through which the Laboratory gains access to frontier science and technology, and can impact the science and technology communities; (4) Leverage unique Laboratory capabilities, to advance the state universe. This inaugural PAT Annual Report begins a series that will chronicle our progress towards fulfilling this mission. I believe the report demonstrates that the PAT Directorate has a strong base of capabilities and accomplishments on which to build in meeting its goals. Some of the highlights

  5. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1975-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 8 discusses the development of nuclear power in several countries throughout the world. This book discusses the world's largest program of land-based electricity production in the United States.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the phenomenon of quasi-exponential behavior by examining two mathematical models of the neutron field. This text then discusses the finite element method, which is a method for obtaining approximate solutions to integral or differential equations. Other chapters consider the status of

  6. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1962-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 1 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear power stations, graft polymerization, diffusion in uranium alloys, and conventional power plants.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the three stages of the operation of a power plant, either nuclear or conventionally fueled. This text then examines the major problems that face the successful development of commercial nuclear power plants. Other chapters consider

  7. Technologies Advance UAVs for Science, Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center and West Virginia University enabled Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, of Manassas, Virginia, to develop cost-effective composite manufacturing capabilities and open a facility in West Virginia. The company now employs 160 workers at the plant, tasked with crafting airframe components for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program. While one third of the company's workforce focuses on Global Hawk production, the rest of the company develops advanced UAV technologies that are redefining traditional approaches to unmanned aviation. Since the company's founding, Aurora s cutting-edge work has been supported with funding from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

  8. Systematic Discrimination of Advanced Hydrogen Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, in concert with industry, is developing a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate high temperature heat applications to produce hydrogen and electricity or to support other industrial applications. A key part of this program is the production of hydrogen from water that would significantly reduce carbon emissions compared to current production using natural gas. In 2009 the INL led the methodical evaluation of promising advanced hydrogen production technologies in order to focus future resources on the most viable processes. This paper describes how the evaluation process was systematically planned and executed. As a result, High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis was selected as the most viable near-term technology to deploy as a part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project.

  9. CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY (CAST) PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Hull, Christopher

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation’s GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations.

  10. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: Indirect Liquefaction (oxygenated fuels); and Indirect Liquefaction (Fischer-Tropsch technology). Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Advances in material capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material capsule system has been developed for irradiation tests of non-fissile materials in HANARO. This capsule system has been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. Based on the accumulated experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, several advances in material capsule technologies were obtained recently for a more precise control and analysis of the neutron irradiation effect in HANARO. New instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen, irrespective of the reactor operation, have been developed and out-pile tested. The OR/IP capsule technologies for an irradiation test in the HANARO OR and IP test holes with a relatively lower neutron flux than the CT and IR test holes have also been developed and in-pile tested, successfully. A high temperature irradiation technology up to 1000degC is under development. An evaluation of the DPA (Displacement Per Atom) and activation of irradiated specimens was attempted by using the SPECTOR and ORIGEN2 codes, respectively. A new fluence monitor with a decreased activity was designed to measure the thermal and fast neutron fluences of the irradiated specimens. A friction welded tube using STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process after an irradiation. (author)

  12. Technology advancement for integrative stem cell analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoon; Choi, Jonghoon; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have endeavored to use stem cells for a variety of applications ranging from basic science research to translational medicine. Population-based characterization of such stem cells, while providing an important foundation to further development, often disregard the heterogeneity inherent among individual constituents within a given population. The population-based analysis and characterization of stem cells and the problems associated with such a blanket approach only underscore the need for the development of new analytical technology. In this article, we review current stem cell analytical technologies, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each, followed by applications of these technologies in the field of stem cells. Furthermore, while recent advances in micro/nano technology have led to a growth in the stem cell analytical field, underlying architectural concepts allow only for a vertical analytical approach, in which different desirable parameters are obtained from multiple individual experiments and there are many technical challenges that limit vertically integrated analytical tools. Therefore, we propose--by introducing a concept of vertical and horizontal approach--that there is the need of adequate methods to the integration of information, such that multiple descriptive parameters from a stem cell can be obtained from a single experiment.

  13. Advanced technologies for power and fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, J.U.; Mann, A.N. [US Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) being conducted by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a government and industry co-funded effort. The program's purpose is to demonstrate new generation of innovative, environmentally friendly processes that enhance the utilization of coal to meet increasing demand for electric power and fuels. Program demonstration areas include environmental control, advanced power generation, fuels production, and industrial applications. The CCT Program has now grown to maturity, with over 50% of the projects selected having successfully completed their demonstration goals and objectives. Under the CCT Program, nine advanced electric power generation projects and five coal processing for clean fuels projects were selected for full scale commercial demonstration. This paper provides the status, accomplishments and results of the most widely accepted technologies currently being commercialized under these two categories. The projects are (1) Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) at Jacksonville Electric Authority; (2) Integrated Gasification Combined-cycle (IGCC) at Wabash River, Tampa Electric and Kentucky Pioneer; and (3) Eastman Chemical's production of methanol via coal gasification using the LPMEOH{trademark} process. 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Advanced IGCC technology for competitive power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, H.-R.; Ullrich, N.; Haupt, G.; Zimmermann, G.; Pruschek, R.; Oeljeklaus, G. [Krupp Uhde GmbH (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The paper reports interim results of a comprehensive ongoing study of potential for development funded by the European Commission. First, the status of the advanced IGCC technology is described. This IGCC 98 concept, including what has been achieved in 1998, results in net station efficiencies around 52% according to the site conditions prevailing in Denmark, where one of the world`s most modern pulverised-coal-fired power plants (design efficiency 47%) is currently under construction. The advanced IGCC station will be equipped with PRENFLO gasification developed by Krupp and a Siemens Model V94.3A gas turbine-generator. The second section depicts the results of a detailed cost estimate based on Western European conditions and aimed at clearly lower specific capital investment for an IGCC power plant. This cost estimate is based mainly on bidding information from competent manufacturers and suggests that the target purchase price of 1,100 US dollars per kW installed capacity is likely to be verified in the near future. One main factor contributing to achievement of this figure is the tremendous increase in net power output to about 450 MW with nearly the same absolute capital investment as for IGCC plants designed previously. Consequently, this permits IGCC generating costs surely lower than those of a comparable pulverised-coal-fired (PCF) steam power plant, so that the advanced IGCC stations described in this paper can be regarded as truly competitive. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Advancement in Textile Technology for Defence Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdayal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.

  16. Advancement in Textile Technology for Defence Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.331-339, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2756

  17. Advanced fuel technology - A UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry in the United Kingdom is perhaps more diverse than in any other country. The diversity in design of stations is matched by a diversity in operating responsibility. The SGHWR and PFR are operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), 2 of the Magnox stations are owned and run by BNFL, 2 of the AGR stations and 1 Magnox station are controlled by the South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB), and the remaining reactors (including the Sizewell 'B' PWR) currently come under the responsibility of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) but will pass into the control of a new state-run company when the rest of the CEGB is privatized in 1990. Against this background of a variety of designs and operational responsibilities, there is clearly a great deal of scope for advances in fuel and fuel component technology. It should be noted, however, that the nuclear energy policy within the United Kingdom, particularly with regard to PWR plants, has been to adopt well proven designs wherever possible. Emphasis is therefore directed towards achieving the successful operation of conservative systems, with research and development work on advanced options for future implementation. The following sections give an overview of the areas where advanced designs are either in production or under development for each of the UK reactor systems in turn, together with an indication of possible future developments

  18. Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver

    2011-01-14

    As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

  19. Creating Educational Technology Curricula for Advanced Studies in Learning Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Nakayama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum design and content are key factors in the area of human resource development. To examine the possibility of using a collaboration of Human Computer Interaction (HCI and Educational Technology (ET to develop innovative improvements to the education system, the curricula of these two areas of study were lexically analyzed and compared. As a further example, the curriculum of a joint course in HCI and ET was also lexically analyzed and the contents were examined. These analyses can be used as references in the development of human resources for use in advanced learning environments.

  20. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction

  1. Advances in space technology: the NSBRI Technology Development Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, R. H.; Charles, H. K. Jr; Pisacane, V. L.

    2002-01-01

    As evidenced from Mir and other long-duration space missions, the space environment can cause significant alterations in the human physiology that could prove dangerous for astronauts. The NASA programme to develop countermeasures for these deleterious human health effects is being carried out by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The NSBRI has 12 research teams, ten of which are primarily physiology based, one addresses on-board medical care, and the twelfth focuses on technology development in support of the other research teams. This Technology Development (TD) Team initially supported four instrumentation developments: (1) an advanced, multiple projection, dual energy X ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanning system: (2) a portable neutron spectrometer; (3) a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer: and (4) a cardiovascular identification system. Technical highlights of the original projects are presented along with an introduction to the five new TD Team projects being funded by the NSBRI.

  2. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher E. Hull

    2005-01-20

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2003, U.S. mining operations produced $57 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $564 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation; (2) Solid-liquid separation; (3) Chemical/Biological Extraction; (4) Modeling and Control; and (5) Environmental Control.

  3. Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Hull

    2009-10-31

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2003, U.S. mining operations produced $57 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $564 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, this endeavor has been expanded into a seven-university consortium -- Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah, Montana Tech, New Mexico Tech and University of Nevada, Reno - that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation; (2) Solid-liquid separation; (3) Chemical/biological extraction; (4) Modeling and control; and (5) Environmental control. Distribution of funds is handled via competitive solicitation of research proposals through Site Coordinators at the seven member universities. These were first reviewed and ranked by a group of technical reviewers (selected primarily from industry). Based on these reviews, and an assessment of overall program requirements, the CAST Technical Committee made an initial selection/ranking of proposals and forwarded these to the DOE/NETL Project Officer for final review and approval. The successful projects are listed by category, along with brief abstracts of their aims and objectives.

  4. Advanced PWR technology development -Development of advanced PWR system analysis technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Moon Heui; Hwang, Yung Dong; Kim, Sung Oh; Yoon, Joo Hyun; Jung, Bub Dong; Choi, Chul Jin; Lee, Yung Jin; Song, Jin Hoh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The primary scope of this study is to establish the analysis technology for the advanced reactor designed on the basis of the passive and inherent safety concepts. This study is extended to the application of these technology to the safety analysis of the passive reactor. The study was performed for the small and medium sized reactor and the large sized reactor by focusing on the development of the analysis technology for the passive components. Among the identified concepts the once-through steam generator, the natural circulation of the integral reactor, heat pipe for containment cooling, and hydraulic valve were selected as the high priority items to be developed and the related studies are being performed for these items. For the large sized passive reactor, the study plans to extend the applicability of the best estimate computer code RELAP5/MOD3 which is widely used for the safety analyses of the reactor system. The improvement and supplementation study of the analysis modeling and the methodology is planned to be carried out for these purpose. The newly developed technologies are expected to be applied to the domestic advanced reactor design and analysis and these technologies will play a key role in extending the domestic nuclear base technology and consolidating self-reliance in the essential nuclear technology. 72 figs, 15 tabs, 124 refs. (Author).

  5. NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program: Advanced Concepts and Disruptive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M. M.; Moe, K.; Komar, G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) manages a wide range of information technology projects under the Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program. The AIST Program aims to support all phases of NASA's Earth Science program with the goal of enabling new observations and information products, increasing the accessibility and use of Earth observations, and reducing the risk and cost of satellite and ground based information systems. Recent initiatives feature computational technologies to improve information extracted from data streams or model outputs and researchers' tools for Big Data analytics. Data-centric technologies enable research communities to facilitate collaboration and increase the speed with which results are produced and published. In the future NASA anticipates more small satellites (e.g., CubeSats), mobile drones and ground-based in-situ sensors will advance the state-of-the-art regarding how scientific observations are performed, given the flexibility, cost and deployment advantages of new operations technologies. This paper reviews the success of the program and the lessons learned. Infusion of these technologies is challenging and the paper discusses the obstacles and strategies to adoption by the earth science research and application efforts. It also describes alternative perspectives for the future program direction and for realizing the value in the steps to transform observations from sensors to data, to information, and to knowledge, namely: sensor measurement concepts development; data acquisition and management; data product generation; and data exploitation for science and applications.

  6. 75 FR 40857 - Webinar About Advanced Defense Technologies RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Webinar About Advanced Defense Technologies RFP AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of open webinar meeting to discuss Advanced Defense Technologies (ADT) Request for... webinar it is hosting to answer questions from potential Offerors about the Advanced Defense...

  7. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2010-13. Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Technology envisions Alberta's prosperity through innovation and lifelong learning. Advanced Education and Technology's mission is to lead the development of a knowledge-driven future through a dynamic and integrated advanced learning and innovation system. This paper presents the highlights of the business…

  8. Technological advances in electrospinning of nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee-Eong Teo, Ryuji Inai and Seeram Ramakrishna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the electrospinning techniques has brought new methods for the production and construction of various nanofibrous assemblies. The parameters affecting electrospinning include electrical charges on the emerging jet, charge density and removal, as well as effects of external perturbations. The solvent and the method of fiber collection also affect the construction of the final nanofibrous architecture. Various techniques of yarn spinning using solid and liquid surfaces as well as surface-free collection are described and compared in this review. Recent advances allow production of 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with a desired microstructure. In the area of tissue regeneration and bioengineering, 3D scaffolds should bring nanofibrous technology closer to clinical applications. There is sufficient understanding of the electrospinning process and experimental results to suggest that precision electrospinning is a real possibility.

  9. Nanoporous metals for advanced energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art research in nanoporous metals for potential applications in advanced energy fields, including proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Li batteries (Li ion, Li-S, and Li-O2), and supercapacitors. The related structural design and performance of nanoporous metals as well as possible mechanisms and challenges are fully addressed. The formation mechanisms of nanoporous metals during dealloying, the microstructures of nanoporous metals and characterization methods, as well as miscrostructural regulation of nanoporous metals through alloy design of precursors and surface diffusion control are also covered in detail. This is an ideal book for researchers, engineers, graduate students, and government/industry officers who are in charge of R&D investments and strategy related to energy technologies.

  10. Advanced information technology: Building stronger databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses the attributes of the Advanced Information Technology (AIT) tool set, a database application builder designed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. AIT consists of a C library and several utilities that provide referential integrity across a database, interactive menu and field level help, and a code generator for building tightly controlled data entry support. AIT also provides for dynamic menu trees, report generation support, and creation of user groups. Composition of the library and utilities is discussed, along with relative strengths and weaknesses. In addition, an instantiation of the AIT tool set is presented using a specific application. Conclusions about the future and value of the tool set are then drawn based on the use of the tool set with that specific application.

  11. Advanced monolithic pixel sensors using SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Mari; Fujita, Yowichi; Hamasaki, Ryutaro; Hara, Kazuhiko; Honda, Shunsuke; Ikegami, Yoichi; Kurachi, Ikuo; Mitsui, Shingo; Nishimura, Ryutaro; Tauchi, Kazuya; Tobita, Naoshi; Tsuboyama, Toru; Yamada, Miho

    2016-07-01

    We are developing advanced pixel sensors using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. A SOI wafer is used; top silicon is used for electric circuit and bottom silicon is used as a sensor. Target applications are high-energy physics, X-ray astronomy, material science, non-destructive inspection, medical application and so on. We have developed two integration-type pixel sensors, FPIXb and INTPIX7. These sensors were processed on single SOI wafers with various substrates in n- or p-type and double SOI wafers. The development status of double SOI sensors and some up-to-date test results of n-type and p-type SOI sensors are shown.

  12. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  13. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  14. Advanced Life Support Technologies and Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Improving the efficiency of the recovery of water from spacecraft solid and liquid wastes is possible through use of emerging technologies such as the heat melt compactor and brine dewatering systems. Another significant consumable is that of food. Food production systems based on higher plants may not only contribute significantly to the diet, but also contribute to atmosphere revitalization, water purification and waste utilization. Bioreactors may be potentially utilized for wastewater and solid waste management. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  15. Advancing colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs are attractive materials for solar cells due to their low cost, ease of fabrication and spectral tunability. Progress in CQD photovoltaic technology over the past decade has resulted in power conversion efficiencies approaching 10%. In this review, we give an overview of this progress, and discuss limiting mechanisms and paths for future improvement in CQD solar cell technology.We briefly summarize nanoparticle synthesis and film processing methods and evaluate the optoelectronic properties of CQD films, including the crucial role that surface ligands play in materials performance. We give an overview of device architecture engineering in CQD solar cells. The compromise between carrier extraction and photon absorption in CQD photovoltaics is analyzed along with different strategies for overcoming this trade-off. We then focus on recent advances in absorption enhancement through innovative device design and the use of nanophotonics. Several light-trapping schemes, which have resulted in large increases in cell photocurrent, are described in detail. In particular, integrating plasmonic elements into CQD devices has emerged as a promising approach to enhance photon absorption through both near-field coupling and far-field scattering effects. We also discuss strategies for overcoming the single junction efficiency limits in CQD solar cells, including tandem architectures, multiple exciton generation and hybrid materials schemes. Finally, we offer a perspective on future directions for the field and the most promising paths for achieving higher device efficiencies.

  16. CCSDS - Advancing Spaceflight Technology for International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Mike; Kiely, Aaron; Yeh, Penshu; Gerner, Jean-Luc; Calzolari, Gian-Paolo; Gifford, Kevin; Merri, Mario; Weiss, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has been developing data and communications standards since 1982, with the objective of providing interoperability for enabling international collaboration for spaceflight missions. As data and communications technology has advanced, CCSDS has progressed to capitalize on existing products when available and suitable for spaceflight, and to develop innovative new approaches when available products fail. The current scope of the CCSDS architecture spans the end-to-end data architecture of a spaceflight mission, with ongoing efforts to develop and standardize cutting-edge technology. This manuscript describes the overall architecture, the position of CCSDS in the standards and international mission community, and some CCSDS processes. It then highlights in detail several of the most interesting and critical technical areas in work right now, and how they support collaborative missions. Special topics include: Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN), Asynchronous Message Service (AMS), Multispectral/Hyperspectral Data Compression (MHDC), Coding and Synchronization, Onboard Wireless, Spacecraft Monitor and Control, Navigation, Security, and Time Synchronization/Correlation. Broad international participation in development of CCSDS standards is encouraged.

  17. Advancing colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Arinze, Ebuka S.; Palmquist, Nathan; Thon, Susanna M.

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for solar cells due to their low cost, ease of fabrication and spectral tunability. Progress in CQD photovoltaic technology over the past decade has resulted in power conversion efficiencies approaching 10%. In this review, we give an overview of this progress, and discuss limiting mechanisms and paths for future improvement in CQD solar cell technology.We briefly summarize nanoparticle synthesis and film processing methods and evaluate the optoelectronic properties of CQD films, including the crucial role that surface ligands play in materials performance. We give an overview of device architecture engineering in CQD solar cells. The compromise between carrier extraction and photon absorption in CQD photovoltaics is analyzed along with different strategies for overcoming this trade-off. We then focus on recent advances in absorption enhancement through innovative device design and the use of nanophotonics. Several light-trapping schemes, which have resulted in large increases in cell photocurrent, are described in detail. In particular, integrating plasmonic elements into CQD devices has emerged as a promising approach to enhance photon absorption through both near-field coupling and far-field scattering effects. We also discuss strategies for overcoming the single junction efficiency limits in CQD solar cells, including tandem architectures, multiple exciton generation and hybrid materials schemes. Finally, we offer a perspective on future directions for the field and the most promising paths for achieving higher device efficiencies.

  18. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    advances in isolation technology for that particular component. The final section presents some concluding thoughts and a summary of anticipated advances in research and development for isolating microgravity experiments.

  19. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT). FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  20. Advanced Technology MEMS-based Acoustic Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a technological advancement of current state-of-the-art acoustic energy harvester for harsh environment...

  1. Technological advances in the hemostasis laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2014-03-01

    Automation is conventionally defined as the use of machines, control systems, and information technologies to optimize productivity. Although automation is now commonplace in several areas of diagnostic testing, especially in clinical chemistry and immunochemistry, the concept of extending this process to hemostasis testing has only recently been advanced. The leading drawbacks are still represented by the almost unique biological matrix because citrated plasma can only be used for clotting assays and few other notable exceptions, and by the highly specific pretreatment of samples, which is particularly distinct to other test systems. Despite these important limitations, a certain degree of automation is also now embracing hemostasis testing. The more relevant developments include the growing integration of routine hemostasis analyzers with track line systems and workcells, the development of specific instrumentation tools to enhance reliability of testing (i.e., signal detection with different technologies to increase test panels, plasma indices for preanalytical check of interfering substances, failure patterns sensors for identifying insufficient volume, clots or bubbles, cap-piercing for enhancing operator safety, automatic reflex testing, automatic redilution of samples, and laser barcode readers), preanalytical features (e.g., positive identification, automatic systems for tube(s) labeling, transillumination devices), and postphlebotomy tools (pneumatic tube systems for reducing turnaround time, sample transport boxes for ensuring stability of specimens, monitoring systems for identifying unsuitable conditions of transport). Regardless of these important innovations, coagulation/hemostasis testing still requires specific technical and clinical expertise, not only in terms of measurement procedures but also for interpreting and then appropriately utilizing the derived information. Thus, additional and special caution has to be used when designing projects of

  2. Recent advances in airborne radiometric technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its inception, the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory has made dramatic innovations in airborne radiometric technology. In the past few years there have been at least four major changes in operational philosophy. (1) The helicopter is now the prime radiation survey vehicle. Surveys are conducted at low speed and low altitude, with lines spaced only a few hundred feet apart. Radiation anomalies and subtle changes in background can be readily identified. (2) Much greater emphasis is now placed on accurate, detailed analysis and interpretation of radiation data. Dramatic improvements in survey hardware and software provide much more data of considerably better quality. (3) Recent Laboratory research has been concentrated on error-free, positive identification of point radiation sources. In the past, the extent and magnitude of dispersed sources were the major concerns. (4) Integrated remote sensing has been strongly emphasized at the Laboratory in recent years. This involves the simultaneous use of radiation detectors, aerial cameras, and the multispectral scanner imagery. The synergistic effects of such data correlation are of significantly greater value in analyzing the terrestrial environment. Many of the changes in operational philosophy are directly traceable to new or dramatically improved hardware and software employed at the Laboratory. Six items have been instrumental in the above technological advances: (1) the UHF Transponder System and its predecessor, the Microwave Ranging System; (2) Model IC of the REDAR data acquisition system; (3) the development of the search algorithm; (4) continued improvements in the REDACA data analysis system; (5) deployment of polyscin sodium iodide radiation detectors; and (6) development of the Graphic Overview System

  3. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2003 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A; Sketchley, J

    2005-01-20

    The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate overcame significant challenges in 2003 to deliver a wealth of scientific and programmatic milestones, and move toward closer alignment with programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We acted aggressively in enabling the PAT Directorate to contribute to future, growing Lawrence Livermore missions in homeland security and at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We made heavy investments to bring new capabilities to the Laboratory, to initiate collaborations with major Laboratory programs, and to align with future Laboratory directions. Consistent with our mission, we sought to ensure that Livermore programs have access to the best science and technology, today and tomorrow. For example, in a move aimed at revitalizing the Laboratory's expertise in nuclear and radiation detection, we brought the talented Measurement Sciences Group to Livermore from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, after its mission there had diminished. The transfer to our I Division entailed significant investment by PAT in equipment and infrastructure required by the group. In addition, the move occurred at a time when homeland security funding was expected, but not yet available. By the end of the year, though, the group was making crucial contributions to the radiation detection program at Livermore, and nearly every member was fully engaged in programmatic activities. Our V Division made a move of a different sort, relocating en masse from Building 121 to the NIF complex. This move was designed to enhance interaction and collaboration among high-energy-density experimental scientists at the Laboratory, a goal that is essential to the effective use of NIF in the future. Since then, V Division has become increasingly integrated with NIF activities. Division scientists are heavily involved in diagnostic development and fielding and are poised to perform equation-of-state and high-temperature hohlraum experiments in 2004

  4. The technology behind Colgate Total Advanced Fresh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    In the early 1990s, a breakthrough toothpaste, Colgate Total, was launched with documented long-lasting activity against plaque, gingivitis, calculus, tooth decay, and bad breath. The technology behind this toothpaste is the combination of triclosan, a polyvinylmethylether/maleic acid copolymer, and sodium fluoride. The copolymer ensures maximal oral retention and subsequent release of the antibacterial triclosan. Effective levels of triclosan have been observed in the oral cavity 12 hours after brushing the teeth, allowing prolonged control of oral bacteria that may cause the most common dental problems, including bad breath. Similarly, the enhanced retention of triclosan to oral surfaces after using this revolutionary toothpaste for up to 2 years has led to significantly reduced incremental coronal caries compared to an American Dental Association-Approved anticavity fluoride toothpaste. Furthermore, significantly less calcium remained in dental plaque after brushing the teeth with the triclosan/copolymer toothpaste, resulting in the formation of less tartar. In keeping with the multiple oral health benefits provided by Colgate Total, consumers are now offered a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, which provides the numerous therapeutic and esthetic benefits that are the hallmark of Colgate Total. The new dentifrice, which contains an impactful breath-freshening flavor, has been documented to provide sustained control of bad breath over 12 hours.

  5. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology - Phase V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanliang Sun; Harry E. Littleton; Charles E. Bates

    2004-04-29

    Previous research, conducted under DOE Contracts DE-FC07-89ID12869, DE-FC07-93ID12230 and DE-FC07-95ID113358 made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional developments were needed to improve the process and make it more functional in industrial environments. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--Computational Model for the Process and Data Base to Support the Model; Task 2--Casting Dimensional Accuracy; Task 3--Pattern Production; Task 4--Improved Pattern Materials; Task 5--Coating Control; Task 6--In-Plant Case Studies; Task 7--Energy and the Environmental Data; and Task 8--Technology Transfer. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2004. The results obtained in each task and subtask are summarized in this Executive Summary and details are provided in subsequent sections of the report.

  6. Advanced ignition and propulsion technology program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenborg, R.; Early, J.; Lester, C.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Reliable engine re-ignition plays a crucial role in enabling commercial and military aircraft to fly safely at high altitudes. This project addressed research elements critical to the optimization of laser-based igniter. The effort initially involved a collaborative research and development agreement with B.F. Goodrich Aerospace and Laser Fare, Inc. The work involved integrated experiments with theoretical modeling to provide a basic understanding of the chemistry and physics controlling the laser-induced ignition of fuel aerosols produced by turbojet engine injectors. In addition, the authors defined advanced laser igniter configurations that minimize laser packaging size, weight, complexity and power consumption. These innovative ignition concepts were shown to reliably ignite jet fuel aerosols over a broad range of fuel/air mixture and a t fuel temperatures as low as -40 deg F. The demonstrated fuel ignition performance was highly superior to that obtained by the state-of-the-art, laser-spark ignition method utilizing comparable laser energy. The authors also developed a laser-based method that effectively removes optically opaque deposits of fuel hydrocarbon combustion residues from laser window surfaces. Seven patents have been either issued or are pending that resulted from the technology developments within this project.

  7. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Daniel A.; Mankins, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Developing credible mass and cost estimates for space exploration and development architectures require multidisciplinary analysis based on physics calculations, and parametric estimates derived from historical systems. Within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), concurrent engineering environment (CEE) activities integrate discipline oriented analysis tools through a computer network and accumulate the results of a multidisciplinary analysis team via a centralized database or spreadsheet Each minute of a design and analysis study within a concurrent engineering environment is expensive due the size of the team and supporting equipment The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) reduces the cost of architecture analysis by capturing the knowledge of discipline experts into system oriented spreadsheet models. A framework with a user interface presents a library of system models to an architecture analyst. The analyst selects models of launchers, in-space transportation systems, and excursion vehicles, as well as space and surface infrastructure such as propellant depots, habitats, and solar power satellites. After assembling the architecture from the selected models, the analyst can create a campaign comprised of missions spanning several years. The ATLAS controller passes analyst specified parameters to the models and data among the models. An integrator workbook calls a history based parametric analysis cost model to determine the costs. Also, the integrator estimates the flight rates, launched masses, and architecture benefits over the years of the campaign. An accumulator workbook presents the analytical results in a series of bar graphs. In no way does ATLAS compete with a CEE; instead, ATLAS complements a CEE by ensuring that the time of the experts is well spent Using ATLAS, an architecture analyst can perform technology sensitivity analysis, study many scenarios, and see the impact of design decisions. When the analyst is

  8. Hydroconversion of model Fischer‑Tropsch wax over noble metal/silica-alumina catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Regali, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic fuels produced using the Fischer-Tropsch technology will play an important role in the future of the transportation sector. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) allows converting synthesis gas (CO + H2) into fuels of outstanding quality. The synthesis gas can be obtained from different carbon sources: natural gas, coal and biomass. In order to maximize the yield of middle distillates, the process is carried out in two main steps: the FT-synthesis that produces long-chain hydrocarbons...

  9. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Technology consists of the following entities for budget purposes: Department of Advanced Education and Technology, the Access to the Future Fund, Alberta Enterprise Corporation, Alberta Research Council Inc., and iCORE Inc. Achieving the Ministry's goals involves the work and coordination of many…

  10. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2008-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Technology's 2008-11 business plan identifies how it plans to work over the next three years to enhance advanced learning opportunities and innovation for all Albertans. Alberta's advanced learning system is composed of public board-governed institutions, the apprenticeship and industry training system,…

  11. Advanced technology's impact on compressor design and development - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  12. Advanced technologies impact on compressor design and development: A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  13. Recent advancements in prosthetic hand technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Angana; Mazumdar, Sushmi; Sahai, Nitin; Paul, Sudip; Bhatia, Dinesh; Verma, Suresh; Rohilla, Punit Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Recently, significant advances over the past decade have been made in robotics, artificial intelligence and other cognitive related fields, allowing development of highly sophisticated bio-mimetic robotics systems. In addition, enormous number of robots have been designed and assembled by explicitly realising their biological oriented behaviours. To enhance skill behaviours and adequate grasping abilities in these devices, a new phase of dexterous hands has been developed recently with bio-mimetically oriented and bio-inspired functionalities. The aim in writing this review paper is to present a detailed insight towards the development of the bio-mimetic based dexterous robotic multi-fingered artificial hand. An "ideal" upper limb prosthesis should be perceived as a part of their natural body by the amputee and should replicate sensory-motor capabilities of the amputated limb. Upper-limb amputations are most often the result of sudden trauma to the body, although they also can be caused by malignancy, congenital deficiencies and vascular diseases. This paper discusses the different bio-mimetic approaches using a framework that permits for a common description of biological and technical based hand manipulation behaviour. In particular, the review focuses on a number of developments in the inspired robotic systems. In conclusion, the study found that a huge amount of research efforts in terms of kinematics, dynamics, modelling and control methodologies are being put in to improve the present hand technology, thereby providing more functionality to the prosthetic limb of the amputee. This would improve their quality-of-life and help in performing activities of daily living (ADL) tasks with comparative ease in the near future. PMID:27098838

  14. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS CURRICULA

    OpenAIRE

    Schurle, Bryan W.; Comer, Dorothy A.

    1995-01-01

    The potential use of computers and electronic technology have created considerable interest among educators in agricultural economics. This paper provides an overview of the use of electronic technology within agricultural economics curricula; examines areas in which technological development offers promise and examines issues associated with adoption of the technology.

  16. Task 3.3: Warm Syngas Cleanup and Catalytic Processes for Syngas Conversion to Fuels Subtask 3: Advanced Syngas Conversion to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Li, J.; Taylor, Charles E.; Wang, Yong; Dagle, Robert A.; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-03-31

    activity was to develop methods and enabling materials for syngas conversion to SNG with readily CO2 separation. Suitable methanation catalyst and CO2 sorbent materials were developed. Successful proof-of-concept for the combined reaction-sorption process was demonstrated, which culminated in a research publication. With successful demonstration, a decision was made to switch focus to an area of fuels research of more interest to all three research institutions (CAS-NETL-PNNL). Syngas-to-Hydrocarbon Fuels through Higher Alcohol Intermediates There are two types of processes in syngas conversion to fuels that are attracting R&D interest: 1) syngas conversion to mixed alcohols; and 2) syngas conversion to gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline process developed by Exxon-Mobil in the 1970s. The focus of this task was to develop a one-step conversion technology by effectively incorporating both processes, which is expected to reduce the capital and operational cost associated with the conversion of coal-derived syngas to liquid fuels. It should be noted that this work did not further study the classic Fischer-Tropsch reaction pathway. Rather, we focused on the studies for unique catalyst pathways that involve the direct liquid fuel synthesis enabled by oxygenated intermediates. Recent advances made in the area of higher alcohol synthesis including the novel catalytic composite materials recently developed by CAS using base metal catalysts were used.

  17. Technological advances in self-insurance and self-protection

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Ming Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how technological advances in self-insurance (or self-protection) affect the optimal level of self-insurance (or self-protection) and that of insurance, if insurance is also taken into account. Conditions are derived for determining the signs of changes in the optimal levels of decision variables due to improved technology. Two cross-derivatives are found to be the key factors. Classification of technological advances is suggested based on the two cross-derivatives. Th...

  18. The State Prize for 1991 Science and Technology Advance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINantion; FENGYilun

    1992-01-01

    According to the report in Science and Technology Daily on 10 July 1991, prize winners for the State Prize for 1991 Science and Technology Advance in China have been selected by the Evaluation Committee of the State Prize for 1991 Science and Technology Advance. Among the prizes, eight programs were concerned with rice research: Pathogenetic Types of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight in China and the Application in Disease-resistant Breeding, by FANG Zhongda,

  19. 75 FR 106 - Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ...Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C., App.), notice is hereby given that the Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology (VCAT), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), will meet Tuesday, February 2, 2010, from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. and Wednesday, February 3, 2010, from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. The Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology is composed of fifteen......

  20. Technological Advances in Nursing Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra Henline

    2015-12-01

    Technology is rapidly changing the way nurses deliver patient care. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 encourages health care providers to implement electronic health records for meaningful use of patient information. This development has opened the door to many technologies that use this information to streamline patient care. This article explores current and new technologies that nurses will be working with either now or in the near future.

  1. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh W. Rimmer

    2003-11-15

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 1999, U.S. mining operations produced $66.7 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $533 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (a) Solid-solid separation (b) Solid-liquid separation (c) Chemical/Biological Extraction (d) Modeling and Control, and (e) Environmental Control. Distribution of funds is being handled via competitive solicitation of research proposals through Site Coordinators at the seven member universities. The first of these solicitations, referred to as the CAST II-Round 1 RFP, was issued on October 28, 2002. Thirty-eight proposals were received by the December 10, 2002 deadline for this RFP-eleven (11) Solid-Solid Separation, seven (7) Solid-Liquid Separation, ten (10) Chemical/Biological Extraction, six (6) Modeling & Control and four (4) Environmental Control. These were first reviewed and ranked by a group of technical reviewers (selected primarily from industry). Based on these reviews, and an assessment of overall program requirements, the CAST Technical Committee made an initial selection/ranking of proposals and forwarded these to the DOE/NETL Project Officer for final review and approval. This process took some 7 months to complete but 17 projects (one joint) were in place at the constituent universities (three at Virginia Tech, two at West Virginia University, three at University of

  2. Production of Construction Materials Using Advanced Recycling Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Waste reduction, material reuse, and use of recycle-content products can be focused on the management system somewhat. In contrast, material recycling is the technical issue how to create new materials using wastes. Thus, three advanced recycling technologies; 1) Synthetic Lightweight Aggregate technology (SLA), 2) Clean Coal Technology (CCT), and 3) RP-1 Polymer Identification System are introduced.

  3. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  4. Advanced Technology Training Program for the Apparel Industry. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Paso Community Coll., TX.

    A project developed rapid response, advanced technology courses that met the apparel market labor needs of the El Paso (Texas) community. Courses were designed for four options: computerized marker making and pattern grading, computerized front office systems, high technology machinery operation, and high technology machinery mechanics. The…

  5. 2004 Physics and Advanced Technologies In the News

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2005-11-01

    Several outstanding research activities in the Physics and Advanced Technology Directorate in 2004 were featured in ''Science & Technology Review'', the monthly publication of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Reprints of those articles accompany this report. Here we summarize other science and technology highlights, as well as the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2004.

  6. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  7. Managing the Perception of Advanced Technology Risks in Mission Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisario, Sebastian Nickolai

    2012-01-01

    Through my work in the project proposal office I became interested in how technology advancement efforts affect competitive mission proposals. Technology development allows for new instruments and functionality. However, including technology advancement in a mission proposal often increases perceived risk. Risk mitigation has a major impact on the overall evaluation of the proposal and whether the mission is selected. In order to evaluate the different approaches proposals took I compared the proposals claims of heritage and technology advancement to the sponsor feedback provided in the NASA debriefs. I examined a set of Discovery 2010 Mission proposals to draw patterns in how they were evaluated and come up with a set of recommendations for future mission proposals in how they should approach technology advancement to reduce the perceived risk.

  8. Development of essential system technologies for advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Y. Y.; Hwang, Y. D.; Cho, B. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    Basic design of SMART adopts the new advanced technologies which were not applied in the existing 1000MWe PWR. However, the R and D experience on these advanced essential technologies is lacking in domestic nuclear industry. Recently, a research on these advanced technologies has been performed as a part of the mid-and-long term nuclear R and D program, but the research was limited only for the small scale fundamental study. The research on these essential technologies such as helically coiled tube steam generator, self pressurizer, core cooling by natural circulation required for the development of integral reactor SMART have not been conducted in full scale. This project, therefore, was performed for the development of analysis models and methodologies, system analysis and thermal hydraulic experiments on the essential technologies to be applied to the 300MWe capacity of integral reactor SMART and the advanced passive reactor expected to be developed in near future with the emphasis on experimental investigation. (author)

  9. Advancement in Engineering Technology: A Novel Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will be discussing about the impact of technology on our daily lives. How everybody is dependent upon technology in one or other way. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Technology has played a significant role in the evolution of the society. Science has produced many new ideas but to...... the environment on a great scale; in some cases, technology is even replacing human being or use of manpower. So proper counter measures have been mentioned, which can be used to control and limit harmful effect....... but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment's, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected......In this paper we will be discussing about the impact of technology on our daily lives. How everybody is dependent upon technology in one or other way. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Technology has played a significant role in the evolution of the society. Science has produced many new ideas...

  10. Assessing wood-based synthetic natural gas technologies using the SWISS-MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Thorsten F.; Barreto, Leonardo; Kypreos, Socrates [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Energy Economics Group; Stucki, Samuel [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland). General Energy

    2007-10-15

    In future, new biomass technologies can gain significant importance in the Swiss energy sector. Therefore, this paper assesses the economic conditions under which new biomass technologies become competitive. The focus of this assessment is on the production of synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG) from wood in a methanation plant. The assessment is conducted with the cost-optimization model SWISS-MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation). SWISS-MARKAL projects future technology investments and provides an integrated analysis of primary, secondary, final and end-use energy in Switzerland. In addition to a reference scenario, the effects of increasing oil and gas prices, the effects of allocating subsidies to the methanation plant and the effects of competition between the methanation plant and a biomass-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis are evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed by varying investment costs of the methanation plant. The results are in favour of bio-SNG in the transportation sector where the synergetic use of bio-SNG and natural gas reduces the dependence on oil imports and the level of CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  11. Schedule Risks Due to Delays in Advanced Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, John D. Jr.; Kayat, Kamal A.; Lim, Evan

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a methodology and modeling capability that probabilistically evaluates the likelihood and impacts of delays in advanced technology development prior to the start of design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) of complex space systems. The challenges of understanding and modeling advanced technology development considerations are first outlined, followed by a discussion of the problem in the context of lunar surface architecture analysis. The current and planned methodologies to address the problem are then presented along with sample analyses and results. The methodology discussed herein provides decision-makers a thorough understanding of the schedule impacts resulting from the inclusion of various enabling advanced technology assumptions within system design.

  12. A review of advanced manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, T.

    1981-03-01

    Joining techniques, hot forming technology, forging technology, investment casting, small cooling hole manufacturing, combustor technology, quality assurance, and chip forming machining of gas turbine engine components are discussed. Electron and laser beam welding; laser hard facing techniques; automatic TIG and plasma welding; diffusion brazing of titanium and nickel alloys; heated die forming: blow forming; superplastic forming; fan and compressor blade forging; and wheel and disk forging from powder superalloys are described.

  13. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  14. ICONE-4: Proceedings. Volume 1 -- Part B: Basic technological advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of this conference are divided into 5 volumes. Volume one is divided into Parts A and B. Here in Part B, the following subjects are covered: advances in thermal hydraulic computer codes for reactor analysis; human health effects of low level radiation; advances in liquid metal reactor technology; computational and experimental developments; two-phase flow and heat transfer fundamentals; advances in flow field analysis and testing; advanced reactor thermal hydraulic safety; thermal hydraulics of nuclear safety and reliability; advances in numerical simulation of steam explosions; and computational and experimental two-phase flow developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  15. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsui, Keiichi

    2000-06-01

    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  16. A study of advanced vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNFL have developed the vitrification technology of a high level liquid waste with a modification in discharge performance of the noble metal by changing the bottom structure and adding heating means. Cold test was conducted by using a full scale mock-up melter which introduced the new vitrification technology. In the cold test, we confirmed the discharge performance of the noble metal. (author)

  17. Value analysis for advanced technology products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulliere, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Technology by itself can be wondrous, but buyers of technology factor in the price they have to pay along with performance in their decisions. As a result, the ``best'' technology may not always win in the marketplace when ``good enough'' can be had at a lower price. Technology vendors often set pricing by ``cost plus margin,'' or by competitors' offerings. What if the product is new (or has yet to be invented)? Value pricing is a methodology to price products based on the value generated (e.g. money saved) by using one product vs. the next best technical alternative. Value analysis can often clarify what product attributes generate the most value. It can also assist in identifying market forces outside of the control of the technology vendor that also influence pricing. These principles are illustrated with examples.

  18. Recent Advances in Solar Cell Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost over the last decade are reviewed. Potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space are discussed, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the requirements of space power systems. Concentrator cells with conversion efficiency over 30%, and nonconcentrating solar cells with efficiency over 25% are now available, and advanced radiation-tolerant cells and lightweight, thin-film arrays are both being developed. Nonsolar applications of solar cells, including thermophotovoltaics, alpha- and betavoltaics, and laser power receivers, are also discussed.

  19. Gas to Liquids – Historical Development and Future Prospects: OIES paper: NG 80

    OpenAIRE

    Glebova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    While GTL or ‘Gas to Liquids’ is frequently referred to in natural gas circles, apart from project-specific summaries produced by the sponsoring companies, there is little in the way of contemporary literature to set the context for GTL against the backdrop of today’s increasingly connected global gas situation. As with many technological advances, ‘necessity was the mother of invention’ for the Fischer Tropsch Gas to Liquid (FTGTL) process in Germany during World War II and in South Afri...

  20. JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Gruber, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Gruber, M. (2010). JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning. In ~mail. Das Magazin des Tiroler Bildungsinstituts, 01/10, März (p. 3-4). Innsbruck: Grillhof, Medienzentrum.

  1. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline...

  2. Ultra-Clean Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Bergin

    2005-10-14

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: Dynamometer Durability Testing, the Denali Bus Fleet Demonstration, Bus Fleet Demonstrations Emissions Analysis, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Emissions Analysis, Feasibility Study of SFPs for Rural Alaska, and Cold Weather Testing of Ultra Clean Fuel.

  3. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst by Supercritical Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark C. Thies; Patrick C. Joyce

    1998-04-30

    Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of January I to March 31, 1998. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was completed. Variations of particle trajectories are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity for irregular fibrous particles is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data for glass fibers and discussed. Additional progress on the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition and resuspension in turbulent flows was made.

  4. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Adam Crawford; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-09-30

    In the previous reporting period, modifications were completed for integrating a continuous wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor. During the current reporting period, a shakedown of the system was completed. Several problems were encountered with the progressive cavity pump used to circulate the wax/catalyst slurry though the cross-flow filter element and reactor. During the activation of the catalyst with elevated temperature (> 270 C) the elastomer pump stator released sulfur thereby totally deactivating the iron-based catalyst. Difficulties in maintaining an acceptable leak rate from the pump seal and stator housing were also encountered. Consequently, the system leak rate exceeded the expected production rate of wax; therefore, no online filtration could be accomplished. Work continued regarding the characterization of ultra-fine catalyst structures. The effect of carbidation on the morphology of iron hydroxide oxide particles was the focus of the study during this reporting period. Oxidation of Fe (II) sulfate results in predominantly {gamma}-FeOOH particles which have a rod-shaped (nano-needles) crystalline structure. Carbidation of the prepared {gamma}-FeOOH with CO at atmospheric pressure produced iron carbides with spherical layered structure. HRTEM and EDS analysis revealed that carbidation of {gamma}-FeOOH particles changes the initial nano-needles morphology and generates ultrafine carbide particles with irregular spherical shape.

  5. Experimental Studies and Modeling of Synthesis Gas Production and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiq, Muhammad Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Indirect route can be used to convert abundant natural resources such as natural gas (NG), coal and biomass to synthetic fuels (referred to as gas-to-liquid (GTL), coalto- liquid (CTL) and biomass-to-liquid (BTL)). It is currently one of the most effective solutions to the problem of finding suitable substitutes for liquid clean fuels. In this work, an investigation on the production of synthetic fuel from gaseous hydrocarbons (HCs)/bio-HCs and liquid bio-HCs on a small-scale unit has been ca...

  6. The benefits of Fischer-Tropsch waxes in synthetic petroleum jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, M; Louw, N R; Jansen Van Rensburg, V J; Potgieter, J

    2013-02-01

    This article is an introduction and general discussion regarding the use of Fisher-Tropsch wax in petroleum jelly applications. Traditionally, petroleum jelly is prepared from a blend of microwax, paraffin wax and mineral oil that are all derived from crude oil. Sasol Wax has successfully prepared a petroleum jelly based on predominantly to fully synthetic Fisher-Tropsch wax. Sasol Wax was awarded a patent P53898ZP00-29 November 11 for a predominantly to fully synthetic petroleum jelly based on Fisher-Tropsch wax blends. The benefits of Fisher-Tropsch wax discussed in this article include the absence of aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic compounds in Fisher-Tropsch wax as well as the sustainable production that is possible with Fisher-Tropsch wax, as opposed to paraffin wax that may be affected by the closure of group I Base Oil plants. This article will be the first in a series of articles from the same authors, and follow-up articles will include solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallization studies to determine the influence of predominantly synthetic waxes on petroleum jelly network structures compared with more traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies, final product performance and stability of synthetic petroleum jelly used in, for example, personal care lotions or creams. The influence of oxygenated compounds and product safety and rheological properties (including primary skin feel upon application and secondary skin feel after application) of synthetic petroleum jellies compared with traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies are discussed. PMID:23050609

  7. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Bergin

    2004-10-18

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: SFP Construction and Fuel Production, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Fleet Testing at WMATA and Denali National Park, Demonstration of Clean Diesel Fuels in Diesel Electric Generators in Alaska, and Economic Analysis. ICRC provided overall project organization and budget management for the project. ICRC held meetings with various project participants. ICRC presented at the Department of Energy's annual project review meeting. The plant began producing fuel in October 2004. The first delivery of finished fuel was made in March of 2004 after the initial start-up period.

  8. Correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and water-hydrocarbon ratio in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Zhou; Qingling Chen; Yuewu Tao; Huixin Weng

    2011-01-01

    In order to shorten the evaluation cycle of cobalt catalyst before the optimized catalyst is fixed on,a mathematical method is proposed to calculate weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons.Based on the carbide polymerization mechanism and the main hydrocarbons being linear alkanes and α-olefins,the correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and the molecular mass ratio of water to hydrocarbons is discussed.The result shows the ratio was within the range of 1.125-1.286 and the lower the ratio,the more gaseous hydrocarbons were obtained.Moreover,a linear equation between the weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons and the weight ratio of C5+ hydrocarbons to the total water is established.These results are validated by corresponding experiments.The weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons could be immediately calculated by this linear equation without detailed gas chromatography (GC) analysis of them.

  9. Using Different Preparation Methods to Enhance Fischer-Tropsch Products over Iron-based Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkari, M.; Fazlollahi, F; Atashi, H.; Mirzaei, A. A.; Hecker, W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Three Fe-Mn/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by three different preparation techniques, i.e. co-precipitation; sol-gel and impregnation, and their Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) activity and selectivity behavior were investigated and compared using a fixedbed reactor. It was observed that the impregnated catalyst had the lowest initial activity but was more stable than the other catalysts. The co-precipitated and sol-gel catalysts showed enhanced light olefin production as compared with the ...

  10. CFD analysis of hot spot formation through a fixed bed reactor of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aligolzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the interesting methods for conversion of synthesis gas to heavy hydrocarbons is Fischer–Tropsch process. The process has some bottlenecks, such as hot spot formation and low degree of conversion. In this work, computational fluid dynamics technique was used to simulate conversion of synthetic gas and product distribution. Also, hot spot formation in the catalytic fixed-bed reactor was investigated in several runs. Simulation results indicated that hot spot formation occurred more likely in the early and middle part of reactor due to high reaction rates. Based on the simulation results, the temperature of hot spots increased with increase in the inlet temperature as well as pressure. Among the many CFD runs conducted, it is found that the optimal temperature and pressure for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis are 565 K and 20 bar, respectively. As it seems that the reactor shall work very well under optimal conditions, the reaction rates and catalyst duration would simultaneously be maximum .

  11. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Moessbauer studies of pretreated ultrafine iron oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenshi Huang; Davis, B.H. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research); Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Inst. for Mining and Minerals Research)

    1992-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates that a 24 hour-pretreatment in CO at 260{degrees}C and 8 atm. in a tetralin solvent almost completely converts uftrafine iron oxide (about 3 nm) to iron carbide. However, pretreatment in hydrogen under the same conditions resulted in reduction of about 33% of the iron to metallic Fe; the remainder was Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Exposure of the CO pretreated catalyst to a 1:1 HDCO synthesis gas resulted in the gradual reoxidation of the carbides to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. During the first 2 hours of exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreated sample to synthesis gas,.the metallic Fe was converted to iron carbides. Further exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreatment sample to synthesis gas did not result in a composition change of the catalyst. Therefore, it is concluded that iron carbides with different oxidation characteristics were formed in these two cases.

  12. Particle size effect for cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts based on in situ CO chemisorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Frøseth, Vidar; Chen, De; Holmen, Anders

    2016-06-01

    The cobalt particle size effect on activity and selectivity for CO hydrogenation was revisited on cobalt catalysts supported on a large variety of supports at 483 K, 1.85 bar, and H2/CO/Ar = 15/1.5/33.5 Nml/min. The size dependence of the activity and selectivity was analyzed in terms of site coverage and rate constants based on SSITKA experimental results. It was found that the Co particle size index estimated by the conventional method, namely, ex situ hydrogen chemisorption, could not correlate well the activity and selectivity as a function of the particle size index. The same holds for the site coverage of CO and intermediates leading to methane formation. However, the cobalt particle size index based on in situ CO chemisorption measured at 373 K provides a good correlation for turnover frequencies (TOFs) at reaction conditions. It was observed that TOF for CO conversion (TOFCO) increased with increasing particle size index of cobalt and SSITKA experiments showed that this was possibly due to increased site coverage of CO. The TOF for methane formation (TOFCH4) increased with particle size and remained constant at higher particle sizes possibly due to combined effect from the site coverage of intermediates leading to methane (θCHx) and the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kt). The results suggest that the support can play an important role for the size dependence of the activity and selectivity of CO hydrogenation on Co catalysts.

  13. Morphology Changes of Co Catalyst Nanoparticles at the Onset of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høydalsvik, Kristin; Fløystad, Jostein B.; Voronov, Alexey;

    2014-01-01

    found that the slope of the scattered intensity in the Porod region increased significantly, while the scattering invariant remained essentially constant, indicating a change in the shape or surface structure of the particles. Shape- and surface change models are discussed in light of the experimental...... morphology during in situ experiments. Simultaneous wide-angle X-ray scattering was used for monitoring the reduction from oxide to catalytically active metal cobalt, and anomalous SAXS was used for distinguishing the cobalt particles from the other phases present. After introducing the synthesis gas, we...

  14. Conceptual Design of a Fischer-Tropsch Reactor in a Gas-to-Liquid Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Ju-Hwan Choi; Garforth, Arthur Garforth; Hwang, Sungwon Hwang

    2015-01-01

    This research focused on the design and optimization of a two-phase Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) reactor in a gas-to-liquid (GTL) process. For the design of the F-T reactor, the overall process configuration was developed using Aspen HYSYS software. Various reaction mechanisms for the F-T process over iron-based catalysts were reviewed from the published literature. The F-T kinetics was adopted for reactor modeling, and the reaction kinetic parameters were adjusted to increase the accuracy of the ...

  15. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  16. Advances in Liquid Phase{trademark} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Tijm, P.J.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Liquid Phase{trademark} Technology builds on the successful development by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. of the slurry phase bubble column technology. Air Products and Chemicals Liquid Phase{trademark} technology embodies several chemical processes including Liquid Phase Methanol{trademark} (LPMEOH{trademark}) and the Liquid Phase DiMethyl Ether{trademark} (LPDME{trademark}) and other alcohols/oxygenates. The LPMEOH{trademark} technology was developed during the 1980's with the financial support of the US department of Energy (DOE). The concept was proven in over 7,400 hours of test operation in a DOE-owned, 3,200 gallons (US) of methanol per day process development unit located at LaPorte, Texas. The first commercial-scale demonstration plant for the technology has been constructed, commissioned, and is now being operated at Eastman Chemical Company's coal gasification facility in Kingsport, Tennessee under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program. Construction began in October of 1995 and was completed in January of 1997. After commissioning and startup activities were completed, operation began in April of 1997. Currently, the LPMEOH{trademark} plant is producing 80,000 gallons of methanol per day. Over the next four years, a program of operation will demonstrate the commercial advantages of the technology to include simulations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coproduction of power and methanol application. This paper reviews the: Commercial Application for the LPMEOH{trademark} process technology; Operational Plans to demonstrate the commercial advantages of the plant; LPMEOH{trademark} Plant-Status, highlighting the integration of the LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, and the accomplishments during the initial operating period; and Highlights of other Liquid Phase{trademark} Technology Developments.

  17. Technology advances for Space Shuttle processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major initial tasks of the Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. The SIORA Program selected a nonlinear systems engineering methodology which emphasizes a team approach for defining, developing, and evaluating new concepts and technologies for the operational system. This is achieved by utilizing rapid prototyping testbeds whereby the concepts and technologies can be iteratively tested and evaluated by the team. The present methodology has clear advantages for the design of large complex systems as well as for the upgrading and evolution of existing systems.

  18. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  19. Advanced electric powertrain technology: ADEPT platform overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipetic, S.; Miebach, W.; Wilkins, S.; Lomonova, E.A.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Tegenbosch, J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of high performance, low cost and clean propulsion systems requires multiple disciplines such as physics, mathematics, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and specialisms like control engineering and safety. This paper details the program of EU FP7 Multi-ITN project ADvanced Electr

  20. Advanced Education and Technology Business Plan, 2011-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Education and Technology's mission is to lead the development of a knowledge-driven future through a dynamic and integrated advanced learning and innovation system. Its core businesses are to: (1) provide strategic leadership for Campus Alberta and Alberta Innovates; and (2) engage learners, industry and the community in learning…