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Sample records for advanced fine coal

  1. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  2. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rawls, P. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  3. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  4. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  6. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  8. Developing densification technology to facilitate briquetting of coal fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, R. [Ministry of Metallurgy (China). Anshan Thermal Energy Research Institute

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces the densification technology in coal processing and the research of increasing the caking power of coal and its application. By exploiting the inherent caking property of coal, it is hoped to advance the briquetting technology so that coal fines is converted into high quality coke or briquette. This will produce very good social, economical and environmental benefit. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  10. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    A considerable increase in the volume of fines in rom coal caused Sahara Coal in Illinois to redesign the fine coal system in their Harrisburg preparation plant. Details of the new design, and particularly the fine refuse system which dewaters and dries 28 mesh x O clean coal, are given. Results have exceeded expectations in reducing product losses, operating costs and slurry pond cleaning costs.

  11. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  12. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  13. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    Because of a change in underground mining methods that caused a considerable increase in the amount of fine sizes in the raw coal, Sahara Coal Co. designed and constructed a unique and simple fine coal system at their Harrisburg, IL prep plant. Before the new system was built, the overload of the fine coal circuit created a cost crunch due to loss of salable coal to slurry ponds, slurry pond cleaning costs, and operating and maintenance costs--each and every one excessive. Motivated by these problems, Sahara designed a prototype system to dewater the minus 28 mesh refuse. The success of the idea permitted fine refuse to be loaded onto the coarse refuse belt. Sahara also realized a large reduction in pond cleaning costs. After a period of testing, an expanded version of the refuse system was installed to dewater and dry the 28 mesh X 0 clean coal. Clean coal output increased about 30 tph. Cost savings justified the expenditures for the refuse and clean coal systems. These benefits, combined with increased coal sales revenue, paid back the project costs in less than a year.

  14. Picobubble enhanced column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Yu, S.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to study the effectiveness of picobubbles in the column flotation of -28 mesh fine coal particles. A flotation column with a picobubble generator was developed and tested for enhancing the recovery of ultrafine coal particles. The picobubble generator was designed using the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. A metallurgical and a steam coal were tested in the apparatus. The results show that the use of picobubbles in a 2in. flotation column increased the recovery of fine coal by 10 to 30%. The recovery rate varied with feed rate, collector dosage, and other column conditions. 40 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  16. Process for agglomerating fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, L J; Misbach, P

    1976-06-24

    The invention concerns a process for agglomerating black coal in mud or powder form in the presence of a mineral oil product dispersed in water. During this process, the nutty slack is added to a portion - approximately 5 - 15% of its weight in the case of anhydrous coal - of a bitumen emulsion and thoroughly mixed. The emulsion should contain mineral oil bitumen with a penetration value 25/sup 0/ less than 5, or a Conradson value of over 35. In a further finishing process the emulsion contains alkaline naphthenate.

  17. Picobubble column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Samuel Yu; Xiaohua Zhou; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh (0.6 mm) or -100 mesh (0.15 mm) fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range, nominally 10-100 {mu}m, beyond which the flotation efficiency drops sharply. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. Experimental results have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 5-cm diameter column flotation increased the combustible recovery of a highly floatable coal by up to 10% and that of a poorly floatable coal by up to 40%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. 14 refs.

  18. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficiation 2010, 4–6 May 2010. 671The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 110 NOVEMBER 2010 L Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant mixed with magnetite in the launder and enters... with production. Plant equipment operational changes Cyclone spigot changes In an attempt to lower the cut-point density, the spigot on the L 672 NOVEMBER 2010 VOLUME 110 The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Figure 1...

  19. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  20. Carbon burnout project-coal fineness effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Celechin [Powergen UK plc, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this DTI project is to establish good quality plant and rig data to demonstrate the effect of changing coal fineness on carbon burnout in a controlled manner, which can then be used to support computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and engineering models of the process. The modelling elements of the project were completed by Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd., and validated using the data produced by the other partners. The full scale plant trials were successfully completed at Powergen's Kingsnorth Power Station and a full set of tests were also completed on Powergen's CTF. During these test both carbon-in-ash and NOx levels were seen to increase with increasing fuel particle size. Laboratory analysis of fly ash produced during the plant and rig trials revealed that only small differences in char morphology and reactivity could be detected in samples produced under significantly different operating conditions. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was also undertaken on a range of PF size fractions collected form mills operating at different conditions. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Production of fine coke from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigs, H B

    1977-08-01

    The coke supply of the iron and steel industry, the design, function, and special features of the open-hearth are described, including coking properties and applications of the culm coke produced from brown coal. (In German)

  2. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  3. Agglomeration of coal fines for premium fuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on fine coal in liquid suspension, which can be agglomerated in a number of ways. One of the oldest procedures involves the addition of electrolyte to the suspension to cause a reduction in the zeta potential and allow colliding particles to agglomerate. A second method involves the use of polymeric flocculants to bridge between particles. Both of these technologies are being used in the wastewater treatment plants for removal of fine waste particles from contaminated water. A third method involves the addition of a second immiscible liquid preferentially to wet the particles and cause adhesion by capillary interfacial forces. While the bonding forces in the first two methods are small and result in rather weak and voluminous agglomerates, the third method is postulated to produce more dense and much stronger agglomerates. In the case of fine coals, the carbonaceous constituents can be agglomerated and recovered from the aqueous suspension with many different coagulants. Inorganic or ash-forming constituents are also agglomerated along with the fine coal particles. As the froth floatation, agglomeration using coal and colloidal dust to effect a separation. Froth floatation, however, becomes less effective where extremely fine particles of cal must be treated or if there is considerable clay-size particle present. In contrast, there appears to be virtually no lower limit on the particle size suitable for agglomeration uses

  4. Fine coal processing with dense-medium cyclones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Korte, GJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. October 1980, pp. 357-361. 24 Horsfall, D.W. 1976. The treatment of fine coal: Upgrading ?0.5 mm coal to obtain a low-ash product. ChemSA, July. 124-129. Kempnich, R.J., van Barneveld, S. and Lusan, A. 1993. Dense... was good and the results were reported by Mengelers and Absil (1976) (see Table 2). The magnetite consumption for the operation at Tertre was approximately 1 kg per feed ton. In 1965, a similar plant was constructed at Winterslag in Belgium. This plant...

  5. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  6. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb)

  7. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  8. Studying the dependence of quality of coal fine briquettes on technological parameters of their production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Н. Александрова

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study characterizes the role of coal in the fuel and energy balance of the Far East Region and points out the issue of losses of coal fines in the processes of coal mining, transportation and processing. To solve the problem of losses of coal fines, the mined coal is sorted into different size classes and fuel briquettes are produced from coal fines. Physical foundations are presented in short of briquetting solid combustible mineral resources. The dependences and variations of briquette compression strength limit are studied vs. charge humidity and briquetting pressure. Optimal parameters are retrieved for briquetting coal fines. The principal technological scheme is given of the process of briquette production. The developed technological solutions include sorting regular coal and briquetting coal fines, as well as the involvement of technogenic carbon-containing wastes from the hydrolysis production lines, plus residuals from oil refining.

  9. Fine particles flotation of the Moatize coal/Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Amilton; de Brum, Irineu A. S.

    2017-11-01

    This study was done from a sample of coal mined at the Vale-Mozambique mine, located in Moatize district, Tete Province. The aim of this work is to analyze the reagent system in the flotation of coal fines belonging to the UCB layer. Among coal processing methods, flotation stands out as one of the most important for the concentration of this material, in particular in the treatment of fine particles. The total feed of the Vale-Mozambique processing plant is 8000 tph of coal, where 10% of this feed corresponds to the fine fraction that feeds the flotation circuit. The material used in this study had a particle size of 96% smaller than 0.25 mm. The reagents used in the flotation tests were Betacol and diesel oil as hydrophobizing agents and MIBC as frother. The range of Betacol concentrations in the first test phase was 200 g / t at 500 g / t, and in the second phase 200 g / t at 500 g / t of diesel oil and MIBC were kept constant at 300 g / t. The immediate analysis followed the Brazilian standards: NBR 8289, NBR 8293, NBR 8290, NBR 8299. The results showed that it is possible, from a feed with the ash content around 22.84%, to obtain products with levels below of 10% ash, with a mass recovery around 50%. The recovery of carbonaceous matter was also evaluated and presented positive results. Complementing this study, the effect of H2O recovery was evaluated and it was observed that for the concentrations of Betacol the recoveries ranged from 6 to 9%, and for diesel oil plus MIBC were 4 to 7%.

  10. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  11. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  12. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would

  13. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  14. Preliminary study of realizability of Karazhyra open pit coal fines briquetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryavko, I.I.; Perepelkin, I.G.; Chuprunov, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Main properties of brown coals in Karazhyra open pit upper and lower packs are determined. Characteristics of these coals briquette-ability are evaluated. A conceptual possibility to obtain high-quality briquettes from open pit coal fines is shown. (author)

  15. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  16. Final Report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Coal Technology workgroup reported to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. This page includes the final report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.

  17. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  18. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  19. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust - effect of particle-size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, D.P.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B.K.; Honaker, R. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-07-01

    The coal industry usually discards fine-size (-150 microns) coal because of its high-moisture content and handling problems. One avenue for utilization is to either pelletize or briquette this material. However, industry has not adopted this route due in large part to significant drying and binder costs. In an effort to reduce these costs, compacting and briquetting studies were conducted to determine the effect of combining a coarse (1.18x0.15mm) spiral separator product with a fine coal flotation product (-150microns), with and without adding sawdust. Maximizing the packing density of the coal and wood waste mixture could potentially reduce the binder requirement by minimizing the void space as well as reducing shipping costs. Accordingly, work reported here focused on evaluating the impact of the particle-size distribution of different blends of fine and coarse coal, with and without sawdust and/or binder. The modified Proctor density of compacted blends along with the porosity and compressive strengths of briquettes made from each blend were determined. For the coal-only blends, the packing density was maximized by a relatively high (70% to 80%) coarse coal content. However, the packing density did not correlate with the compressive strength of the briquette that instead maximized with 100% fine flotation coal and continuously decreased as higher proportions of coarse coal were added. Similar compaction and compressive-strength results were obtained with mixtures of sawdust and varying proportions of coarse and fine coal. With the addition of a binder, the highest strengths were no longer obtained with 100% fine coal but instead maximized between 20% and 50% coarse coal addition depending on how long the briquettes were cured.

  20. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  1. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  2. The effect of sulphide and moisture content on steel corrosion during transport of fine wet coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Vorster, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation the influence of compaction pressure (stress) on the corrosivity of wet coal was investigated. Two coal samples, one high in sulphur content (3 %) and the other low in sulphur content (0.6 %) were used to determine the influence of compaction stress on the corrosion rates of steel samples in contact with compacted coal. It was found that the pressure exerted on finely divided wet coal is an important factor in determining its water content and corrosivity towards mild steel. Corrosion of the steel was typically in the form of pitting and the sulphur content of the coal was an important factor in determining the corrosivity of the coal. The corrosion rate of the high sulphur content coal was higher than that of the low sulphur coal. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that a FeS species developed on the steel surface.

  3. Comparative study of the performance of conventional and column flotation when treating coking coal fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, M.S.; Biswal, S.K.; Das, S.P.; Reddy, P.S.R. [Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar - 751 013 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Investigations were carried out on coking coal fines by conventional cell and column flotation techniques. The effects of different operating parameters were evaluated for both conventional and column flotation. The coal fines were collected from Bhojudih washery, India. These coal fines averaged 24.4% ash, 19.8% volatile matter and 53.8% fixed carbon on a dry basis. A commercial grade sodium silicate, light diesel oil and pine oil were used as depressant, collector and frother respectively. The flotation performance was compared with release analysis. The conventional flotation results indicated that a clean coal with 14.4% ash could be obtained at 78.0% yield with 88.4% combustible recovery. The ash of the clean coal could be further reduced to 10.1% at 72.0% yield with 85.6% combustible recovery by using column flotation. The column flotation results were close to those obtained by release analysis. (author)

  4. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1999-12-18

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

  5. Use of Unprocessed Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    transportation applications such as structural fill, road base material, and as snow ... normal fine particles resulting in weak porous paste, modulus of elasticity is ..... with the porous structure and high absorptivity of fine particles of bottom ash.

  6. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  7. Mercury speciation and fine particle size distribution on combustion of Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Joint Lab. of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control; Daukoru, Michael; Torkamani, Sarah; Biswas, Pratim [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Aerosol and Air Quality Research Lab.

    2013-07-01

    Coal combustion is the dominant anthropogenic mercury emission source of the world. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) can remove almost all the particulate mercury (Hg{sub p}), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) can retain a large part of the gaseous oxidized mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). Only a small percentage of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) can be abated by the air pollution control devices (APCDs). Therefore, the mercury behavior across APCDs largely depends on the mercury speciation in the flue gas exhausting from the coal combustor. To better understand the formation process of three mercury species, i.e. Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup 2+} and Hg{sub p}, in gaseous phase and fine particles, bench-scale measurements for the flue gas exhausting from combustion of different types of coal in a drop-tube furnace set-up, were carried out. It was observed that with the limitation of reaction kinetics, higher mercury concentration in flue gas will lead to lower Hg{sup 2+} proportion. The concentration of chlorine has the opposite effect, not as significantly as that of mercury though. With the chlorine concentration increasing, the proportion of Hg{sup 2+} increases. Combusting the finer coal powder results in the formation of more Hg{sup 2+}. Mineral composition of coal and coal particle size has a great impact on fine particle formation. Al in coal is in favor of finer particle formation, while Fe in coal can benefit the formation of larger particles. The coexistence of Al and Si can strengthen the particle coagulation process. This process can also be improved by the feeding of more or finer coal powder. The oxy-coal condition can make for both the mercury oxidation process and the metal oxidation in the fine particle formation process.

  8. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust. Part 1: binder and briquetting-parameters evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Taulbee; D.P. Patil; Rick Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-01-15

    Various technical and economic aspects relating to the briquetting of fine coal with sawdust have been evaluated with the results for two segments of that study presented here: binder and briquetting-parameter evaluations. Approximately 50 potential binder formulations were subjected to a series of screening evaluations to identify three formulations that were the most cost effective for briquetting fine coal with sawdust. Two of the binders, guar gum and wheat starch, were selected as most suitable for the pulverized coal market while the third formulation, lignosulfonate/lime, was targeted for the stoker market. Following binder selection, a number of briquetting parameters including binder and sawdust concentration, sawdust type, briquetting pressure and dwell time, coal and sawdust particle size, clay content, moisture content, and cure temperature and cure time were evaluated. Briquetting pressure and dwell time have the least impact while binder and sawdust concentrations, sawdust type, and curing conditions exerted the greatest influence on briquette quality. 7 refs.

  9. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  10. Fine coke production from brown coal (Report on ECSC contract 6220-72/1/102)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of producing a dry brown coal suitable for the production of fine coke and the development of a suitable carbonization process were studied. To prepare the coal it should be screened at 1 mm with the oversize going to fine coke production and the undersize going to briquette production. To increase fine coke production it is necessary to screen the raw smalls less than 2 mm and to pelletize, dry and carbonize them with the coarser constituents. The planning and construction of a hearth oven furnace plant was begun and this is now in operation. A fluidized bed can be used to preheat the coal to improve the oven performance. (In German)

  11. Clean coal technology and advanced coal-based power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Clean Coal Technology is an arbitrary terminology that has gained increased use since the 1980s when the debate over acid raid issues intensified over emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In response to political discussions between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the US government initiated a demonstration program by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Clean Coal Technologies, which can be categorized as: 1. precombustion technologies wherein sulfur and nitrogen are removed before combustion, combustion technologies that prevent or lower emissions as coal is burned, and postcombustion technologies wherein flue gas from a boiler is treated to remove pollutants, usually transforming them into solids that are disposed of. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is being carried out with $2.5 billion of federal funds and additional private sector funds. By the end of 1989, 38 projects were under way or in negotiation. These projects were solicited in three rounds, known as Clean Coal I, II, and III, and two additional solicitations are planned by DOE. Worldwide about 100 clean coal demonstration projects are being carried out. This paper lists important requirements of demonstration plants based on experience with such plants. These requirements need to be met to allow a technology to proceed to commercial application with ordinary risk, and represent the principal reasons that a demonstration project is necessary when introducing new technology

  12. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  13. Amenability of some Witbank bituminous ultra fine coals to binderless briquetting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mangena, SJ

    2004-10-15

    Full Text Available and briquetting Each of the Witbank ultra fine coals was air-dried and subsequently split into five homogeneous portions of 5 kg, respectively. Four portions from each sample were physically wetted to ca. 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% H2O, automatically mixed for 15 min... and long-distance haulage in uncovered trucks during the rainy season. In terms of compressive strength, the SJM1 coal studied was amenable to conventional binderless briquetting. 3.1.2. SJM2 coal The effect of moisture on the compressive strength...

  14. CoalFleet for tomorrow. An industry initiative to accelerate the deployment of advanced coal-based generation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J. [Electric Power Research Institute (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The industry initiative 'CoalFleet for tomorrow' was launched in November 2004 to accelerate the deployment and commercialization of clean, efficient, advanced coal power systems. This paper discusses the structure of CoalFleet and its strategy for reducing the cost, leadtime and risk of deploying advanced coal technologies such as combined-cycle power plants. 6 figs.

  15. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. In this experimental and analytical study the authors elucidate the transport processes that control the rate of concentrated colloidal particle removal, demonstrate the process on a laboratory scale, and develop the scale-up laws needed to design commercial-scale processes. The authors are also addressing the fundamental problems associated with particle-particle interactions (electrical and hydrodynamic), the effects of particle concentration on the applied electric field, the electrochemical reactions that occur at the electrodes, and the prediction of power requirements.

  16. The influence of lisping material in pelletizing and agglomeration of fine coal pieces in laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrencovski, Angele; Andreevski, Borche

    1998-01-01

    The work presents a part of laboratory results realized in academy of Firebug, carried on pelletizing and agglomeration of waste material, fine coal from thermal power station, using different lisping materials. Specially the influence of these materials in getting solid fuel, small briquette, formed by rolling press is analyzed. Special interest is attended to their characteristics: hardness and resistance. (Author)

  17. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Joseph [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Porter, Jason [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Patki, Neil [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kelley, Madison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stanislowski, Josh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Makuch, David [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  18. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States) Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  19. Effect of a Dispersant Agent in Fine Coal Recovery from Washery Tailings by Oil Agglomeration (Preliminary Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Özüm; Uslu, Tuncay

    2017-12-01

    Among the fine coal cleaning methods, the oil agglomeration process has important advantages such as high process recovery, more clean product, simple dewatering stage. Several coal agglomeration studies have been undertaken recently and effects of different variables on the process performance have been investigated. However, unlike flotation studies, most of the previous agglomeration studies have not used dispersing agents to minimize slime coating effects of clays. In this study, agglomeration process was applied for recovery of fine coals from coal washery tailings containing remarkable amount of fine coal. Negative effect of fine clays during recovery was tried to be eliminated by using dispersing agent instead of de-sliming. Although ash reductions over 90 % were achieved, performance remained below expectations in terms of combustible matter recovery. However, this study is a preliminary one. It is considered that more satisfied results will be obtained in the next studies by changing the variables such as solid ratio, oil dosage, dispersant type and dosage.

  20. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  1. Recovery of clean coal fines through a combination of gravity concentrator and flotation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.K.; Banerjee, P.K.; Dutta, A.; Mishra, A. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India). Research & Development

    2007-07-01

    Flotation feed is a mixture of coarse and ultra-fine fractions. During conditioning of the flotation feed with collector and frother, the finer fraction consumes more reagents as compared to coarser particles. This is mainly due to more specific surface area of the ultra fine than the coarse fraction. This favors the adsorption of reagents toward ultra-finer fractions leads to less complete surface coverage of coarse particles and more entrainment of finer gangue particles. This results in the lower yield of coarse fractions from the flotation circuit and loss in selectivity. Hence, the major challenge is to improve the recovery of the coarser fraction and selectivity of ultra-fine fractions by improving flotation kinetics of all size fractions. This article deals with an approach to overcome the improper reagent adsorption by fine and coarse coal fractions in the flotation circuit through an innovative washing circuit containing gravity operation and flotation processes. Flotation performance between a new washing circuit having stub cyclone and flotation and normal single-stage reagent addition flotation process is compared in terms of selectivity, separation efficiency, rate constant, and size-wise recovery. The washing circuit having stub cyclone and flotation processes improves the fine clean coal yield by 10% and reduces the consumption of reagent compared to the normal single-stage reagent addition flotation process.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF DEWATERING AIDS FOR MINERALS AND COAL FINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe-Hoam Yoon; Ramazan Asmatulu; Ismail Yildirim; William Jansen; Jinmig Zhang; Brad Atkinson; Jeff Havens

    2004-07-01

    MCT has developed a suite of novel dewatering chemicals (or aids) that are designed to cause a decrease in the capillary pressures of the water trapped in a filter cake by (1) decreasing the surface tension of water, (2) increasing the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered, and (3) causing the particles to coagulate, all at the same time. The decrease in capillary pressure in turn causes an increase in the rate filtration, an increase in throughput, and a decrease in pressure drop requirement for filtration. The reagents are used frequently as blends of different chemicals in order to bring about the changes in all of the process variables noted above. The minerals and coal samples tested in the present work included copper sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, kaolin clay, talc, and silica. The laboratory-scale test work included studies of reagent types, drying cycle times, cake thickness, slurry temperature, conditioning intensity and time, solid content, and reagent dosages. To better understand the mechanisms involved, fundamental studies were also conducted. These included the measurements of the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered (which are the measures of particle hydrophobicity) and the surface tensions of the filtrates produced from dewatering tests. The results of the laboratory-scale filtration experiments showed that the use of the novel dewatering aids can reduce the moistures of the filter cake by 30 to 50% over what can be achieved using no dewatering aids. In many cases, such high levels of moisture reductions are sufficient to obviate the needs for thermal drying, which is costly and energy intensive. Furthermore, the use of the novel dewatering aids cause a substantial increase in the kinetics of dewatering, which in turn results in increased throughput. As a result of these technological advantages, the novel dewatering aids have been licensed to Nalco, which is one of the largest mining chemicals companies of the world. At

  3. Production of fines during co-combustion of coal with biomass fuels by fragmentation and attrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; D. Boavida; H. Lopes (and others) [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-07-01

    Results are reported from a project funded by the RFCS Programme of the European Union. The aim is to investigate, experimentally and by modeling, the production of fine char and ash particles during co-combustion of coal with wastes and biofuels in circulating fluidized bed. Work was undertaken at installations of different scales. Polish and Colombian coals were base fuels. The additional fuels were two sewage sludges. Bed temperature, feeding system, sand particle size, devolatilisation behaviour and char burn-out were studied to verify their influence on the fine particle production. Modeling was also carried out to understand the mechanisms of fragmentation and attrition. Samples from bed and cyclone were collected to determine particle size distributions. 11 refs.

  4. 21st Century Coal: Advanced Technology and Global Energy Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Coal currently supplies with more than 40% of the world electricity consumption and it essential input of around 70% of world steel production, representing around 30% of the world primary energy supply. This is because coal is cheap, abundant, accessible, widely distributed and easy energy to transport, store and use. For these features, coal is projected to be intensively used in the future. Production and use of coal present a series of issues throughout the whole value chain. While existing technology allows addressing most of them (safety at work, land restoration, mercury, NOx and sulphur emissions avoidance, etc.), CO2 emissions continues to be the biggest challenge for coal use in the future. This report focuses on the technology path to near-zero emissions including useful insights in advanced coal power generation technologies and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage, a promising technology with a large potential which can push Carbon Capture and Storage competitiveness. In addition, the report shows the features of the new generation of coal-fired power plants in terms of flexibility for dynamic operation and grid stability, requirements increasingly needed to operate on grids with significant wind and solar generation.

  5. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Laag, P.C. van der; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Ribberink, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO 2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  6. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Final report, August 1981-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.I.; Tierney, J.W.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Huang, S.; Qamar, I.; Venkatadri, R.

    1984-12-01

    Fine coal in slurry form must be dewatered to minimize handling and transportation problems and be reduced to a desirable level for subsequent preparation of coal/water mixtures as a substitute utility fuel. The current practice is inadequate for the dewatering of fine coal, particularly for coal particles with sizes smaller than 400 mesh. Therefore, it is most desirable to develop improved mechanical methods for reducing the moisture content of fine coal. In the light of this, a fundamental study of the dewatering of fine coal/refuse was initiated in June 1979 and continued through 1984. The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of the basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and the microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal. During the past year, filter cakes from coals with widely varying size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. Modules of the network model for calculating single phase and two phase permeabilities were formulated and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for 1984-1985; detailed description of technical progress; and appendices. 21 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INTEGRATED CARBON RECOVERY SYSTEMS FROM FINE COAL PROCESSING WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Patil; A. Patwardhan; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh; D. Tao; Latif Khan

    2000-07-01

    The project involves the development of an efficient, environmentally friendly system for the economical recovery of carbon from fine-coal refuse ponds. The project will be conducted in two phases. Phase I was involved in the development and evaluation of process equipment and techniques to be used in carbon recovery, product dewatering and reconstitution, and refuse management. Phase II will integrate the various units into a continuously operating circuit that will be demonstrated at a site selected based on the results presented in this study.

  9. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal: Second quarterly progress report period ending 31 March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-04-18

    Battelle, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley (ASH), Kaiser Engineers (KE), Lewis Corporation, and Prof. S.H. Chiang of the University of Pittsburgh, is developing an advanced process for the dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The advanced process, called Electroacoustic Dewatering (EAD), capitalizes on the adaptation of synergistic effects of electric and acoustic fields to a commercial belt filter press design that is used in many other applications. The EAD equipment is described. 2 figs.

  10. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  11. Status of advanced ultra-supercritical pulverised coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-01

    In pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plant, increasing the maximum temperature of the steam cycle increases the electrical efficiency, which in turn lowers both coal consumption and flue gas emissions. However, the maximum steam temperature is limited by materials that can operate at these conditions for practical service lifetimes without failure. The EU, USA, Japan, India and China all have material research programmes aiming for the next generation of increased steam temperatures and efficiency, known as advanced ultra-supercritical (AUSC) or 700°C technology. This report reviews developments and status of these major material research programmes.

  12. Split and collectorless flotation to medium coking coal fines for multi-product zero waste concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Shobhana; Bhattacharyya, K.K. [Mineral Processing Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur-831007 (India)

    2007-06-15

    The medium coking coal fines of - 0.5 mm from Jharia coal field were taken for this investigation. The release analysis of the composite coal reveals that yield is very low at 10.0% ash, about 25% at 14% ash and 50% at 17% ash level. The low yield is caused by the presence of high ash finer fraction. The size-wise ash analysis of - 0.5 mm coal indicated that - 0.5 + 0.15 mm fraction contains less ash than - 0.15 mm fraction. Thus, the composite feed was split into - 0.5 + 0.15 mm and - 0.15 mm fractions and subjected to flotation separately. The low ash bearing fraction (- 0.5 + 0.15 mm) was subjected to two stages collectorless flotation to achieve the concentrate with 10% ash. The cleaner concentrate (18.9%) with 10% ash was recovered which has an application in metallurgical industries. The concentrate of 30.2% yield with 12.5% ash could be achieved in one stage collectorless flotation which is suitable for use in coke making as sweetener. As the - 0.15 mm fraction contains relatively high ash, collector aided flotation using sodium silicate was performed to get a concentrate of 23.6% yield with about 17% ash. The blending of this product with cleaner tail obtained from - 0.5 + 0.15 mm produces about 35.0% yield with 17% ash and that can be utilized for coke making. The reject from the two fractions can be used for conventional thermal power plant or cement industries using a 23.5% ash after one stage collector aided flotation and the final tailings produced content ash of 61.6% can be used for fluidization combustion bed (FBC). This eventually leads to complete utilization of coal. (author)

  13. Technical advances in the Pernik coal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionov, I

    1979-07-01

    George Dimitrov mining and power combine, which produces about 22% of all coal in Bulgaria, used outmoded equipment, inefficient methods and human transport prior to 1975. A development program begun in 1972 provided for exploitation of additional deposits, increased use of mechanized equipment, extension of surface mining area, employment of automated controls and better organization. Since 1975 new equipment has been procured, including EKG-4.6 type excavators, SVB-2M probes, BelAz-540 dump trucks, 4PU gallery combines, 1PNB-2 type loaders, OKP-10 and 1-MKM mining systems, BISUK-1 automated control apparatus, VAV and AVO-3 automated pump controls and new rubber belt conveyors. Planned studies and development include (in underground mines:) new drainage systems, mechanized installation of supports, development of new support systems and integration of transport system; (in surface mines:) mechanized construction and maintenance of roads and railroads, procurement of EKG-4.6 and EKG-4 type power shovels, replacement of steam locomotives with electric locomotives. Central production facilities for wooden and metal supports and a maintenance base for automated equipment are also under discussion.

  14. Advances in coal chemistry, 1950--1970. [21 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J D

    1971-12-01

    During the 20 years under review, considerable advances were made at centers of coal research throughout the world in the determination of the chemical structure and reactions of coals. Important contributions came from the CSIRO group in Sydney. Activity was greatest during the first decade of the period under review and declined progressively during the second, as evidence of the extreme complexity of coal structures made it clear that further chemical research would be less rewarding. Some overseas investigations were related mainly to chemical processes for the conversion of coals to liquid and gaseous fuels, and to possible direct chemical utilization; but in Australia, because of the relatively small size of the potential market and the widely dispersed centers of population, such studies were not relevant to the current situation. Much of the Australian research in this field was related to carbonization processes and to the chemical and physical processes involved in the thermal treatment of coals. The high-light was perhaps the investigation, begun in 1960, which showed how coals, pitch, and bitumen resolidify during heating to form coke. Determinations were also made of the chemical composition of tars and pitches produced both industrially and in the laboratory and efforts were made to develop local outlets for these by-products of gas-making and of steelworks coke ovens. The pattern of Australian fuel consumption changed considerably during the 20-year period, and in particuar there was considerable development in the use of petroleum by-products for gas-making. Research on the manufacture of metallurgical coke was established within the steel industry, and in response to these factors basic work by CSIRO in bituminous coal chemistry had virtually ceased by the end of 1966.

  15. Pre-Concentration of Vanadium from Stone Coal by Gravity Using Fine Mineral Spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low grade of V2O5 in stone coal, the existing vanadium extraction technologies face challenges in terms of large handling capacity, high acid consumption and production cost. The pre-concentration of vanadium from stone coal before the extraction process is an effective method to reduce cost. In this study, detailed mineral characterization of stone coal was investigated. It has been confirmed that the vanadium mainly occurs in muscovite and illite. A significant demand for an effective pre-concentration process with simple manipulation for discarding quartz and other gangue minerals is expected. Based on the mineralogical study, a new vanadium pre-concentration process using a fine mineral spiral was investigated. The experimental results showed that the separation process, which was comprised of a rougher and scavenger, could efficiently discard quartz, pyrite and apatite. A final concentrate with V2O5 grade of 1.02% and recovery of 89.6% could be obtained, with 26.9% of the raw ore being discarded as final tailings.

  16. The use of coal fines fly ash for the improvement of soils in hydrophobic grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen-Mommen, J.P.M.; Bestebroer, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    New NO x reducing combustion techniques result in a different physical and morphological quality of fly ash, which makes the use of fly ash less attractive for the building and road construction industries. Attention is paid to the possibility of using low-NO x fly ash for the improvement of the properties of hydrophobic agricultural land. Such an application also depends on the environmental impacts of the leaching of elements to the ground water and the accumulation of hazardous compounds in crops. A literature study of hydrophobic grounds was carried out. Also attention is paid to the legal aspects. No juridical constraints could be found in the Dutch legislation concerning the use of fly ash from coal powder, although it seems that the use of such fly ash is not in agreement with the tenor of possibly to be applied legislation. However, a small-scale investigation was carried out to gain insight into the environmental impacts. The uptake in lettuce and the leaching of the elements As, B, Mo and Se was studied by means of lysimeters. Hydrophobic soils with 5%, 10% and 15% coal fines fly ash were used. Also an experiment with the use of coal gasification slags was performed

  17. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was

  18. A study of Multistage/Multifunction Column for Fine Coal Cleaning CRADA PC93-005, Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph Lai; Shiao-Hung Chiang; Daxin He; Yuru Feng

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the this research project is to explore the potential applicability of a multistage column for fine coal cleaning and other applications in fluid particle separation. The research work identifies the design parameters and their effects on the performance of the separation device. The results of this study provide an engineering data basis for further development of this technology in coal cleaning and in general areas of fluid and particle separations

  19. Burnout prediction using advance image analysis coal characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Lester; Dave Watts; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The link between petrographic composition and burnout has been investigated previously by the authors. However, these predictions were based on 'bulk' properties of the coal, including the proportion of each maceral or the reflectance of the macerals in the whole sample. Combustion studies relating burnout with microlithotype analysis, or similar, remain less common partly because the technique is more complex than maceral analysis. Despite this, it is likely that any burnout prediction based on petrographic characteristics will become more accurate if it includes information about the maceral associations and the size of each particle. Chars from 13 coals, 106-125 micron size fractions, were prepared using a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) at 1300{degree}C and 200 millisecond and 1% Oxygen. These chars were then refired in the DTF at 1300{degree}C 5% oxygen and residence times of 200, 400 and 600 milliseconds. The progressive burnout of each char was compared with the characteristics of the initial coals. This paper presents an extension of previous studies in that it relates combustion behaviour to coals that have been characterized on a particle by particle basis using advanced image analysis techniques. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Research on desulfurisation of fine coal under compounding the physics force field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y.; Fu, D.; Tao, D.; Liu, J.; Zhao, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2005-08-15

    Desulphurization experiment carried on under compounding the physics force field was described for -0.5 mm fine particle of high sulphur coal. The experiment factorial plan of desulphurization on centrifugal gravity Falcon separator was designed and its results were analyzed by using Design-Expert 6.0 software. The 2-reactor interaction relation model between comprehensive desulphurization efficiency of pyrite sulphur and different operation variable was drawn, i.e. 2 FI model, and the 2-factor interaction on pyrite desulphurization efficiency of the operation factors differently was analyzed. The interaction on pyrite desulphurization efficiency of feed rate and feed concentration is significant. The optimization test condition for desulphurization was proposed by Design-Expert 6.0, and comprehensive desulphurization efficiency of 86.90% can be achieved. 5 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Advanced coal combustion technologies and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic, Maja; Feretic, Danilo; Tomsic, Zeljko

    1997-01-01

    Estimations of world energy reserves show that coal will remain the leading primary energy source for electricity production in the foreseeable future. In order to comply with ever stricter environmental regulations and to achieve efficient use of limited energy resources, advanced combustion technologies are being developed. The most promising are the pressurised fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). By injecting sorbent in the furnace, PFBC removes more than 90 percent of SO 2 in flue gases without additional emission control device. In addition, due to lower combustion temperature, NO x emissions are around 90 percent lower than those from pulverised coal (PC) plant. IGCC plant performance is even more environmentally expectable and its high efficiency is a result of a combined cycle usage. Technical, economic and environmental characteristics of mentioned combustion technologies will be presented in this paper. Comparison of PFBC, IGCC and PC power plants economics and air impact will also be given. (Author)

  2. Distinctive features of high-ash bituminuos coals combution with low milling fineness in furnace chambers with bottom blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zroychikov, N. A.; Kaverin, A. A.; Biryukov, Ya A.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays the problem of improvement of pulverized coal combustion schemes is an actual one for national power engineering, especially for combustion of coals with low milling fineness with significant portion of moisture or mineral impurities. In this case a big portion of inert material in the fuel may cause impairment of its ignition and combustion. In addition there are a lot of boiler installations on which nitrogen oxides emission exceeds standard values significantly. Decreasing of milling fineness is not without interest as a way of lowering an electric energy consumption for pulverization, which can reach 30% of power plant’s auxiliary consumption of electricity. Development of a combustion scheme meeting the requirements both for effective coal burning and environmental measures (related to NOx emission) is a complex task and demands compromising between these two factors, because implementation of NOx control by combustion very often leads to rising of carbon-in-ash loss. However widespread occurrence of such modern research technique as computer modeling allows to conduct big amount of variants calculations of combustion schemes with low cost and find an optimum. This paper presents results of numerical research of combined schemes of coal combustion with high portion of inert material based on straight-flow burners and nozzles. Several distinctive features of furnace aerodynamics, heat transfer and combustion has been found. The combined scheme of high-ash bituminouos coals combustion with low milling fineness, which allows effective combustion of pointed type of fuels with nitrogen oxides emission reduction has been proposed.

  3. Mineral processing and characterization of coal waste to be used as fine aggregates for concrete paving blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Santos

    Full Text Available Commercial coal production in the southern region of Brazil has been occurring since the beginning of the twentieth century. Due to the geological characteristics of the region, large amounts of solid wastes are generated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of coal waste to produce concrete paving blocks. A procedure to process the coal waste with the purpose of reducing the sulfur content and changing the particle size distribution of the material to meet the specification of fine aggregates was developed. The methodology considered the following steps: (a sampling of a coal mining waste; (b gravity separation of the fraction with specific gravity between 2.4 and 2.8; (c comminution of the material and particle size analysis; (d technological characterization of the material and production of concrete paving blocks; and (e acidity generation prediction (environmental feasibility. The results showed that the coal waste considered in this work can be used to replace conventional sand as a fine aggregate for concrete paving blocks in a proportion of up to 50%. This practice can result in cleaner coal production and reduce the demand for exploitation of sand deposits.

  4. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2007-01-01

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  5. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO 2 emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  6. Revegetation on a coal fine ash disposal site in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, L.; De Sousa Correia, R.I.; Booysen, J. [Potchefstroom Univ. for Christian Higher Education (South Africa). Research Inst. for Reclamation Ecology; Ginster, M. [Sastech Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    1998-11-01

    Eight medium amendments were conducted on top of a fine ash coal dump (i) to evaluate a few cost-effective treatments that could determine the minimum fertility status required for the local ash to support the establishment of a viable vegetation cover, and (ii) to select suitable grass species that would establish on the ash and could serve as a foundation for long-term rehabilitation. Degree and success of grass establishment per medium amelioration treatment is expressed in terms of total biomass, percentage basal cover, and in terms of a condition assessment model. Both the chemical and physical nature of the ash medium before and after amendment was characterized, as were the concentrations of some essential and potentially toxic elements in leaf samples. In terms of medium amelioration 5000 kg ha{sup {minus}1} compost, or 500 kg ha{sup {minus}1} kraal manure or 480 kg 2:3:2 ha{sup {minus}1} proved to be most effective. The grass species that occurred with the highest frequency, irrespective of treatment, were the perennials bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers. var dactylon], weeping lovegrass [Eragrostis curvula (Schrader) Nees], and the annual teff [Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter]. Of the potentially toxic extractable metals monitored in the leaves of vegetation on the dump, only Se accumulated to an average level of 4.4 mg kg{sup {minus}1} that could be toxic to livestock.

  7. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This document contains papers presented at The advanced Coal-Fired Power Systems 1995 Review Meeting. Research was described in the areas of: integrated gasification combined cycle technology; pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; externally fired combined cycles; a summary stauts of clean coal technologies; advanced turbine systems and hot gas cleanup. Individual projects were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  8. Study on the Relationship between the Inhalable Fine Particulate Matter of Xuanwei Coal Combustion and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiapeng YANG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China, has become an important restricting factor for livelihood development, thus exerting local social and economic impacts. Coal is the main fuel of the local community and also the main source of indoor pollution. This study aims to explore the coal combustion inhalable fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and its component output differences in different areas of Xuanwei, Yunnan. Moreover, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between inhalation of fine particles and high incidence of local lung cancer. Methods For combustion test, coal mines designated as C1, K7 and M30 were collected from LaoLin Colliery of Laibing Town, Huchang Colliery of Baoshan Town, and Taiping Colliery of Wenxing Town in Xuanwei, respectively. PM2.5 of indoor air was weighed, analyzed for elemental composition, and morphologically compared. The pathological specimen of lung cancer patients in Xuanwei who underwent operation was observed through electron microscope. Results The PM2.5 concentrations in indoor air were (8.244 ±1.460 mg/m3 (C1, (5.066±0.984 mg/m3 (K7, and (5.071±1.460 mg/m3 (M30. The differences among pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (P=0.029. The filter impurities of C1 coal seam primarily include Si- and O-enriched compounds. Moreover, three membranes that comprised other elements, including C, S, and Si, were observed. These membranes were evident from the aggregation of silica and a Ca-Al membrane. Compared with that of other coal seams, C1 coal generated a mass of impurities, in which several particles have irregular shape. We found nanoscale fine particles in some specimens of Xuanwei lung cancer patients. Conclusion The produced combustion of C1 coal was different from that of K7 and M30 coal. PM2.5 composition may be associated with the high local incidence of lung cancer.

  9. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-12-30

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fme-pardcle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optimal catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  10. Compressive strength performance of OPS lightweight aggregate concrete containing coal bottom ash as partial fine aggregate replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, K.; Mohamad Hafizuddin, R.; Mat Yahaya, F.; Sulaiman, M. A.; Syed Mohsin, S. M.; Tukimat, N. N.; Omar, R.; Chin, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    Concerns regarding the negative impact towards environment due to the increasing use of natural sand in construction industry and dumping of industrial solid wastes namely coal bottom ash (CBA) and oil palm shell (OPS) has resulted in the development of environmental friendly lightweight concrete. The present study investigates the effect of coal bottom ash as partial fine aggregate replacement towards workability and compressive strength of oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete (OPS LWAC). The fresh and mechanical properties of this concrete containing various percentage of coal bottom ash as partial fine aggregate replacement were investigated. The result was compared to OPS LWAC with 100 % sand as a control specimen. The concrete workability investigated by conducting slump test. All specimens were cast in form of cubes and water cured until the testing age. The compressive strength test was carried out at 7 and 28 days. The finding shows that integration of coal bottom ash at suitable proportion enhances the strength of oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete.

  11. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  12. Long range transport of fine particle windblown soils and coal fired power station emissions into Hanoi between 2001 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Crawford, J.; Stelcer, E.; Vuong, T.B. [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC, NSW (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), source fingerprints and their contributions have been measured and reported previously at Hanoi, Vietnam, from 25 April 2001 to 31 December 2008. In this study back trajectories are used to identify long range transport into Hanoi for two of these sources, namely, windblown dust (Soil) from 12 major deserts in China and emissions from 33 coal fired power plants (Coal) in Vietnam and China. There were 28 days of extreme Soil events with concentrations greater than 6 {mu} g m{sup -3} and 25 days of extreme Coal with concentrations greater than 30 {mu} g m{sup -3} from a total of 748 sampling days during the study period. Through the use of back trajectories it was found that long range transport of soil from the Taklamakan and Gobi desert regions (more than 3000 km to the north west) accounted for 76% of the extreme events for Soil. The three local Vietnamese power stations contributed to 15% of the extreme Coal events, while four Chinese power stations between 300 km and 1700 km to the north-east of Hanoi contributed 50% of the total extreme Coal events measured at the Hanoi sampling site.

  13. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  14. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  15. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  16. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  17. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)]|[Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  18. Advanced control - technologies for suppressing harmful emission in lignitic coal-fired power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Hai, S.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The production of sufficient amount of indigenous energy is a prerequisite for the prosperity of a nation. Pakistan's energy demand far exceeds its indigenous supplies. A cursory look at the energy situation in Pakistan reveals that there is an urgent need for the development of its energy resources. In this regard, coal can play a key role if its problems of high-sulfur and high ash can be rectified through the adoption adaptation of advanced technologies, like (I) clean coal technologies, and (II) control technologies. A review on clean coal technologies for utilization of lignitic coals has already been published and the present article describes the effect of harmful emissions from the combustion of high sulfur coals, like the ones found in Pakistan and their control through advanced control technologies, to make a significant contribution in the total energy economics of Pakistan. (author)

  19. Recent advances in prediction of emission of hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, C.L.; Helble, J.J.; Sarofim, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants are a primary source of mercury discharge into the atmosphere along with fine particulates containing arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and other hazardous air pollutants. Information regarding the speciation of these toxic metals is necessary to accurately predict their atmospheric transport and fate in the environment. New predictive tools have been developed to allow utilities to better estimate the emissions of toxic metals from coal-fired power plants. These prediction equations are based on fundamental physics and chemistry and can be applied to a wide variety of fuel types and combustion conditions. The models have significantly improved the ability to predict the emissions of air toxic metals in fine particulate and gas-phase mercury. In this study, the models were successfully tested using measured mercury speciation and mass balance information collected from coal-fired power plants

  20. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  1. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  2. Research on pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of super fine and conventional pulverized coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chaoqun; Jiang Xiumin; Wei Lihong; Wang Hui

    2007-01-01

    Based on isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and kinetic equations, the optimization toolbox of MATLAB was applied to study the effects of particle size and heating rate on the pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics and to obtain the mechanism function and kinetic parameters of Yuanbaoshan coal at four different particle sizes and heating rates. The pyrolysis characteristics of the samples were analyzed using thermogravimetric (TG) curves and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The results show that the coal pyrolysis process is strongly affected by heating rate and particle size. As the heating rate increases, the temperature of volatile matter initiation increases, the total volatile matter evolved decreases and the DTG peak shifts toward higher temperature. As the particle size decreases, the temperature of volatile matter initiation of the coal sample decreases and the maximum rate of mass loss increases. In the pyrolysis of coal, the activation energies of the samples were found to increase with growing particle size and decreasing heating rate for both of the devolatilization temperature stages. In the lower temperature stage, the coal samples show a great difference in mechanism function at different particle sizes and heating rates

  3. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  4. Fine particle coal as a source of energy in small-user applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T M

    1986-01-01

    The potential savings are reviewed which are involved in the combustion of coal-water mixtures in atmospheric fluidized bed combustors and pulsed combustors for space and water heating in residential structures in the USA. Savings in 'present value' operating costs of heating systems which would be achieved by switching from oil to coal are presented for New England, the Middle Atlantic and East North Central sub-regions at different interest rates from 10 to 30%, and assuming low rates of growth in petroleum prices. These savings define the extra amount of money the user would be prepared to pay to purchase a coal slurry system. At a purchase price of 2500 dollars, this option would only be profitable for commercial users.

  5. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  6. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  7. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  8. The theory and technology of enclosure dust-laying model in speeded advance of coal road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Min Cheng; Xiang-Sheng Liu; Guo-Qiang Ruan; Yun-Xiang Guo; Gang Wang [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China). Key Laboratory of Mine Disaster Prevention and Control

    2009-02-15

    In order to solve the problem of high dust concentration caused by the rapid advance of coal roadways using the ABM20 development machine, a method suitable for the rapid advance of coal roadways in China was proposed. By using the mathematic model method to contrast the wind current field and dust field of the drivage face under different drivage velocities, an optimized drivage velocity of the fully-mechanized development machine was obtained. The theories were tested in an industry experiment. Analysis of the data indicates that the proposed enclosure dust-laying system can significantly lower the dust concentration at the heading face. It also has some advantages in accomplishing the effective advance of coal mines. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Technical, environmental, and economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power technologies in the Chinese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Xiao Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Wang Bo; Xu Xiang

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the technical, environmental, and economic dimensions of deploying advanced coal-fired power technologies in China. In particular, we estimate the differences in capital cost and overall cost of electricity (COE) for a variety of advanced coal-power technologies based on the technological and economic levels in 2006 in China. This paper explores the economic gaps between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and other advanced coal power technologies, and compares 12 different power plant configurations using advanced coal power technologies. Super critical (SC) and ultra super critical (USC) pulverized coal (PC) power generation technologies coupled with pollution control technologies can meet the emission requirements. These technologies are highly efficient, technically mature, and cost-effective. From the point of view of efficiency, SC and USC units are good choices for power industry. The net plant efficiency for IGCC has reached 45%, and it has the best environmental performance overall. The cost of IGCC is much higher, however, than that of other power generation technologies, so the development of IGCC is slow throughout the world. Incentive policies are needed if IGCC is to be deployed in China

  10. Advanced char burnout models for the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Severin; S. Wirtz; V. Scherer [Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany). Institute of Energy Plant Technology (LEAT)

    2005-07-01

    The numerical simulation of coal combustion processes is widely used as an efficient means to predict burner or system behaviour. In this paper an approach to improve CFD simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers with advanced coal combustion models is presented. In simple coal combustion models, first order Arrhenius rate equations are used for devolatilization and char burnout. The accuracy of such simple models is sufficient for the basic aspects of heat release. The prediction of carbon-in-ash is one aspect of special interest in the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers. To determine the carbon-in-ash levels in the fly ash of coal fired furnaces, the char burnout model has to be more detailed. It was tested, in how far changing operating conditions affect the carbon-in-ash prediction of the simulation. To run several test cases in a short time, a simplified cellnet model was applied. To use a cellnet model for simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers, it was coupled with a Lagrangian particle model, used in CFD simulations, too. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. FY 2001 report on the coal engineer training project. Advanced course; 2001 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yose jigyo. Jokyu kosu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The paper summed up the details of the training in the coal engineer training project (advanced course) carried out in FY 2001. The term of training was from June 1 to November 14, 2001. In the business training, lectures were given on coal geology, coal exploration technology, coal mining technology, draft survey, coal sampling and analysis method, maritime freight transport mainly of coal, coal utilization technology, environmental protection technology related to coal utilization, projects on overseas coal development, physical properties/chemical characteristics and usage of coal, and coal situation in China. In the inspection training, inspectional visits were paid to Taiheiyo Coal Mining Co., Noshiro Power Plant of the Tohoku Electric Power Co., Kumagaya Plant of Taiheiyo Cement Corp. and Keihin Steelworks of NKK Corp. In the training overseas, inspectional visits were paid to the following in Australia: coal mines of Moonee, Rix's Creek, West Wallsend, Bloomfield, Beltana, Bulga, South Bulga, Mt. Thorley, Warkworth, Liddell, Wambo, Mount Owen, Camberwell, etc. and harbors of Port Newcastle, Port Kembla Coal Terminal, etc. (NEDO)

  12. Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Coal Bottom Ash and Oil-Palm Boiler Clinker as Fine Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soofinajafi Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to utilize Coal Furnace Bottom ash (CBA and Oil-Palm Boiler Clinker (OPBC as fine aggregate in concrete mix proportions. They are solid wastes from power plant and Oil Palm industry, respectively. Since these by-products do not have any primary use and are pure waste, an opportunity to use them as aggregate in concrete industry not only is economical but also will be an environmental friendly opportunity leading towards a more sustainable production chain. CBA and OPBC sands had similar grading to normal sand but have lower density and higher water absorption. In a high strength concrete, normal sand was replaced up to 25% with either CBA or OPBC. Test results showed that although water absorption of these wastes was more than normal sand but the slump value of concrete containing each of these wastes showed that these concretes had good workability. All mixes containing these wastes had slightly lower compressive strength at early ages and equivalent or higher compressive strength at later ages compared to control mix. The 28-day compressive strength of these concretes was in the range of 69–76 MPa which can be categorized as high strength concrete. In general, the performance of OPBC was better than CBA at 25% replacement level. However, it is recommended that at least 12.5% of total volume of fine aggregate in a high strength concrete is used of CBA or OPBC.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  14. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0

  15. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  16. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  17. Development of a 1200 fine group nuclear data library for advanced nuclear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zou; Lei-Ming Shang; Fang Wang; Li-Juan Hao

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and reliable nuclear data libraries are essential for calculation and design of advanced nuclear systems.A 1200 fine group nuclear data library Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/Fine Group (HENDL/FG) with neutrons of up to 150 MeV has been developed to improve the accuracy of neutronics calculations and analysis.Corrections of Doppler,resonance self-shielding,and thermal upscatter effects were done for HENDL/FG.Shielding and critical safety benchmarks were performed to test the accuracy and reliability of the library.The discrepancy between calculated and measured nuclear parameters fell into a reasonable range.

  18. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains papers which were presented at the advanced coal-fired power sytems review meeting. This is volume II. Topics include: hot gas filter issues, hazardous air pollutants, sorbent development, and separation technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  19. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  20. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  1. Gasification of brown coal and char with carbon dioxide in the presence of finely dispersed iron catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, K.; Sears, P.; Furimsky, E.; Ohtsuka, Y. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    Gasification of brown coal and char with CO{sub 2} using iron catalysts precipitated from an aqueous solution of FeCl{sub 3} has been studied. When the pyrolyzed char is gasified in the temperature-programmed mode, the presence of the iron can lower the temperature giving the maximal rate of CO formation by 130-160 K, a larger lowering being observed at a higher loading in the range of {le} 3 wt% Fe. The specific rates of the isothermal gasification iron-bearing chars at 1173 and 1223 K increase with increasing char conversion, resulting in complete gasification within a short reaction time. Comparison of the initial rates of uncatalyzed and catalyzed gasification reveals that iron addition can lower the reaction temperature by 120 K. Moessbauer spectra show that the precipitation iron exists as fine FeOOH particles, which are reduced mainly to Fe{sub 3}C on charring at 1123 K. Most of the Fe{sub 3}C is transformed into {alpha}-Fe and {gamma}-Fe at the initial stage of gasification, and subsequently these species are oxidized to FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The changes during gasification are discussed in terms of solid-gas and solid-solid reactions. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on fine particle emission from two coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission abatement of coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) requires large-scaled installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which would reduce secondary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) (by reducing nitrate aerosol) in the atmosphere. However, our field measurement of two CFPPs equipped with SCR indicates a significant increase of SO42- and NH4+ emission in primary PM2.5, due to catalytic enhancement of SO2 oxidation to SO3 and introducing of NH3 as reducing agent. The subsequent formation of (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4 aerosol is commonly concentrated in sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) with a bimodal pattern. The measurement at the inlet of stack also showed doubled primary PM2.5 emission by SCR operation. This effect should therefore be considered when updating emission inventory of CFPPs. By rough estimation, the enhanced primary PM2.5 emission from CFPPs by SCR operation would offset 12% of the ambient PM2.5 concentration reduction in cities as the benefit of national NOx emission abatement, which should draw attention of policy-makers for air pollution control.

  3. Concept selection for advanced low-emission coal fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrell, R.L. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States); Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) with subcontract to Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSIT), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C) has begun development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The initial phase of this multi-phase program required a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques for control of combustion and flue gas emissions. Results of this assessment are presented in this paper.

  4. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  5. Advanced gasifier and water gas shift technologies for low cost coal conversion to high hydrogen syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Andrew Kramer [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition region at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.

  6. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  7. Briquetability of coal fines from the Lavci deposit near Resen. Briketabilnost sitnih frakcija uglja sa lezista Lavci kod Resena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankuloska, V.; Cadikovska, V. (Rudnici i Zelezarnica, Skopje (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    Describes laboratory briquetting of lignite from the Lavci coal deposit in Macedonia, Yugoslavia. The deposit has 21.4 Mt of lignite reserves. Coal samples from cores of exploratory boreholes were evaluated. Chemical composition and properties of the coal are presented. The coal has a 60.8% moisture, 7.8% ash and 0.82% sulfur content. The calorific value of coal is between 5,881 and 7,828 kJ/kg. Coal samples were comminuted and briquetted without binders, due to the favorable petrographic composition of the lignite. Resulting laboratory briquets weighing 45 g were tested for compression strength, water resistance and abrasion (Micum test). Briquet combustion properties were also determined. Briquet quality was of Yugoslav class B[sub 1] and B[sub 2] with the lowest calorific value being 16,427 kJ/kg, which is 2.79 times higher than that of the raw coal. 3 refs.

  8. Principles, techniques and recent advances in fine particle aggregation for solid-liquid separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somasundaran, P.; Vasudevan, T.V.

    1993-01-01

    Waste water discharged from various chemical and nuclear processing operations contains dissolved metal species that are highly toxic and, in some cases, radioactive. When the waste is acidic in nature, neutralization using reagents such as lime is commonly practiced to reduce both the acidity and the amount of waste (Kuyucak et al.). The sludge that results from the neutralization process contains metal oxide or hydroxide precipitates that are colloidal in nature and is highly stable. Destabilization of colloidal suspensions can be achieved by aggregation of fines into larger sized agglomerates. Aggregation of fines is a complex phenomenon involving a multitude of forces that control the interparticle interaction. In order to understand the colloidal behavior of suspensions a fundamental knowledge of physicochemical properties that determine the various forces is essential. In this review, a discussion of basic principles governing the aggregation of colloidal fines, various ways in which interparticle forces can be manipulated to achieve the desired aggregation response and recent advances in experimental techniques to probe the interfacial characteristics that control the flocculation behavior are discussed

  9. Fine-tuning’ blood flow to the exercising muscle with advancing age: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, D. Walter; Richardson, Russell S.

    2016-01-01

    During dynamic exercise, oxygen demand from the exercising muscle is dramatically elevated, requiring a marked increase in skeletal muscle blood flow that is accomplished through a combination of systemic sympathoexcitation and local metabolic vasodilatation. With advancing age, the balance between these factors appears to be disrupted in favour of vasoconstriction, leading to an impairment in exercising skeletal muscle blood flow in the elderly. This ‘hot topic’ review aims to provide an update to our current knowledge of age-related changes in the neural and local mechanisms that contribute to this ‘fine-tuning’ of blood flow during exercise. The focus is on results from recent human studies that have adopted a reductionist approach to explore how age-related changes in both vasodilators (nitric oxide) and vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1, α-adrenergic agonists and angiotensin II) interact and how these changes impact blood flow to the exercising skeletal muscle with advancing age. PMID:25858164

  10. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  11. Process to dry and preheat fine-grained bituminous coal using non- or weakly baking coal and/or carbon materials. Verfahren zur Trocknung und Vorerhitzung von feinkoerniger Steinkohle unter Verwendung nicht oder nur schwach backender Kohle und/oder Kohlenstofftraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echterhoff, J.; Frick, H.; Schaper, A.; Mohmeyer, H.

    1982-11-04

    Fine-grained bituminous coal is dried and preheated in an inert gas to prevent its oxidation. The inert gas consists essentially of steam which originates from the coal to be dried. The coal is heated besides by using steam intensively but gently. The drying is carried out in a drying drum in co-current flow. The coal is mixed with a binding agent in the presence of steam. The dried and preheated coal is taken out and, after being covered with a binding agent, transported without further safety measures to the atmosphere, stored and further processed. (KHH).

  12. Forecast of advanced technology adoption for coal fired power generation towards the year of 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Keiji [Japanese Center for Asia Pacific Coal Flow (JAPAC), Tokyo (Japan). Japan coal Energy Center (JCOAL)

    2013-07-01

    Needs for electricity is growing rapidly in many countries and it is expected the increase of electricity by 2030 is almost double. Fossil fuels, renewables, nuclear energy will play leading parts in the future, but fossil power generation will continue to play a major role. Especially, coal will be used continuously due to its stable supply and lower price. However, global warming countermeasures should be considered for large amount of coal use. High efficient systems and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) will be most applicable solution for the problems. USC, IGCC and A-USC have higher efficiencies, but costs are normally higher. So it is very important to evaluate the future trend of the plants, that is the cost, performance and the share of each plant. It is also essential to evaluate high efficient plants which will be constructed mainly and which system investment should be paid to. But no less important is to evaluate each system from the neutral position. So Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) constructed its own program to expect the future trend of each plant. JCOAL made a basic concept and the programming was done by SRI International of the United States. The considered systems of coal fired power generation are Supercritical Unit, Ultra Supercritical Unit, Advanced- Supercritical Unit, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC). In order to compare with the natural gas case, Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) is included. Evaluation will be done for both without and with CCS cases. This program covers by the year of 2050. The results are trends of following items: capital cost, operational and maintenance cost, levelized cost of electricity, etc. We can also expect the future share of high efficient coal fired systems by 2050. Here the share will be decided by the levelized cost of electricity. The plant that has the lowest cost will get more share under the scenario of this program. This chapter summarizes

  13. Special emission measurements on Riley Stoker's advanced CFB pilot facility co-firing non-recyclable de-inking paper fiber and high sulfur eastern bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.; Reicker, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    Riley Stoker has developed advanced industrial CFB designs that utilize eastern bituminous coals as fuel, and have the potential to use coal in combination with other fuels. Various fiber waste streams in paper recycling processes have sufficient carbonaceous content to be considered as possible sources of such fuels that could fire FBC combustors. The American Paper Institute estimates that by the mid-1990's more than 40% of the waste paper will be recycled, reaching much higher numbers by the year 2000. To evaluate the effectiveness of co-firing such fuels, a test program was conducted on Riley's pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed test facility. A de-inked newsprint derived fiber waste was successfully co-fired with high sulfur coal. The waste fiber material containing approximately 50% moisture had a heating value of 3500 Btu/lb. The coal was strip-mined and contained a lot of clay and excessive quantities of fines making it difficult to burn in conventional boilers. Tests were also conducted with a combination fuel consisting of coal, fiber waste and a high carbon fly ash. In addition to obtaining performance data on combustion efficiency, sulfur capture, and NO x emissions, special emission measurements were also made to quantify the organics, trace metals and hydrochloric acid levels in the flue gas. The co-firing tests achieved a maximum combustion efficiency of 98% and sulfur capture of 90%. The effect of Ca/S mole ratio and temperature is discussed. Although there are no formal regulations in place for FBC systems regarding special emissions, the levels measured were far below the allowable limits for waste incinerators. Materials handling experience on the pilot facility relating to co-firing is also discussed. This is done to identify special considerations for designing commercial facilities. A brief overview of the de-inking waste fiber combustion market is also presented

  14. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    showed an ultrafine mode centered at approximately 0.1 μm. Compared with coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the formation of submicron particles, especially ultrafine particles below 0.2 μm. The morphology of the particles indicated that supermicron particles were primarily formed...... by the melting of minerals. The ultrafine particles were generated through nucleation and coagulation of vaporized inorganic species, while for the particles in between supermicron and ultrafine particles, condensation of vaporized species or aggregation of nucleates on the existing spherical submicron particles...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  15. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  16. Advanced pulverized-coal power plants: A U.S. export opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, L.A.; Ramezan, M.; Izsak, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) power generation systems and its potential for generating power worldwide. Based on the fuel availability, power requirements, and environmental regulations, countries have been identified that need to build advanced, clean, efficient, and economical power generation, systems. It is predicted that ''more electrical generation capacity will be built over the next 25 years than was built in the previous century''. For example, China and India alone, with less than 10% of today's demand, plan to build what would amount to a quarter of the world's new capacity. For the near- to mid-term, the LEBS program of Combustion 2000 has the promise to fill some of the needs of the international coal-fired power generation market. The high efficiency of LEBS, coupled with the use of advanced, proven technologies and low emissions, make it a strong candidate for export to those areas whose need for additional power is greatest. LEBS is a highly advanced version of conventional coal-based power plants that have been utilized throughout the world for decades. LEBS employs proven technologies and doesn't require gasification and/or an unconventional combustion environment (e.g., fluidized bed). LEBS is viewed by the utility industry as technically acceptable and commercially feasible

  17. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  18. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  19. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  20. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  1. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  2. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  4. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Annual report, August 1982-August 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.J.; Tierney, J.W.; Adams, J.; Bhat, N.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Kakwani, R.; Qamar, I.

    1983-09-01

    The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal with experiments also being conducted with Upper Freeport and Illinois No. 6 coals. During the past year, filter cakes from the above coals with widely varied size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. A module of the network model for calculating single phase permeabilities was completed and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for the 1983-84; detailed descriptions of technical progress for particle/filter cake characterization; theoretical modeling, and enhanced dewatering methods; and appendices. 11 references, 35 figures, 11 tables.

  5. 'Fine-tuning' blood flow to the exercising muscle with advancing age: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-06-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review focuses on age-related changes in the regulatory pathways that exist at the unique interface between the vascular smooth muscle and the endothelium of the skeletal muscle vasculature, and how these changes contribute to impairments in exercising skeletal muscle blood flow in the elderly. What advances does it highlight? Several recent in vivo human studies from our group and others are highlighted that have examined age-related changes in nitric oxide, endothelin-1, alpha adrenergic, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) signaling. During dynamic exercise, oxygen demand from the exercising muscle is dramatically elevated, requiring a marked increase in skeletal muscle blood flow that is accomplished through a combination of systemic sympathoexcitation and local metabolic vasodilatation. With advancing age, the balance between these factors appears to be disrupted in favour of vasoconstriction, leading to an impairment in exercising skeletal muscle blood flow in the elderly. This 'hot topic' review aims to provide an update to our current knowledge of age-related changes in the neural and local mechanisms that contribute to this 'fine-tuning' of blood flow during exercise. The focus is on results from recent human studies that have adopted a reductionist approach to explore how age-related changes in both vasodilators (nitric oxide) and vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1, α-adrenergic agonists and angiotensin II) interact and how these changes impact blood flow to the exercising skeletal muscle with advancing age. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  6. Fatigue and creep–fatigue deformation of an ultra-fine precipitate strengthened advanced austenitic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.C.; Carroll, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. To investigate the behavior in more representative conditions than are offered by uniaxial creep tests, the low-cycle continuous fatigue and combined creep–fatigue response of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 °C and 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of −1 and hold times at peak tensile strain of up to 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure between the two alloys are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in both fatigue and creep–fatigue of each alloy at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present following the application of hold times of 60 min and longer, and considerably more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ substantially; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in the microstructure of 316 SS, whereas HT-UPS exhibits widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep–fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as the microstructure evolves with continued cycling.

  7. Fatigue and creep-fatigue deformation of an ultra-fine precipitate strengthened advanced austenitic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.C., E-mail: Mark.Carroll@INL.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 Fremont, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2218 (United States); Carroll, L.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 Fremont, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2218 (United States)

    2012-10-30

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. To investigate the behavior in more representative conditions than are offered by uniaxial creep tests, the low-cycle continuous fatigue and combined creep-fatigue response of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 Degree-Sign C and 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of -1 and hold times at peak tensile strain of up to 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure between the two alloys are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in both fatigue and creep-fatigue of each alloy at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present following the application of hold times of 60 min and longer, and considerably more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ substantially; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in the microstructure of 316 SS, whereas HT-UPS exhibits widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep-fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as the microstructure evolves with continued cycling.

  8. Advances in coalbed methane reservoirs using integrated reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing in Karaganda coal basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Aimukhan, Adina; Kenshimova, Aida; Mullagaliyev, Fandus; Akbarov, Erlan; Mullagaliyeva, Lylia; Kabirova, Svetlana; Almukhametov, Azamat

    2017-04-01

    Coalbed methane from Karaganda coal basin is considered to be an unconventional source of energy for the Central and Eastern parts of Kazakhstan. These regions are situated far away from the main traditional sources of oil and gas related to Precaspian petroleum basin. Coalbed methane fields in Karaganda coal basin are characterized by geological and structural complexity. Majority of production zones were characterized by high methane content and extremely low coal permeability. The coal reservoirs also contained a considerable natural system of primary, secondary, and tertiary fractures that were usually capable to accommodate passing fluid during hydraulic fracturing process. However, after closing was often observed coal formation damage including the loss of fluids, migration of fines and higher pressures required to treat formation than were expected. Unusual or less expected reservoir characteristics and values of properties of the coal reservoir might be the cause of the unusual occurred patterns in obtained fracturing, such as lithological peculiarities, rock mechanical properties and previous natural fracture systems in the coals. Based on these properties we found that during the drilling and fracturing of the coal-induced fractures have great sensitivity to complex reservoir lithology and stress profiles, as well as changes of those stresses. In order to have a successful program of hydraulic fracturing and avoid unnecessary fracturing anomalies we applied integrated reservoir characterization to monitor key parameters. In addition to logging data, core sample analysis was applied for coalbed methane reservoirs to observe dependence tiny lithological variations through the magnetic susceptibility values and their relation to permeability together with expected principal stress. The values of magnetic susceptibility were measured by the core logging sensor, which is equipped with the probe that provides volume magnetic susceptibility parameters

  9. Report on the FY 1999 project for training coal engineers. Advanced course; 1999 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo hokokusho. Jokyusha course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This is a report on the training for coal technology which two Japanese engineers received in Australia. In Chapter 3 (Outline of Australia), they studied the national land, constitution of the national land, population, history, politics, economy and trade. In Chapter 4 (Coal geology), they read lecture data of university. In Chapter 5 (Outline of coal supply/demand), the coal export amount from Australia is 167 million tons. Steam coal of a little less than 50% is exported to Japan. In Chapter 6 (Coal mining technology), 100 million tons of NSW state and 100 million and 570 thousand tons of QLD state are mined by underground mining and open pit mining. Training was conducted on overburden/drilling/transportation of the open pit mining coal. As coal mining methods of underground mining, they learned the board and pillar coal mining and high wall mining as an extension of open pit mining. In Chapter 7 (Coal preparation), they observed/studied the jig, heavy media separator, heavy media cyclone separator, flotation equipment, spiral ore dressing equipment, fine powder centrifugal dewatering equipment, thickener, sieve, etc. They studied by data or by observation in Chapters 8 (Outline of coal mine), 9 (Outline of export port), 10 (Outline of railroad transportation), and 11 (Quality management). (NEDO)

  10. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaimov Nikolay A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI. The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  11. Electroosmotically enhanced dewatering/deliquoring of fine-particle coal: Final report, January 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sami, Sedat [Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Davis, Philip K. [Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Smith, James G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1989-03-01

    This research is an investigation of the use of electroosmosis to dewater/deliquor ultrafine coal. Post-beneficiation dewatering/deliquoring methods for ultrafine coal are inadequate and generally require subsequent thermal drying. Thermal drying is not only expensive and time consuming, it also does not recover liquids for reuse in beneficiation processes. The degree of difficulty associated with dewatering increases as surface forces become more important than gravimetric forces. Electroosmotic flow has advantages for dewatering because it is much less sensitive to pore size than hydraulic gradient flow for the 1 to 75 ..mu..m ultrafine size range. The first year of this project focused upon preparation of ultrafine coal samples, development of test equipment and test cells, identification of variables affecting electroosmosis, and trial runs. Techniques and procedures not previously used by researchers of electroosmotic dewatering have revealed important information about the dynamics of the electroosmosis process. The identification of the first few millimeters of the cathode region of the cell as the sink for most of the energy input into the process provides the potential for improving efficiency by concentrating the second year effort on intervention in that region. Information gathered about differences in FTIR spectra as a function of location in the dewatering cell will be investigated. Changes in pH with temperature and by the application of electroosmotic current flow will receive attention, as well. 178 refs., 16 figs.

  12. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  13. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.K. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  14. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  15. Recent advances in the use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Two major coal combustion problems are the formation and build-up of slag deposits on heat transfer surfaces and the production and control of toxic species in coal combustion emissions. The use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products can play a role in the better understanding of both these phenomena. An understanding of the chemical composition of such slags under boiler operating conditions and as a function of the mineral composition of various coals is one ultimate goal of this program. The principal constituents in the ash of many coals are the oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, S, and Na. The analytical method required must be able to determine the functional forms of all these elements both in coal and in coal ash at elevated temperatures. One unique way of conducting these analyses is by x-ray spectroscopy.

  16. Study of Compressive Strength of Concrete with Coal Power Plant Fly Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement and Fine Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research study comprises of concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement and with different configurations of fly ash by replacing cement and fine aggregate. To achieve the aim of this study, total 81 concrete cubes were cast. Among 81 cubes, 9 cubes were made with normal concrete, 36 cubes were made by replacing 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of fine aggregate with fly ash and 36 cubes were made by replacing 10%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of cement with fly ash. The cubes were 6\\" x 6\\" in cross-section, and the mix design was aimed for 5000 psi. After proper curing of all 81 cubes, they were tested at 3, 7 and 28 days curing age. The cubes were tested in Forney Universal Testing Machine. By analyzing the test results of all the concrete cubes, the following main findings have been drawn. The compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 100 % fine aggregate by fly ash was higher than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all 3, 7 and 28 days curing ages. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 10 % and 25 % cement by fly ash was slightly lower than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all curing ages, whereas, the compressive strength of concrete cubes made by replacing 50 % and 75 % of cement by fly ash were quite lower than the concrete cubes made with Ordinary Portland Cement at all curing ages.

  17. Advanced Portable Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fine water mist (FWM) is a promising replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in performance,...

  18. Test of Advanced Fine Water Mist Nozzles in a Representative Spacecraft Atmosphere, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fine water mist is being considered as a replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in...

  19. Coproduction of transportation fuels in advanced IGCCs via coal and biomass mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qin; Rao, Ashok; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Coproduction of electricity and transportation fuels with carbon capture. • Switchgrass biomass is cofed with bituminous coal or lignite. • Cost of Fischer–Tropsch liquids is comparable to longer term price projections of crude oil. • Ethanol costs more than gasoline but greenhouse gas emissions will be lower. • Cost of hydrogen is lower than the DoE announced goal of $3/kg. - Abstract: Converting abundant fossil resources of coal to alternative transportation fuels is a promising option for countries heavily dependent on petroleum imports if plants are equipped with carbon capture for sequestration and cofed with biomass (30% by weight of the total feed on a dry basis), an essentially carbon neutral fuel, without penalizing the process economics excessively. A potential exists to improve both thermal efficiency and economics of such plants by taking advantage of the synergies of coproducing electricity using advanced technologies under development. Three types of transportation fuels are considered. Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) liquids consisting predominantly of waxes could be processed in existing refineries while displacing petroleum and the refined products introduced into the market place at the present time or in the near term without requiring changes to the existing infrastructure. Ethanol could potentially serve in the not so distant future (or phased in by blending with conventional liquid fuels). Hydrogen which could play a dominant role in the more distant future being especially suitable to the fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV). Two types of coal along with biomass cofeed are evaluated; bituminous coal at $42.0/dry tonne, lignite at $12.0/dry tonne, and switchgrass at $99.0/dry tonne. The calculated cost for F–T liquids ranged from $77.8/bbl to $86.6/bbl (or $0.0177 to 0.0197/MJ LHV) depending on the feedstock, which is comparable to the projected longer term market price of crude oil at ∼$80/bbl when supply and demand reach a

  20. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, S; Larson, E D; Williams, R H [Center for Energy and Environment Studies School of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Katofsky, R E [Arthur D. Little Co., Cambridge, MA (United States); Chen, J [Thermo Fibertek, Inc., Auburn, MA (United States); Marrison, C I [Oliver, Wyman and Co., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Recent analyses of alternative global energy supply strategies, such as the forthcoming report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to be published in 1996, have drawn attention to the possibility that biomass modernized with advanced technologies could play an important role in meeting global energy needs in the next century. This paper discusses two promising classes of advanced technologies that offer the potential for providing modem energy carriers (electricity and fluid fuels) from biomass at competitive costs within one or two decades. These technologies offer significantly more efficient use of land than currently commercial technologies for producing electricity and fluid fuels from biomass, as well as substantially improved energy balances. Electricity is Rely to be the first large market for modernized biomass, but the potential market for fluid fuel production is likely to be much larger. As coal is likely to present a more serious competitive challenge to biomass in the long run, we present an economic comparison with coal-based electricity and fluid fuels. A meaningful economic comparison between coal and biomass is possible because these feedstocks are sufficiently alike in their physical characteristics that similar conversion technologies may well be used for producing electricity and fluid fuels from them. When similar conversion technologies are used for both feedstocks, the relative costs of electricity or fluid fuels will be determined by the distinguishing technical characteristics of the feedstocks (sulphur content, moisture content and reactivity) and by the relative feedstock prices. Electric power generation from biomass and coal are compared here using an advanced integrated gasifier/gas turbine cycle that offers the potential for achieving high efficiency, low unit capital cost and low local pollutant emissions: the steam-injected gas turbine coupled to an air-blown gasifier. For both feedstocks, generation costs are

  1. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, S.; Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.; Katofsky, R.E.; Chen, J.; Marrison, C.I.

    1995-01-01

    Recent analyses of alternative global energy supply strategies, such as the forthcoming report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to be published in 1996, have drawn attention to the possibility that biomass modernized with advanced technologies could play an important role in meeting global energy needs in the next century. This paper discusses two promising classes of advanced technologies that offer the potential for providing modem energy carriers (electricity and fluid fuels) from biomass at competitive costs within one or two decades. These technologies offer significantly more efficient use of land than currently commercial technologies for producing electricity and fluid fuels from biomass, as well as substantially improved energy balances. Electricity is Rely to be the first large market for modernized biomass, but the potential market for fluid fuel production is likely to be much larger. As coal is likely to present a more serious competitive challenge to biomass in the long run, we present an economic comparison with coal-based electricity and fluid fuels. A meaningful economic comparison between coal and biomass is possible because these feedstocks are sufficiently alike in their physical characteristics that similar conversion technologies may well be used for producing electricity and fluid fuels from them. When similar conversion technologies are used for both feedstocks, the relative costs of electricity or fluid fuels will be determined by the distinguishing technical characteristics of the feedstocks (sulphur content, moisture content and reactivity) and by the relative feedstock prices. Electric power generation from biomass and coal are compared here using an advanced integrated gasifier/gas turbine cycle that offers the potential for achieving high efficiency, low unit capital cost and low local pollutant emissions: the steam-injected gas turbine coupled to an air-blown gasifier. For both feedstocks, generation costs are

  2. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  3. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  4. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  5. Flotation process diagnostics and modelling by coal grain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofori, P; O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Jenkins, B. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    In coal flotation, particles of different components of the coal such as maceral groups and mineral matter and their associations have different hydrophobicities and therefore different flotation responses. By using a new coal grain analysis method for characterising individual grains, more detailed flotation performance analysis and modelling approaches have been developed. The method involves the use of microscopic imaging techniques to obtain estimates of size, compositional and density information on individual grains of fine coal. The density and composition partitioning of coal processed through different flotation systems provides an avenue to pinpoint the actual cause of poor process performance so that corrective action may be initiated. The information on grain size, density and composition is being used as input data to develop more detailed flotation process models to provide better predictions of process performance for both mechanical and column flotation devices. A number of approaches may be taken to flotation modelling such as the probability approach and the kinetic model approach or a combination of the two. In the work reported here, a simple probability approach has been taken, which will be further refined in due course. The use of grain data to map the responses of different types of coal grains through various fine coal cleaning processes provided a more advanced diagnostic capability for fine coal cleaning circuits. This enabled flotation performance curves analogous to partition curves for density separators to be produced for flotation devices.

  6. Use of advanced chemical fingerprinting in PAH source identification and allocation at a coal tar processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced chemical fingerprinting analyses were used to determine source allocation at a former coal tar processing facility which had been converted to a petroleum recycling site. Soil samples from the site had high petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and elevated levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Comparisons of PAH distributions were used to differentiate the coal tar hydrocarbons from the petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. A more specific technique was needed to accurately allocate the contribution of the two sources to the observed PAH contamination in the soil. Petroleum biomarkers (steranes and triterpanes) which are present in crude oils and many refined petroleum products but are absent in coal tar were used to quantitatively allocate the source of the PAH contamination based on the relative ratio of the PAH to the biomarkers in soil samples. Using the resulting coal tar/petroleum source ratio the contribution of petroleum to the overall PAH contamination at the site was calculated. A multivariate statistical technique (principal component analysis or PCA) was used to provide an independent validation of the source allocation. The results of the source allocation provided a foundation for the site clean-up and remediation costs

  7. Study on Reduction Kinetics of Briquettes of Hematite Fines with Boiler Grade Coal and Coke Dust in Two Different Forms: Intermixing and Multilayered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Gopal Ghosh; Sarkar, Bitan Kumar; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh; Mitra, Manoj Kumar; Dey, Rajib

    2017-10-01

    An attempt has been made to utilise hematite ore fines in the form of briquettes with two different form of mixing i.e. intermixing and multilayered by means of carbothermal reduction along with boiler grade coal and coke dust. The influence of reduction temperature (1323, 1373 and 1423 K) and reduction time (10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min) has been investigated in detail and the reduced briquettes are characterised by XRD, SEM analyses. The reducibility of intermixing briquettes is found to be higher for multilayered briquettes. In addition, isothermal kinetic study has also been carried out for both intermixing and multilayered briquettes. The activation energy for intermixing briquettes are evaluated to be 125.88 kJ/mol for the initial stage of reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism) and 113.11 kJ/mol for the later part of reaction (D3 controlled mechanism), respectively. In case of multilayered briquettes, the corresponding activation energy is found to be 235.59 kJ/mol for reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism). These results corroborate the observed better reducibility of the intermixing briquettes over multilayered briquettes.

  8. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 25, 1990--October 24, 1991: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-12-30

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fme-pardcle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optimal catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  9. Health impacts of coal: facts and fallacies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelman, R.B. [University of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Coal has contributed enormously to the advance of civilization by providing an abundant, inexpensive, and convenient source of energy. Concurrent with its contributions, coal has extracted a high cost in terms of environmental damage and human health impacts. Unfortunately, the links between coal use and human health are distorted by a great deal of ignorance and misinformation. This paper discusses the facts and fallacies of the direct health impacts caused by coal. These include health problems caused by arsenic, fluorine, mercury and selenium released in coal use in the residential sector. The trace element iodine however may help prevent iodine deficiency disorder. Lignite in the ground in some Balkan areas has been associated with a urinary tract cancer known as Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). Uncontrolled burning coal seams and coal waste piles contribute to global warming and to respiratory problems. The 10-fold enrichment of trace elements in fly ash and the fine particles released from power plants could present a health threat but where good pollution control technology and disposal practices are applied the health threat is probably minimal. Radioactivity levels in coal are thought to be too low to cause concern. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Pilot Demonstration of Technology for the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. L. Robl; J. G. Groppo; R. Rathbone; B. Marrs; R. Jewell

    2008-07-18

    polyethylene terphthalate filled polymers were prepared and subjected to SEM analysis to verify that the UFA was well dispersed. The addition of fillers increased the modulus of the HDPE composite, but decreased both the offset yield stress and offset yield strain, showing that the fillers essentially made the composite stiffer but the transition to plastic deformation occurred earlier in filled HDPE as stress was applied. Similar results were obtained with TPE, however, the decrease in either stress or strain at offset yield were not as significant. Dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) were also completed and showed that although there were some alterations in the properties of the HDPE and TPE, the alterations are small, and more importantly, transition temperatures are not altered. The UFA materials were also tested in expanded urethanes, were improvements were made in the composites strength and stiffness, particularly for lighter weight materials. The results of limited flammability and fire safety testing were encouraging. A flowsheet was developed to produce an Ultra-Fine Ash (UFA) product from reclaimed coal-fired utility pond ash. The flowsheet is for an entry level product development scenario and additional production can be accommodated by increasing operating hours and/or installing replicate circuits. Unit process design was based on experimental results obtained throughout the project and cost estimates were derived from single vendor quotes. The installation cost of this plant is estimated to be $2.1M.

  11. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i

  12. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  13. Report of activities of the advanced coal extraction systems definition project, 1979 - 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, M. L.; Isenberg, L.

    1981-01-01

    During this period effort was devoted to: formulation of system performance goals in the areas of production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and coal conservation, survey and in depth assessment of promising technology, and characterization of potential resource targets. Primary system performance goals are to achieve a return on incremental investment of 150% of the value required for a low risk capital improvement project and to reduce deaths and disability injuries per million man-hour by 50%. Although these performance goals were developed to be immediately applicable to the Central Appalachian coal resources, they were also designed to be readily adaptable to other coals by appending a geological description of the new resource. The work done on technology assessment was concerned with the performance of the slurry haulage system.

  14. Recent advances in remote coal mining machine sensing, guidance, and teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, J C; Hainsworth, D W; Reid, D C; Anderson, D L; McPhee, R J [CSIRO Exploration & Minerals, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2001-10-01

    Some recent applications of sensing, guidance and telerobotic technology in the coal mining industry are presented. Of special interest is the development of semi or fully autonomous systems to provide remote guidance and communications for coal mining equipment. The use of radar and inertial based sensors are considered in an attempt to solve the horizontal and lateral guidance problems associated with mining equipment automation. Also described is a novel teleoperated robot vehicle with unique communications capabilities, called the Numbat, which is used in underground mine safety and reconnaissance missions.

  15. Development of advanced coal cleaning process; Kodo sekitan kaishitsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, S [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, A; Yamashita, T [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a clean coal production process which excellently removes environmental pollutant, is low-costed, and need no particular systems for distribution of products. The result of the development was described paying attention to column flotation which is a technology to high-efficiently select particulate regions, particulate heavy media cyclone, magnetic separation, and the basic design of the process into which those above were integrated. The two-stage selection process, which is an integration of column flotation and particulate heavy media cyclone into the conventional coal preparation equipment, can produce low-ash clean coal at high separation efficiency and also suppress the rise in processing cost. This process was also effective for removal of sulfur content and trace metal elements. The use of clean coal at power plant can be effective for not only the reduction in ash treatment amount, but the aspect of boiler operation characteristics such as heat transfer efficiency of boiler furnace wall, ash related troubles, loads of electrostatic precipitator, loads of flue gas desulfurization facilities. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  17. Simulation and design method in advanced nanomaterials fine-tuning for some perovskites type AHE study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohorianu, S.; Lozovan, M.; Rusu, F.-V.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured materials with tailored properties are now essential for future applications in the current industrial manufacturing. Extracting valuable information from data by using the distributed computer processing and storage technologies, as well the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and the development of advanced algorithms for knowledge discovery are the purpose of our work. We describe how a Simulation and Design Method (SDM) attempt, based on our last results, is applied on two perovskites type materials, La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 in order to study the Anomalous Hall Effect (AHE). Our new ANN model, is intended to contribute to the effort to improve some properties of new materials. It implements and uses the basic building blocks of neural computation, such as multi-layer perceptrons. ANN can learn associative patterns and approximate the functional relationship between a set of input and output. Modeling and simulation techniques affect all stages in the development and improvement of new materials, from the initial formation of concepts to synthesis and characterization of properties. A new SDM with ANN for some nanomagnetic materials was given. Neural networks have been applied successfully in the identification and classification of some nanomagnetic characteristics from a large amount of data. (authors)

  18. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  19. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  20. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  1. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  2. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  3. Advanced design nuclear power plants: Competitive, economical electricity. An analysis of the cost of electricity from coal, gas and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report presents an updated analysis of the projected cost of electricity from new baseload power plants beginning operation around the year 2000. Included in the study are: (1) advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants; (2) low emissions coal-fired power plants; (3) gasified coal-fired power plants; and (4) natural gas-fired power plants. This analysis shows that electricity from advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants will be economically competitive with all other baseload electric generating system alternatives. This does not mean that any one source of electric power is always preferable to another. Rather, what this analysis indicates is that, as utilities and others begin planning for future baseload power plants, advanced-design nuclear plants should be considered an economically viable option to be included in their detailed studies of alternatives. Even with aggressive and successful conservation, efficiency and demand-side management programs, some new baseload electric supply will be needed during the 1990s and into the future. The baseload generating plants required in the 1990s are currently being designed and constructed. For those required shortly after 2000, the planning and alternatives assessment process must start now. It takes up to ten years to plan, design, license and construct a new coal-fired or nuclear fueled baseload electric generating plant and about six years for a natural gas-fired plant. This study indicates that for 600-megawatt blocks of capacity, advanced-design nuclear plants could supply electricity at an average of 4.5 cents per kilowatt-hour versus 4.8 cents per kilowatt-hour for an advanced pulverized-coal plant, 5.0 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gasified-coal combined cycle plant, and 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gas-fired combined cycle combustion turbine plant

  4. A fine art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, G.; Raaff, T. [Andritz AG (Austria)

    2006-07-15

    The paper describes a new dewatering system for coal fines which challenges established processes by using screenbowl centrifuge and hyperbaric filter combinations. Company acquisitions over the past three to four years enabled Andritz AG to develop a new system combining two technologies. The article describes the benefits of the combination process and explains the basic operation of these machines. 4 figs.

  5. Anne Fine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gaydon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Anne Fine with an introduction and aside on the role of children’s literature in our lives and development, and our adult perceptions of the suitability of childhood reading material. Since graduating from Warwick in 1968 with a BA in Politics and History, Anne Fine has written over fifty books for children and eight for adults, won the Carnegie Medal twice (for Goggle-Eyes in 1989 and Flour Babies in 1992, been a highly commended runner-up three times (for Bill’s New Frock in 1989, The Tulip Touch in 1996, and Up on Cloud Nine in 2002, been shortlisted for the Hans Christian Andersen Award (the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children’s books, 1998, undertaken the positon of Children’s Laureate (2001-2003, and been awarded an OBE for her services to literature (2003. Warwick presented Fine with an Honorary Doctorate in 2005. Philip Gaydon’s interview with Anne Fine was recorded as part of the ‘Voices of the University’ oral history project, co-ordinated by Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study.

  6. Ninth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Papers are grouped under the following sessions: compliance technology; high-efficiency preparation; characterization; advanced technologies; alternative fuels; coal utilization; industrial/commercial combustor development; combustion; superclean emission systems; carbon dioxide recovery and reuse; air toxics and fine particulates; air toxics sampling and analysis workshop; and combined poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  8. Evaluation of advanced coal gasification combined-cycle systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems have not been commercially demonstrated, and uncertainties remain regarding their commercial-scale performance and cost. Therefore, a probabilistic evaluation method has been developed and applied to explicitly consider these uncertainties. The insights afforded by this method are illustrated for an IGCC design featuring a fixed-bed gasifier and a hot gas cleanup system. Detailed case studies are conducted to characterize uncertainties in key measures of process performance and cost, evaluate design trade-offs under uncertainty, identify research priorities, evaluate the potential benefits of additional research, compare results for different uncertainty assumptions, and compare the advanced IGCC system to a conventional system under uncertainty. The implications of probabilistic results for research planning and technology selection are discussed in this paper

  9. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  10. An analysis of markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technology in Spain, Italy, and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placet, M.; Gerry, P.A.; Kenski, D.M.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the examination of potential overseas markets for using small-scale, US-developed, advanced coal-combustion technologies (ACTs). In previous work, member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) were rated on their potential for using ACTs through a comprehensive screening methodology. The three most promising OECD markets were found to be Spain, Italy, and Turkey. This report provides in-depth analyses of these three selected countries. First, it addresses changes in the European Community with particular reference to the 1992 restructuring and its potential effect on the energy situation in Europe, specifically in the three subject countries. It presents individual country studies that examine demographics, economics, building infrastructures, and energy-related factors. Potential niches for ACTs are explored for each country through regional analyses. Marketing channels, strategies, and the trading environments in each country are also discussed. The information gathered indicates that Turkey is a most promising market, Spain is a fairly promising market, and Italy appears to be a somewhat limited market for US ACTs. 76 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Treeline advances and associated shifts in the ground vegetation alter fine root dynamics and mycelia production in the South and Polar Urals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily F; Djukic, Ika; Moiseev, Pavel A; Andreyashkina, Nelly I; Devi, Nadezhda M; Göransson, Hans; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Trubina, Marina R; Schweingruber, Fritz H; Wilmking, Martin; Hagedorn, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Climate warming is shifting the elevational boundary between forests and tundra upwards, but the related belowground responses are poorly understood. In the pristine South and Polar Urals with shifts of the treeline ecotone documented by historical photographs, we investigated fine root dynamics and production of extramatrical mycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) along four elevational transects reaching from the closed forest to the treeless tundra. In addition, we analysed elevational differences in climate and vegetation structure, and excavated trees to estimate related changes in the partitioning between below- and aboveground biomass. Fine root biomass of trees (<2 mm) increased by 13-79% with elevation, paralleled by a 35-72% increase in ground vegetation fine roots from the closed forest to the tundra. During the first year of decomposition, mass loss of fine root litter from different vegetation types was greater at lower elevations in the forest-tundra ecotone. The ratio between fine roots of trees and stem biomass largely increased with elevation in both regions, but these increases were not accompanied by a distinct production of EMM. Production of EMM, however, increased with the presence of ectomycorrhizal trees at the transition from the tundra to the forest. Our results imply that the recorded upward expansion of forest into former tundra in the Ural Mountains by 4-8 m per decade is decreasing the partitioning of plant biomass to fine roots. They further suggest that climate-driven forest advances will alter EMM production rates with potential feedbacks on soil carbon and nutrient cycling in these ecosystems.

  12. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-19

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

  13. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-first quarterly report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  14. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 19th quarterly report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  15. Engineer exchanging project (coal mine technology field) in fiscal 1999. International information exchanging project (advance survey on Russia); 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Roshia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This advance survey on Russia has performed visiting surveys and information collection at coal related organizations inside Japan and in overseas countries on production technology levels, trends and technology exchange needs in overseas coal producing countries. The project is intended to serve for improvement in the contents of and smooth execution of the engineer exchange project in the 'coal mine technology field. It was carried out by expertise people as the site surveys and the engineer reception and exchange surveys. Because of the economic crisis that has hit Russia in 1998, unprofitable coal mines were closed one after another under the coal mine scrap and build policy under the initiative of the World Bank. This situation is giving serious impacts on coal mines in the Far East Russia and the coastal areas. However, the importance of coal as the primary energy source has not been changed at all in the Far East Russia. Thus, the areas have fallen into a situation that they must rely on a great amount of introduced and imported coals as a result of weakening in coal mines in the Far Eastern area on the other hand. This paper reports mainly the situation in which the coal industries in the coastal areas are placed, and the possibilities of technology exchange. (NEDO)

  16. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  17. Optical Thin Films for Gas Sensing in Advanced Coal Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohodnicki, Paul; Brown, Thomas; Baltrus John; Chorpening, Benjamin

    2012-08-09

    Even for existing coal based plants, the opportunity for sensors and controls to improve efficiency is great. A wide range of gas species are of interest for relevant applications. Functional sensor layers for embedded sensing must be compatible with extreme conditions (temperature, pressure, corrosive). Au incorporated metal oxides have been looked at by a number of other authors previously for gas sensing, but have often focused on temperatures below 500{degree}C. Au nanoparticle incorporated metal oxide thin films have shown enhanced gas sensing response. In prior work, we have demonstrated that material systems such as Au nanoparticle incorporated TiO{sub 2} films exhibit a potentially useful optical response to changing gas atmospheres at temperatures up to ~800-850{degree}C. Current work is focused on sputter-deposited Au/TiO{sub 2} films. Au and Ti are multi-layered sputter deposited, followed by a 950{degree}C oxidation step. Increasing Au layer thickness yields larger particles. Interband electronic transitions significantly modify the optical constants of Au as compared to the damped free electron theory. A high temperature oxidation (20%O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment was performed at 700{degree}C followed by a reduction (4%H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment to illustrate the shift in both absorption and scattering with exposure to reducing gases. Shift of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak in changing gas atmospheres is well documented, but shift in the peak associated with diffuse scattering is a new observation. Increasing Au layer-thickness results in an increase in LSPR absorption and a shift to longer wavelengths. Diffuse scattering associated with the LSPR resonance of Au shows a similar trend with increasing Au thickness. To model the temperature dependence of LSPR, the modification to the plasmon frequency, the damping frequency, and the dielectric constant of the oxide matrix must be accounted for. Thermal expansion of Au causes

  18. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  19. COAL OF THE FUTURE (Supply Prospects for Thermal Coal by 2030-2050)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The report, produced by Messrs. Energy Edge Ltd. (the U.K.) for the JRC Institute for Energy, aims at making a techno-economic analysis of novel extraction technologies for coal and their potential contribution to the global coal supply. These novel extraction technologies include: advanced coal mapping techniques, improved underground coal mining, underground coal gasification and utilisation of coalmine methane gas.

  20. Preparation of briquettes on the basis of desintegrated phyto-materials and the admixture of fine-grained coal and coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakabský Štefan

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the preparation of small-diameter briquettes on the basis of desintegrated phyto-materials and the admixture of coal and coke. The phyto-materials are classified as a dry biomass that can be, on the one hand, the wastes from wood-working industry,(sawdust, chips, bark, etc. or dried mass from the plant production and, on the other hand, the mass of quick-growing plants cultivated on special plantations. In present time this renewable energy resource attracts attention by its heating value ranging from 10 to 16 MJ.kg-1 (EkoWATT, 2001, a low ash content of 0.5 – 6.5 % and by a low sulphur content in a water free sample of 0.05 –0.12 %.As a phyto-material the spruce sawdusts having a grain size of –2 mm were used. The admixture of brown coal, hard coal and coke with a grain size of 0.040 mm was added to the sawdust and in such way prepared mixtures were subjected to briquetting with the aim to obtain small-diameter briquettes. The influence of admixtures amount on the density, and the suitable briquetting press have been studied. A saleability of briquettes on the basis of phyto-materials is conditioned by their density that must be higher than 1,000 kg.m-3. Thus, an adding of denser material with a relatively high calorific value would enable to attain the required density as well as to retain and/or to improve the main utility properties, i.e. calorific value and ash content.The adding evinces itself in an enhancement of briquetting press, but also density of obtained briquettes is often much higher that required by the market. It was showed that in the case of clear spruce sawdust the density of 1,059 kg.m-3 under the briquetting press of 250 MPa can be attained. According to other results, an admixture of brown coal is not very favourable because briquetting press exceeds the value of 300 MPa. As to hard coal adding, the presses under 250 MPa were achieved at the content of 25 – 30 %. The density of these

  1. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  2. Demonstration of Advanced CO2 Capture Process Improvements for Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, John [Southern Company Services, Inc., Wilsonville, AL (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This document summarizes the activities of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0026590, “Demonstration of Advanced CO2 Capture Process Improvements for Coal-Fired Flue Gas” during the performance period of October 1, 2015 through May 31, 2017. This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) was the prime contractor and co-funder of the project. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America (MHIA) and AECOM were project team members. The overall project objective was to improve costs, energy requirements, and performance of an existing amine-based CO2 capture process. This will occur via improvements in three areas: 1. Reboiler design – The first objective of the program was to demonstrate performance of an integrated stripper/reboiler (termed Built-in Reboiler, or BIR) to reduce footprint, capital costs, and integration issues of the current technology. 2. Particulate management – The second objective was to carry out a Particulate Matter Management (PMM) test. This has the potential to reduce operating costs and capital costs due to the reduced or eliminated need for mechanical filtration. 3. Solvent – The third objective was to carry out a new solvent test plan (referred to as NSL) to demonstrate a new solvent (termed New Solvent A), which is expected to reduce regeneration steam. The bulk price is also expected to be lower than KS-1, which is the current solvent used in this process. NSL testing would include baseline testing, optimization, long term testing, solvent reclamation testing, and final inspection. These combine to form the Advanced Carbon Capture (ACC) technology. Much of this work will be applicable to generic solvent processes, especially in regards to improved reboiler design, and focused to meet or exceed the DOE’s overall carbon capture performance goals of 90% CO2 capture rate with 95% CO2 purity at a cost of

  3. Flocculation of chromite ore fines suspension using polysaccharide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    liquid separation. Keywords. Flocculation; graft copolymer; mineral industry effluent; chromite ore fines; ... work well as flocculating agent on coal washery effluent, copper and iron ore fines etc (Karmakar et al 1998, 1999;. Tripathy et al 2001).

  4. Surface chemical problems in coal flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Miller, K. J.; Deurbrouck, A. W.

    1981-02-01

    As the use of coal increases and more fine material is produced by mining and processing, the need for improved methods of coal beneficiation increases. While flotation techniques can help meet these needs, the technique is beset with many problems. These problems involve surface chemical and interfacial properties of the coal-mineral-water slurry systems used in coal flotation. The problems associated with coal flotation include non-selectivity, inefficient reagent utilization, and excessive variablity of results. These problems can be broadely classified as a lack of predictability. The present knowledge of coal flotation is not sufficient, in terms of surface chemical parameters, to allow prediction of the flotation response of a given coal. In this paper, some of the surface chemical properties of coal and coal minerals that need to be defined will be discussed in terms of the problems noted above and their impact on coal cleaning.

  5. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  6. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  7. Advanced Backcross QTL Analysis of Fiber Strength and Fineness in a Cross between Gossypium hirsutum and G. mustelinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular genetic basis of cotton fiber strength and fineness in crosses between Gossypium mustelinum and Gossypium hirsutum (Upland cotton was dissected using 21 BC3F2 and 12 corresponding BC3F2:3 and BC3F2:4 families. The BC3F2 families were genotyped with simple sequence repeat markers from a G. hirsutum by G. mustelinum linkage map, and the three generations of BC3-derived families were phenotyped for fiber strength (STR and fineness (Micronaire, MIC. A total of 42 quantitative trait loci (QTLs were identified through one-way analysis of variance, including 15 QTLs for STR and 27 for MIC, with the percentage of variance explained by individual loci averaging 13.86 and 14.06%, respectively. Eighteen of the 42 QTLs were detected at least twice near the same markers in different generations/families or near linked markers in the same family, and 28 of the 42 QTLs were identified in both mixed model-based composite interval mapping and one-way variance analyses. Alleles from G. mustelinum increased STR for eight of 15 and reduced MIC for 15 of 27 QTLs. Significant among-family genotypic effects (P < 0.001 were detected in 13 and 10 loci for STR and MIC respectively, and five loci showed significant (P < 0.001 genotype × family interaction for MIC. These results support the hypothesis that fiber quality improvement for Upland cotton could be realized by introgressing G. mustelinum alleles although complexities due to the different effects of genetic background on introgressed chromatin might be faced. Building on prior work with G. barbadense, G. tomentosum, and G. darwinii, QTL mapping involving introgression of G. mustelinum alleles offers new allelic variation to Upland cotton germplasm.

  8. Survey report for fiscal 1999 on advanced exploitation of coal overseas. Survey of coal exploitation enhancement overseas (Coal industry's measures for persistent low coal price); 1999 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kodoka nado chosa. Kaigaitan kaihatsu sokushin chosa (sekitan kakaku teimeika ni okeru sekitan sangyo no taiosaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Surveys were conducted of the trends of coal companies in the U.S. and Australia and of the lookout for new coal field development in Australia for the purpose of contributing to the stable supply of coal in the future. In the U.S., the coal industry has experienced serious changes in these ten years, and various corporations, such as Peabody, Arch Coal, CONSOL, and Kennecott have come to resort to drastic measures for their survival. In Australia, coal price is lower and contract terms are shorter with less demand for coal supply thanks to the economic crisis in Asia. As for demand for coal in Asia, on the other hand, it is deemed that in 2010 there will be a 41% increase over the 1995 level and that, therefore, coal field preservation and new field exploitation are necessary. Since production by strip mining in New South Wales State is to decrease in 2012 and after, it is expected that new projects will start only after 2012. Comprehensive development projects are going to be launched in the areas surrounding the Surat district, Queensland State, and therefore new projects will be easier to start in this region. Since the Surat coal is to be collected after a little stripping, it is expected that it will be able to compete with the Indonesian coal. (NEDO)

  9. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. [Mainly, the effect of preteatment of coal with carbon monoxide and steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    CAER/UK: Detail coal and starting solvents from Wilsonville were analyzed to develop the data necessary to conduct process studies in the CO Pretreatment and Catalyst Evaluation segment of this program. A comparison of the solvent separation analysis with the distillation/separation used at Wilsonville showed that the residual solvent components contained a large amount of residual pentane soluble products. The ashy resid contained 3% iron and 400 ppM molybdenum. Although the iron content in the distillate and deashed resid was much less, namely about 200 ppM., the molybdenum concentrations in these fractions were not significantly reduced over the concentration in the ashy resid, i.e., 200 ppM in each. The pretreatment of coal with CO/H{sub 2}O in the presence of NaOH and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} has been shown to give a product which is lower in oxygen content and higher in hydrogen content compared to the raw coal. The atomic H/C ratios of the H{sub 2}O-insolubles, THF insolubles and the PA+A fractions of the products-together with the hydrogen consumption data suggested that the raw coal has been substantially depolymerized and hydrogenated via the WGS reaction during the pretreatment process. The extensive amount of molecular reconstruction that has occurred in the solid product was evident from the ease of solubilization of the product into pyridine. The result of the pretreatment process is a product which is highly reactive under hydroliquefaction conditions at 400{degrees}C. Reaction rates seem to be much faster than the raw coal, especially at shorter reaction times, providing the opportunity for major reductions in plant vessel sizes, and preliminary data has led us to believe that better efficiency in hydrogen utilization is achieved.

  10. Experimental research on influencing factors of wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated in a self-designed UV-bubble reactor. Several main influencing factors (UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, initial pH value, solution temperature, NO initial concentration, liquid-gas ratio and O2 percentage content) on the NO removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, NO initial concentration and liquid-gas ratio are the main influencing factors. In the best conditions, the highest NO removal efficiency by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process could reach 82.9%. Based on the experimental study, the influencing mechanism of the relevant influencing factors were discussed in depth.

  11. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  12. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  13. Demonstration of advanced combustion NO(sub X) control techniques for a wall-fired boiler. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The project represents a landmark assessment of the potential of low-NO(sub x) burners, advanced overtire air, and neural-network control systems to reduce NO(sub x) emissions within the bounds of acceptable dry-bottom, wall-fired boiler performance. Such boilers were targeted under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Testing provided valuable input to the Environmental Protection Agency ruling issued in March 1994, which set NO(sub x) emission limits for ''Group 1'' wall-fired boilers at 0.5 lb/10(sup 6) Btu to be met by January 1996. The resultant comprehensive database served to assist utilities in effectively implementing CAAA compliance. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. Five nationally competed solicitations sought cost-shared partnerships with industry to accelerate commercialization of the most advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The Program, valued at over$5 billion, has leveraged federal funding twofold through the resultant partnerships encompassing utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project was one of 16 selected in May 1988 from 55 proposals submitted in response to the Program's second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation's (FWEC) advanced overfire air (AOFA), low-NO(sub x) burners (LNB), and LNB/AOFA on wall-fired boiler NO(sub x) emissions and other combustion parameters. SCS also evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced on-line optimization system, the Generic NO(sub x) Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS). Over a six-year period, SCS carried out testing at Georgia Power Company's 500-MWe Plant Hammond Unit 4 in Coosa, Georgia. Tests proceeded in a logical sequence using rigorous statistical analyses to

  14. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  15. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  16. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Chemical structures of coal lithotypes before and after CO2 adsorption as investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Mastalerz, Maria; Chappell, M.A.; Miller, L.F.; Li, Y.; Mao, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four lithotypes (vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain) of a high volatile bituminous Springfield Coal from the Illinois Basin were characterized using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR techniques included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS), cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, and recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing techniques. The lithotypes that experienced high-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analysis were also analyzed to determine possible changes in coal structure as a result of CO2 saturation at high pressure and subsequent evacuation. The main carbon functionalities present in original vitrain, bright clarain, clarain and fusain were aromatic carbons (65.9%-86.1%), nonpolar alkyl groups (9.0%-28.9%), and aromatic C-O carbons (4.1%-9.5%). Among these lithotypes, aromaticity increased in the order of clarain, bright clarain, vitrain, and fusain, whereas the fraction of alkyl carbons decreased in the same order. Fusain was distinct from other three lithotypes in respect to its highest aromatic composition (86.1%) and remarkably small fraction of alkyl carbons (11.0%). The aromatic cluster size in fusain was larger than that in bright clarain. The lithotypes studied responded differently to high pressure CO2 saturation. After exposure to high pressure CO2, vitrain and fusain showed a decrease in aromaticity but an increase in the fraction of alkyl carbons, whereas bright clarain and clarain displayed an increase in aromaticity but a decrease in the fraction of alkyl carbons. Aromatic fused-rings were larger for bright clarain but smaller for fusain in the post-CO2 adsorption samples compared to the original lithotypes. These observations suggested chemical CO2-coal interactions at high pressure and the selectivity of lithotypes in response to CO2 adsorption. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  19. Present state in coal preparation. Stanje u pripremi uglja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevremovic, C. (Rudarsko-Geoloski Fakultet, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    Describes the low technological state of Yugoslav coal enterprises,in particular of those that exploit low grade lignite and brown coal with high ash and sulfur content. Unadjusted coal prices (almost the same price level for low and high energy coal) and absence of stringent laws on environmental pollution are regarded as main reasons for the low technological level of coal preparation and beneficiation plants. Modern preparation equipment for coal classification, coal washing, coal drying and briquetting is pointed out. Advanced coal carbonization and gasification should have a wider application in Yugoslavia for reducing environmental pollution and producing clean fuel.

  20. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative

  1. Development of advanced corrosion resistant materials for molten coal ash; Yoyu sekitanbai ni taisuru kotaishokusei zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For development of materials for heat exchangers under severe corrosion environment due to ultra-high temperature coal combustion gas, basic data were surveyed. On the study in fiscal 1996, the corrosion resistance of one kind of commercially available material and 2 kinds of created materials was studied by coal slag coating test. The commercially available material was subjected to high- temperature corrosion tests of 1500 and 1550degC for a long time. The result showed that SiC is most excellent in the above temperature range. On new materials, 7 kinds of Cr2O3 system ceramics such as Cr2O3-Al2O3 system and Cr2O3- MgO system were selected considering high-temperature corrosion resistance, and the optimum composition and fabrication process of the new materials were studied. High- temperature corrosion tests, and measurement of thermal conductivity and thermal expansion were carried out for every specimen. The result suggested that some materials of Cr2O3- Al2O3 system are promising. 23 refs., 76 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Optimal Level of Woody Biomass Co-Firing with Coal Power Plant Considering Advanced Feedstock Logistics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangpil Ko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-firing from woody biomass feedstock is one of the alternatives toward increased use of renewable feedstock in existing coal power plants. However, the economic level of co-firing at a particular power plant depends on several site-specific factors. Torrefaction has been identified recently as a promising biomass pretreatment option to lead to reduction of the feedstock delivered cost, and thus facilitate an increase in the co-firing ratio. In this study, a mixed integer linear program (MILP is developed to integrate supply chain of co-firing and torrefaction process and find the optimal level of biomass co-firing in terms of minimized transportation and logistics costs, with or without tax credits. A case study of 26 existing coal power plants in three Great Lakes States of the US is used to test the model. The results reveal that torrefaction process can lead to higher levels of co-firing, but without the tax credit, the effect is limited to the low capacity of power plants. The sensitivity analysis shows that co-firing ratio has higher sensitivity to variation in capital and operation costs of torrefaction than to the variation in the transportation and feedstock purchase costs.

  3. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  4. Significance and development of the utilization of brown coal high temperature coke in the economy of the GDR for the period 1964 to 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E.; Heschel, W.

    1979-01-01

    Brown coal high temperature coke production in GDR in the years since 1964 is described. In 1969 the second large brown coal high temperature coking plant, Schwarze Pumpe, went into operation, increasing the total brown coal high temperature coke production to 2 million tons annually. Utilization of the coke size classes in mm from 0-3.15, 3.15-20, 20-31.5, 31.5-45 and greater than 45 mm in the metallurgical, chemical, and energy industries as well as for household heating is shown with figures from 1964, 1970 and 1974. The increasing use of coke in households partly as briquet substitution is also shown (in 1970 42% of the coke was used in households). The substitution of black coal coke by brown coal coke in additional fields of industrial production was also further advanced. Coke production at the Schwarze Pumpe plant is scheduled to increase to 1.6 million tons by 1985 by means of the application of improved coking technologies. Investigations for future industrial solutions to the following coking problems are being conducted: processing coke fines (which make up 10 to 12% of the total produced coke) by briquetting with binders into formed coke, firing coke fines in blast furnaces and power plants, mixed briquetting of coke fines with limestone for carbide production and mixed briquetting of coke and ore fines for metallurgical purposes. (8 refs.) (In German)

  5. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  6. Clean fuel-magnesia bonded coal briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, Yildirim I. [S. Demirel University Eng., Arch. Faculty Mining Eng. Department, Isparta (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    Benefaction from coal fines as solid fuel in Turkey is very much important for economical development. Beneficiation from washed coal fines in the industry using solid fuel at lump size and in the municipal areas as an household solid fuel may be only provided by hot briquetting of the coal fines. The most practical common way of that benefication from coal fines in our country have been hot binding by sulfite liquor-sulfite liquor-melas and lime mixtures. Harmful the flue content of sulfite liquor-melas may only be eliminated by lime, a type of solid additive. However, cold bonded briquettes produced from coal fines are environmentally free. Just ash contents of these briquettes increase at a certain degree and heat content of them decrease at a certain extent. By using magnesia binder showed in this study, Tuncbilek lignite fines have been briquetted by cold and hot briquetting techniques. The qualities of briquettes produced by cold binders were compared with to those produced by other hot binding methods As a result, magnesia binder showed the similar characteristics with those of the briquettes produced by only cold bonded gypsum. Use of magnesite mixture and gypsum just as only cold binder was not suitable for the requirements from the coal briquettes to be used as solid fuels, particularly from household fuels, but just only as cold additive should be used. (author)

  7. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  8. Use of CT-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in epidermal growth factor receptor mutation analysis in patients with advanced lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yi-Ping; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Yong (Dept. of Radiology, Jiangsu Cancer Inst. and Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)), email: yipingzhuang2010@sina.com; Shi, Mei-Qi (Dept. of Chemotherapy, Jiangsu Cancer Inst. and Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China))

    2011-12-15

    Background. The safety of using a cutting needle when performing a core-needle biopsy is of major concern, in particular for small lung tumors or tumors near the hilum. Purpose. To investigate the usefulness of CT-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the lung in obtaining tumor tissue for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis in advanced lung cancer patients. Material and Methods. Forty-three patients with stage IIIB-IV lung cancer were enrolled. In all patients, CT-guided FNAB was performed using an 18-gauge or 20-gauge Chiba aspiration needle for histology diagnosis and EGFR mutation analysis. Complications associated with CT-guided FNAB were observed, and the specimen mutational assessments were recorded. Results. The obtained tumor samples ranged from 0.5-1.5 cm in length and were adequate for histological and DNA analyses in all patients. No patient had a pneumothorax or hemoptysis. Minor needle tract bleeding appeared in eight patients. Mutation analysis was satisfactorily demonstrated in 23 mutations and 20 non-mutations. Ten and 13 mutations were identified by 18-gauge and 20-gauge needle biopsies, respectively. EFGR mutations, including 12 cases of EGFR exon 19 deletion and 11 cases of exon 21 point mutation, were present in 21 patients with adenocarcinomas, one with squamous cell carcinoma, and one with undifferentiated carcinoma. Conclusion. CT-guided FNAB is a feasible and safe technique for obtaining lung tumor tissues for EGFR gene mutation analysis

  9. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: coal combustion/coal processing; advanced electric power generation systems; combined nitrogen oxide/sulfur dioxide control technologies; and emerging clean coal issues and environmental concerns. These paper have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  10. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 1, Technical report. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium for Coal Water Mixture Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I is nearly completed. During this reporting period, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, engineering designs and economics for retrofitting the Crane, Indiana boiler to fire coal-based fuels, and a 1,000-hour demonstration of dry, micronized coal were completed. In addition, a demonstration-scale micronized-coal water mixture (MCWM) preparation circuit was constructed and a 1,000-hour demonstration firing MCWM began. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations involved literature surveys of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, trace metals, volatile organic compounds, and fine particulate matter capture. In addition, vendors and engineering firms were contacted to identify the appropriate emissions technologies for the installation of commercial NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removal systems on the demonstration boiler. Information from the literature surveys and engineering firms will be used to identify, design, and install a control system(s). Work continued on the refinement and optimization of coal grinding and MCWM preparation procedures, and on the development of advanced processes for beneficiating high ash, high sulfur coals. Work also continued on determining the basic cost estimation of boiler retrofits, and evaluating environmental, regulatory, and regional economic impacts. In addition, the feasibility of technology adoption, and the public`s perception of the benefits and costs of coal usage was studied. A coal market analysis was completed. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, emissions reductions and economic analyses of coal use.

  11. Residual coal exploitation and its impact on sustainable development of the coal industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Feng, Guorui; Zhang, Min; Ren, Hongrui; Bai, Jinwen; Guo, Yuxia; Jiang, Haina; Kang, Lixun

    2016-01-01

    Although China owns large coal reserves, it now faces the problem of depletion of its coal resources in advance. The coal-based energy mix in China will not change in the short term, and a means of delaying the coal resources depletion is therefore urgently required. The residual coal was exploited first with a lower recovery percentage and was evaluated as commercially valuable damaged coal. This approach is in comparison to past evaluations when the residual coal was allocated as exploitation losses. Coal recovery rates, the calculation method of residual coal reserves and statistics of its mines in China were given. On this basis, a discussion concerning the impacts on the delay of China's coal depletion, development of coal exploitation and sustainable developments, as well as technologies and relevant policies, were presented. It is considered that the exploitation of residual coal can effectively delay China's coal depletion, inhibit the construction of new mines, redress the imbalance between supply and demand of coal in eastern China, improve the mining area environment and guarantee social stability. The Chinese government supports the exploitation technologies of residual coal. Hence, exploiting residual coal is of considerable importance in sustainable development of the coal industry in China. - Highlights: •Pay attention to residual coal under changing energy-mix environment in China. •Estimate residual coal reserves and investigate its exploitation mines. •Discuss impacts of residual coal exploitation on delay of coal depletion in China. •Discuss impacts on coal mining industry and residual coal exploitation technology. •Give corresponding policy prescriptions.

  12. Technoeconomic Assessment of an Advanced Aqueous Ammonia-Based Postcombustion Capture Process Integrated with a 650-MW Coal-Fired Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Yan, Shuiping; Feron, Paul; Wardhaugh, Leigh; Tade, Moses

    2016-10-04

    Using a rigorous, rate-based model and a validated economic model, we investigated the technoeconomic performance of an aqueous NH 3 -based CO 2 capture process integrated with a 650-MW coal-fired power station. First, the baseline NH 3 process was explored with the process design of simultaneous capture of CO 2 and SO 2 to replace the conventional FGD unit. This reduced capital investment of the power station by US$425/kW (a 13.1% reduction). Integration of this NH 3 baseline process with the power station takes the CO 2 -avoided cost advantage over the MEA process (US$67.3/tonne vs US$86.4/tonne). We then investigated process modifications of a two-stage absorption, rich-split configuration and interheating stripping to further advance the NH 3 process. The modified process reduced energy consumption by 31.7 MW/h (20.2% reduction) and capital costs by US$55.4 million (6.7% reduction). As a result, the CO 2 -avoided cost fell to $53.2/tonne: a savings of $14.1 and $21.9/tonne CO 2 compared with the NH 3 baseline and advanced MEA process, respectively. The analysis of energy breakdown and cost distribution indicates that the technoeconomic performance of the NH 3 process still has great potential to be improved.

  13. Technical and Energy Performance of an Advanced, Aqueous Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture Technology for a 500 MW Coal-Fired Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Feron, Paul; Tade, Moses; Wardhaugh, Leigh

    2015-08-18

    Using a rate-based model, we assessed the technical feasibility and energy performance of an advanced aqueous-ammonia-based postcombustion capture process integrated with a coal-fired power station. The capture process consists of three identical process trains in parallel, each containing a CO2 capture unit, an NH3 recycling unit, a water separation unit, and a CO2 compressor. A sensitivity study of important parameters, such as NH3 concentration, lean CO2 loading, and stripper pressure, was performed to minimize the energy consumption involved in the CO2 capture process. Process modifications of the rich-split process and the interheating process were investigated to further reduce the solvent regeneration energy. The integrated capture system was then evaluated in terms of the mass balance and the energy consumption of each unit. The results show that our advanced ammonia process is technically feasible and energy-competitive, with a low net power-plant efficiency penalty of 7.7%.

  14. Water pollution profile of coal washeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Singh, Gurdeep

    1995-01-01

    Environmental problems in coal mining industry is increased with the demand of good quality of coal through coal washing/beneficiation activities. The coal washeries in general have been identified as one of the serious sources of water pollution particularly of Damodar river. Coal washeries though are designed on close water circuit, most of these however, fail to operate on close water circuit thus resulting in enormous quantity of effluents containing coal fines as well. This apart from posing serious water pollution problem also results into economic losses. The present study attempts to provide an insight into water pollution profile from coal washeries in Jharia coalfield. Various process parameters/unit operations in coal washing are also described. Effluents from various selected coal washeries of Jharia coalfield are sampled and analysed over a period of six months during 1993. Suspended solids, oil and grease and COD in the washery effluents are identified as the three major water quality parameters causing lots of concern for Damodar river pollution. Reasons for unavoidable discharge of effluents containing coal fines are also described. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  15. The clean coal technologies for lignitic coal power generation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Raza, Z.; Aziz-ur-Rehman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Pakistan contains huge reserves of lignitic coals. These are high sulphur, high ash coals. In spite of this unfortunate situation, the heavy demand for energy production, requires the development utilization of these indigenous coal reserves to enhance energy production. The central of the environmental pollution caused by the combustion of these coals has been a major hindrance in their utilization. Recently a substantial reduction in coal combustion emissions have been achieved through the development of clean coal technologies. Pakistan through the transfer and adaptation of the advanced clean coal technologies can utilize incurring the high sulphur coals for energy production without incurring the environmental effects that the developed countries have experienced in the past. The author discusses the recently developed clean coal utilization technologies, their applications economies and feasibility of utilization with specific reference to Pakistan''s coal. (author)

  16. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  17. Fiscal 1997 technological survey report. Engineer exchange project - coal mine technological field (Advanced coal producing country survey - U.S.A. survey); 1997 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) senshin santankoku chosa. Beikoku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    While the introduction and adaptation of the Longwall excavation technology were carried forward for coal producing countries in the Pacific region, U.S.A. information was collected by making tours of coal mines in the West and Washington/Colorado/Utah States, with the intention of ascertaining technological trend so as to carry out efficient technological transfer, and for the purpose of replenishing the contents and contributing to the smooth implementation of the engineer exchange project in 'coal mine technological field'. The coal reserves are 400 billion tons, with 840 million tons produced and with 80 million tons exported; not less than 56% of the U.S. domestic electricity rests on coal. Production by open-pit mining is the majority while the output by underground mining is 38%; the Longwall method has increased as a digging method, taking 18% of all digging output. The productivity is 4.24 ton/person per day and ranks as the world highest. The coal mining technological trend in the U.S. can be summarized as follows. The coal mining output in the West is increasing, with the number of mines decreasing, so that the output per mine is increasing. With the output ratio by open-pit mining increasing, the digging method in the mine is being changed to the Longwall. (NEDO)

  18. Desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ultra-fine CaO particles prepared from brown coal; Kattan wo mochiite choseishita CaO chobiryushi no datsuryu tokusei to sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, G.; Roman, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Harano, Y.; Takarada, Y. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The effect of reaction temperature and oxygen concentration on the desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ion-exchanged brown coal by Ca as new desulfurizing agent was studied. In experiment, Yallourn coal was used for ion- exchange, and limestone produced in Tochigi prefecture was also used for comparative study. Ca-exchanged brown coal was prepared by agitating coal in Ca(OH)2 slurry for 24 hours. The desulfurization behavior of a desulfurizing agent was obtained by measuring H2S and sulfur compounds in outlet gas of a reactor, and the oxidation behavior by measuring SO2 emission in outlet gas after oxidation reaction. As the experimental result, CaO produced from Ca-exchanged brown coal offered the extremely high activity to desulfurization reaction in a temperature range of 850-950{degree}C as compared with limestone. Although the oxidation behavior was dependent on oxidation temperature and oxygen concentration, CaS obtained from Ca-exchanged brown coal was more rapidly converted to CaSO4 than limestone. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Vassileva, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    Contents, concentration trends, and modes of occurrence of 67 elements in coals, coal ashes, and combustion wastes at eleven Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) were studied. A number of trace elements in coal and coal ash have concentrations greater than their respective worldwide average contents (Clarke values). Trace elements are concentrated mainly in the heavy accessory minerals and organic matter in coal. In decreasing order of significance, the trace elements in coal may occur as: element-organic compounds; impurities in the mineral matter; major components in the mineral matter; major and impurity components in the inorganic amorphous matter; and elements in the fluid constituent. A number of trace elements in the waste products, similar to coal ashes, exceed known Clarke contents. Trace elements are mainly enriched in non-magnetic, heavy and fine-grained fractions of fly ash. They are commonly present as impurities in the glass phases, and are included in the crystalline components. Their accessory crystalline phases, element-organic compounds, liquid and gas forms, are of subordinate importance. Some elements from the chalcophile, lithophile and siderophile groups may release into the atmosphere during coal burning. For others, the combustion process appears to be a powerful factor causing their relative enrichment in the fly ash and rarely in the bottom ash and slag. 65 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

  20. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  1. Ninth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Over 200 papers are presented under the following headings: coal preparation; Clean Coal Technology Program status; pre- and post-utilization processing; advanced conversion technologies; integrated gasification combined cycle; indirect liquefaction; advanced liquefaction process development; conversion processes; coal - from a user's perspective; issues associated with coal use in heat engines; fundamentals of combustion; advanced combustion systems; low quality fuel applications/fluidised beds; combustion systems; ash and sludge disposal/utilization; developing SO 2 /NO x control technologies; technical overview of air toxics; scientific, economic and policy perspectives on global climate change; Clean Air Act compliance strategies; environmental policy/technology; spontaneous combustion; and special topics

  2. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  3. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  4. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  5. Treating effluents; recovering coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, F B; Bury, E

    1920-02-18

    Liquor obtained by scrubbing coal gas with sea-water or fresh water, and containing or having added to it finely-divided carbonaceous material in suspension, is subjected to a froth-flotation process to recover the carbonaceous matter and organic materials in the froth, and render the remaining liquor innocuous. Liquor obtained by scrubbing distillation gases, such as coal gas, may be used as a frothing-agent in a froth flotation process for the recovery of carbonaceous substances such as coal from materials containing them, thereby producing a froth containing the coal, etc., and also the organic materials from the liquor. In some cases the effluent may be diluted with sea-water, and, in recovering carbonaceous shales, there may be added to the liquor a small proportion of paraffin oil.

  6. Floatability characteristics: A case study with three typical Indian prime coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, D.; Singh, A.K.; Banerjee, P.K. [Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur (India). Division for Research & Development

    2008-07-01

    Three types of prime coking coals (coals A, B, and C) from Jharia coalfield, India, were investigated for the variations in their floatability characteristics. Among the three coals studied, coal A showed the least floatability. However, its floatability improved to some extent at higher dosages of collector and frother. Other two types of coal, i.e., coals B and C, showed almost similar flotation performance, which was much better as compared to coal A. The studies revealed that coal showed the least floatability characteristics, primarily due to the least concentration of vitrinite and liptinite content and a high percentage of inertinite and mineral matters in the coal. Also, the lower type of vitrinite (V7-V9) was present in the coal in greater proportion as compared to the other two coals and the proportion of ultra fines (-0.053mm) in coal A was higher as compared to the other two coals.

  7. A novel integration of three-dimensional electro-Fenton and biological activated carbon and its application in the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun

    2015-11-01

    A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and <20 times, allowing discharge criteria to be met. The integrated system was efficient, cost-effective and ecological sustainable and could be a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with a gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong; Ding, Yi; Yao, Jie; Jin, Chao

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigated the performance of the combined system of catalytic ozonation and the gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor for the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater (CCIW). The results indicated that with ozonation alone for 60min, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 34%. The introduction of activated carbon, pumice, γ-Al 2 O 3 carriers improved the removal performance of COD, and the removal efficiency was increased by 8.6%, 4.2%, 2%, respectively. Supported with Mn, the catalytic performance of activated carbon and γ-Al 2 O 3 were improved significantly with COD removal efficiencies of 46.5% and 41.3%, respectively; however, the promotion effect of pumice supported with Mn was insignificant. Activated carbon supported with Mn had the best catalytic performance. The catalytic ozonation combined system of MnO X /activated carbon could keep ozone concentration at a lower level in the liquid phase, and promote the transfer of ozone from the gas phase to the liquid phase to improve ozonation efficiency.

  9. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  10. Coal washery effluent treatment for material recovery and water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, N.N.; Chaudhuri, M.

    1980-10-01

    Th effluent from coal washeries consisting mainly of coal fines is normally discharged to inland surface waters and causes severe river pollution with substantial loss of good quality coking coal. The study reported in this paper was undertaken to characterize the effluents from several coal washeries and to evaluate the potential of using various coagulants and coagulant aids for clarification of the effluent with a view to recovery of the coal fines and reuse of the clarified effluent. It has been demonstrated that higher recovery of coal fines can be achieved by using coagulants like alum or ferric chloride with or without coagulant aids with an added advantage of reuse of the clarified effluent in the washery.

  11. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  12. FY 2000 Feasibility study on the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems as part of the international project for coal utilization measures. Feasibility study on supporting introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems in Vietnam (Model project for introduction of advanced coal preparation systems); 2000 nendo kokusai sekitan riyo taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kodo sentan system donyu model jigyo kanosei chosa jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a model project in Vietnam, aimed at solving the environmental pollution problems resulting from use of coal by demonstrating and disseminating the Japan's environmental technologies in the Southeast Asian countries. The feasibility study was conducted for the Cua Ong Coal Preparation Enterprise, which has the largest coal preparation capacity in Vietnam and port facilities. It is treating raw coal from 10 coal mines for classification and preparation, and shipping coal of various types that meet the standards for domestic use and export. The survey results point out that unrecovered coal remains in waste water discharged from the coal preparation plants to pollute the sea area, and that quantity of the refuse increases because of the unrecovered coal it contains. The environmental technologies needed to introduce include modification to variable wave pattern type jigging separator, refuse height measuring instrument and automatic controller, circulating heavy medium gravimeter, highly functional settling pond, and flocculent facilities. (NEDO)

  13. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  14. Economic and environmental aspects of coal preparation and the impact on coal use for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Australia is the world's largest coal exporter, and coal is the nation's largest export and dominant revenue earner. The future competitiveness of coal will be maintained through improved preparation of coal for traditional markets, by upgrading for new markets, and via coal utilization processes that are more efficient and environmentally acceptable. Australia is also a niche supplier of technologies and services with the potential to expand. This potential extends to the increasing vertical integration of coal supplies (whether Australian, indigenous or blended) with downstream utilization such as power generation. Technological advancement is a key element of industry strategy and coal preparation research and development, and clean coal technologies are critical aspects. This paper summarizes these issues, linking the economic and environmental aspects across the coal production and utilization chain. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs

  15. Proceedings of the international symposium on coal - science, technology, industry, business, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, K.S.; Sen, S. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Papers were presented which covered the areas of coal science, advanced coal preparation, coal utilization, coal chemicals and the environment. These included carbon aromaticity, mineral studies, utilization of low rank coals, bioconversion of methane, swelling of coals, photocatalytic activity, flotation and effects of oxidation, microbial desulfurization, deashing, briquetting, commercial scale conversion of coal to fuels and chemicals, role of coal in iron and steel making, coal-water mixtures, dyes and chemical products, nitrogen oxides emissions and pollution control. 45 papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  16. Use of moist run-of-mine coal for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowka, K.; Duerlich, M.; Rabe, W. (VEB Gaskombinat Fritz Selbmann, Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    A Series of experiments was performed in 1982 and 1986 to assess the feasibility of substituting brown coal briquets by raw brown coal in the fixed bed gasification plant for producing town gas at Schwarze Pumpe, GDR. Raw brown coal (50% coal moisture, screened coal of fractions 20 to 80 mm) had to be mixed with dry briquets to maintain a maximum 35% coal charge moisture. Briquet substitution degree varied from 20 to 50%. Short-term gasification tests were also carried out at an experimental generator examining 80 to 100% substitution degrees. Parameters of generator operation that were achieved are provided. Experiments proved that 50% briquet substitution is technologically feasible in industrial plant operation employing unscreened coal containing all coal fines. An economic assessment is further made that shows substantial energy savings in coal drying and briquetting.

  17. Establishing a reference table for assessing the risk associated with fines in underground coal mines. Elaboracion de un cuadro para valorar el riesgo de formacion de fuegos en minas subterraneas de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Marco, P

    1990-03-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal depends on either the prevailing geological conditions or the mining methods being employed - or indeed a combination of the two. Although a large amount of information exists on the effect of certain conditions and on the simultaneous effect of several sets of conditions, there is still no conclusive scientific evidence as to their cause. 1 tab.

  18. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  19. Fiscal 1994 entrusted task report. Surveys of advanced natural gas development and efficient utilization (Survey of coal hydrogasification technology development); 1994 nendo tennen gas kodo kaihatsu yuko riyo chosa tou itaku gyomu hokokusho. Sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    For the establishment of a practical process for substitute natural gas (SNG) production, technological and economical assessments were made, and tasks to discharge for the development were discussed. In this fiscal year, the results of surveys conducted in the past five-year period were compiled, and studies were made to prepare for a smooth transition to the element research stage. Findings obtained are described below. SNG producing technologies need to be developed, with the demand for SNG increasing sharply, to further stabilize the base for SNG supply; coal which is abundantly available should be used as the material for SNG; and coal hydrogasification, among various methods for producing SNG from coal, is the most suitable in view of efficiency and cost performance. It was also found after a prolonged study for the improvement of efficiency and cost performance that probabilities were high that the yield of BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) would increase and cost performance would improve. Besides, a basic plan and an element technology research plan were prepared for the development of the ARCH (advanced rapid coal hydrogasification) process. (NEDO)

  20. Equations describing contamination of run of mine coal with dirt in the Upper Silesian Coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiewski, J J

    1977-12-01

    Statistical analysis proved that contamination with dirt of run of mine coal from seams in the series 200 to 600 of the Upper Silesian Coalfield depends on the average ash content of a given raw coal. A regression equation is deduced for coarse and fine sizes of each coal. These equations can be used to predict the degree of contamination of run of mine coal to an accuracy sufficient for coal preparation purposes.

  1. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  2. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  3. New advances in the automation of mining cartography and topography in coal exploitation. Nuevos avances en la automatizacion de la cartografia y topografia minera en explotaciones de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente Martin, P; Gonzalez Marroquina, V; Saez Garcia, E; Perez Suarez, M A [HUNOSA, Madrid (Spain)

    1988-01-01

    In this entry are described some HUNOSA researches for automating the typographical information and any other technical information produced in the coal workings. Also recorded were some aspects about a basis of mining cartographic information. 3 tabs.

  4. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  5. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  6. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  7. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  8. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE's interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals

  9. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  10. Economics of coal-based electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemming, D F; Johnston, R; Teper, M

    1979-01-01

    The report deals with base-load electricity generation from coal and compares the economics of four alternative technologies: conventional pulverised-fuel (PF) boiler with steam cycle; atmospheric fluidised-bed (AFB) boiler with steam cycle; pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) boiler with combined cycle; and integrated air-blown coal gasification with combined cycle systems are compared for both a high sulphur (3.5%) coal with environmental regulations requiring 85% sulphur removal, and for a low sulphur coal without sulphur removal. The results indicate that there is no single clear 'winner' among the advanced technologies. The optimum system depends on coal price, required rate-of-return, sulphur content of the coal, taxation regime etc. (34 refs.) (Available from IEA Coal Research, Economic Assessment Service)

  11. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  12. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  13. Oxidation and carbonisation of coals: a case study of coal fire affected coals from the Wuda coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Jolanta; Meyer, Uwe; Ma, Jianwei; Chen-Brauchler, Dai

    2010-05-01

    At the coalfield of Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) extensive underground coal fires cause widespread thermal and oxidative effects in coal seams. Within phase B of the Coal Fire Research Project of the Sino-German Initiative, methods for innovative fire-extinguishing technologies were investigated in multifaceted research approaches. Extensive investigations of oxidative and thermally affected coal seams in coal fire zone 18 were conducted in 2008 prior to application of new fire-extinguishing methods. We present results from the outcrop of coal seam No. 4 in the fire zone 18. The coal of seam No. 4 is of Early Permian age and belongs stratigraphically to the Shanxi Formation. The unaffected coal displays a high volatile bituminous A rank with a background value of random vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.90 to 0.96 % Rr. Coal channel samples were coallected at actively extracted coal faces along multiple profiles with surface temperatures ranging from about 50° to 600°C. Microscopic examinations revealed a variety of products of coal exposure to the fire. Within coal samples, a marked rise in vitrinite reflectance from background values to 5.55% Rr (6.00 % Rmax) is encountered. In addition, a number of coal samples showed suppressed vitrinite reflectances ranging between 0.82 to 0.88% Rr. Further, seemingly heat unaffected coal samples display intensive development of oxidations rims at coal grain edges and cracks as well as shrinkage cracks and formation of iron oxides/hydroxides. Instead, thermally affected coal samples with higher coalification grade are further characterised by development of macropores (devolatilisation pores) in vitrinitic streaks, transformation of liptinite to meta-liptinite and micrinite as well as by natural coke particles of mostly porous nature and fine to coarse grained anisotropic mosaic. Coal petrographic investigations confirmed a hypothesis that both, oxidations as well as low temperature carbonisation govern the thermal

  14. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  15. Basic studies on coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992, regarding the coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products. For the fundamental study on coal liquefaction reaction, were investigated effect of asphaltene in petroleum residue on coprocessing, pretreatment effect in coprocessing of Taiheiyo coal and tarsand bitumen using oil soluble catalyst, solubilization and liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at mild conditions with the aid of super acid, and flash hydropyrolysis of finely pulverized swollen coal under high hydrogen pressure. On the other hand, for the study on hydrotreatment of coal derived liquid, were investigated catalytic hydroprocessing of Wandoan coal liquids, production of gasoline from coal liquids by fluid catalytic cracking, solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from coal liquids, and separation of hetero compounds in coal liquid by means of high pressure crystallization. Further progress in these studies has been confirmed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  17. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  18. A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasbir Gill

    2010-08-30

    Nalco Company is partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in this project to jointly develop advanced scale control technologies that will provide cost-effective solutions for coal-based power plants to operate recirculating cooling water systems at high cycles using impaired waters. The overall approach is to use combinations of novel membrane separations and scale inhibitor technologies that will work synergistically, with membrane separations reducing the scaling potential of the cooling water and scale inhibitors extending the safe operating range of the cooling water system. The project started on March 31, 2006 and ended in August 30, 2010. The project was a multiyear, multi-phase project with laboratory research and development as well as a small pilot-scale field demonstration. In Phase 1 (Technical Targets and Proof of Concept), the objectives were to establish quantitative technical targets and develop calcite and silica scale inhibitor chemistries for high stress conditions. Additional Phase I work included bench-scale testing to determine the feasibility of two membrane separation technologies (electrodialysis ED and electrode-ionization EDI) for scale minimization. In Phase 2 (Technology Development and Integration), the objectives were to develop additional novel scale inhibitor chemistries, develop selected separation processes, and optimize the integration of the technology components at the laboratory scale. Phase 3 (Technology Validation) validated the integrated system's performance with a pilot-scale demonstration. During Phase 1, Initial evaluations of impaired water characteristics focused on produced waters and reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents. Literature and new data were collected and evaluated. Characteristics of produced waters vary significantly from one site to another, whereas reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents have relatively more uniform characteristics. Assessment to date confirmed that calcite and silica

  19. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  20. Profit from plant experience in specifying coal conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajter, L C

    1985-09-01

    Most coal conveyors in operation today were designed to handle raw unwashed coal and are experiencing difficulties when dealing with fine, wet coal which has been cleaned. Conveyor designers should base their designs for new systems on the worst possible materials. Design criteria are discussed in detail and recommendations made for chute liners and radii, skirt system, belt speed, transfer points, belt wipers, weather protection and access. 3 references.

  1. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  2. The development of clean coal technology is the main way to control of atmospheric pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lixin; Xu Hong [Clean Coal Engineering & Research Center of Coal Industry (China)

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution in China and its causes are analysed. Power stations, industrial boilers and kilns and domestic coal combustion are the main pollution sources. Clean coal technologies are urgently needed. Main clean coal technologies which can improve the present situation of industrial coal combustion are coal cleaning, blending and briquetting; boiler retrofitting; advanced technologies to improve combustion efficiency and reduce pollution - fluidized bed combustion and pulverized coal desulfurization; and advanced desulfurization and dedusting technologies and equipment.

  3. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  4. Coal-related research, organic chemistry, and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Coal chemistry research topics included: H exchange at 400 0 C, breaking C-C bonds in coal, molecular weight estimation using small-angle neutron scattering, 13 C NMR spectra of coals, and tunneling during H/D isotope effects. Studies of coal conversion chemistry included thermolysis of bibenzyl and 1-naphthol, heating of coals in phenol, advanced indirect liquefaction based on Koelbel slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor, and plasma oxidation of coal minerals. Reactions of PAHs in molten SbCl 3 , a hydrocracking catalyst, were studied. Finally, heterogeneous catalysis (desulfurization etc.) was studied using Cu, Au, and Ni surfaces. 7 figures, 6 tables

  5. How can we reduce carbon in ash in firing pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, W. (and others)

    1992-12-01

    The article discusses solutions to the problem of reducing carbon in ash in firing pulverized coal. Suggested solutions to the problem include: reviewing air flow through the mills; examining the pulverizers for coal fineness variations; investigating air distribution in the burners; review dual-firing equations; examining the burners for slag build up; checking coal fineness is appropriate to the boiler; increasing air flow; and checking instrumentation. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  7. Proceedings of the Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-26

    This proceedings includes papers presented at the Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar held at Terrigal, Australia in November, 1996. Keynote addresses, three sessions for discussions, and presentations by members economies are included. `Future investment requirements for coal in the APEC region,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC region coal chain,` `International commercial financier`s perspective on coal,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment issues affecting the uptake of clean coal technology (CCT),` `Role of multilateral development banks in financing CCT to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,` and `Strategies for addressing regional coal issues` were presented as keynote addresses. In the sessions, investment issues facing coal power development, financing coal and investment, and investment strategies for CCT were discussed. 58 refs., 42 figs., 40 tabs.

  8. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  9. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  10. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vol.9. No.1. Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Third APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Coal Flow Seminar was held featuring regional investment strategies for coal, power infrastructure, and technology transfer in Terrigal, Australia in 26-28, November, 1996. This publication introduces the summary and the papers presented for the keynote speeches and the panels of this seminar. For the keynote speeches, `Investment requirements for steaming coal supplies in APEC member economies,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC regional coal chain,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment in clean coal power plants,` and `Role of multilateral development banks in financing clean coal technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emission` were presented. In addition, summary and papers describing individual situations of APEC member economies are introduced. 59 refs., 42 figs., 37 tabs.

  11. Microwave treatment of a brown coal concentrate from Mugunsk coal for the manufacture of sponge iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Khaidurova; P.N. Konovalov; N.P. Konovalov [Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russia)

    2008-04-15

    A technique for the production of a finely dispersed dry brown coal concentrate with the use of microwave energy is proposed to prepare a charge mixture for the manufacture of sponge iron. The advantages of this technique over analogous industrial processes are demonstrated. The results of experiments on the briquetting of the charge mixture of brown coal and iron ore concentrates without the use of an additional binding agent are described.

  12. Kinetic comparison of biological and conventional flotation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, E.; Oliazadeh, M.; Kolahdoozan, M. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    Froth flotation is commonly used in coal processing to selectively recover the organic material (coal) from inorganic waste material. Tabas coal, located in east Iran, contains fine disseminated pyrite which is floated with coal during flotation, and hence decreasing the quality of the final concentrate. Reagents, such as sodium cyanide, are typically added to depress pyrite. Due to the toxicity of cyanide, alternative strategies for depressing pyrite flotation are being investigated. In this paper the metallurgical performance of Tabas coal treated with sodium cyanide is compared to that of Tabas coal which has undergone bacterial treatment using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Results indicate that bacterial treatment decreases the flotation rate of pyrite and improves the selectivity between coal and gangue. The possibility of using bacteria in place of toxic chemicals such as cyanide has significant environmental benefit.

  13. Coal and tire burning mixtures containing ultrafine and nanoparticulate materials induce oxidative stress and inflammatory activation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Caregnato, Fernanda F; Rabelo, Thallita K; DaBoit, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Moreira, José C F; Gelain, Daniel P

    2013-10-01

    Ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials resulting from mixtures of coal and non-coal fuels combustion for power generation release to the air components with toxic potential. We evaluated toxicological and inflammatory effects at cellular level that could be induced by ultrafine/nanoparticles-containing ashes from burning mixtures of coal and tires from an American power plant. Coal fly ashes (CFA) samples from the combustion of high-S coal and tire-derived fuel, the latter about 2-3% of the total fuel feed, in a 100-MW cyclone utility boiler, were suspended in the cell culture medium of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell viability, assessed by MTT reduction, SRB incorporation and contrast-phase microscopy analysis demonstrated that CFA did not induce acute toxicity. However, CFA at 1mg/mL induced an increase of approximately 338% in intracellular TNF-α, while release of this proinflammatory cytokine was increased by 1.6-fold. The expression of the inflammatory mediator CD40 receptor was enhanced by 2-fold, the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) had a 5.7-fold increase and the stress response protein HSP70 was increased nearly 12-fold by CFA at 1mg/mL. Although CFA did not induce cell death, parameters of oxidative stress and reactive species production were found to be altered at several degrees, such as nitrite accumulation (22% increase), DCFH oxidation (3.5-fold increase), catalase (5-fold increase) and superoxide dismutase (35% inhibition) activities, lipoperoxidation (4.2 fold-increase) and sulfhydryl oxidation (40% decrease in free SH groups). The present results suggest that CFA containing ultra-fine and nano-particulate materials from coal and tire combustion may induce sub-chronic cell damage, as they alter inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters at the molecular and cellular levels, but do not induce acute cell death. © 2013.

  14. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  15. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  16. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  17. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  18. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  19. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  20. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  1. Characteristic parameters of the coal briquetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davkova, Katica

    1998-01-01

    The complete knowledge about the energetic sources in our country - Republic of Macedonia, point to the fact that coals are the most attractive and highly productive, still keeping the leadership position. However, the process of lignite exploitation causes their degradation and formation of large amount of fine fractions. The industrial valorization of these fractions is the most actual problem that could be solved only through production of made-up enriched fuels of wide spectrum of application. Thus, briquetting formation, with or without use of binds, is a process of mechanical or combined modification of coal fine fractions. At the same time, this is a possible procedure of solid fuels enrichment. Lignite from the Macedonian coal deposits 'Suvodol', 'Priskupshtina' and 'Brik-Berovo' is analyzed, in order to examine the possibilities of its briquetting. The results show that the 'Suvodol' lignite satisfy the quality requirements given with the MKS B H1.031 standard as well as the 'Brik-Berovo' lignite

  2. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  3. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  4. Active methods of preventing bumps in situations where the longwall face advances to and crosses a roadway in thick coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loboda, C

    1978-01-01

    The method was analyzed in the Wujek coal mine, where the coal bed is located at 600 m and was 5.3 m to 5.7 m thick. The following situation is described: A longwall face had to pass through a ventilation tunnel. To reduce the inner stress of the coal mass above and below the ventilation tunnel infusion was used. Water was forced into the walls of the tunnel. The tunnel section was 200 m long, 28 holes were drilled, each 40 m deep, diameter of the bore 42 to 45 mm, water pressure 300 at. To prevent bumps the orientation of the longwall face, which had been parallel to the ventilation tunnel, was changed so that it was at the angle of 15 degrees to the ventilation tunnel. Experience showed that the most dangerous situation in the tunnel arises when the distance between a longwall face and a roadway is reduced to 45 m. At that moment pressure on the road support system is the greatest. The danger of bumps at a longwall face is the greatest when it is 25 m away from a roadway.

  5. Fiscal 2000 operation report. Fiscal 2000 model project for promoting advanced utilization of coal (Survey on data control system for advanced utilization of coal in Japan); 2000 nendo sekitan kodo riyo shuishin moderu jigyo gyomu hokokusho. Nihon no sekitan kodo riyo ni kakawaru data kanri system chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of contributing to the drafting of, for example, measures for securing coal resources for Japan and strategies for developing coal utilization technologies from the standpoint of the world climate of the coal supply/demand in the future, database was built concerning coal information such as coal-related supply/demand trend, technological development and utilization status in Japan and foreign countries, with the results of fiscal 2000 reported. In the preparation of related applications, a jump function in the case of pages unregistered with related subjects was added to the coal information retrieval system completed last year, as were a subdividing function of retrieval conditions and a link function to pages of a technical term dictionary. In the arrangement of the database classified by the fields, programs were prepared on 14 tables primarily in relation to supply and demand, with the collection, processing and registration of the data performed. In addition, in order to deal with the clarification of the patent licensing of GIF related technologies, there was developed a graph display program using a general-purpose language, Java. (NEDO)

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of the proposed study was the study and analysis of, and design recommendations for, a novel radiatively-conductively stabilized combustion (RCSC) process for pulverized coal, which, based on our prior studies with both fluid fuels and pulverized coal, holds a high promise to reduce NO{sub x} production significantly. We have primarily engaged in continuing and improving our process modeling and analysis, obtained a large amount of quantitative information about the effects of the major parameters on NO{sub x} production, conducted an extensive exergy analysis of the process, evaluated the practicalities of employing the Radiatively-Conductively Stabilized Combustor (RCSC) to large power and heat plants, and improved the experimental facility. Prior experimental work has proven the feasibility of the combustor, but slagging during coal combustion was observed and should be dealt with. The primary outcomes and conclusions from the study are: (1) we developed a model and computer program that represents the pulverized coal combustion in the RCSC, (2) the model predicts that NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by a number of methods, detailed in the report. (3) the exergy analysis points out at least a couple of possible ways to improve the exergetic efficiency in this combustor: increasing the effectiveness of thermal feedback, and adjusting the combustor mixture exit location, (4) because of the low coal flow rates necessitated in this study to obtain complete combustion in the burner, the size of a burner operating under the considered conditions would have to be up to an order of magnitude, larger than comparable commercial burners, but different flow configurations of the RCSC can yield higher feed rates and smaller dimensions, and should be investigated. Related to this contract, eleven papers were published in journals and conference proceedings, and ten invited presentations were given at university and research institutions, as well as at

  7. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  8. Investigation of factors influencing the attrition breakage of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholzer, V.; van der Walt, J. [North West University, Mmabatho (South Africa). School of Chemical & Minerals Engineering

    2009-04-15

    The presence of fines (particles smaller than 6 mm in diameter) causes hydrodynamic problems in gasifiers and therefore it is of great importance to minimize the amount of fine coal in the feed. This serves as motivation for understanding coal's breakage mechanisms, which could lead to the ability to predict the generation of fines. The aim of this project was to simulate the pulsating effect of the conveyor belt in order to investigate factors influencing the breakage. Results indicated that an increased initial particle size had an increasing effect in the amount of fines generated. Weathering had an insignificant effect on the breakage of coal. To conclude, a breakage model was developed to describe the rate of breakage out of the top size when a combination of two breakage modes is present.

  9. Coal statistics 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  10. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  11. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  12. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  13. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  14. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  15. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  16. Further Investigations on Simultaneous Ultrasonic Coal Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Gokhan Ozkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the flotation performance of a representative hard coal slime sample (d80 particle size of minus 0.2 mm obtained from the Prosper-Haniel coal preparation plant located in Bottrop, Germany. Flotation was carried out with a newly designed flotation cell refurbished from an old ultrasonic cleaning bath (2.5 L volume equipped with a single frequency (35 kHz and two different power levels (80–160 W and a sub-aeration-type flotation machine operating at a stable impeller speed (1200 rpm and air rate (2.5 L/min. The reagent combination for conventional and simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation tests was Ekofol-440 at variable dosages (40–300 g/t with controlling water temperature (20–25 °C at natural pH (6.5–7.0. The batch coal flotation results were analyzed by comparing the combustible recovery (% and separation efficiency (% values, taking mass yield and ash concentrations of the froths and tailings into account. It was found that simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation increased yield and recovery values of the floated products with lower ash values than the conventional flotation despite using similar reagent dosages. Furthermore, particle size distribution of the ultrasonically treated and untreated coals was measured. Finely distributed coal particles seemed to be agglomerated during the ultrasonic treatment, while ash-forming slimes were removed by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  17. Technological and economic aspects of coal biodesulfurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J

    1998-01-01

    The sulfur found in coal is either part of the molecular coal structure (organically bound sulfur), is contained in minerals such as pyrite (FeS2), or occurs in minor quantities in the form of sulfate and elemental sulfur. When pyrite crystals are finely distributed within the coal matrix, mechanical cleaning can only remove part of the pyrite. It can, however, be removed by microbial action requiring only mild conditions. The process involves simple equipment, almost no chemicals, but relatively long reaction times, and treatment of iron sulfate containing process water. Different process configurations are possible, depending on the coal particle size. Coal with particle sizes of less than 0.5 mm is preferably desulfurised in slurry reactors, while lump coal (> 0.5 mm) should be treated in heaps. Investment and operating costs are estimated for different process configurations on an industrial scale. Concerning the organically bound sulfur in coal there is up to now no promising biochemical pathway for the degradation and/or desulfurisation of such compounds.

  18. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  19. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association, is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  20. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  1. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  2. Steam coal mines of tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G

    1986-07-01

    A comprehensive review of new steam coal mines being planned or developed worldwide. It shows that at least 20 major mines with a combined annual output of 110 million tonnes per annum, could add their coal to world markets in the next 10 years. The review highlights: substantial activity in Australia with at least four major mines at advanced planning stages; a strengthening of the South American export industry with 4 major mines operating in 10 years compared with just one today; no major export mines being developed in the traditional US mining areas; and the emergence of Indonesia as a major steam coal producer/exporter. The review also shows a reduction in cost/output ratios, and also the proximity of the new mines to existing infrastructure (e.g. export terminals, rail links).

  3. Retort for distilling coal oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbon, J

    1865-12-20

    The construction of a retort for extracting or distilling coal oil or other products from cannel coal, shale, or schist, and more particularly of small coal or dust technically called slack, consists in applying self-acting feed and discharge apparatus to a revolving cylindrical wrought or cast iron retort, and constructing the inner surface of the cylindrical retort with a projecting ridge which encircles the interior of the retort in a spiral manner, the same as the interior of a female screw, and the ridge may be either cast upon or riveted on the internal surface, and is so arranged to cause the material to be operated upon to advance from one end of the retort to the other, as the retort revolves by following the course of the spiral screw or worm formed by the projecting ridge.

  4. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  5. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  6. Quantitative detection of settled coal dust over green canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Sahar, Nir

    2017-04-01

    The main task of environmental and geoscience applications are efficient and accurate quantitative classification of earth surfaces and spatial phenomena. In the past decade, there has been a significant interest in employing spectral unmixing in order to retrieve accurate quantitative information latent in in situ data. Recently, the ground-truth and laboratory measured spectral signatures promoted by advanced algorithms are proposed as a new path toward solving the unmixing problem in semi-supervised fashion. This study presents a practical implementation of field spectroscopy as a quantitative tool to detect settled coal dust over green canopy in free/open environment. Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, and pulverizing of coal. Since the inelastic nature of coal, coal dust can be created during transportation, or by mechanically handling coal. Coal dust, categorized at silt-clay particle size, of particular concern due to heavy metals (lead, mercury, nickel, tin, cadmium, mercury, antimony, arsenic, isotopes of thorium and strontium) which are toxic also at low concentrations. This hazard exposes risk on both environment and public health. It has been identified by medical scientist around the world as causing a range of diseases and health problems, mainly heart and respiratory diseases like asthma and lung cancer. It is due to the fact that the fine invisible coal dust particles (less than 2.5 microns) long lodge in the lungs and are not naturally expelled, so long-term exposure increases the risk of health problems. Numerus studies reported that data to conduct study of geographic distribution of the very fine coal dust (smaller than PM 2.5) and related health impacts from coal exports, is not being collected. Sediment dust load in an indoor environment can be spectrally assessed using reflectance spectroscopy (Chudnovsky and Ben-Dor, 2009). Small amounts of particulate pollution that may carry a signature

  7. Proceedings of the 11th international conference on coal science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'Exploring the horizons of coal'. The proceedings include 370 papers dealing with coal petrography, physical structure and properties, advanced characterization, oxidation and weathering, coal preparation and beneficiation, liquefaction and pyrolysis reactivity and products, combustion and combustion modeling, NOx, SO{sub x} and particulate emissions and controls, gasification fundamentals and processing, coal in iron making processes, chemistry of S, N, and Cl, mineral matter, trace elements and HAPS, chemicals, carbons and carbon products, coal combustion byproducts and ash chemistry, and greenhouse gases and sequestration. Although 'proceedings' are published, the conference was cancelled.

  8. Dispersed-phase catalysis in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.R.; Cugini, A.V.; Frommell, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the specific reaction (activation) conditions for the conversion of catalyst precursors to unsupported catalyst have a direct effect on the catalytic activity and dispersion. The importance of reaction intermediates in decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and the sensitivity of these intermediates to reaction conditions, were studied in coal liquefaction systems. Recent results indicate that optimization of activation conditions facilitates the formation of a highly dispersed and active form of molybdenum disulfide for coal liquefaction. The use of the catalyst precursors ammonium heptamolybdate, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum trisulfide for the conversion of coal to soluble products will be discussed. The use of an unsupported dispersed-phase catalyst for direct coal liquefaction is not a novel concept and has been employed in may studies with varying success. Dispersed-phase catalysts soluble and oil-soluble salts, and as finely divided powders. While some methods of catalyst introduction give higher dispersion of the catalyst and greater activity for the liquefaction of coal, all of the techniques allow the formation of a finely dispersed inorganic phase

  9. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  11. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  12. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  13. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  14. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  15. Coal information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  16. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  17. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  18. ACR coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  19. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  20. Prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartiniati; Dasuki, A.S.; Artanto, Yu.; Sulaksono, D.; Gunanjar

    1997-01-01

    With the current known oil reserves of about 11 billion barrel and annual production of approximately 500 million barrel, the country's oil reserves will be depleted by 2010, and Indonesia would have become net oil importer if no major oil fields be found somewhere in the archipelago. Under such circumstances the development of new sources of liquid fuel becomes a must, and coal liquefaction can be one possible solution for the future energy problem in Indonesia, particularly in the transportation sector due to the availability of coal in huge amount. This paper present the prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia and look at the possibility of integrating the process with HTR as a heat supplier. Evaluation of liquidability of several low grade Indonesian coals will also be presented. Coal from South Banko-Tanjung Enim is found to be one of the most suitable coal for liquefaction. Several studies show that an advanced coal liquefaction technology recently developed has the potential to reduce not only the environmental impact but also the production cost. The price of oil produced in the year 2000 is expected to reach US $ 17.5 ∼ 19.2/barrel and this will compete with the current oil price. Not much conclusion can be drawn from the idea of integrating HTR with coal liquefaction plant due to limited information available. (author). 7 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

    1980-12-15

    On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

  2. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  3. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  5. Dressing coals, shales, and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, H

    1938-12-28

    A process for dressing coals, shales, and like carbonaceous substances with the use of floating and sinking phenomena caused by differences in the specific gravities of the substances to be separated in the dressing operation is characterized by the use as the dressing medium of an aqueous suspension of clay and finely ground pyrite or iron ore cinder, or finely ground easily pulverizable iron ore, such as earthy or granular limonite. The aqueous suspension has a low viscosity and a specific gravity between 1.35 and 1.70.

  6. A process for briquetting coal with the production of briquets with high resistance to crushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M; Ito, S; Nakagava, K

    1983-02-08

    Finely ground coal is mixed with a binder with a softening point of greater than or equal to 30 degrees and with heavy coal tar products, the mixture is molded with the formation of briquets in a two roller press. The mixing is conducted in heated steam or waste gases from a horizontal, helical mixer. The coal is subsequently irrigated by the melted binder and heavy coal tar products. The heavy coal tar products are a bottom residue formed by condensation of volatile products in a gas stream from coking which contains particles of coal and coke. Briquets with a point compression strength of 50 plus or minus 4 kilograms per sq. cur. and a bulk tensity of 1.17 grams per cubic centimeter are produced from a mixture which contains 6 percent binder, 80 percent coal and 20 percent heavy coal tar products.

  7. Online analysis of coal on a conveyor belt by use of machine vision and kernel methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, C.; Jemwa, G.T.; van Dyk, J.C.; Keyser, M.J.; van Heerden, J.H.P. [University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Process Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the use of image analysis to quantify the amount of fines (6mm) present for different coal samples under conditions simulating the coal on conveyor belts similar to those being used by Sasol for gasification purposes. Quantification of the fines will be deemed particularly successful, if the fines mass fraction, as determined by sieve analysis, is possible to be predicted with an error of less than 10%. In this article, kernel-based methods to estimate particle size ranges on a pilot-scale conveyor belt as well as edge detection algorithms are considered. Preliminary results have shown that the fines fraction in the coal on the conveyor belt could be estimated with a median error of approximately 24.1%. This analysis was based on a relatively small number of sieve samples (18 in total) and needs to be validated by more samples. More samples would also facilitate better calibration and may lead to improved estimates of the sieve fines fractions. Similarly, better results may also be possible by using different approaches to image acquisition and analysis. Most of the error in the fines estimates can be attributed to sampling and to fines that were randomly obscured by the top layer (of larger particles) of coal on the belt. Sampling errors occurred as a result of some breakage of the coal between the sieve analyses and the acquisition of the images. The percentage of the fines obscured by the top layer of the coal probably caused most of the variation in the estimated mass of fines, but this needs to be validated experimentally. Preliminary studies have indicated that some variation in the lighting conditions have a small influence on the reliability of the estimates of the coal fines fractions and that consistent lighting conditions are more important than optimal lighting conditions.

  8. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  9. Ninth annual coal-fueled heat engines, advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Welcoming address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The market for retrofit and new capacity in the electric utility is expected to be very large: 250 gigawatt (GW) and 500 GW by the year 2030--an amount which equals the presently installed capacity in the US Overseas, the market is even larger exclamation point This large market will be driven by a number of key ''drivers.'' In order for power generation systems to compete in this market, they will have to satisfy the market drivers. This will lead us inevitably to modular, low cost, super clean, efficient, and reliable products which are fuel flexible and can meet either retrofit, repowering, or new capacity applications. I believe clean coal technologies that we are developing will meet these market demands and will penetrate--and eventually dominate--the power generation market of the next century. But for this market penetration and widespread deployment to take place, the products we are jointly developing must be continuously improved. We must together set our goals on a rapid march down the learning curve from the present high ''projected costs'' of these systems to an acceptable market clearing price on the order of $1000 to $1200 per kilowatt (kw) and with heat rates approaching 7500 Btu per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The projected learning curve for integrated gasification combined cycle systems is a good illustration of the aggressive goals we need to achieve

  10. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booras, George [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Powers, J. [General Electric, Schenectady, NY (United States); Riley, C. [General Electric, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hendrix, H. [Hendrix Engineering Solutions, Inc., Calera, AL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  11. Mitsubishi latest coal fired USC boiler technology (CFE Pacifico 700 MW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sakamoto, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Power Systems; Fujitab, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Power Systems

    2013-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has successfully completed commissioning work for CFE (Comision Federal de Electricidad) Pacifico 700 MW coal-fired unit in March 2010 which is the first supercritical unit in Latin America. This supercritical boiler was designed with state of the art technologies such as low NOx burners, high fineness pulverizers, advanced vertical furnace wall technology and so on. Especially the advanced vertical furnace wall technology with some improvements is a key technology to realize swift load changes such as 5% load per minute ramping rate with assuring dynamic characteristics. Recently the requirement of the high efficiency and the swift load changes for the power boilers has been increased so that even a coal-fired unit needs flexible operation characteristics for balancing variety of power sources. One of the challenges for the swift load change is to keep the furnace wall metal temperature low during the load change, which the advanced vertical furnace wall could realize. The report describes the features of the unit and commissioning result including load swing test results in details.

  12. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  13. Abstracts and research accomplishments of university coal research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their projects in time for distribution at a grantees conference. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to the request. Abstracts discuss the following area: coal science, coal surface science, reaction chemistry, advanced process concepts, engineering fundamentals and thermodynamics, environmental science

  14. Abstracts and research accomplishments of university coal research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their projects in time for distribution at a grantees conference. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to the request. Abstracts discuss the following area: coal science, coal surface science, reaction chemistry, advanced process concepts, engineering fundamentals and thermodynamics, environmental science.

  15. Report on the FY 1982 potential survey of overseas coal development. Coal fields in Mexico; 1982 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Mexico kaku tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-10-01

    The following surveys were made to acquire the data/information for potential study of development/import of Mexican coal: (1) collection of general information such as energy situation, coal situation and infrastructure. (2) survey of situation of coal seam existence, coal quality, coal amount, exploration/development, etc. of Sabinas coal field, Monclova, Coahuila state, San Marcial coal field, San Enrique, Sonora state, and Tezoatlan coal field, Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca state. (3) data collection for potential study of future development. The area where coal is presently produced is only Coahuila state, and also there the exploration is comparatively being advanced. In states of Sonora and Oaxaca, the exploration is only made roughly by CRM, and the exploration is going to be detailedly made from now. The exploration in Coahuila state, however, was made only down to 400m under earth's surface. In this area, coal existence down to 1,000m under earth's surface is expected, and the exploration deeper than 400m is a future subject. Ninty percent of the present coal reserve is produced from Coahuila state. They are coking coal and steam coal in quality. At present, the Mexican government is exerting efforts to increase production of the domestic use coal, with no intention of exporting coal. Seeing how the exploration would go, it is necessary to watch the results of the survey on a long-term basis. (NEDO)

  16. Report on the FY 1982 potential survey of overseas coal development. Coal fields in Mexico; 1982 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Mexico kaku tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-10-01

    The following surveys were made to acquire the data/information for potential study of development/import of Mexican coal: (1) collection of general information such as energy situation, coal situation and infrastructure. (2) survey of situation of coal seam existence, coal quality, coal amount, exploration/development, etc. of Sabinas coal field, Monclova, Coahuila state, San Marcial coal field, San Enrique, Sonora state, and Tezoatlan coal field, Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca state. (3) data collection for potential study of future development. The area where coal is presently produced is only Coahuila state, and also there the exploration is comparatively being advanced. In states of Sonora and Oaxaca, the exploration is only made roughly by CRM, and the exploration is going to be detailedly made from now. The exploration in Coahuila state, however, was made only down to 400m under earth's surface. In this area, coal existence down to 1,000m under earth's surface is expected, and the exploration deeper than 400m is a future subject. Ninty percent of the present coal reserve is produced from Coahuila state. They are coking coal and steam coal in quality. At present, the Mexican government is exerting efforts to increase production of the domestic use coal, with no intention of exporting coal. Seeing how the exploration would go, it is necessary to watch the results of the survey on a long-term basis. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project by Coal Group. Basic researches on coal liquefaction techniques by solvolysis; 1980 nendo sunshine keikaku sekitanhan hokokusho. Sekitan no solvolysis ekika gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    The basic experimental researches were carried out for coal liquefaction by solvolysis. The studied items include hydrogenation conditions for treating the primary liquefied products, asphalt, pitch and model solvents (e.g., anthracene oil) in the presence of a commercial catalyst, solvolysis conditions for finely divided, molten coal using a hydrogenation recycled solvent, hydrotreating solvents, analysis of solvolysis-liquefied products, and liquefaction capacity of fractionated solvents for finely divided, molten coal. The studied items for separation of minerals include settlement at high temperature of the solid residue from the first liquefaction stage, and changed coal particle size distribution as a result of the first-stage liquefaction reactions in the presence of a hydrogenation solvent. The experimental study results indicate that conversion of finely divided molten coal into asphaltenes and preasphaltenes is notably accelerated in the phase-II coal liquefaction process by solvolysis, when a hydrotreating solvent is used for the first stage solvolysis process. (NEDO)

  18. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  19. Petrographic characterization of the solid products of coal- pitch coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Kybett, B.D.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Rahimi, P.; Price, J.T.

    1986-06-01

    Petrographic studies were conducted on four solid residues resulting from the hydrogenation process of 1) Forestburg sub- bituminous coal alone, 2) the coal with a non-coking solvent (anthracene oil), 3) pitch (Cold Lake vacuum-bottom deposits), and 4) a mixture of coal and pitch. The purpose was to determine the amounts of coal and pitch-derived solids in the residues. All the residues were produced under identical severe conditions of liquefaction to promote the formation of solids. The coal processed with anthracene oil gives a residue consisting mainly of isotropic huminitic solids. If the coal is hydrogenated under similar conditions but without a solvent, the predominant residual solids are anisotropic semicokes displaying coarse mosaic textures, which form from vitroplast. The residual products from the hydrogenated Cold Lake vacuum- bottom deposits are also dominantly anisotropic semicokes; these display coarse mosaics and flow textures, and form by the growth and coalescence of mesophase spherules. Both coal- and pitch-derived solids are identified in a residue produced by coprocessing the Forestburg coal with the pitch from the Cold Lake vacuum-bottom deposits. It is concluded that the huminite macerals in the coal generate the fine-grained, mosaic-textured semicokes, whereas the pitch produces the coarse mosaics and flow-textured semicokes.

  20. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This project will provide a full-scale demonstration of Micronized Coal Reburn (MCR) technology for the control of NO x on a wall-fired steam generator. This demonstration is expected to reduce NO x emissions by 50 to 60%. Micronized coal is coal that has been very finely pulverized (80% less than 325 mesh). This micronized coal, which may comprise up to 30% of the total fuel fired in the furnace, is fired high in the furnace in a fuel-rich reburn zone at a stoichiometry of 0.8. Above the reburn zone, overfire air is injected into the burnout zone at high velocity for good mixing to ensure complete combustion. Overall excess air is 15%. MCR technology reduces NO x emissions with minimal furnace modifications, and the improved burning characteristics of micronized coal enhance boiler performance

  1. Ultrafine ash aerosols from coal combustion: Characterization and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William P. Linak; Jong-Ik Yoo; Shirley J. Wasson; Weiyan Zhu; Jost O.L. Wendt; Frank E. Huggins; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah; Gerald P. Huffman; M. Ian Gilmour [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    Ultrafine coal fly-ash particles withdiameters less than 0.5 {mu}m typically comprise less than 1% of the total fly-ash mass. This paper reports research focused on both characterization and health effects of primary ultrafine coal ash aerosols alone. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse ash particles were segregated and collected from a coal burned in a 20 kW laboratory combustor and two additional coals burned in an externally heated drop tube furnace. Extracted samples from both combustors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence(WD-XRF) spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Pulmonary inflammation was characterized by albumin concentrations in mouse lung lavage fluid after instillation of collected particles in saline solutions and a single direct inhalation exposure. Results indicate that coal ultrafine ash sometimes contains significant amounts of carbon, probably soot originating from coal tar volatiles, depending on coal type and combustion device. Surprisingly, XAFS results revealed the presence of chromium and thiophenic sulfur in the ultrafine ash particles. The instillation results suggested potential lung injury, the severity of which could be correlated with the carbon (soot) content of the ultrafines. This increased toxicity is consistent with theories in which the presence of carbon mediates transition metal (i.e., Fe) complexes, as revealed in this work by TEM and XAFS spectroscopy, promoting reactive oxygenspecies, oxidation-reduction cycling, and oxidative stress. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  4. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  5. Approach to reducing the effect of bone—coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIShi-Ying; GUPei-Long; 等

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations(6MWe) on environment was investigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways.It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder(BCC),soot and ash in the catchers.

  6. Approach to reducing the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations (6 MWe) on environment wasinvestigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways. It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder (BCC), soot and ash in the catchers.

  7. Structural comparison of hazardous and non-hazardous coals based on gas sorption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Toth, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Radnai-Gyoengyoes, Z. [Geopard Ltd., Pecs (Hungary); Bokanyi, L. [Miskolc Univ., Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Comparison of carbon-dioxide and propane sorption at ambient temperature was used for characterising the difference of the structure of hazardous and non hazardous coals. However, hazardous coals were found more microporous or contain more closed pores than non hazardous ones, this difference couldn`t have been enlarged and attributed to one petrographic component by producing the density fractions. Gas sorption isobars (nitrogen, methane, ethane) are proposed to make a distinction between fine pore structure of coals. (orig.)

  8. Pushing the pulverized coal envelope with LEBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M. [and others

    1995-11-01

    In response to challenges from technologies such as IGCC and PFBC, the ABB LEBS Team has proposed removing the barriers to very large advances in environmental and thermal performance of pulverized coal plants. Pulverized coal will continue to be the source of more than half of our electric generation well into the next century and we must develop low-risk low-cost advances that will compete with the claimed performance of other technologies. This paper describes near-term PC technologies for new and retrofit applications which will accomplish this.

  9. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  10. Sustainable global energy development: The case of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Market-driven scenarios anticipate world coal demand to increase during the entire 21st century. The increase during 2000-2030 would range from 53 % to 100 %. Developing countries would take the lead in world coal demand growth. In western Europe, demand, and more so production, would decline, in central and eastern Europe increase. Carbon abatement policies would not impact on coal demand before 2020 - 2030. By 2050 however, under such constraints, coal demand would have declined by one third (only), - less in developing, more in developed countries. Under market conditions, the share of coal in world primary energy supplies, at 26 % in 2000, would decline to 24 % in 2020 and 22 % 2050. Carbon constraints would reduce the share of coal to 11 % in 2050, which (nevertheless) corresponds to 2.1 bill. tce (2000: 3.4 bill. tce). The major short-term competitor of coal would be gas, particularly under CO 2 emission constraints, although marginal gas is hardly better in terms of life cycle GHG emissions than marginal oil or coal. During 2001-2025, the increase of CO 2 emissions from coal (+1.1 bill. t of carbon) would be lower than for gas (+1.3 bill. t) and oil (+1.5 bill. t). In the longer term, new nuclear could emerge as a serious competitor. Electricity generators would remain the predominant customer for coal. By 2030, coal would cover 45 % of world electricity generation compared with 37 % in 2000. By 2020, coal-based methanol and hydrogen would cover 3 % of the world's transportation fuel demand (100 Mtoe), by 2050 14 % (660 Mtoe). Cumulative investments in coal mining, shipping and combustion during 2001-2030 would amount to USD 1900 billion, - 12 % of world investments in energy supply. International prices of coal relative to oil and gas would continue evolving in favour of coal enhancing its competitiveness. Almost nil in 2000, advanced coal combustion technologies would cover 33 % of world power generation in 2030, and 72 % of coal-based power generation

  11. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Coal. [1987 and 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    Despite increases in recently negotiated coal prices in US dollar terms, unit export returns for Australian coal are expected to rise only marginally in 1988-89 due to the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar. Australian coal production is expected to recover in 1988-89, after falling in 1987-88. A table summarising coal statistics in 1985-87 is presented. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  14. Coal dust symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  15. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  16. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  17. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  18. Coal economics and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  19. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  20. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  1. Occurrence of trace elements in respirable coal dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of fine particles of coal dust contributes significantly to the occurrence of the disease, pneumoconiosis, prevailing in coal mining community. It is not presently known whether only the coal dust or specific chemical compounds or synergistic effects of several compounds associated with respirable coal dust is responsible for the disease, pneumoconiosis. The present paper describes the quantitative determination of ten minor and trace elements in respirable coal dust particles by atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The respirable coal dust samples are collected at the mine atmosphere during drilling in coal scams by using Messrs. Casella's Hexlet apparatus specially designed and fitted with horizontal elutriator to collect the respirable coal dust fraction simulating as near as possible to the lung's retention of the coal miners. After destruction of organic matter by wet oxidation and filtering off clay and silica, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni were determined directly in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures. The results show that the trace metals are more acute in lower range of size spectrum. Correlation coefficient, enrichment factor and linear regression values and their inverse relationship between the slope and EF values suggest that, in general, the trace metals in respirable particulates are likely to be from coal derived source if their concentrations are likewise high in the coal. The trace metal analytical data of respirable particulates fitted well to the linear regressive equation. The results of the studies are of importance as it may throw some light on the respirable lung disease 'pneumoconiosis' which are predominant in coal mining community. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Survey of technological advancement of coal exploitation in Asia and Pacific for fiscal 1997. Formulation of production plans for model coal mines in China; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Chugoku ni okeru model tanko no seisan keikaku no sakutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In view of the prospective demand for coal in China and of the current state of transportation, a development plan is formulated for Tangkou Mining Area (of model mines) for the purpose of realizing efficient exploitation of coal. The infrastructures for coal transportation are complete in this area, and delivery of coal is easy from this area to the coal demanding regions. Although coal seams are quite deep in the ground, the important ones contain rich reserves. Exploitation is carried out under a vertical shaft scheme, in which pits extend horizontally at the level of 950m below the sea surface. As for production, an annual yield of 3-million ton is predicted thanks to two compositely mechanized coal faces. Coal is won by the monolayer side hole method in the case of seams not thicker than 4.0m, and by the caved stope method in the case not thinner than 4.0m. Employed for the mines are 1077 people. Operation days are 300, efficiency 15t/man/shift. The annual sale in total is expected to be worth 759-million 534.6-thousand yuan. To be required for the construction will be 1.2-billion yuan for mines and 0.2-billion yuan for coal dressing facilities, or 1.4-billion yuan in all, and the figures indicate that the plan is economically promising. 43 figs., 119 tabs.

  3. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  4. Network model for fine coal dewatering. Part I. The model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, I.; Tierney, J.W.; Chiang, S.H.

    1985-08-01

    There is a body of well established research in filtration and related subjects, but much of it has been empirical - based on correlations from experimental data. This approach has the disadvantage that it lacks generality, and it is difficult to predict the behavior of new or different systems. A more general method for studying dewatering is needed-one which will include the microscopic characteristics of the filter cake, which, like other porous media, contains a complicated network of interconnected pores through which the fluid must flow. These pores play an important role in dewatering because they give rise to capillary forces when one fluid is displacing another. In this report, we describe a network model which we believe satisfies these requirements. In the main body of this report, the model is described in detail. Background information is given where appropriate, and a brief description is given of the experimental work being done in our laboratories to verify the model. A detailed description of the experimental procedures and results is given in other DOE reports. The computer programs which are needed to solve the model are described in detail in the Appendices and are accompanied by flow charts, sample problems, and sample outputs. Sufficient detail is given in order to use the model programs on other computer systems. 32 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  6. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  7. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  8. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  10. Washability of Australian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  11. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  12. Engineer exchanging project on coal mine technology field in fiscal 1999. International information exchanging project (advance survey on North America); 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Hokubei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project has been performed with an intention of making visiting surveys and information collection at coal related organizations in overseas coal producing countries on production technology levels and trends. The project is intended to serve for improvement in the contents of and smooth execution of the engineer exchange project in the 'coal mine technology field. It was carried out by the site surveys. The surveys revealed that the situation of the American coal industry is expected of stable increase in the demand and supply in the future, but the coal price is on the falling trend, and therefore, the industry is compelled to further increase the intensity and enhance the productivity. The industry is strongly influenced by the amended air pollution prevention act and nature destruction problems, hence further coal mine curtailment is estimated. Under such a background, it was found that the long-wall mining process progressing toward larger scale and higher productivity, and the high-wall mining process that provides higher productivity at lower cost and has less impact on the environmental problems can continue development in mountainous areas, particularly in the Appalachian area. The high-wall mining process mines coal at exposed facings on the side of a mountain by using a continuous miner, and transports the coal using machines. (NEDO)

  13. A Study of Coal Fire Propagation with Remotely Sensed Thermal Infrared Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Huo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal-bearing countries. Thus, it is very important to monitor changes in coal fires. Remote sensing provides a useful technique for investigating coal fields at a large scale and for detecting coal fires. In this study, the spreading direction of a coal fire in the Wuda Coal Field (WCF, northwest China, was analyzed using multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ thermal infrared (TIR data. Using an automated method and based on the land surface temperatures (LST that were retrieved from these thermal data, coal fires related to thermal anomalies were identified; the locations of these fires were validated using a coal fire map (CFM that was developed via field surveys; and the cross-validation of the results was also carried out using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared images. Based on the results from longtime series of satellite TIR data set, the spreading directions of the coal fires were determined and the coal fire development on the scale of the entire coal field was predicted. The study delineated the spreading direction using the results of the coal fire dynamics analysis, and a coal fire spreading direction map was generated. The results showed that the coal fires primarily spread north or northeast in the central part of the WCF and south or southwest in the southern part of the WCF. In the northern part of the WCF, some coal fires were spreading north, perhaps coinciding with the orientation of the coal belt. Certain coal fires scattered in the northern and southern parts of the WCF were extending in bilateral directions. A quantitative analysis of the coal fires was also performed; the results indicate that the area of the coal fires increased an average of approximately 0.101 km2 per year.

  14. Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) mining technologies with roof softening by hydraulic fracturing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, V.; Nikitenko, S.; Opruk, G.

    2018-05-01

    The paper discusses advanced top coal caving technologies for thick coal seams and addresses some issues of incomplete coal extraction, which can result in the environmental damage, landscape change, air and water pollution and endogenous fires. The authors put forward a fundamentally new, having no equivalent and ecology-friendly method to difficult-to-cave roof coal – directional hydraulic fracturing and nonexplosive disintegration.

  15. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  16. Hazards from radioactivity of fly ash of Greek coal power plants (CPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.; Charalambous, S.

    1980-01-01

    Fly ash and fine dispersion releases from coal combustion in Greek coal power plants were studied. Concentrations in the fly ash up to 20 pCi/g and 10 pCi/g were measured for 238 U and 226 Ra respectively (not in secular equilibrium). Risk from the fly ash derives from its escape in particulate form or fine dispersion and from its use as a substitute for cement in concrete. The new data indicate that coal power plants discharge relatively larger quantities of radioactive material into the atmosphere than nuclear power plants of comparable size, during normal operation. (H.K.)

  17. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  18. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  19. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  20. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  1. Combustion and emissions characterization of pelletized coal fuels. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

    1993-05-01

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate that sorbent-containing coal pellets made from low grade coal or coal wastes are viable clean burning fuels, and to compare their performance with that of standard run-of-mine coal. Fuels to be investigated are: (a) carbonated pellets containing calcium hydroxide sorbent, (b) coal fines-limestone pellets with cornstarch as binder, (c) pellets made from preparation plant recovered coal containing limestone sorbent and gasification tar as binder, and (d) a standard run-of-mine Illinois seam coal. The fuels will be tested in a laboratory scale 411 diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor. Progress this quarter has centered on the development of a hydraulic press based pellet mill capable of the high compaction pressures necessary to produce the gasification tar containing pellets outlined in (c) above. Limited quantities of the pellets have been made, and the process is being fine tuned before proceeding into the production mode. Tests show that the moisture content of the coal is an important parameter that needs to be fixed within narrow limits for a given coal and binder combination to produce acceptable pellets. Combustion tests with these pellet fuels and the standard coal are scheduled for the next quarter.

  2. Problems of clean coals production as a sources of clean energy generation; Problemy produkcji czystych wegli jako zrodlo wytwarzania czystej energii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, W. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Mineral and Energy Economy Institute

    2004-07-01

    The paper advises of clean coal technology programme objectives. Issues connected with clean coals preparation for combustion have been discussed. The quality of steam fine coals has been presented, including those used in the commercial power industry. A small supply of 'clean coals' has been started in Poland, related however to a limited demand. Factors affecting the reduction in clean coal production have been discussed. The fact that there are no significant reasons to constrain supplies of clean coals has been emphasised. The quality of coal in deposits is very good, and the condition of preparation enables production of clean coal. Clean energy generation from clean coal requires only cooperation between the hard coal mining industry and the commercial power industry, passing over particular sectoral interests. 15 refs.

  3. Anatomy of an intruded coal, I: Effect of contact metamorphism on whole-coal geochemistry, Springfield (No. 5) (Pennsylvanian) coal, Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmer, Susan M. [Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Yoksoulian, Lois E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    If time and heating rate are important agents in coal maturation, one might expect to see differences in chemical changes in response to maturation depending on the means of increased rank. Using a suite of samples obtained from an intruded Pennsylvanian-age coal in southern Illinois, we present whole-coal chemical data. Comparing these data to extant geochemical data for coals that have undergone normal burial maturation, we evaluated the hypothesis that if coal alteration occurs rapidly (due to intrusion) rather than gradually (burial maturation), then different relationships are seen in chemical composition (proximate and ultimate analyses) and vitrinite reflectance. The Pennsylvanian-age (Asturian [Westphalian D]) Springfield (No. 5) coal is mined at the Big Ridge Mine, near Eldorado, southern Illinois. This high volatile B bituminous coal was intruded by an ultramafic igneous intrusion during the early Permian. Alteration occurs out to {proportional_to} 1.2 x dike thickness and includes an increase in random vitrinite reflectance (R{sub m}) from levels {proportional_to} 0.7% to over 5.3%, loss of liptinites, and formation of devolatilization vacuoles and fine mosaic texture. Decreases in volatile matter (VM) and increases in fixed carbon (FC) appear to be less than would be expected for the level of reflectance seen within the alteration halo. Carbonate minerals have a major influence on proximate analyses but even following the removal of carbonates, the decrease in VM is still less than would be seen in coals of similar vitrinite reflectance that were altered by normal burial maturation. Carbonate mineralization also contributes to variability in ultimate analysis values approaching the intrusion, particularly for %C and %O. After carbonate removal, data for these coals do not appear to follow the normal burial coalification tracks when plotted on a van Krevelen diagram and on a Seyler chart. These differences suggest that a slightly different maturation

  4. The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: Potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civeira, Matheus S; Pinheiro, Rafael N; Gredilla, Ainara; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez Ortiz; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ramos, Claudete G; Taffarel, Silvio R; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-02-15

    Brazilian coal area (South Brazil) impacted the environment by means of a large number of coal waste piles emplaced over the old mine sites and the adjacent areas of the Criciúma, Urussanga, and Siderópolis cities. The area studied here was abandoned and after almost 30 years (smokeless visual) some companies use the actual minerals derived from burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) complied in the mentioned area for industry tiles or refractory bricks. Mineralogical and geochemical similarities between the BCCRs and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. Although no visible flames were observed, this study revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The presence of amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and other Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. There is also pyrite, Fe-sulphates (eg. jarosite) and unburnt coal present, which are useful for comparison purposes. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present study using advanced analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and mineral formation. It is reporting huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The data showed the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing hazardous elements, such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the mineralogical composition was related with the range of elemental concentration of each sample. Most of the nano-minerals and ultra-fine particles

  5. Fine Arts Database (FAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Fine Arts Database records information on federally owned art in the control of the GSA; this includes the location, current condition and information on artists.

  6. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  7. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabloff, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics

  8. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabloff, J A [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  9. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  10. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  11. Radioactivity in fine papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.W.; Singh, B.

    1993-01-01

    The radioactivity of fine papers has been studied through γ-ray spectroscopy with an intrinsic Ge detector. Samples of paper from European and North American sources were found to contain very different amounts of 226 Ra and 232 Th. The processes which introduce radionuclides into paper are discussed. The radioactivity from fine papers makes only a small contribution to an individual's annual radiation dose; nevertheless it is easily detectable and perhaps, avoidable. (Author)

  12. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  13. T/P23, 24, 911 and 92: New grades for advanced coal-fired power plants-Properties and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, J.C.; Vandenberghe, B.; Hahn, B.; Heuser, H.; Jochum, C.

    2008-01-01

    After the development of the well-known T/P91 grade in the early 1980s and the long industrial experiences since the early 1990s, it has been necessary to develop new steels to answer the demand of the powergen industry. New (ultra) super critical boilers require materials with advanced creep properties to reach severe steam parameters. For the 2.25% Cr family, grades 23 and 24 are now available to be used instead of the previous grade 22 with many technical and economical advantages. For the 9% Cr steels, new grades such as T/P911 and T/P92 have been developed with higher creep properties than T/P91. Thanks to its large industrial experience in these new grades, Vallourec and Mannesmann Tubes and Boehler Thyssen Schweisstechnik have now worldwide references of use with these new steel grades. In this paper, information on properties, behaviour and workability will be presented with a focus on ·elevated temperature properties and allowable stresses, ·oxidation and maximum service temperature and ·weldability procedures and recommendations

  14. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  15. Status of Westinghouse coal-fueled combustion turbine programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalzo, A.J.; Amos, D.J.; Bannister, R.L.; Garland, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Developing clean, efficient, cost effective coal utilization technologies for future power generation is an essential part of our National Energy Strategy. Westinghouse is actively developing power plants utilizing advanced gasification, atmospheric fluidized beds (AFB), pressurized fluidized beds (PFB), and direct firing technology through programs sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE). The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is sponsoring the Direct Coal-Fired Turbine program. This paper presents the status of current and potential Westinghouse Power Generation Business Unit advanced coal-fueled power generation programs as well as commercial plans

  16. Environmental characteristics of clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is aimed at demonstrating the commercial readiness of advanced coal-based technologies. A major goal of the CCT program is to introduce into the US energy marketplace those coal-based power generation technologies that have superior economic and environmental performance over the current suite of commercial coal-based power generation technologies. The commercialization of CCTs will provide the electric utility industry with technology options for replacing aging power plants and meeting future growth in electricity demand. This paper discusses the environmental advantages of two CCTs used for electric power generation: pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC). These CCTs are suitable for repowering existing power plants or for grassroots construction. Due to their high efficiency and advanced environmental control systems, they emit less sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter, and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than a state-of-the-art, pulverized coal power plant with flue gas desulfurization (PC/FGD)

  17. Characterization of a coal tailing deposit for zero waste mine in the Brazilian coal field of Santa Catarina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral Filho, J.R.; Schneider, I.A.H.; Tubino, R.M.C.; Brum de, I.A.S.; Miltzarek, G.; Sampaio, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Coal tailings deposits in Brazil are occupying large areas of land while also generating acid mine drainage (AMD) that includes heavy metals. This paper described an analytical study of a typical coal tailings deposit. The study objective was to separate low density, intermediate density, and high density fractions for future reuse. Particle size analysis, disymmetric studies, X-ray diffraction, and tests conducted to determine ash, total sulphur, and acid bases were conducted in order to characterize the coal tailings samples. Results of the study demonstrated a size distribution of 67 percent coarse, 14 percent fine, and 19 percent ultra-fine particles. The gravimetric concentration method was used to recover 34.2 percent of the total deposit for future energy use. Approximately 9.2 percent of the remaining deposit was a pyrite concentrate. The acid generating potential of the remaining materials was reduced by approximately 60 percent. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  18. Characterization of the impregnated iron based catalyst for direct coal liquefaction by EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianli; Zhun Jisheng; Liu Zhenyu; Zhong Bing

    2002-01-01

    Catalyst plays an important role in direct coal liquefaction (DCL). Iron catalysts are regarded as the most attractive catalysts for DCL. To maximize catalytic effect and minimize catalysts usage, ultra-fine size catalysts are preferred. The most effective catalysts are found to be those impregnated onto coal because of their high dispersion on coal surface and intimate contact with coal particles. Besides the physical size, chemical form of a catalyst or a catalyst precursor is also important in determination of DCL activity. The expended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy technique were used in this study. It was shown that the catalysts tested are in nanomater range and have structure mainly in the form of γ-FeOOH and FeS, or possibly of Fe/O/S. The presence of γ-FeOOH can be attributed to the interaction between Fe and the oxygen containing groups of coal or oxygen from moisture

  19. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  20. Cuttability of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  1. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  2. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  3. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  4. Energy characteristics of finest coal particles surfaces versus their upgrading using flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerzy Sablik

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents selected results of investigations on energy properties of the fine coal particles, and methodological grounds for conducting such investigations. Using the discussed relationships, values of contact angle of coal particles with various degree of coalification in the range defined by the energy nonhomogeneity of the surfaces were computed. There have been determined the values of the contact angles of coal particles with hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces after coating with nonpolar and polar reagents. The energy state of the surfaces of coal particles in the feeds and products of industrial flotation were determined, which enabled to evaluate this process. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  6. A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

    1994-04-01

    A batch microreactor was designed and fabricated as a means of investigating maximum yields of liquids obtainable in very short reaction times of the order of a few seconds, and the maximum ratios of liquids/hydrocarbon (HC) gases obtainable under those conditions. A Wyodak sub-bituminous coal, crushed and sieved to {minus}200 mesh particle size, was used in the experiments, with a temperature of 500{degrees}C and a pressure of 1500 psi. The fine coal particles were fed dry to the reactor and heated to reaction temperature in times of one to two seconds. At a time of 3 seconds at reaction temperature, in a single pass a liquid yield of 60% by weight of the coal was obtained, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/(HC) gases of 30/1. When the unreacted solids were recycled to the reactor, and the results combined with those of the first pass, a liquid yield of 82% by weight of the coal was achieved, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/HC gases of 30/1. This ratio represents only about 3 wt percent HC gases, much lower that is produced in current advanced technologies, and represents a large saving in hydrogen consumption. A simulated distillation technique was applied to the liquids. The liquid product contained 86% by weight (of the liquids) total distillables (boiling point below 538{degrees}C), including 70% by weight of low-boiling fractions in the gasoline, kerosene and gas oil range (boiling point up to 325{degrees}C). The liquid product exhibited a H/C ratio of 1.5, which is considerably higher than observed in current advanced technologies for the primary liquids. Several catalysts were investigated. Iron catalysts, specifically ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferric sulfate pentahydrate, each produced these high conversions and high ratios of liquids/HC gases.

  7. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  8. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  9. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  10. Combining Renewable Energy With Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    There are various possibilities for incorporating biomass into coal-fuelled processes and a number of these are already being deployed commercially. Others are the focus of ongoing research and development. Biomass materials can vary widely, although the present report concentrates mainly on the use of woody biomass in the form of forest residues. Potentially, large amounts are available in some parts of the world. However, not all forested regions are very productive, and the degree of commercial exploitation varies considerably between individual countries. The level of wastage associated with timber production and associated downstream processing is frequently high and considerable quantities of potentially useful materials are often discarded. Overall, forest residues are a largely underexploited resource. Combining the use of biomass with coal can be beneficial, particularly from an environmental standpoint, although any such process may have its limitations or drawbacks. Each coal type and biomass feedstock has different characteristics although by combining the two, it may be possible to capitalise on the advantages of each, and minimise their individual disadvantages. An effective way is via cogasification, and useful operating experience has been achieved in a number of large-scale coal-fuelled gasification and IGCC plants. Cogasification can be the starting point for producing a range of products that include synthetic natural gas, chemicals, fertilisers and liquid transport fuels. It also has the potential to form the basis of systems that combine coal and biomass use with other renewable energy technologies to create clean, efficient energy-production systems. Thus, various hybrid energy concepts, some based on coal/biomass cogasification, have been proposed or are in the process of being developed or trialled. Some propose to add yet another element of renewable energy to the system, generally by incorporating electricity generated by intermittent

  11. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict

  12. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  13. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  14. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  15. Variation in mineral composition of coal during enrichment and coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Ulanovskii; A.N. Likhenko [Ukrkoks Coke Producers' Association, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    The parameters I{sub b} and B{sub b} used in developing an optimal coking-batch composition are determined from data on the chemical composition of the ash in Donetsk Basin and other coal. It is found that, when the ash content is reduced in deeper enrichment of coal with an increased content of fine pyrite, there will be accompanying increase in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and decrease in the SiO{sub 2} content of the ash in lighter fractions. This increases I{sub b}. In other words, reducing the ash content of the coal is an unpromising means of increasing CRI and CSR of the coke produced. Three ash-containing elements (silicon, aluminum, and iron) are experimentally proven to transfer from coal to coke. Specific behavior of calcium, magnesium, alkali metals, and sulfur during coking.

  16. Mode of occurrence of arsenic in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Huggins, Frank E.; Palmer, C.A.; Shah, N.; Crowley, S.S.; Huffman, G.P.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated analytical approach has been used to determine the mode of occurrence of arsenic in samples of four widely used US coals: the Pittsburgh, Illinois #6, Elkhorn/Hazard, and Wyodak. Results from selective leaching, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, and electron microprobe analysis show that pyrite is the principal source of arsenic in the three bituminous coals, but the concentration of As in pyrite varies widely. The Wyodak sample contains very little pyrite; its arsenic appears to be primarily associated with organics, as As3+, or as arsenate. Significant (10-40%) fractions of arsenate, derived from pyrite oxidation, are also present in the three bituminous coal samples. This information is essential in developing predictive models for arsenic behavior during coal combustion and in other environmental settings.

  17. Australian coal year book 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  18. Comparison of the physical and chemical characteristics of fine road dust at different urban sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Yul; Batmunkh, Tsatsral; Joo, Hung Soo; Park, Kihong

    2018-04-18

    The size distribution and chemical components of a fine fraction (road dust collected at urban sites in Korea (Gwangju) and Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar) where distinct urban characteristics exist were measured. A clear bimodal size distribution was observed for the resuspended fine road dust at the urban sites in Korea. The first mode peaked at 100-110 nm, and the second peak was observed at 435-570 nm. Ultrafine mode (~30 nm) was found for the fine road dust at the Mongolia site, which was significantly affected by residential coal/biomass burning. The contribution of the water-soluble ions to the fine road dust was higher at the sites in Mongolia (15.8-16.8%) than at those in Korea (1.2-4.8%). Sulfate and chloride were the most dominant ionic species for the fine road dust in Mongolia. As (arsenic) was also much higher for the Mongolian road dust than the others. The sulfate, chloride, and As mainly come from coal burning activity, suggesting that coal and biomass combustion in Mongolia during the heating season should affect the size and chemical components of the fine road dust. Cu (copper) and Zn (zinc), carbonaceous particles (organic carbon [OC] and elemental carbon [EC]) increased at sites in Korea, suggesting that the fine road dust at these sites was significantly affected by the high volume of traffic (engine emission and brake/tire wear). Our results suggest that chemical profiles for road dust specific to certain sites should be applied to more accurately apportion road dust source contributing to the ambient particulate matter. Size and chemical characteristics of fine road dust at sites having distinct urban characteristics were examined. Residential coal and biomass burning and traffic affected physiochemical properties of the fine road dust. Different road dust profiles at different sites should be needed to determine the ambient PM2.5 sources more accurately.

  19. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  20. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  1. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  2. Carbon burnout of pulverised coal in power station furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.I. Backreedy; L.M. Fletcher; J.M. Jones; L. Ma; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams; K. Johnson; D.J. Waldron; P. Stephenson [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The degree of carbon burnout in pulverised fuel fired power stations is important because it is linked with power plant efficiency and coal ash suitability for construction purposes. The use of computational methods to calculate carbon burnout in such systems has been aided by the increasing availability of fast computers and improvements in computational methodologies. Despite recent advances in fluid flow, coal devolatilisation and coal combustion models, the use of CFD methods for detailed design purposes or for the selection of commercial coals is still limited. In parallel, industrial engineering codes, which combine simplified thermal models with advanced coal combustion models, are still undergoing development since they provide economic advantages over detailed CFD analysis. Although the major coal combustion processes are well established, an understanding regarding the role of coal macerals and the influence of ash on the combustion process is still lacking. A successful coal model must be able to handle all the complexities of combustion, from the details of the burner geometry through to the formation of unburnt carbon as well as NOx. The development of such a model is described here.

  3. Coal waste management practices in the USA:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoginder P. Chugh; Paul T. Behum

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of coal waste management practices with two case studies and an estimate of management cost in 2010 US dollars. Processing of as-mined coal typically results in considerable amount of coarse and fine coal processing wastes because of in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining. Processing plant clean coal recovery values run typically 50%–80%. Trace metals and sulfur may be present in waste materials that may result in leachate water with corrosive charac-teristics. Water discharges may require special measures such as liner and collection systems, and treatment to neutralize acid drainage and/or water quality for trace elements. The potential for variations in coal waste production and quality depends upon mining or processing, plus the long-term methods of waste placement. The changes in waste generation rates and engineering properties of the coal waste during the life of the facility must be considered. Safe, economical and environmentally acceptable management of coal waste involves consideration of geology, soil and rock mechanics, hydrology, hydraulics, geochemistry, soil science, agronomy and environmental sciences. These support all aspects of the regulatory environment including the design and construction of earth and rock embankments and dams, as well as a wide variety of waste disposal structures. Development of impoundments is critical and require considerations of typical water-impounding dams and additional requirements of coal waste disposal impoundments. The primary purpose of a coal waste disposal facility is to dispose of unusable waste materials from mining. However, at some sites coal waste impoundments serve to provide water storage capacity for processing and flood attenuation.

  4. Fine art of coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, S.

    1984-01-01

    The art and science of coking are discussed. Coke is the solid carbon made from the heavy, viscous residue left after the more useful products such as gasoline and diesel fuel have been refined out of the crude oil. Fuel grade coke can be a substitute for steam coal in many applications. Low-sulfur fuel coke is used in blast furnaces for steelmaking. The operations of Conoco's refineries for producing coke is described.

  5. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  6. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  7. Impacts of Natural Surfactant Soybean Phospholipid on Wettability of High-rank Coal Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, S.; Xiao, Y.; Yuan, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is significant to change the surface wettability of coal rock with the surfactant in coal mining and coalbed methane exploitation. Soybean phospholipid (SP) is a kind of natural zwitterionic surfactant which is non-toxic and degradable. In order to study the effects of soybean phospholipid on wettability of high-rank coal in Qinshui Basin, some experiments including surface tension test, contact angle measurement on the coal surface, coal fines imbibition, observation of dispersion effect and gas permeability test were carried out, and water locking mechanism of fracturing fluid in micro fractures of coal reservoir was analyzed. The results show that the surface of high-rank coal was negatively charged in solution and of weak hydrophilicity. The soybean phospholipid with the mass fraction of 0.1% reduced the surface tension of water by 69%, and increased the wettability of coal. Meanwhile, the soybean phospholipid helped coal fines to disperse by observation of the filter cake with the scanning electron microscope. The rising rate of soybean phospholipid solution in the pipe filled with coal fines was lower than that of anionic and cationic surfactant, higher than that of clean water and non-ionic surfactant. Composite surfactant made up of soybean phospholipid and OP-10 at the ratio of 1:3 having a low surface tension and large contact angle, reduced the capillary force effectively, which could be conducive to discharge of fracturing fluid from coal reservoir micro fracture and improve the migration channels of gas. Therefore it has a broad application prospect.

  8. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  9. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  10. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  11. Black coal. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R

    1973-01-01

    Statistics are given for the Australian black coal industry for 1970-3 (production, value, employment, wages and salaries, productivity, trade, stocks, consumption, export contracts, exploration, etc.). In less detail, world coal trade is reviewed and coke production is mentioned briefly. (LTN )

  12. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  13. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  14. Methane of the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

  15. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  16. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  17. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  18. Coal in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  20. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  1. Fine 5 lavastab Venemaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tantsuteatru Fine 5 koreograafid Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik toovad Jekaterinburgis välja lavastuse "... and Red", esitajaks Venemaa nimekas nüüdistantsutrupp Provintsialnõje Tantsõ. Lavastuses kõlab Taavo Remmeli kontrabassiimprovisatsioon "12.12.2006"

  2. Imeilus Fine 5

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Vaba Lava teatrikeskuse laval esineb Fine 5 oma lavastusega "Imeilus". Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik, tantsulavastuse autorid on koreograafid, õppejõud, lavastajad ja kogemustega tantsijad. 29. jaanuaril korraldavad Tiina Ollesk ja Renee Nõmmik Tallinna Ülikoolis kaasaegse liikumismõtlemise töötoa, mis on pühendatud lavastusele "Imeilus"

  3. Experimental study of desulfurization of Zhong Liang Shau high sulfur coal by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z.; Huang, B.; Cao, J. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1994-12-01

    Emission of large amount of SO{sub 2} from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious environmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of high sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desulfurization with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shau was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sulfur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0.84%, with 72.22% recovery of combustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurization Efficiency Index E{sub ds} for comprehensive evaluation of desulfurization process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Effect of mechanical and chemical clay removals by hydrocyclone and dispersants on coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oats, W.J.; Ozdemir, O.; Nguyen, A.V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-04-15

    Fine minerals, mostly clays, are known to have a detrimental effect on coal flotation. This paper focuses on the effect of mechanical and chemical removals of fine minerals by hydrocyclone and dispersants on coal flotation. The experimental results showed that the flotation recovery slightly increased from medium acidic to medium alkaline ranges. The flotation experiments carried out with dispersants at different dosages showed that the dispersants did not enhance the flotation recovery significantly. However, the removal of the fine fraction from the feed using a hydrocyclone significantly increased the flotation recovery. The bubble-particle attachment tests also indicated that the attachment time between an air bubble and the coal particles increased in the presence of clay particles. These attachment time results clearly showed that the clay particles adversely affected the flotation of coal particles by covering the coal surfaces which reduced the efficiency of bubble-coal attachment. An analysis based on the colloid stability theory showed that the clay coating was governed by the van der Waals attraction and that the double-layer interaction played a secondary role. It was also concluded that the best way to increase the flotation recovery in the presence of clays was to remove these fine minerals by mechanical means such as hydrocylones.

  5. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissianski, Vitali V.; Loc Ho; Maly, Peter M.; Zamansky, Vladimir M.

    2002-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The FFR can be retrofit to existing boilers and can be configured in several ways depending on the boiler, coal characteristics, and NO x control requirements. Fly ash generated by the technology will be a saleable byproduct for use in the cement and construction industries. FFR can also reduce NO x by 60%-70%, achieving an emissions level of 0.15 lb/10 6 Btu in many coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO x Burners. Total process cost is expected to be one third to one half of that for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). Activities during reporting period included design, manufacture, assembly, and shake down of the coal gasifier and pilot-scale testing of the efficiency of coal gasification products in FFR. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Data suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction due to the gasification was more significant for less reactive coals with low volatiles content. Experimental results also suggested that the efficiency of NO x reduction in FFR was higher when air was used as a transport media. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction in comparison with that of basic reburning was achieved with air transport. Temperature and residence time in the gasification zone also affected the efficiency of NO x reduction

  6. Stress analysis of longwall top coal caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alehossein, H.; Poulsen, B.A. [CSIRO Exploration & Mining, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) is a relatively new method of mining thick coal seams that is currently achieving high productivity and efficiency. The technique is similar to traditional longwall mining in that a cutting head slices coal from the lower section of the coal seam onto a conveyor belt installed in front of the hydraulic support near the cutting face. In modern LTCC an additional rear conveyor belt is located behind the support, to which the flow of the caved coal from the upper part of the seam can be controlled by a moveable flipper attached to the canopy of the support. The mining method relies on the fracturing of the top coal by the front abutment pressure to achieve satisfactory caving into the rear conveyor. This paper develops a yield and caveability criterion based on in situ conditions in the top coal in advance of the mining face (yield) and behind the supports (caveability). Yielding and caving effects are combined into one single number called caving number (CN), which is the multiplication result of caving factor (CF) and yield factor (YF). Analytical derivations are based on in situ stress conditions, Mohr-Coulomb and/or Hoek-Brown rock failure criteria and an on-associated elastoplastic strain softening material behaviour. The yield and caveability criteria are in agreement with results from both numerical studies and mine data. The caving number is normalised to mining conditions of a reference Chinese mine (LMX mine) and is used to assess LTCC performance at fourteen other Chinese working longwalls that have had varying success with the LTCC technology. As a predictive model, results of this analytical/numerical study are useful to assess the potential success of caving in new LTCC operations and in different mining conditions.

  7. Distillation of coal, wood, peat, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrer, J; Price, A P

    1867-02-01

    The production of permanent gas for the purposes of illumination or for heating purposes, and also to the production of oils and other distillatory products from coal, shale, wood, peat, and other bituminous or carbonaceous substances, consists in subjecting the before-mentioned materials, previously reduced to a fine state, to a process of distillation causing the same to pass or fall through the interior of a heated vertical tube, chamber, or retort, or series of the same, in such a manner that the particles in their descent or passage shall be subjected to the action of heat in order that the desired products may be obtained.

  8. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Levasseur, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of advanced coal-cleaning technologies aimed at expanding the use of the nation`s vast coal reserves in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner. Because of the lack of practical experience with deeply beneficiated coal-based fuels, PETC has contracted Combustion Engineering, Inc. to perform a multi-year project on `Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.` The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs.

  9. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  10. Advanced optimisation - coal fired power plant operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turney, D.M.; Mayes, I. [E.ON UK, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this unit optimization project is to develop an integrated approach to unit optimisation and develop an overall optimiser that is able to resolve any conflicts between the individual optimisers. The individual optimisers have been considered during this project are: on-line thermal efficiency package, GNOCIS boiler optimiser, GNOCIS steam side optimiser, ESP optimisation, and intelligent sootblowing system. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  12. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  13. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  14. Coal in competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, G

    1985-06-01

    During the past decade world coal consumption has expanded by about 26% whilst energy demands overall have grown by only 17%. This is because of the increased price of oil products, plus a period during which the costs of mining coal in many parts of the world have been moderately well contained. Over-ambitious forecasts of coal demand have encouraged the considerable over-investment in coalmining capacity that exists today. Costs of winning coal and transporting it are low, but sales depend on the rate of growth of a country's demand for energy. Some countries are more successful at marketing coal than others. Amongst the major factors that influence the rate of substitution of one source of energy for another is the nature and age of the boiler stock. The outcome of the developing environmental debate and calls for reduction in SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions from coal-fired boilers is going to affect coal's fortunes in the 1990's.

  15. A coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovsky, I; Bartos, J

    1980-02-15

    A design is presented for a coal combine, equipped with two drum operational units, on whose both ends of the upper surface of the body, two coal saws are mounted with the help of a lever system. These saws, found in an operational position, form a gap in the block of the coal block, which is not embraced by the drum operational unit. The coal block, found between the gap and the support, falls down onto the longwall scraper conveyor. The lever system of each coal saw is controlled by two hydraulic jacks. One of the jacks is mounted vertically on the facial wall of the body of the combine and is used for the hoisting for the required height of the horizontal arm of the lever, reinforced by one end in the hinge on the body of the combine. On the ''free'' end of that lever, a coal saw is mounted in a hinge-like fashion and which is connected by the hydraulic jack to the horizontal arm of the lever system. This hydraulic jack is used for the clamping of the coal saw to the face.

  16. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  17. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  18. Economic outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Casey.

    1997-01-01

    Coal still a fundamental component of two major industries in New South Wales- electricity production and steel making. Its future will be shaped by its ability to meet expected international increases in demand for thermal coal, and by profitability and possible impact of greenhouse strategy decisions. By 2002 the demand for the State's coal is estimated at a total of 116 million tons and it expected to play an increased role in the fuel mix for electricity generation because of its competitive price, established technologies and abundant supply

  19. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  20. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  2. Fine Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  3. Application of Coal Ash to Postmine Land for Prevention of Soil Erosion in Coal Mine in Indonesia: Utilization of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Matsumoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of coal-fired power plants with the increase in coal production and its consumption has caused the problem of the treatment of a large amount of coal ash in Indonesia. In the past studies, coal ash was applied to postmine land with the aim of improving soil conditions for plant growth; however, heavy rain in the tropical climate may cause soil erosion with the change in soil conditions. This study presents the effects of application of coal ash to postmine land on soil erosion by performing the artificial rainfall test as well as physical testing. The results indicate that the risk of soil erosion can be reduced significantly by applying the coal ash which consists of more than 85% of sand to topsoil in the postmine land at the mixing ratio of over 30%. Additionally, they reveal that not only fine fractions but also microporous structures in coal ash enhance water retention capacity by retaining water in the structure, leading to the prevention of soil erosion. Thus, the risk of soil erosion can be reduced by applying coal ash to topsoil in consideration of soil composition and microporous structure of coal ash.

  4. Brown Coal Dewatering Using Poly (Acrylamide-Co-Potassium Acrylic Based Super Absorbent Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Devasahayam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising cost of energy and fuel oils, clean coal technologies will continue to play an important role during the transition to a clean energy future. Victorian brown coals have high oxygen and moisture contents and hence low calorific value. This paper presents an alternative non evaporative drying technology for high moisture brown coals based on osmotic dewatering. This involves contacting and mixing brown coal with anionic super absorbent polymers (SAP which are highly crossed linked synthetic co-polymers based on a cross-linked copolymer of acryl amide and potassium acrylate. The paper focuses on evaluating the water absorption potential of SAP in contact with 61% moisture Loy Yang brown coal, under varying SAP dosages for different contact times and conditions. The amount of water present in Loy Yang coal was reduced by approximately 57% during four hours of SAP contact. The extent of SAP brown coal drying is directly proportional to the SAP/coal weight ratio. It is observed that moisture content of fine brown coal can readily be reduced from about 59% to 38% in four hours at a 20% SAP/coal ratio.

  5. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-20

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also

  6. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  7. Coal Enrichment Methods by Using Microorganisms and Their Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Deska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review the literature on the methods of low-rank coal enrichment by using microorganisms and their metabolites. Effective bio-beneficiation technologies for low-rank coals in the future are also suggested throughout this paper. An extensive literature review highlights recent advances in bio-beneficiation technologies for low rank coals. This paper presents the state of the art in the field of the bio-beneficiation technology - carbon leaching with the aid of microorganisms, especially fungi. The knowledge of the low-rank coals leaching is an important step to meet the carbon eco-requirements and improve the economics of mining companies. There are several reasons to investigate microbial activities towards coal. This paper presents the current state of knowledge concerning bioleaching of coal. Thus, in view of the increasing importance of hard coal as a raw material and energy source, it seems hopeful to study the potential of microorganisms to modify the low-rank coal structure.

  8. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1,000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  9. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  10. Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology. [Laccase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, C.T.

    1990-04-27

    This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies.

  11. Overview of current and future - clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darthenay, A.

    1995-01-01

    A new generation of advanced coal technology, environmentally cleaner and in many cases more efficient, has been developed: flue gas treatment of pulverized coal combustion, circulating fluidized bed (CFB), integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). These techniques are described, giving a balance of their references and of the steps which are still to be got over in order to have industrial processes applicable to large size power plants. 4 tabs

  12. Advanced CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.T.; Finlay, R.B.; Olmstead, R.A.

    1988-12-01

    AECL has undertaken the design and development of a series of advanced CANDU reactors in the 700-1150 MW(e) size range. These advanced reactor designs are the product of ongoing generic research and development programs on CANDU technology and design studies for advanced CANDU reactors. The prime objective is to create a series of advanced CANDU reactors which are cost competitive with coal-fired plants in the market for large electricity generating stations. Specific plant designs in the advanced CANDU series will be ready for project commitment in the early 1990s and will be capable of further development to remain competitive well into the next century

  13. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  14. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  15. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2001-09-07

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized carbon in ash and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. Specifically, the project entails: (1) optimizing FFR with injection of gasified and partially gasified fuels with respect to NO{sub x} and carbon in ash reduction; (2) characterizing flue gas emissions; (3) developing a process model to predict FFR performance; (4) completing an engineering and economic analysis of FFR as compared to conventional reburning and other commercial NO{sub x} control technologies, and (5) developing a full-scale FFR design methodology. The project started in August 2000 and will be conducted over a two-year period. The work includes a combination of analytical and experimental studies to identify optimum process configurations and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. The first year of the program included pilot-scale tests to evaluate performances of two bituminous coals in basic reburning and modeling studies designed to identify parameters that affect the FFR performance and to evaluate efficiency of coal pyrolysis products as a reburning fuel. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility to characterize bituminous coals as reburning fuels. Tests showed that NO{sub x} reduction in basic coal reburning depends on process conditions, initial NO{sub x} and coal type. Up to 60% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved at optimized conditions. Modeling activities during first year concentrated on the development of coal reburning model and on the prediction of NO{sub x} reduction in reburning by coal gasification products. Modeling predicted that

  16. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Lissianski, Vitali V.

    2001-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized carbon in ash and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. Specifically, the project entails: (1) optimizing FFR with injection of gasified and partially gasified fuels with respect to NO x and carbon in ash reduction; (2) characterizing flue gas emissions; (3) developing a process model to predict FFR performance; (4) completing an engineering and economic analysis of FFR as compared to conventional reburning and other commercial NO x control technologies, and (5) developing a full-scale FFR design methodology. The project started in August 2000 and will be conducted over a two-year period. The work includes a combination of analytical and experimental studies to identify optimum process configurations and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. The first year of the program included pilot-scale tests to evaluate performances of two bituminous coals in basic reburning and modeling studies designed to identify parameters that affect the FFR performance and to evaluate efficiency of coal pyrolysis products as a reburning fuel. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility to characterize bituminous coals as reburning fuels. Tests showed that NO x reduction in basic coal reburning depends on process conditions, initial NO x and coal type. Up to 60% NO x reduction was achieved at optimized conditions. Modeling activities during first year concentrated on the development of coal reburning model and on the prediction of NO x reduction in reburning by coal gasification products. Modeling predicted that composition of coal

  17. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  18. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  19. Coal industry - memoranda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains 41 memoranda submitted to the UK House of Commons Energy Committee containing views on the UK coal industry and responses to questions from the Select Committee. The following organizations are represented: Department of Energy; National Coal Board; APEX; BACM; NACODS; NUM; UDM; TUC; CEGB; Electricity Council; Northern Ireland Electricity Service; SSEB; British Gas Corporation; BP; Conoco (UK) Ltd.; Costain Mining Ltd.; Shell UK Ltd.; BSC; ICI; Boots; CBI; PSA; Solid Fuel Advisory Service; Domestic Coal Consumers Council; Associated Heat Services; Association of Shell Boilermakers; Babcock Power Ltd.; GEC; Foster Wheeler Power Products; ABMEC; British Longwall Mining Association; Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors; Federation of Small Mines of Great Britain; Chamber of Coal Traders; Coalfield Communities Campaign; Nottinghamshire County Council; Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses; the Colombian, Belgian and Netherlands Embassies; and Plaid Cymru.

  20. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.