WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced engineering preliminary

  1. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's)

  2. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). .

  3. Preliminary engineering design and cost of Advanced Compressed-Air Storage (ACAS) A-5 hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowicz, E. J.; Blackman, J.; Woodhull, A. S.; Zaugg, P.

    1981-08-01

    The advanced compressed air energy (ACAS) plant investiated operates on a partial adiabatic, partial fuel fired cycle. Only a limited advancement in state-of-the-art technology is projected for this hybrid arrangement. The A-5 hybrid systems stores the heat of compression from the low pressure and intermediate pressure compressors in a thermal energy store (TES). The heat collected in the TES is available for preheating the air from the storage cavern prior to its entering the low pressure turbine combustor. This reduces the amount of fuel consumed during power generation. The fuel heat rate for the hybrid cycle is 2660 Btu/kWh as compared to approximately 4000 Btu/kWh for a conventional CAES plant. A virtual stand-off between the hybrid plant and a conventional CAES plant at 235 mills/kWh in 1990 dollars is shown. With a lower cost and increased fuel cost projections, the hybrid system operating cost is less than that for a conventional CAES plant.

  4. Advanced Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    1999-01-01

    This book is developed as a textbook for the course Advanced Control Engineering. The book is intended for students in mechanical engineering and its aim is to provide an understanding of modern control theory as well as methodologies and applications for state space modeling and design...

  5. Preliminary Thermo-hydraulic Core Design Analysis of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ik; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nclear rockets improve the propellant efficiency more than twice compared to CRs and thus significantly reduce the propellant requirement. The superior efficiency of nuclear rockets is due to the combination of the huge energy density and a single low molecular weight propellant utilization. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTRs) are particularly suitable for manned missions to Mars because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high propellant efficiency. NTRs use thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat a single low molecular weight propellant, i. e., Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and then exhausted the extremely heated propellant through a thermodynamic nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub sp}) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the rate of propellant consumption. The difference of I{sub sp} makes over three times propellant savings of NTRs for a manned Mars mission compared to CRs. NTRs can also be configured to operate bimodally by converting the surplus nuclear energy to auxiliary electric power required for the operation of a spacecraft. Moreover, the concept and technology of NTRs are very simple, already proven, and safe. Thus, NTRs can be applied to various space missions such as solar system exploration, International Space Station (ISS) transport support, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) interception, etc. Nuclear propulsion is the most promising and viable option to achieve challenging deep space missions. Particularly, the attractions of a NTR include excellent thrust and propellant efficiency, bimodal capability, proven technology, and safe and reliable performance. The ROK has also begun the research for space nuclear systems as a volunteer of the international space race and a major world nuclear energy country. KANUTER is one of the advanced NTR engines currently under development at KAIST. This bimodal engine is operated in two modes of propulsion with 100 MW

  6. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5, is a collection of papers that deals with application of the principles and practices of engineering to basic and applied biomedical research, development, and the delivery of health care. The papers also describe breakthroughs in health improvements, as well as basic research that have been accomplished through clinical applications. One paper examines engineering principles and practices that can be applied in developing therapeutic systems by a controlled delivery system in drug dosage. Another paper examines the physiological and materials vari

  7. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 2, is a collection of papers that discusses the basic sciences, the applied sciences of engineering, the medical sciences, and the delivery of health services. One paper discusses the models of adrenal cortical control, including the secretion and metabolism of cortisol (the controlled process), as well as the initiation and modulation of secretion of ACTH (the controller). Another paper discusses hospital computer systems-application problems, objective evaluation of technology, and multiple pathways for future hospital computer applications. The pos

  8. Advances in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J H U

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i

  9. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  10. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  11. Advanced engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Engineering Mathematics provides comprehensive and contemporary coverage of key mathematical ideas, techniques, and their widespread applications, for students majoring in engineering, computer science, mathematics and physics. Using a wide range of examples throughout the book, Jeffrey illustrates how to construct simple mathematical models, how to apply mathematical reasoning to select a particular solution from a range of possible alternatives, and how to determine which solution has physical significance. Jeffrey includes material that is not found in works of a similar nature, such as the use of the matrix exponential when solving systems of ordinary differential equations. The text provides many detailed, worked examples following the introduction of each new idea, and large problem sets provide both routine practice, and, in many cases, greater challenge and insight for students. Most chapters end with a set of computer projects that require the use of any CAS (such as Maple or Mathematica) th...

  12. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  13. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 1: Engineering studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H. R.; Smith, K. E.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Dixon, P. G.; Mcmanus, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Composite structures technology is applied in a preliminary design study of advanced technology blades and hubs for the XV-15 tilt rotor research demonstrator aircraft. Significant improvements in XV-15 hover and cruise performance are available using blades designed for compatibility with the existing aircraft, i.e., blade installation would not require modification of the airframe, hub or upper controls. Provision of a low risk nonmechanical control system was also studied, and a development specification is given.

  14. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariwite, Roderick [Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, NV (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  15. Advanced rotary engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1983-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  16. Advanced rotary engine studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1980-01-01

    A review of rotary engine developments relevant to a stratified charge rotary aircraft engine is presented. Advantages in module size and weight, fuel efficiency, reliability, and multi-fuel capability are discussed along with developments in turbocharging, increased mean effective pressure, improved apex seal/trochoid wear surfacing materials, and high strength and temperature aluminum casting alloys. A carbureted prototype aircraft engine is also described.

  17. Advances in management engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with research in open challenges in Management Engineering in the 21st century, as well as selected opportunities and solutions to remedy them. Management Engineering is an emerging field that extends the analytical methods used in traditional Industrial Engineering and Industrial Organization to address the economic, behavioral and social dimensions of companies and their environments. Management Engineering extends its domain beyond the firm and the market to encompass the modeling and policy design of physical landscapes populated by social agents. The developments of the 21st century have made it necessary to adopt an integrative and global view of the different methodologies and tools that facilitate managers’ decision-making processes, ranging from the strategic to the operational level. This book equips readers with precisely these urgently needed resources.

  18. Advanced Control of Turbofan Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Hanz

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Control of Turbofan Engines describes the operational performance requirements of turbofan (commercial)engines from a controls systems perspective, covering industry-standard methods and research-edge advances. This book allows the reader to design controllers and produce realistic simulations using public-domain software like CMAPSS: Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation, whose versions are released to the public by NASA. The scope of the book is centered on the design of thrust controllers for both steady flight and transient maneuvers. Classical control theory is not dwelled on, but instead an introduction to general undergraduate control techniques is provided. This book also: Develops a thorough understanding of the challenges associated with engine operability from a control systems perspective, describing performance demands and operational constraints into the framework and language of modern control theory Presents solid theoretical support for classical and advanced engine co...

  19. Advancement in Engineering Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will be discussing about the impact of technology on our daily lives. How everybody is dependent upon technology in one or other way. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Technology has played a significant role in the evolution of the society. Science has produced many new ideas...... but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment's, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected...... the environment on a great scale; in some cases, technology is even replacing human being or use of manpower. So proper counter measures have been mentioned, which can be used to control and limit harmful effect....

  20. Notes on Advanced Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. Y.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews history, analyses principles and presents a modern interpretation of advanced engineering education (AEE). AEE originated in France, was adapted in Germany and reached its zenith in the second half of the twentieth century as part of technological efforts induced by the space race. AEE is an enhanced form of education aimed at…

  1. Advanced Technology for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Technology for Engineering Education, held at the Peninsula Graduate Engineering Center, Hampton, Virginia, February 24-25, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced technologies for engineering education and to explore the possibility of forming a consortium of interested individuals/universities for curriculum reform and development using advanced technologies. The presentations covered novel delivery systems and several implementations of new technologies for engineering education. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

  2. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  3. Advances in water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering is a collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. A sister volume to Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, this volume focuses on the theory and analysis of various water resources systems including watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, integrated simulation of interactive surface water and groundwater systems, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment transport, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial processes, minimum energy dissipation rate theory and applications, hydraulic modeling development and application, geophysical methods for assessment of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland areas by rainfall and overland flow, geofluvial modeling methodologies and applications, and an environmental water engineering glossary. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of...

  4. Advanced engineering environment collaboration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamph, Jane Ann; Pomplun, Alan R.; Kiba, Grant W.; Dutra, Edward G.; Dankiewicz, Robert J.; Marburger, Scot J.

    2008-12-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a model for an engineering design and communications system that will enhance project collaboration throughout the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) worked together on a prototype project to evaluate the suitability of a portion of PTC's Windchill 9.0 suite of data management, design and collaboration tools as the basis for an AEE. The AEE project team implemented Windchill 9.0 development servers in both classified and unclassified domains and used them to test and evaluate the Windchill tool suite relative to the needs of the NWC using weapons project use cases. A primary deliverable was the development of a new real time collaborative desktop design and engineering process using PDMLink (data management tool), Pro/Engineer (mechanical computer aided design tool) and ProductView Lite (visualization tool). Additional project activities included evaluations of PTC's electrical computer aided design, visualization, and engineering calculations applications. This report documents the AEE project work to share information and lessons learned with other NWC sites. It also provides PTC with recommendations for improving their products for NWC applications.

  5. Advanced engineering environment collaboration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamph, Jane Ann; Pomplun, Alan R.; Kiba, Grant W.; Dutra, Edward G.; Dankiewicz, Robert J.; Marburger, Scot J.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a model for an engineering design and communications system that will enhance project collaboration throughout the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) worked together on a prototype project to evaluate the suitability of a portion of PTC's Windchill 9.0 suite of data management, design and collaboration tools as the basis for an AEE. The AEE project team implemented Windchill 9.0 development servers in both classified and unclassified domains and used them to test and evaluate the Windchill tool suite relative to the needs of the NWC using weapons project use cases. A primary deliverable was the development of a new real time collaborative desktop design and engineering process using PDMLink (data management tool), Pro/Engineer (mechanical computer aided design tool) and ProductView Lite (visualization tool). Additional project activities included evaluations of PTC's electrical computer aided design, visualization, and engineering calculations applications. This report documents the AEE project work to share information and lessons learned with other NWC sites. It also provides PTC with recommendations for improving their products for NWC applications

  6. Advanced engineering environment pilot project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegel, Jill; Pomplun, Alan R.; Abernathy, Rusty (Parametric Technology Corporation, Needham, MA)

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a concurrent engineering concept that enables real-time process tooling design and analysis, collaborative process flow development, automated document creation, and full process traceability throughout a product's life cycle. The AEE will enable NNSA's Design and Production Agencies to collaborate through a singular integrated process. Sandia National Laboratories and Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) are working together on a prototype AEE pilot project to evaluate PTC's product collaboration tools relative to the needs of the NWC. The primary deliverable for the project is a set of validated criteria for defining a complete commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solution to deploy the AEE across the NWC.

  7. Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer them to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will be multiplied and infused into the patient to fight the cancer

  8. Involving construction in the preliminary engineering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, D.T. Jr.; Boccieri, S.V. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    With today's high cost associated with modifications in nuclear power plants, it is imperative that the authors continue to investigate ways to cut costs but at the same time improve efficiency and reduce radiation exposure to those directly associated with the implementation of modifications. The success associated with involving construction in the preliminary engineering process will not only cut costs and improve efficiency but will establish a Team Building concept to provide accountability to all those associated with the implementation of the task. This form of partnering focuses on the solutions rather than highlighting the difficulties. This paper will demonstrate techniques to implement such ideas and provide examples to corroborate actual successes already achieved

  9. Preliminary design concepts for the advanced neutron source reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the initial design work to develop the reactor systems hardware concepts for the advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor. This project has not yet entered the conceptual design phase; thus, design efforts are quite preliminary. This paper presents the collective work of members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division, and other participating organizations. The primary purpose of this effort is to show that the ANS reactor concept is realistic from a hardware standpoint and to show that project objectives can be met. It also serves to generate physical models for use in neutronic and thermal-hydraulic core design efforts and defines the constraints and objectives for the design. Finally, this effort will develop the criteria for use in the conceptual design of the reactor

  10. Advances in Computer Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012)

    2012-01-01

    This book includes the proceedings of the second International Conference on Advances in Computer Science and Engineering (CES 2012), which was held during January 13-14, 2012 in Sanya, China. The papers in these proceedings of CES 2012 focus on the researchers’ advanced works in their fields of Computer Science and Engineering mainly organized in four topics, (1) Software Engineering, (2) Intelligent Computing, (3) Computer Networks, and (4) Artificial Intelligence Software.

  11. Advances in communication systems and electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xu

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains contributions from participants in the 2007 International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientists Topics covered include communications theory, communications protocols, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, electronics, power engineering, control engineering, signal processing, and industrial applications. The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in communication systems and electrical engineering and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on communication systems a

  12. Engineering visualization utilizing advanced animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabionski, Gunter R.; Robinson, Thomas L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering visualization is the use of computer graphics to depict engineering analysis and simulation in visual form from project planning through documentation. Graphics displays let engineers see data represented dynamically which permits the quick evaluation of results. The current state of graphics hardware and software generally allows the creation of two types of 3D graphics. The use of animated video as an engineering visualization tool is presented. The engineering, animation, and videography aspects of animated video production are each discussed. Specific issues include the integration of staffing expertise, hardware, software, and the various production processes. A detailed explanation of the animation process reveals the capabilities of this unique engineering visualization method. Automation of animation and video production processes are covered and future directions are proposed.

  13. Advanced ignition for automotive engines

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Daniel Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Spark plugs have been igniting combustible mixtures like those found in automotive engines for over a century, and the principles of the associated ignition techniques using thermal plasma (inductive or capacitive sparks) have remained relatively unchanged during that time. However, internal combustion engines are increasingly operating with boosted intake pressures (i.e. turbo- or super-charged) in order to maintain power output while simultaneously reducing engine size and weight, and they ...

  14. Research advances in industrial engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides discussions and the exchange of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications of industrial engineering. It communicates the latest developments and research activity on industrial engineering and is useful for all those interested in the technological challenges in the field.

  15. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  16. Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-06-01

    compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and meas- urable thermometrically . Contents I. Influence of Preliminary...thoroughly insulated be- tween the carburettor and the engine, by aluminium foil and asbestos. -I -I " I" I ’I il i~ " !, I I 1𔃻I I’ ) To enable the

  17. Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. This advanced materials technology is being developed in parallel and close coordination with the ongoing DOE and industry proof of concept engine development programs. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to U.S. industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. Abstracts prepared for appropriate papers.

  18. Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig

  19. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially.

  20. Advanced Control Considerations for Turbofan Engine Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Chicatelli, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the application of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model for an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. The nonlinear engine model is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the advanced control methodology over a wide range of operating points and life cycle conditions. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from the nonlinear engine model and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. MBEC is used here to show how advanced control architectures can improve efficiency during the design phase of a turbofan engine by reducing conservative operability margins. The operability margins that can be reduced, such as stall margin, can expand the engine design space and offer potential for efficiency improvements. Application of MBEC architecture to a nonlinear engine simulation is shown to reduce the thrust specific fuel consumption by approximately 1% over the baseline design, while maintaining safe operation of the engine across the flight envelope.

  1. Advanced nonlinear engine speed control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterholm, Thomas; Hendricks, Elbert

    1994-01-01

    Several subsidiary control problems have turned out to be important for improving driveability and fuel consumption in modern spark ignition (SI) engine cars. Among these are idle speed control and cruise control. In this paper the idle speed and cruise control problems will be treated as one......: accurately tracking of a desired engine speed in the presence of model uncertainties and severe load disturbances. This is accomplished by using advanced nonlinear control techniques such as input/output-linearization and sliding mode control. These techniques take advantage of a nonlinear model...... of the engine dynamics, a mean value engine model....

  2. Advanced Turbine Engine Seal Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    Transpiration- Cooled Shroud Segments. 67. ATEST Shroud Rub Pin Heights and Mid-Chord Runout . 68. Locations of Nine-Point Runout Check on Shroud Surface...69. ATEST Shroud Leading Edge Runout . 70. ATEST Shroud Trailing Edge Runout . 71. ATEST Shroud Support Posttest Runout . 72. ATEST Shroud Flow Zones...at General Electric on many prior engines with good success. It Involves the use of a grinding wheel in conjunction with a cutting fluid which is

  3. Advances in high voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, A

    2005-01-01

    This book addresses the very latest research and development issues in high voltage technology and is intended as a reference source for researchers and students in the field, specifically covering developments throughout the past decade. This unique blend of expert authors and comprehensive subject coverage means that this book is ideally suited as a reference source for engineers and academics in the field for years to come.

  4. Advanced ceramic in structural engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Rodea, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The work deals with "Advanced Ceramics in Structural Engineering”. Throughout this work we present the different types of ceramic that are currently in wider use, and the main research lines that are being followed. Ceramics have very interesting properties, both mechanical and electrical and refractory where we can find some of the most interesting points of inquiry. Through this work we try tounderstand this complex world, analyzing both general and specific properties of ...

  5. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  6. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  7. Advancements in engineering turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T.-H.

    1991-01-01

    Some new developments in two-equation models and second order closure models are presented. Two-equation models (k-epsilon models) have been widely used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for engineering problems. Most of low-Reynolds number two-equation models contain some wall-distance damping functions to account for the effect of wall on turbulence. However, this often causes the confusion and difficulties in computing flows with complex geometry and also needs an ad hoc treatment near the separation and reattachment points. A set of modified two-equation models is proposed to remove the aforementioned shortcomings. The calculations using various two-equation models are compared with direct numerical simulations of channel flow and flat boundary layers. Development of a second order closure model is also discussed with emphasis on the modeling of pressure related correlation terms and dissipation rates in the second moment equations. All the existing models poorly predict the normal stresses near the wall and fail to predict the 3-D effect of mean flow on the turbulence (e.g. decrease in the shear stress caused by the cross flow in the boundary layer). The newly developed second order near-wall turbulence model is described and is capable of capturing the near-wall behavior of turbulence as well as the effect of 3-D mean flow on the turbulence.

  8. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phases 3 and 4. [variable cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.; Joy, W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various advanced propulsion concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft resulted in the identification of the double-bypass variable cycle engine as the most promising concept. This engine design utilizes special variable geometry components and an annular exhaust nozzle to provide high take-off thrust and low jet noise. The engine also provides good performance at both supersonic cruise and subsonic cruise. Emission characteristics are excellent. The advanced technology double-bypass variable cycle engine offers an improvement in aircraft range performance relative to earlier supersonic jet engine designs and yet at a lower level of engine noise. Research and technology programs required in certain design areas for this engine concept to realize its potential benefits include refined parametric analysis of selected variable cycle engines, screening of additional unconventional concepts, and engine preliminary design studies. Required critical technology programs are summarized.

  9. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Some Engineering Geological Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumburg, Kjeld

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of molecular engineering is the `property directed' synthesis of large molecules and molecular assemblies. Synthetic expertise has advanced to a state which allows the assembly of supramolecules containing thousands of atoms using a `construction kit' of molecular building blocks. Expansion in the field is driven by the appearance of new building blocks and by an improved understanding of the rules for joining them in the design of nanometer-sized devices. Another aspect is the transition from supramolecules to materials. At present no single molecule (however large) has been demonstrated to function as a device, but this appears to be only a matter of time. In all of this research, which has a strongly multidisciplinary character, both existing and yet to be developed analytical techniques are and will remain indispensable. All this and more is discussed in Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials, which provides a masterly and up to date summary of one of the most challenging researc...

  13. Frontiers of advanced engineering materials (faem-06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.; Mirza, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The second international conference on Frontiers of Advanced Engineering Materials was held on 04-06 December 2006 in Lahore, Pakistan. At a time of the rapid expending enormous potential for the wide spread development and usage of Advanced Engineering Materials. About 121 papers were presented by engineers and scientists from 30 organizations, academic institutions and foreign experts from six countries. on the recommendation of a panel after review, only 72 papers were included in this conference proceedings. The main areas of interest which remained under focus during the conference were structure property relationship, surface Modifications, Nano Technology, Super and semi conductors, Magnetic Materials, Materials Proceeding, Glass and Ceramics, Composite Materials. This Conference open a way to help in strengthening the bounds between our foreign guests local and delegates. The participants showed their keen interest in the poster sessions. Fruitful conclusions of these presentations will be helpful to give rise to new topics of research in the fields of advanced engineering Materials. (A.B.)

  14. Advanced Engineering Environments: Implications for Aerospace Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.

    2001-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's aerospace industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker all face the developer of aerospace systems. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments (AEEs) to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. These advances will enable modeling and simulation of manufacturing methods, which will in turn allow manufacturing considerations to be included much earlier in the system development cycle. Significant cost savings, increased quality, and decreased manufacturing cycle time are expected to result. This paper will give an overview of the NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the agency initiative to develop an AEE, with a focus on the anticipated benefits in aerospace manufacturing.

  15. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  16. Advances in Electrical Engineering and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    EEA2011 is an integrated conference concentration its focus on Electrical Engineering and Automation. In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about  Electrical Engineering and Automation of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.  

  17. Advances and perspectives in tooth tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Nelson; Yelick, Pamela C

    2017-09-01

    Bio-engineered teeth that can grow and remodel in a manner similar to that of natural teeth have the potential to serve as permanent replacements to the currently used prosthetic teeth, such as dental implants. A major challenge in designing functional bio-engineered teeth is to mimic both the structural and anisotropic mechanical characteristics of the native tooth. Therefore, the field of dental and whole tooth regeneration has advanced towards the molecular and nanoscale design of bio-active, biomimetic systems, using biomaterials, drug delivery systems and stem cells. The focus of this review is to discuss recent advances in tooth tissue engineering, using biomimetic scaffolds that provide proper architectural cues, exhibit the capacity to support dental stem cell proliferation and differentiation and sequester and release bio-active agents, such as growth factors and nucleic acids, in a spatiotemporal controlled manner. Although many in vitro and in vivo studies on tooth regeneration appear promising, before tooth tissue engineering becomes a reality for humans, additional research is needed to perfect methods that use adult human dental stem cells, as opposed to embryonic dental stem cells, and to devise the means to generate bio-engineered teeth of predetermined size and shape. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  19. Probabilistic Durability Analysis in Advanced Engineering Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kudzys

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Expedience of probabilistic durability concepts and approaches in advanced engineering design of building materials, structural members and systems is considered. Target margin values of structural safety and serviceability indices are analyzed and their draft values are presented. Analytical methods of the cumulative coefficient of correlation and the limit transient action effect for calculation of reliability indices are given. Analysis can be used for probabilistic durability assessment of carrying and enclosure metal, reinforced concrete, wood, plastic, masonry both homogeneous and sandwich or composite structures and some kinds of equipments. Analysis models can be applied in other engineering fields.

  20. Materials for advanced power engineering 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Contrepois, Quentin; Beck, Tilmann; Kuhn, Bernd [eds.

    2010-07-01

    The 9th Liege Conference on ''Materials for Advanced Power Engineering'' presents the results of the materials related COST Actions 536 ''Alloy Development for Critical Components of Environmentally Friendly Power Plants'' and 538 ''High Temperature Plant Lifetime Extension''. In addition, the broad field of current materials research perspectives for high efficiency, low- and zero- emission power plants and new energy technologies for the next decades are reported. The Conference proceedings are structured as follows: 1. Materials for advanced steam power plants; 2. Gas turbine materials; 3. Materials for nuclear fission and fusion; 4. Solid oxide fuel cells; 5. Corrosion, thermomechanical fatigue and modelling; 6. Zero emission power plants.

  1. Materials for advanced power engineering 2010. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Contrepois, Quentin; Beck, Tilmann; Kuhn, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    The 9th Liege Conference on ''Materials for Advanced Power Engineering'' presents the results of the materials related COST Actions 536 ''Alloy Development for Critical Components of Environmentally Friendly Power Plants'' and 538 ''High Temperature Plant Lifetime Extension''. In addition, the broad field of current materials research perspectives for high efficiency, low- and zero- emission power plants and new energy technologies for the next decades are reported. The Conference proceedings are structured as follows: 1. Materials for advanced steam power plants; 2. Gas turbine materials; 3. Materials for nuclear fission and fusion; 4. Solid oxide fuel cells; 5. Corrosion, thermomechanical fatigue and modelling; 6. Zero emission power plants.

  2. Preliminary engineering analysis for clothes washers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    1996-10-01

    The Engineering Analysis provides information on efficiencies, manufacturer costs, and other characteristics of the appliance class being analyzed. For clothes washers, there are two classes: standard and compact. Since data were not available to analyze the compact class, only clothes washers were analyzed in this report. For this analysis, individual design options were combined and ordered in a manner that resulted in the lowest cumulative cost/savings ratio. The cost/savings ratio is the increase in manufacturer cost for a design option divided by the reduction in operating costs due to fuel and water savings.

  3. Advances in through-life engineering services

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Rajkumar; Shaw, Andy

    2017-01-01

    This edited book offers further advances, new perspectives, and developments from world leaders in the field of through-life engineering services (TES). It builds up on the earlier book by the same authors entitled: “Through-life Engineering Services: Motivation, Theory and Practice.” This compendium introduces and discusses further, the developments in workshop-based and 'in situ' maintenance and support of high-value engineering products, as well as the application of drone technology for autonomous and self-healing product support. The links between ‘integrated planning’ and planned obsolescence, risk and cost modelling are also examined. The role of data, information, and knowledge management relative to component and system degradation and failure is also presented. This is supported by consideration of the effects upon the maintenance and support decision by the presence of 'No Fault Found' error signals within system data. Further to this the role of diagnostics and prognostics is also discusse...

  4. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  5. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional standards...

  6. Preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh; Yoo, Jae Gwon; Park, Seong Hee

    2000-07-01

    The preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source based on a superconducting electron accelerator is presented. The advanced quantum beams include: high power free electron lasers, monochromatic X-rays and {gamma}-rays, high-power medium-energy electrons, high-flux pulsed neutrons, and high-flux monochromatic slow positron beam. The AQBS system is being re-designed, assuming that the SPS superconducting RF cavities used for LEP at CERN will revived as a main accelerator of the AQBS system at KAERI, after the decommissioning of LEP at the end of 2000. Technical issues of using the SPS superconducting RF cavities for the AQBS project are discussed in this report. The advanced quantum beams will be used for advanced researches in science and industries.

  7. Preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh; Yoo, Jae Gwon; Park, Seong Hee

    2000-07-01

    The preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source based on a superconducting electron accelerator is presented. The advanced quantum beams include: high power free electron lasers, monochromatic X-rays and γ-rays, high-power medium-energy electrons, high-flux pulsed neutrons, and high-flux monochromatic slow positron beam. The AQBS system is being re-designed, assuming that the SPS superconducting RF cavities used for LEP at CERN will revived as a main accelerator of the AQBS system at KAERI, after the decommissioning of LEP at the end of 2000. Technical issues of using the SPS superconducting RF cavities for the AQBS project are discussed in this report. The advanced quantum beams will be used for advanced researches in science and industries

  8. Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part One. Preliminary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-30

    the cost of prime interest being life-cycle cost, climate that is hot or cold, in atmosphere that is humid Chapter 3 discusses helicopter performance...required to satisfy 8-3.2 ENGINE INSTALLATION LOSSES varying climatic and environmental factors. For in- stance, maintenance of the helicopter should be...thammable h aulic , asytem l at mhtproidtem a considering the overall flight mission in segments, dur- source of flammable fluids, as well as electrical

  9. Advanced Engineering Environment FY09/10 pilot project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamph, Jane Ann; Kiba, Grant W.; Pomplun, Alan R.; Dutra, Edward G.; Sego, Abraham L.

    2010-06-01

    The Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) project identifies emerging engineering environment tools and assesses their value to Sandia National Laboratories and our partners in the Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) by testing them in our design environment. This project accomplished several pilot activities, including: the preliminary definition of an engineering bill of materials (BOM) based product structure in the Windchill PDMLink 9.0 application; an evaluation of Mentor Graphics Data Management System (DMS) application for electrical computer-aided design (ECAD) library administration; and implementation and documentation of a Windchill 9.1 application upgrade. The project also supported the migration of legacy data from existing corporate product lifecycle management systems into new classified and unclassified Windchill PDMLink 9.0 systems. The project included two infrastructure modernization efforts: the replacement of two aging AEE development servers for reliable platforms for ongoing AEE project work; and the replacement of four critical application and license servers that support design and engineering work at the Sandia National Laboratories/California site.

  10. Materials for advanced power engineering 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Contrepois, Quentin; Beck, Tilmann; Kuhn, Bernd (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The 9th Liege Conference on ''Materials for Advanced Power Engineering'' presents the results of the materials related COST Actions 536 ''Alloy Development for Critical Components of Environmentally Friendly Power Plants'' and 538 ''High Temperature Plant Lifetime Extension''. In addition, the broad field of current materials research perspectives for high efficiency, low- and zero- emission power plants and new energy technologies for the next decades are reported. The Conference proceedings are structured as follows: 1. Materials for advanced steam power plants; 2. Gas turbine materials; 3. Materials for nuclear fission and fusion; 4. Solid oxide fuel cells; 5. Corrosion, thermomechanical fatigue and modelling; 6. Zero emission power plants.

  11. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  12. Engineering design of advanced marine reactor MRX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    JAERI has studied the design of an advanced marine reactor (named as MRX), which meets requirements of the enhancement of economy and reliability, by reflecting results and knowledge obtained from the development of N.S. Mutsu. The MRX with a power of 100 MWt is intended to be used for ship propulsion such as an ice-breaker, container cargo ship and so on. After completion of the conceptual design, the engineering design was performed in four year plan from FY 1993 to 1996. (1) Compactness, light-weightiness and simplicity of the reactor system are realized by adopting an integral-type PWR, i.e. by installing the steam generator, the pressurizer, and the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) inside the pressure vessel. Because of elimination of the primary coolant circulation pipes in the MRX, possibility of large-scale pipe break accidents can be eliminated. This contributes to improve the safety of the reactor system and to simplify the engineered safety systems. (2) The in-vessel type CRDM contributes not only to eliminate possibilities of rod ejection accidents, but also to make the reactor system compact. (3) The concept of water-filled containment where the reactor pressure vessel is immersed in the water is adopted. It can be of use for emergency core cooling system which maintains core flooding passively in case of a loss-of-coolant accident. The water-filled containment system also contributes essentially light-weightness of the reactor system since the water inside containment acts as a radiation shield and in consequence the secondary radiation shield can be eliminated. (4) Adoption of passive decay heat removal systems has contributed in a greater deal to simplification of the engineered safety systems and to enhancement of reliability of the systems. (5) Operability has been improved by simplification of the whole reactor system, by adoption of the passive safety systems, advanced automatic operation systems, and so on. (J.P.N.)

  13. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  14. Basic requirements for a preliminary conceptual design of the Korea advanced pyroprocess facility (KAPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Hee; Ko, Won Il; Chang, Hong Lae; Song, Dae Yong; Kwon, Eun Ha; Lee, Jung Won

    2008-12-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing technologies for pyroprocessing for spent PWR fuels. This study is part of a long term R and D program in Korea to develop an advanced recycle system that has the potential to meet and exceed the proliferation resistance, waste minimization, resource minimization, safety and economic goals of approved Korean Government energy policy, as well as the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) program. To support this R and D program, KAERI requires that an independent estimate be made of the conceptual design and cost for construction and operation of a 'Korea Advanced Pyroprocessing Facility', This document describes the basic requirements for preliminary conceptual design of the Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility (KAPF). The presented requirements will be modified to be more effective and feasible on an engineering basis during the subsequent design process

  15. Basic requirements for a preliminary conceptual design of the Korea advanced pyroprocess facility (KAPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Hee; Ko, Won Il; Chang, Hong Lae; Song, Dae Yong; Kwon, Eun Ha; Lee, Jung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing technologies for pyroprocessing for spent PWR fuels. This study is part of a long term R and D program in Korea to develop an advanced recycle system that has the potential to meet and exceed the proliferation resistance, waste minimization, resource minimization, safety and economic goals of approved Korean Government energy policy, as well as the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) program. To support this R and D program, KAERI requires that an independent estimate be made of the conceptual design and cost for construction and operation of a 'Korea Advanced Pyroprocessing Facility', This document describes the basic requirements for preliminary conceptual design of the Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility (KAPF). The presented requirements will be modified to be more effective and feasible on an engineering basis during the subsequent design process.

  16. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  17. Various advanced design projects promoting engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) program promotes engineering education in the field of design by presenting students with challenging design projects drawn from actual NASA interests. In doing so, the program yields two very positive results. Firstly, the students gain a valuable experience that will prepare them for design problems with which they will be faced in their professional careers. Secondly, NASA is able to use the work done by students as an additional resource in meeting its own design objectives. The 1994 projects include: Universal Test Facility; Automated Protein Crystal Growth Facility; Stiffening of the ACES Deployable Space Boom; Launch System Design for Access to Space; LH2 Fuel Tank Design for SSTO Vehicle; and Feed System Design for a Reduced Pressure Tank.

  18. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTT's automotive technology programs. This project is managed by ORNL and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DoD, and industry. Research is discussed under the following topics; Turbomilling of SiC Whiskers; microwave sintering of silicon nitride; and milling characterization; processing of monolithics; silicon nitride matrix; oxide matrix; silicate matrix; thermal and wear coatings; joining; design; contact interfaces; time-dependent behavior; environmental effects; fracture mechanics; nondestructive evaluation; and technology transfer. References, figures, and tables are included with each topic.

  19. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  20. Preliminary conceptual study of engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong-In; Chong, Won-Myung; You, Gil-Sung; Ku, Jeong-Hoe; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The conceptual design of a pyroprocess demonstration facility was performed. ► The design requirements for the pyroprocess hot cell and equipment were determined. ► The maintenance concept for the pyroprocess hot cell was presented. -- Abstract: The development of an effective management technology of spent fuel is important to enhance environmental friendliness, cost viability and proliferation resistance. In Korea, pyroprocess technology has been considered as a fuel cycle option to solve the spent fuel accumulation problems. PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility) has been developed from 2007 to 2012 in Korea as a cold test facility to support integrated pyroprocessing and an equipment demonstration, which is essential to verify the pyroprocess technology. As the next stage of PRIDE, the design requirements of an engineering-scale demonstration facility are being developed, and the preliminary conceptual design of the facility is being performed for the future. In this paper, the main design requirements for the engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility were studied in the throughput of 10tHM a year. For the preliminary conceptual design of the facility, the design basis of the pyroprocess hot cell was suggested, and the main equipment, main process area, operation area, maintenance area, and so on were arranged in consideration of the effective operation of the hot cells. Also, the argon system was designed to provide and maintain a proper inert environment for the pyroprocess. The preliminary conceptual design data will be used to review the validity of the engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility that enhances both safety and nonproliferation

  1. Advanced interdisciplinary undergraduate program: light engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdin, Alexey; Bougrov, Vladislav; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Ezhova, Kseniia

    2016-09-01

    The undergraduate educational program "Light Engineering" of an advanced level of studies is focused on development of scientific learning outcomes and training of professionals, whose activities are in the interdisciplinary fields of Optical engineering and Technical physics. The program gives practical experience in transmission, reception, storage, processing and displaying information using opto-electronic devices, automation of optical systems design, computer image modeling, automated quality control and characterization of optical devices. The program is implemented in accordance with Educational standards of the ITMO University. The specific features of the Program is practice- and problem-based learning implemented by engaging students to perform research and projects, internships at the enterprises and in leading Russian and international research educational centers. The modular structure of the Program and a significant proportion of variable disciplines provide the concept of individual learning for each student. Learning outcomes of the program's graduates include theoretical knowledge and skills in natural science and core professional disciplines, deep knowledge of modern computer technologies, research expertise, design skills, optical and optoelectronic systems and devices.

  2. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  3. On recent advances in human engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Advances in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine regularly attract attention from scientists, scholars, journalists, and policymakers, yet implications of these advances may be broader than commonly supposed. Laboratories culturing human embryos, editing human genes, and creating human-animal chimeras have been working along lines that are now becoming intertwined. Embryogenic methods are weaving traditional in vivo and in vitro distinctions into a new "in vivitro" (in life in glass) fabric. These and other methods known to be in use or thought to be in development promise soon to bring society to startling choices and discomfiting predicaments, all in a global effort to supply reliably rejuvenating stem cells, to grow immunologically nonprovocative replacement organs, and to prevent, treat, cure, or even someday eradicate diseases having genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. With humanity's human-engineering era now begun, procedural prohibitions, funding restrictions, institutional controls, and transparency rules are proving ineffective, and business incentives are migrating into the most basic life-sciences inquiries, wherein lie huge biomedical potentials and bioethical risks. Rights, health, and heritage are coming into play with bioethical presumptions and formal protections urgently needing reassessment.

  4. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  5. SAPLE: Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procopio, Michael J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine (SAPLE) web application, a directory search application for use by Sandia National Laboratories personnel. SAPLE's purpose is to return Sandia personnel 'results' as a function of user search queries, with its mission to make it easier and faster to find people at Sandia. To accomplish this, SAPLE breaks from more traditional directory application approaches by aiming to return the correct set of results while placing minimal constraints on the user's query. Two key features form the core of SAPLE: advanced search query interpretation and inexact string matching. SAPLE's query interpretation permits the user to perform compound queries when typing into a single search field; where able, SAPLE infers the type of field that the user intends to search on based on the value of the search term. SAPLE's inexact string matching feature yields a high-quality ranking of personnel search results even when there are no exact matches to the user's query. This paper explores these two key features, describing in detail the architecture and operation of SAPLE. Finally, an extensive analysis on logged search query data taken from an 11-week sample period is presented.

  6. Sandia and General Motors: Advancing Clean Combustion Engines with

    Science.gov (United States)

    , storage, and disposal. Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy Safety Components and Systems Improving battery performance, economics, and safety for transportation. Batteries Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences Geosciences Fusion Energy Sciences Advanced Scientific Computing

  7. Characteristics, finite element analysis, test description, and preliminary test results of the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, K. L.; Rawlinson, K. S.; Smith, G.

    1991-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Program has, as one of its program elements, the development and evaluation of conversion device technologies applicable to dish-electric systems. The primary research and development combines a conversion device (heat engine), solar receiver, and generator mounted at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator. The Stirling-cycle heat engine was identified as the conversion device for dish-electric with the most potential for meeting the program's goals for efficiency, reliability, and installed cost. To advance the technology toward commercialization, Sandia National Laboratories has acquired a Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. kinematic Stirling engine, STM4-120, for evaluation. The engine is being bench-tested at Sandia's Engine Test Facility and will be combined later with a solar receiver for on-sun evaluation. This report presents the engine characteristics, finite element analyses of critical engine components, test system layout, instrumentation, and preliminary performance results from the bench test.

  8. The preliminary research for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the solution to the production of bioactive substance using biotransformation process from core technology of biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology. And, this strategy will provide core technology for development of drugs as new concept and category. Research scopes and contents of project include 1) The development of mutant for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 2) The development of host for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 3) The preliminary study for biosynthetic engineering of isoflavone by radiation fusion technology. The results are as follows. Isoflavone compounds(daidzein, hydroxylated isoflavone) were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of radiation doses and p-NCA high-throughput screening for mutant development were elucidated. And, it was carried out the study of radiation doses for host development. Furthermore, the study of redox partner and construction of recombinant strain for region-specific hydroxylation(P450, redox partner). In addition, the biological effect of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone as an anti-obesity agent was elucidated in this study.

  9. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  10. Guide to advanced empirical software engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shull, Forrest; Singer, Janice; Sjøberg, Dag I. K

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Section I Research Methods and Techniques Chapter 1 Software Engineering Data Collection for Field Studies...

  11. FY2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  12. FY2016 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-07-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  13. FY2015 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurpreet [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Gravel, Roland M. [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Howden, Kenneth C. [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Breton, Leo [Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-25

    The Advanced Combustion Engine research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  14. Advances in Integrated Computational Materials Engineering "ICME"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jürgen

    The methods of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering that were developed and successfully applied for Aluminium have been constantly improved. The main aspects and recent advances of integrated material and process modeling are simulations of material properties like strength and forming properties and for the specific microstructure evolution during processing (rolling, extrusion, annealing) under the influence of material constitution and process variations through the production process down to the final application. Examples are discussed for the through-process simulation of microstructures and related properties of Aluminium sheet, including DC ingot casting, pre-heating and homogenization, hot and cold rolling, final annealing. New results are included of simulation solution annealing and age hardening of 6xxx alloys for automotive applications. Physically based quantitative descriptions and computer assisted evaluation methods are new ICME methods of integrating new simulation tools also for customer applications, like heat affected zones in welding of age hardening alloys. The aspects of estimating the effect of specific elements due to growing recycling volumes requested also for high end Aluminium products are also discussed, being of special interest in the Aluminium producing industries.

  15. FY 2007 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    Advanced combustion engines have great potential for achieving dramatic energy efficiency improvements in light-duty vehicle applications, where it is suited to both conventional and hybrid- electric powertrain configurations. Light-duty vehicles with advanced combustion engines can compete directly with gasoline engine hybrid vehicles in terms of fuel economy and consumer-friendly driving characteristics; also, they are projected to have energy efficiencies that are competitive with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles when used in hybrid applications.Advanced engine technologies being researched and developed by the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program will also allow the use of hydrogen as a fuel in ICEs and will provide an energy-efficient interim hydrogen-based powertrain technology during the transition to hydrogen/fuelcell-powered transportation vehicles.

  16. Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

  17. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary 239Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford Site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for 239 Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000 year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/y to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for 239 Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 2 figures, 5 tables

  18. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  19. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  20. Engineered Materials for Advanced Gas Turbine Engine, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop innovative composite powders and composites that will surpass the properties of currently identified materials for advanced gas turbine...

  1. Recent Technology Advances in Distributed Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work performed at NASA Glenn Research Center in distributed engine control technology. This is control system hardware technology that overcomes engine system constraints by modularizing control hardware and integrating the components over communication networks.

  2. Microgel Technology to Advance Modular Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman, Tom

    2018-01-01

    The field of tissue engineering aims to restore the function of damaged or missing tissues by combining cells and/or a supportive biomaterial scaffold into an engineered tissue construct. The construct’s design requirements are typically set by native tissues – the gold standard for tissue

  3. Advanced radioisotope heat source for Stirling Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobry, T.J.; Walberg, G.

    2001-01-01

    The heat exchanger on a Stirling Engine requires a thermal energy transfer from a heat source to the engine through a very limited area on the heater head circumference. Designing an effective means to assure maximum transfer efficiency is challenging. A single General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), which has been qualified for space operations, would satisfy thermal requirements for a single Stirling Engine that would produce 55 electrical watts. However, it is not efficient to transfer its thermal energy to the engine heat exchanger from its rectangular geometry. This paper describes a conceptual design of a heat source to improve energy transfer for Stirling Engines that may be deployed to power instrumentation on space missions

  4. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  5. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  6. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  7. Ignition timing advance in the bi-fuel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek FLEKIEWICZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ignition timing on CNG combustion process has been presented in this paper. A 1.6 liter SI engine has been tested in the special program. For selected engine operating conditions, following data were acquired: in cylinder pressure, crank angle, fuel mass consumption and exhaust gases temperatures. For the timing advance correction varying between 0 to 15 deg crank angle, the internal temperature of combustion chamber, as well as the charge combustion ratio and ratio of heat release has been estimated. With the help of the mathematical model, emissions of NO, CO and CO2 were additionally estimated. Obtained results made it possible to compare the influence of ignition timing advance on natural gas combustion in the SI engine. The engine torque and in-cylinder pressure were used for determination of the optimum engine timing advance.

  8. Advanced finite element method in structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Yu-Qiu; Long, Zhi-Fei

    2009-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the research work on the Finite Element Method completed over the past 25 years. Original theoretical achievements and their applications in the fields of structural engineering and computational mechanics are discussed.

  9. Recent Advances in Genetic Engineering - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sobiah Rauf; Zubair Anwar; Hussain Mustatab Wahedi; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Talal Jamil

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been doing genetic engineering, a technology which is transforming our world, for thousands of years on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organism and have applications in the field of medicine, research, industry and agriculture. The rapid developments in the field of genetic engineering have given a new impetus to biotechnology. This introduces the possibility of tailoring organisms in order to optimize the production of established or novel metabolites of commercial imp...

  10. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  11. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  12. International conference on Advances in Engineering Technologies and Physical Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong; Rieger, Burghard; IAENG Transactions on Engineering Technologies : Special Edition of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2011

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains thirty revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in an international conference in engineering technologies and physical science and applications. The conference serves as good platforms for the engineering community to meet with each other and to exchange ideas. The conference has also struck a balance between theoretical and application development. The conference is truly international meeting with a high level of participation from many countries. Topics covered include chemical engineering, circuits, communications systems, control theory, engineering mathematics, systems engineering, manufacture engineering, and industrial applications. The book offers the state of art of tremendous advances in engineering technologies and physical science and applications, and also serves as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on engineering technologies and physical science and applications.

  13. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  14. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  15. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  16. Preliminary site design for the SP-100 ground engineering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Miller, W.C.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1986-04-01

    In November, 1985, Hanford was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the preferred site for a full-scale test of the integrated nuclear subsystem for SP-100. The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company, was assigned as the lead contractor for the Test Site. The nuclear subsystem, which includes the reactor and its primary heat transport system, will be provided by the System Developer, another contractor to be selected by DOE in late FY-1986. In addition to reactor operations, test site responsibilities include preparation of the facility plus design, procurement and installation of a vacuum chamber to house the reactor, a secondary heat transport system to dispose of the reactor heat, a facility control system, and postirradiation examination. At the conclusion of the test program, waste disposal and facility decommissioning are required. The test site must also prepare appropriate environmental and safety evaluations. This paper summarizes the preliminary design requirements, the status of design, and plans to achieve full power operation of the test reactor in September, 1990

  17. Advances in Industrial Engineering Applications and Pratice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    are known as Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Engineering (CIME) systems. The basic concept in CIME is to share and reuse information between the different computer based subsystems. Consequently, for the integration purposes, the CIME systems are highly dependent on reliable product model interfaces...

  18. International Joint Conference on Mechanics, Design Engineering & Advanced Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Nigrelli, Vincenzo; Oliveri, Salvatore; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Rizzuti, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers papers presented at the International Joint Conference on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing (JCM 2016), held on 14-16 September, 2016, in Catania, Italy. It reports on cutting-edge topics in product design and manufacturing, such as industrial methods for integrated product and process design; innovative design; and computer-aided design. Further topics covered include virtual simulation and reverse engineering; additive manufacturing; product manufacturing; engineering methods in medicine and education; representation techniques; and nautical, aeronautics and aerospace design and modeling. The book is divided into eight main sections, reflecting the focus and primary themes of the conference. The contributions presented here will not only provide researchers, engineers and experts in a range of industrial engineering subfields with extensive information to support their daily work; they are also intended to stimulate new research directions, advanced applications of t...

  19. Recent advances in systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Tong Un; Choi, So Young; Kim, Je Woong; Ko, Yoo-Sung; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-10-01

    Metabolic engineering has been playing increasingly important roles in developing microbial cell factories for the production of various chemicals and materials to achieve sustainable chemical industry. Nowadays, many tools and strategies are available for performing systems metabolic engineering that allows systems-level metabolic engineering in more sophisticated and diverse ways by adopting rapidly advancing methodologies and tools of systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. As an outcome, development of more efficient microbial cell factories has become possible. Here, we review recent advances in systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies together with accompanying application examples. In addition, we describe how these tools and strategies work together in simultaneous and synergistic ways to develop novel microbial cell factories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed EPA regulations covering emissions of gas turbine engines will require extensive combustor development. The NASA is working to develop technology to meet these goals through a wide variety of combustor research programs conducted in-house, by contract, and by university grant. In-house efforts using the swirl-can modular combustor have demonstrated sizable reduction in NO emission levels. Testing to reduce idle pollutants has included the modification of duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and an exploration of the potential improvements possible with combustors using fuel staging and variable geometry. The Experimental Clean Combustor Program, a large contracted effort, is devoted to the testing and development of combustor concepts designed to achieve a large reduction in the levels of all emissions. This effort is planned to be conducted in three phases with the final phase to be an engine demonstration of the best reduced emission concepts.

  1. Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sobh, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Innovations and Advances in Computer, Information, Systems Sciences, and Engineering includes the proceedings of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2011). The contents of this book are a set of rigorously reviewed, world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of  Industrial Electronics, Technology and Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.

  2. Advances in surface engineering. V. 1. Fundamentals of coatings. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.K.; Burnell-Gray, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific and technical research papers in these three volumes, on advances in surface engineering, cover the fundamentals of coatings, process technology and engineering applications, and are based on the proceedings of the May 1996 conference of the same name, held at the University of Northumbria. High temperature corrosion, aqueous corrosion, wear and fatigue are covered in Volume 1. Volume 2 includes papers on various surface engineering technologies including physical and chemical vapour deposition, thermal methods, plasmas and welds, lasers, peening and electrochemistry. Applications of surface engineering to the biomedical, aerospace, automotive, cutting tools and manufacturing, power generation and marine industries are discussed in Volume 3. (UK)

  3. Advances in reliability and system engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents original studies describing the latest research and developments in the area of reliability and systems engineering. It helps the reader identifying gaps in the current knowledge and presents fruitful areas for further research in the field. Among others, this book covers reliability measures, reliability assessment of multi-state systems, optimization of multi-state systems, continuous multi-state systems, new computational techniques applied to multi-state systems and probabilistic and non-probabilistic safety assessment.

  4. Computational electromagnetics recent advances and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Emerging Topics in Computational Electromagnetics in Computational Electromagnetics presents advances in Computational Electromagnetics. This book is designed to fill the existing gap in current CEM literature that only cover the conventional numerical techniques for solving traditional EM problems. The book examines new algorithms, and applications of these algorithms for solving problems of current interest that are not readily amenable to efficient treatment by using the existing techniques. The authors discuss solution techniques for problems arising in nanotechnology, bioEM, metamaterials, as well as multiscale problems. They present techniques that utilize recent advances in computer technology, such as parallel architectures, and the increasing need to solve large and complex problems in a time efficient manner by using highly scalable algorithms.

  5. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  6. Advanced Engineering Methods in Design and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Krasimir; Dobreva, Antoaneta; Ronkova, Vyarka

    2017-10-01

    The paper presented deals with the challenges occurring during the education of the new digital generation of students in the area of engineering subjects. This new situation in teaching technologies imposes the obtaining of appropriate feedback from the students during the lectures and tutorials. The objective of the research is to investigate the impact of the application of video games, graphical presentations, animations, etc. The feedback received in such interactive way gives the opportunity to improve the teaching models and to increase the active participation of the students during the lectures and tutorials.

  7. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James [Dresser, Inc., Addison, TX (United States)

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  8. Cofactor engineering for advancing chemical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2013-12-01

    Cofactors provide redox carriers for biosynthetic reactions, catabolic reactions and act as important agents in transfer of energy for the cell. Recent advances in manipulating cofactors include culture conditions or additive alterations, genetic modification of host pathways for increased availability of desired cofactor, changes in enzyme cofactor specificity, and introduction of novel redox partners to form effective circuits for biochemical processes and biocatalysts. Genetic strategies to employ ferredoxin, NADH and NADPH most effectively in natural or novel pathways have improved yield and efficiency of large-scale processes for fuels and chemicals and have been demonstrated with a variety of microbial organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advance elements of optoisolation circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aluf, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    This book on advanced optoisolation circuits for nonlinearity applications in engineering addresses two separate engineering and scientific areas, and presents advanced analysis methods for optoisolation circuits that cover a broad range of engineering applications. The book analyzes optoisolation circuits as linear and nonlinear dynamical systems and their limit cycles, bifurcation, and limit cycle stability by using Floquet theory. Further, it discusses a broad range of bifurcations related to optoisolation systems: cusp-catastrophe, Bautin bifurcation, Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, Bogdanov-Takens (BT) bifurcation, fold Hopf bifurcation, Hopf-Hopf bifurcation, Torus bifurcation (Neimark-Sacker bifurcation), and Saddle-loop or Homoclinic bifurcation. Floquet theory helps as to analyze advance optoisolation systems. Floquet theory is the study of the stability of linear periodic systems in continuous time. Another way to describe Floquet theory, it is the study of linear systems of differential equations with p...

  10. Conceptual study of advanced VTOL transport aircraft engine; Kosoku VTOL kiyo engine no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y; Endo, M; Matsuda, Y; Sugiyama, N; Watanabe, M; Sugahara, N; Yamamoto, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    This report proposes the concept of an ultra-low noise engine for advanced high subsonic VTOL transport aircraft, and discusses its technological feasibility. As one of the applications of the previously reported `separated core turbofan engine,` the conceptual engine is composed of 3 core engines, 2 cruise fan engines for high subsonic cruising and 6 lift fan engines producing thrust of 98kN (10000kgf)/engine. The core turbojet engine bleeds a large amount of air at the outlet of a compressor to supply driving high-pressure air for fans to other engines. The lift fan engine is composed of a lift fan, driving combustor, turbine and speed reduction gear, and is featured by not only high operation stability and thin fan engine like a separated core engine but also ultra-low noise operation. The cruise fan engine adopts the same configuration as the lift fan engine. Since this engine configuration has no technological problems difficult to be overcome, its high technological feasibility is expected. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Recent Advances in Intelligent Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Klempous, Ryszard; Araujo, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This volume is a collection of 19 chapters on intelligent engineering systems written by respectable experts of the fields. The book consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to the foundational aspects of computational intelligence. It consists of 8 chapters that include studies in genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic connectives, enhanced intelligence in product models, nature-inspired optimization technologies, particle swarm optimization, evolution algorithms, model complexity of neural networks, and fitness landscape analysis. The second part contains contributions to intelligent computation in networks, presented in 5 chapters. The covered subjects include the application of self-organizing maps for early detection of denial of service attacks, combating security threats via immunity and adaptability in cognitive radio networks, novel modifications in WSN network design for improved SNR and reliability, a conceptual framework for the design of audio based cognitive infocommunication channels, and a ...

  13. Study of an advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J. C.; Short, F. R.; Staton, D. V.; Zolezzi, B. A.; Curry, C. E.; Orelup, M. J.; Vaught, J. M.; Humphrey, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The best technology program for a small, economically viable gas turbine engine applicable to the general aviation helicopter and aircraft market for 1985-1990 was studied. Turboshaft and turboprop engines in the 112 to 746 kW (150 to 1000 hp) range and turbofan engines up to 6672 N (1500 lbf) thrust were considered. A good market for new turbine engines was predicted for 1988 providing aircraft are designed to capitalize on the advantages of the turbine engine. Parametric engine families were defined in terms of design and off-design performance, mass, and cost. These were evaluated in aircraft design missions selected to represent important market segments for fixed and rotary-wing applications. Payoff parameters influenced by engine cycle and configuration changes were aircraft gross mass, acquisition cost, total cost of ownership, and cash flow. Significant advantage over a current technology, small gas turbine engines was found especially in cost of ownership and fuel economy for airframes incorporating an air-cooled high-pressure ratio engine. A power class of 373 kW (500 hp) was recommended as the next frontier for technology advance where large improvements in fuel economy and engine mass appear possible through component research and development.

  14. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  15. Microbial engineering for the production of advanced biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; Zhang, Fuzhong; del Cardayre, Stephen B; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-08-16

    Advanced biofuels produced by microorganisms have similar properties to petroleum-based fuels, and can 'drop in' to the existing transportation infrastructure. However, producing these biofuels in yields high enough to be useful requires the engineering of the microorganism's metabolism. Such engineering is not based on just one specific feedstock or host organism. Data-driven and synthetic-biology approaches can be used to optimize both the host and pathways to maximize fuel production. Despite some success, challenges still need to be met to move advanced biofuels towards commercialization, and to compete with more conventional fuels.

  16. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  17. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. 2014 Joint Conference on Mechanical Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Daidie, Alain; Eynard, Benoit; Paredes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Covering key topics in the field such as technological innovation, human-centered sustainable engineering and manufacturing, and manufacture at a global scale in a virtual world, this book addresses both advanced techniques and industrial applications of key research in interactive design and manufacturing. Featuring the full papers presented at the 2014 Joint Conference on Mechanical Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing, which took place in June 2014 in Toulouse, France, it presents recent research and industrial success stories related to implementing interactive design and manufacturing solutions.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools

  20. Thermodynamics an advanced textbook for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Astarita, Gianni

    1989-01-01

    If a Writer would know how to behave himself with relation to Posterity; let him consider in old Books, what he finds, that he is glad to know; and what Omissions he most laments. Jonathan Swift This book emerges from a long story of teaching. I taught chemical engineering thermodynamics for about ten years at the University of Naples in the 1960s, and I still remember the awkwardness that I felt about any textbook I chose to consider-all of them seemed to be vague at best, and the standard of logical rigor seemed immensely inferior to what I could find in books on such other of the students in my first class subjects as calculus and fluid mechanics. One (who is now Prof. F. Gioia of the University of Naples) once asked me a question which I have used here as Example 4. 2-more than 20 years have gone by, and I am still waiting for a more intelligent question from one of my students. At the time, that question compelled me to answer in a way I didn't like, namely "I'll think about it, and I hope I'll have the ...

  1. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements of the ideal Stirling cycle, as well as basic types of practical engines are described. Advantages, disadvantages, and problem areas of these Stirling engines are discussed. The potential for ceramic components is also considered. Currently ceramics are used in only two areas, the air preheater and insulating tiles between the burner and the heater head. For the advanced Stirling engine to achieve high efficiency and low cost, the principal components are expected to be made from ceramic materials, including the heater head, air preheater, regenerator, the burner and the power piston. Supporting research and technology programs for ceramic component development are briefly described.

  2. Recent Advances and Future Directions for Quality Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vining, Geoff; Kulahci, Murat; Pedersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The origins of quality engineering are in manufacturing, where quality engineers apply basic statistical methodologies to improve the quality and productivity of products and processes. In the past decade, people have discovered that these methodologies are effective for improving almost any type...... of system or process, such as financial, health care, and supply chains. This paper begins with a review of key advances and trends within quality engineering over the past decade. The second part uses the first part as a foundation to outline new application areas for the field. It also discusses how...

  3. Phase 1 Development Testing of the Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Nicholas L.; Eddleman, David E.; Calvert, Marty R.; Bullard, David B.; Martin, Michael A.; Wall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Development Breadboard Engine (BBE) is a pressure-fed liquid oxygen/pump-fed liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) expander cycle engine that was built and operated by NASA at Marshall Space Flight Center's East Test Area. The breadboard engine was conceived as a technology demonstrator for the additive manufacturing technologies for an advanced upper stage prototype engine. The components tested on the breadboard engine included an ablative chamber, injector, main fuel valve, turbine bypass valve, a main oxidizer valve, a mixer and the fuel turbopump. All parts minus the ablative chamber were additively manufactured. The BBE was successfully hot fire tested seven times. Data collected from the test series will be used for follow on demonstration tests with a liquid oxygen turbopump and a regeneratively cooled chamber and nozzle.

  4. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  5. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  6. Using gasoline in an advanced compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cracknell, R.F.; Ariztegui, J.; Dubois, T.; Hamje, H.D.C.; Pellegrini, L.; Rickeard, D.J.; Rose, K.D. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium); Heuser, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Schnorbus, T.; Kolbeck, A.F. [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Future vehicles will be required to improve their efficiency, reduce both regulated and CO{sub 2} emissions, and maintain acceptable driveability, safety, and noise. To achieve this overall performance, they will be configured with more advanced hardware, sensors, and control technologies that will also enable their operation on a broader range of fuel properties. Fuel flexibility has already been demonstrated in previous studies on a compression ignition bench engine and a demonstration vehicle equipped with an advanced engine management system, closed-loop combustion control, and air-path control strategies. An unresolved question is whether engines of this sort can also operate on market gasoline while achieving diesel-like efficiency and acceptable emissions and noise levels. In this study, a compression ignition bench engine having a higher compression ratio, optimised valve timing, advanced engine management system, and flexible fuel injection could be operated on a European gasoline over full to medium part loads. The combustion was sensitive to EGR rates, however, and optimising all emissions and combustion noise was a considerable challenge at lower loads. (orig.)

  7. Neural engineering from advanced biomaterials to 3D fabrication techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, David

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the principles of advanced 3D fabrication techniques, stem cells and biomaterials for neural engineering. Renowned contributors cover topics such as neural tissue regeneration, peripheral and central nervous system repair, brain-machine interfaces and in vitro nervous system modeling. Within these areas, focus remains on exciting and emerging technologies such as highly developed neuroprostheses and the communication channels between the brain and prostheses, enabling technologies that are beneficial for development of therapeutic interventions, advanced fabrication techniques such as 3D bioprinting, photolithography, microfluidics, and subtractive fabrication, and the engineering of implantable neural grafts. There is a strong focus on stem cells and 3D bioprinting technologies throughout the book, including working with embryonic, fetal, neonatal, and adult stem cells and a variety of sophisticated 3D bioprinting methods for neural engineering applications. There is also a strong focus on b...

  8. Energy Efficient Engine program advanced turbofan nacelle definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.; Wynosky, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced, low drag, nacelle configurations were defined for some of the more promising propulsion systems identified in the earlier Benefit/Cost Study, to assess the benefits associated with these advanced technology nacelles and formulate programs for developing these nacelles and low volume thrust reversers/spoilers to a state of technology readiness in the early 1990's. The study results established the design feasibility of advanced technology, slim line nacelles applicable to advanced technology, high bypass ratio turbofan engines. Design feasibility was also established for two low volume thrust reverse/spoiler concepts that meet or exceed the required effectiveness for these engines. These nacelle and thrust reverse/spoiler designs were shown to be applicable in engines with takeoff thrust sizes ranging from 24,000 to 60,000 pounds. The reduced weight, drag, and cost of the advanced technology nacelle installations relative to current technology nacelles offer a mission fuel burn savings ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 percent and direct operating cost plus interest improvements from 1.6 to 2.2 percent.

  9. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  10. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  11. Advancing the practice of systems engineering at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, Patti A.; Jones, Ross M.

    2006-01-01

    In FY 2004, JPL launched an initiative to improve the way it practices systems engineering. The Lab's senior management formed the Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) Project in order to "significantly advance the practice and organizational capabilities of systems engineering at JPL on flight projects and ground support tasks." The scope of the SEA Project includes the systems engineering work performed in all three dimensions of a program, project, or task: 1. the full life-cycle, i.e., concept through end of operations 2. the full depth, i.e., Program, Project, System, Subsystem, Element (SE Levels 1 to 5) 3. the full technical scope, e.g., the flight, ground and launch systems, avionics, power, propulsion, telecommunications, thermal, etc. The initial focus of their efforts defined the following basic systems engineering functions at JPL: systems architecture, requirements management, interface definition, technical resource management, system design and analysis, system verification and validation, risk management, technical peer reviews, design process management and systems engineering task management, They also developed a list of highly valued personal behaviors of systems engineers, and are working to inculcate those behaviors into members of their systems engineering community. The SEA Project is developing products, services, and training to support managers and practitioners throughout the entire system lifecycle. As these are developed, each one needs to be systematically deployed. Hence, the SEA Project developed a deployment process that includes four aspects: infrastructure and operations, communication and outreach, education and training, and consulting support. In addition, the SEA Project has taken a proactive approach to organizational change management and customer relationship management - both concepts and approaches not usually invoked in an engineering environment. This paper'3 describes JPL's approach to advancing the practice of

  12. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  13. Control Design for an Advanced Geared Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design process for the control system of an advanced geared turbofan engine. This process is applied to a simulation that is representative of a 30,000 lbf thrust class concept engine with two main spools, ultra-high bypass ratio, and a variable area fan nozzle. Control system requirements constrain the non-linear engine model as it operates throughout its flight envelope of sea level to 40,000 ft and from 0 to 0.8 Mach. The control architecture selected for this project was developed from literature and reflects a configuration that utilizes a proportional integral controller integrated with sets of limiters that enable the engine to operate safely throughout its flight envelope. Simulation results show the overall system meets performance requirements without exceeding system operational limits.

  14. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review......Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable...... the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further....

  16. Human factors engineering evaluation of the Advanced Test Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, M.P.; Banks, W.W.

    1980-12-01

    The information presented here represents preliminary findings related to an ongoing human engineering evaluation of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Control Room. Although many of the problems examined in this report have been previously noted by ATR operations personnel, the systematic approach used in this investigation produced many new insights. While many violations of Human Engineering military standards (MIL-STD) are noted, and numerous recommendations made, the recommendations should be examined cautiously. The reason for our suggested caution lies in the fact that many ATR operators have well over 10-years experience in operating the controls, meters, etc. Hence, it is assumed adaptation to the existing system is quite developed and the introduction of hardware/control changes, even though the changes enhance the system, may cause short-term (or long-term, depending upon the amount of operator experience and training) adjustment problems for operators adapting to the new controls/meters and physical layout

  17. Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    CSIE2012 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus on Computer Science and Information Engineering . In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about Computer Science and Information Engineering of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.

  18. Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    CSIE2012 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus on Computer Science and Information Engineering . In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about Computer Science and Information Engineering of researchers from all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned fields. In order to meet the high quality of Springer, AISC series, the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organizers had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.

  19. Advanced tokamak reactors based on the spherical torus (ATR/ST). Preliminary design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Copenhaver, C.; Schnurr, N.M.; Engelhardt, A.G.; Seed, T.J.; Zubrin, R.M.

    1986-06-01

    Preliminary design results relating to an advanced magnetic fusion reactor concept based on the high-beta, low-aspect-ratio, spherical-torus tokamak are summarized. The concept includes resistive (demountable) toroidal-field coils, magnetic-divertor impurity control, oscillating-field current drive, and a flowing liquid-metal breeding blanket. Results of parametric tradeoff studies, plasma engineering modeling, fusion-power-core mechanical design, neutronics analyses, and blanket thermalhydraulics studies are described. The approach, models, and interim results described here provide a basis for a more detailed design. Key issues quantified for the spherical-torus reactor center on the need for an efficient drive for this high-current (approx.40 MA) device as well as the economic desirability to increase the net electrical power from the nominal 500-MWe(net) value adopted for the baseline system. Although a direct extension of present tokamak scaling, the stablity and transport of this high-beta (approx.0.3) plasma is a key unknown that is resoluble only by experiment. The spherical torus generally provides a route to improved tokamak reactors as measured by considerably simplified coil technology in a configuration that allows a realistic magnetic divertor design, both leading to increased mass power density and reduced cost

  20. Mechanics and model-based control of advanced engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irschik, Hans; Krommer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mechanics and Model-Based Control of Advanced Engineering Systems collects 32 contributions presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines, which took place in St. Petersburg, Russia in July 2012. The workshop continued a series of international workshops, which started with a Japan-Austria Joint Workshop on Mechanics and Model Based Control of Smart Materials and Structures and a Russia-Austria Joint Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines. In the present volume, 10 full-length papers based on presentations from Russia, 9 from Austria, 8 from Japan, 3 from Italy, one from Germany and one from Taiwan are included, which represent the state of the art in the field of mechanics and model based control, with particular emphasis on the application of advanced structures and machines.

  1. NRC staff preliminary analysis of public comments on advance notice of proposed rulemaking on emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peabody, C.A.; Hickey, J.W.N.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on emergency planning on July 17, 1979 (44 FR 41483). In October and November 1979, the NRC staff submitted several papers to the Commission related to the emergency planning rulemaking. One of these papers was a preliminary analysis of public comments received on the advance notice (SECY-79-591B, November 13, 1979). This document consists of the preliminary analysis as it was submitted to the Commission, with minor editorial changes

  2. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HUMOUR IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIOW C. LIM

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known that humour has an implication on the process of teaching and learning. However, there is still limited study done on the implication of humour in teaching and learning engineering courses. This paper studies the perception and experience of engineering lecturers and students towards the incorporation of sense of humour in the teaching and learning of engineering courses. Online and offline surveys were conducted on the students and lecturers from the school of engineering, Taylors’ University respectively. Several interesting insights were drawn from the responses with the general consensus from both students and lecturers that humour helps in enhancing the teaching and learning process. Real case examples of how the lecturers deliver their lectures with humour were also presented.

  3. Advanced engineering materials and thick film hybrid circuit technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, S.; Aslam, M.; Mehmood, K.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Thick Film hybrid Technology to manufacture electronic circuits and passive components continues to grow at rapid rate. Thick Film Technology can be viewed as a means of packaging active devices, spanning the gap between monolithic integrated circuit chips and printed circuit boards with attached active and passive components. An advancement in engineering materials has moved from a formulating art to a base of greater understanding of relationship of material chemistry to the details of electrical and mechanical performance. This amazing advancement in the field of engineering materials has brought us up to a magnificent standard that we are able to manufacture small size, low cost and sophisticated electronic circuits of Military, Satellite systems, Robotics, Medical and Telecommunications. (author)

  4. Preliminary study of advanced turbofans for low energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knip, G.

    1975-01-01

    This analysis determines the effect of higher overall engine pressure ratios (OPR's), bypass ratios (BPR's), and turbine rotor-inlet temperature on a Mach-0.85 transport having a range of 5556 km (3000 nmi) and carrying a payload of 18144 kg (40,000 lbs-200 passengers). Sideline noises (jet plus fan) of between 91 and 106 EPNdB (FAR36) are considered. Takeoff gross weight (TOGW), fuel consumption (kg/pass. km) and direct operating cost (DOC) are used at the figures of merit. Based on predicted 1985 levels of engine technology and a noise goal of 96 EPNdB, the higher-OPR engine results in an airplane that is 18 percent lighter in terms of TOGW, uses 22.3 percent less fuel, and has a 14.7 percent lower DOC than a comparable airplane powered by a current turbofan. Cooling the compressor bleed air and lowering the cruise Mach number appear attractive in terms of further improving the figures of merit.

  5. Advances in polymeric systems for tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-03-01

    The characteristics of tissue engineered scaffolds are major concerns in the quest to fabricate ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The polymer scaffolds employed for tissue engineering applications should possess multifunctional properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and favorable mechanical properties as it comes in direct contact with the body fluids in vivo. Additionally, the polymer system should also possess biomimetic architecture and should support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. As the progress in polymer technology continues, polymeric biomaterials have taken characteristics more closely related to that desired for tissue engineering and clinical needs. Stimuli responsive polymers also termed as smart biomaterials respond to stimuli such as pH, temperature, enzyme, antigen, glucose and electrical stimuli that are inherently present in living systems. This review highlights the exciting advancements in these polymeric systems that relate to biological and tissue engineering applications. Additionally, several aspects of technology namely scaffold fabrication methods and surface modifications to confer biological functionality to the polymers have also been discussed. The ultimate objective is to emphasize on these underutilized adaptive behaviors of the polymers so that novel applications and new generations of smart polymeric materials can be realized for biomedical and tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Recent advances of nanotechnology in medicine and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of some advances of nanotechnology in medicine and engineering, exploring typical applications of these emerging technologies. The mechanical properties of such small structures determine their utility and are therefore of considerable interest. Based on nanometer scale tests, a theoretical model to predict the bending strength of a nanobeam is proposed. A fracture approach which takes into account imperfections on the beam surface and crack growth is employed.

  7. Recent advances of nanotechnology in medicine and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of some advances of nanotechnology in medicine and engineering, exploring typical applications of these emerging technologies. The mechanical properties of such small structures determine their utility and are therefore of considerable interest. Based on nanometer scale tests, a theoretical model to predict the bending strength of a nanobeam is proposed. A fracture approach which takes into account imperfections on the beam surface and crack growth is employed.

  8. Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    SNL/CA proposes the Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) facility to support customer-driven national security mission requirements while demonstrating a fiscally responsible approach to cost-control. SNL/CA realizes that due to the current backlog of capital projects in NNSA that following the normal Line Item process to procure capital funding is unlikely and therefore SNL/CA will be looking at all options including Alternative Financing.

  9. Recent advances of nanotechnology in medicine and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobile, Lucio [Department DICAM-Campus of Cesena, University of Bologna, Via Cavalcavia 61,47521 Cesena, Italy. Email:lucio.nobile@unibo.it (Italy); Nobile, Stefano [Maternal and Child Department, Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, Italy, via F. Corridoni 11,60123 Ancona, Italy. Email:stefano.nobile@ospedaliriuniti.marche.it (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of some advances of nanotechnology in medicine and engineering, exploring typical applications of these emerging technologies. The mechanical properties of such small structures determine their utility and are therefore of considerable interest. Based on nanometer scale tests, a theoretical model to predict the bending strength of a nanobeam is proposed. A fracture approach which takes into account imperfections on the beam surface and crack growth is employed.

  10. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking in...

  11. Advanced plant engineering and construction of Japanese ABWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, N.; Sumikawa, J.; Yoshida, N.; Yoshida, M.

    1998-01-01

    Remarkable improvement has been made in recent nuclear power plant design and construction in Japan. These many improved engineering technologies has been made a good use in the lately commercial operated two world's first 1,356MWe ABW's (Advanced Boiling Water Reactors), and made a great contribution to the smooth progress and the completion of a highly reliable plant construction. Especially, two engineering technologies, (1), three-dimensional computer aided design system through engineering data-base, and (2), large scale modularising construction method, have been successfully applied as the integrated engineering technologies of the plant construction. And two integrated reviews, 'integrated design review, confirmation of new and changed design and prevention of failure recurrence' in the design stage, and 'constructing plant review' at the site, have been widely and systematically conducted as a link in the chain of steady reliability improvement activities. These advanced and/or continuous and steady technologies are one of most important factors for high reliability through the entire lifetime of a nuclear plant, including planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance stages. (author)

  12. International Conference on Advances in Tribology and Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deheri, Gunamani; Patel, Harshvadan; Mehta, Shreya

    2014-01-01

    This book contains advanced-level research material in the area of lubrication theory and related aspects, presented by eminent researchers during the International Conference on Advances in Tribology and Engineering Systems (ICATES 2013) held at Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, India during October 15–17, 2013. The material in this book represents the advanced field of tribology and reflects the work of many eminent researchers from both India and abroad. The treatment of the presentations is the result of the contributions of several professionals working in the industry and academia. This book will be useful for students, researchers, academicians, and professionals working in the area of tribology, in general, and bearing performance characteristics, in particular, especially from the point-of-view of design. This book will also appeal to researchers and professionals working in fluid-film lubrication and other practical applications of tribology. A wide range of topics has been included des...

  13. 78 FR 71601 - KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project Nos. 14521-001, 14561-000] KC Small Hydro LLC; Advanced Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On May 13, 2013, KC Scoby...

  14. Preliminary design concepts of an advanced integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kap S.; Lee, Doo J.; Kim, Keung K.; Chang, Moon H.; Kim, Si H.

    1997-01-01

    An integral reactor on the basis of PWR technology is being conceptually developed at KAERI. Advanced technologies such as intrinsic and passive safety features are implemented in establishing the design concepts of the reactor to enhance the safety and performance. Research and development including laboratory-scale tests are concurrently underway for confirming the technical adoption of those concepts to the rector design. The power output of the reactor will be in the range of 100MWe to 600MWe which is relatively small compared to the existing loop type reactors. The detailed analysis to assure the design concepts is in progress. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Rodela, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., in cooperation with NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), has developed a new Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) controller for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will increase the probability of successfully placing the shuttle into the intended orbit and increase the safety of the Space Transportation System (STS) launches. The AHMS is an upgrade o the current Block II engine controller whose primary component is an improved vibration monitoring system called the Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) that can effectively and reliably monitor the state of the high pressure turbomachinery and provide engine protection through a new synchronous vibration redline which enables engine shutdown if the vibration exceeds predetermined thresholds. The introduction of this system required improvements and modification to the Block II controller such as redesigning the Digital Computer Unit (DCU) memory and the Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS) circuitry, eliminating the existing memory retention batteries, installation of the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology, and installation of a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) with accompanying outside world connectors. Test stand hot-fire testing along with lab testing have verified successful implementation and is expected to reduce the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the shuttle ascent phase and improve safely by about 23% according to the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS), leading to a safer and more reliable SSME.

  16. International conference on Recent Advances in Aerospace Engineering (ICRAAE-2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Introduction The First International conference on Recent Advances in Aerospace Engineering (ICRAAE-2017) will be conducted by the Department of Aerospace Engineering at Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India, on 3rd and 4th March, 2017. The conference aims to bring together students, academicians, leading scientists, researchers and industrialists working in diverse fields of Aerospace Engineering. This conference provides an inter-disciplinary platform for the educators, researchers and practitioners to present, share and discuss the recent trends, innovations, concerns and solutions in the cutting edge technologies of Aerospace Engineering for mutual benefit and the growth of the nation. Objectives The conference is devoted to benefit the participants who will have the opportunity to gain insight into state-of-the-art technologies in the field of Aerospace Engineering by the expert lectures of scientists and pioneering researchers from India and abroad. In addition, the two-day conference will enable knowledge sharing by personnel involved in active research working on the recent developments in this diverse field. List of International Deep Drawing Research Group, Conference Topics, Facts and Statistics, Achknowledgement, Keynote Speakers, Scientific Committee, Editors all are available in this PDF.

  17. Recent advances in hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, S L; Kwon, M Y; Burdick, J A

    2017-01-30

    Articular cartilage is a load-bearing tissue that lines the surface of bones in diarthrodial joints. Unfortunately, this avascular tissue has a limited capacity for intrinsic repair. Treatment options for articular cartilage defects include microfracture and arthroplasty; however, these strategies fail to generate tissue that adequately restores damaged cartilage. Limitations of current treatments for cartilage defects have prompted the field of cartilage tissue engineering, which seeks to integrate engineering and biological principles to promote the growth of new cartilage to replace damaged tissue. To date, a wide range of scaffolds and cell sources have emerged with a focus on recapitulating the microenvironments present during development or in adult tissue, in order to induce the formation of cartilaginous constructs with biochemical and mechanical properties of native tissue. Hydrogels have emerged as a promising scaffold due to the wide range of possible properties and the ability to entrap cells within the material. Towards improving cartilage repair, hydrogel design has advanced in recent years to improve their utility. Some of these advances include the development of improved network crosslinking (e.g. double-networks), new techniques to process hydrogels (e.g. 3D printing) and better incorporation of biological signals (e.g. controlled release). This review summarises these innovative approaches to engineer hydrogels towards cartilage repair, with an eye towards eventual clinical translation.

  18. Recent advances in hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a load-bearing tissue that lines the surface of bones in diarthrodial joints. Unfortunately, this avascular tissue has a limited capacity for intrinsic repair. Treatment options for articular cartilage defects include microfracture and arthroplasty; however, these strategies fail to generate tissue that adequately restores damaged cartilage. Limitations of current treatments for cartilage defects have prompted the field of cartilage tissue engineering, which seeks to integrate engineering and biological principles to promote the growth of new cartilage to replace damaged tissue. To date, a wide range of scaffolds and cell sources have emerged with a focus on recapitulating the microenvironments present during development or in adult tissue, in order to induce the formation of cartilaginous constructs with biochemical and mechanical properties of native tissue. Hydrogels have emerged as a promising scaffold due to the wide range of possible properties and the ability to entrap cells within the material. Towards improving cartilage repair, hydrogel design has advanced in recent years to improve their utility. Some of these advances include the development of improved network crosslinking (e.g. double-networks, new techniques to process hydrogels (e.g. 3D printing and better incorporation of biological signals (e.g. controlled release. This review summarises these innovative approaches to engineer hydrogels towards cartilage repair, with an eye towards eventual clinical translation.

  19. Preliminary engineering specifications for a test demonstration multilayer protective barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.; Adams, M.R.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents preliminary engineering specifications for a test protective barrier cover system and support radiohydrology facility to be constructed at the Hanford Protective Barrier Test Facility (PBTF). Construction of this test barrier and related radiohydrology facility is part of a continuing effort to provide construction experience and performance evaluation of alternative barrier designs used for long-term isolation of disposed radioactive waste materials. Design specifications given in this report are tentative, based on interim engineering and computer simulation design efforts. Final definitive design specifications and engineering prints will be produced in FY 1986. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  20. Preliminary development of an advanced modular pressure relief cushion: Testing and user evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeto, Tyler; Mitchell, Steven J; Bogie, Kath M

    2018-02-01

    Effective pressure relief cushions are identified as a core assistive technology need by the World Health Organization Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology. High quality affordable wheelchair cushions could provide effective pressure relief for many individuals with limited access to advanced assistive technology. Value driven engineering (VdE) principles were employed to develop a prototype modular cushion. Low cost dynamically responsive gel balls were arranged in a close packed array and seated in bilayer foam for containment and support. Two modular cushions, one with high compliance balls and one with moderate compliance balls were compared with High Profile and Low Profile Roho ® and Jay ® Medical 2 cushions. ISO 16480-2 biomechanical standardized tests were applied to assess cushion performance. A preliminary materials cost analysis was carried out. A prototype modular cushion was evaluated by 12 participants who reported satisfaction using a questionnaire based on the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0) instrument. Overall the modular cushions performed better than, or on par with, the most widely prescribed commercially available cushions under ISO 16480-2 testing. Users rated the modular cushion highly for overall appearance, size and dimensions, comfort, safety, stability, ease of adjustment and general ease of use. Cost-analysis indicated that every modular cushion component a could be replaced several times and still maintain cost-efficacy over the complete cushion lifecycle. A VdE modular cushion has the potential provide effective pressure relief for many users at a low lifetime cost. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. 5th International Conference on Advanced Manufacturing Engineering and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovljevic, Zivana; NEWTECH2017

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings from the 5th NEWTECH conference (Belgrade, Serbia, 5–9 June 2017), the latest in a series of high-level conferences that bring together experts from academia and industry in order to exchange knowledge, ideas, experiences, research results, and information in the field of manufacturing. The range of topics addressed is wide, including, for example, machine tool research and in-machine measurements, progress in CAD/CAM technologies, rapid prototyping and reverse engineering, nanomanufacturing, advanced material processing, functional and protective surfaces, and cyber-physical and reconfigurable manufacturing systems. The book will benefit readers by providing updates on key issues and recent progress in manufacturing engineering and technologies and will aid the transfer of valuable knowledge to the next generation of academics and practitioners. It will appeal to all who work or conduct research in this rapidly evolving field.

  2. Computational modeling, optimization and manufacturing simulation of advanced engineering materials

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents recent research work focused in the development of adequate theoretical and numerical formulations to describe the behavior of advanced engineering materials.  Particular emphasis is devoted to applications in the fields of biological tissues, phase changing and porous materials, polymers and to micro/nano scale modeling. Sensitivity analysis, gradient and non-gradient based optimization procedures are involved in many of the chapters, aiming at the solution of constitutive inverse problems and parameter identification. All these relevant topics are exposed by experienced international and inter institutional research teams resulting in a high level compilation. The book is a valuable research reference for scientists, senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for engineers acting in the area of computational material modeling.

  3. Performance assessment of advanced engineering workstations for fuel management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the performance of an advanced engineering workstation [AEW] with regard to applications to incore fuel management for LWRs. The attributes of most interest to us that define an AEW are parallel computational hardware and graphics capabilities. The AEWs employed were super microcomputers manufactured by MASSCOMP, Inc. These computers utilize a 32-bit architecture, graphics co-processor, multi-CPUs [up to six] attached to common memory and multi-vector accelerators. 7 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Color quality management in advanced flat panel display engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowsky, Fritz; Neugebauer, Charles F.; Marnatti, David M.

    2003-01-01

    During recent years color reproduction systems for consumer needs have experienced various difficulties. In particular, flat panels and printers could not reach a satisfactory color match. The RGB image stored on an Internet server of a retailer did not show the desired colors on a consumer display device or printer device. STMicroelectronics addresses this important color reproduction issue inside their advanced display engines using novel algorithms targeted for low cost consumer flat panels. Using a new and genuine RGB color space transformation, which combines a gamma correction Look-Up-Table, tetrahedrization, and linear interpolation, we satisfy market demands.

  5. Advanced rotary engine components utilizing fiber reinforced Mg castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, D.; Whitman, W.; Pumphrey, R.; Lee, C.-M.

    1986-01-01

    Under a two-phase program sponsored by NASA, the technology for producing advanced rotary engine components utilizing graphite fiber-reinforced magnesium alloy casting is being developed. In Phase I, the successful casting of a simulated intermediate housing was demonstrated. In Phase II, the goal is to produce an operating rotor housing. The effort involves generation of a material property data base, optimization of parameters, and development of wear- and corrosion-resistant cast surfaces and surface coatings. Results to date are described.

  6. Nanoscale biomaterial interface modification for advanced tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safonov, V; Zykova, A; Smolik, J; Rogovska, R; Donkov, N; Goltsev, A; Dubrava, T; Rassokha, I; Georgieva, V

    2012-01-01

    Recently, various stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have been found to have considerable potential for application in tissue engineering and future advanced therapies due to their biological capability to differentiate into specific lineages. Modified surface properties, such as composition, nano-roughness and wettability, affect the most important processes at the biomaterial interface. The aim of the present is work is to study the stem cells' (MSCs) adhesive potential, morphology, phenotypical characteristics in in vitro tests, and to distinguish betwen the different factors influencing the cell/biomaterial interaction, such as nano-topography, surface chemistry and surface free energy.

  7. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  8. Advances in analytical tools for high throughput strain engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcellin, Esteban; Nielsen, Lars Keld

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of inexpensive, base-perfect genome editing is revolutionising biology. Modern industrial biotechnology exploits the advances in genome editing in combination with automation, analytics and data integration to build high-throughput automated strain engineering pipelines also known...... as biofoundries. Biofoundries replace the slow and inconsistent artisanal processes used to build microbial cell factories with an automated design–build–test cycle, considerably reducing the time needed to deliver commercially viable strains. Testing and hence learning remains relatively shallow, but recent...... advances in analytical chemistry promise to increase the depth of characterization possible. Analytics combined with models of cellular physiology in automated systems biology pipelines should enable deeper learning and hence a steeper pitch of the learning cycle. This review explores the progress...

  9. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  10. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2 Anomaly Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2018-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Engineering Unit 2 (EU2) is the highest fidelity electrically heated Stirling radioisotope generator built to date. NASA Glenn Research Center completed the assembly of the ASRG EU2 in September 2014 using hardware from the now cancelled ASRG flight development project. The ASRG EU2 integrated the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC-E3 #1 and #2) in an aluminum generator housing with Lockheed Martin's (LM's) Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller. After just 179 hr of EU2 generator operation, the first power fluctuation occurred on ASC-E3 #1. The first power fluctuation occurred 175 hr later on ASC-E3 #2. Over time, the power fluctuations became more frequent on both convertors and larger in magnitude. Eventually the EU2 was shut down in January 2015. An anomaly investigation was chartered to determine root cause of the power fluctuations and other anomalous observations. A team with members from Glenn, Sunpower, and LM conducted a thorough investigation of the EU2 anomalies. Findings from the EU2 disassembly identified proximate causes of the anomalous observations. Discussion of the team's assessment of the primary possible failure theories, root cause, and conclusions is provided. Recommendations are made for future Stirling generator development to address the findings from the anomaly investigation. Additional findings from the investigation are also discussed.

  11. A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai

    2008-06-18

    In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering

  12. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arghya; Lee, Yong-kyu; Jaffa, Ayad A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25165697

  13. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwarul Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications.

  14. Recent advances in interfacial engineering of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meidan; He, Chunfeng; Iocozzia, James; Liu, Xueqin; Cui, Xun; Meng, Xiangtong; Rager, Matthew; Hong, Xiaodan; Liu, Xiangyang; Lin, Zhiqun

    2017-09-01

    Due to recent developments, organometallic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted even greater interest owing to their impressive photovoltaic properties and simple device manufacturing processes with the potential for commercial applications. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PSCs have surged from 3.8% for methyl ammonium lead halide-sensitized liquid solar cells, CH3NH3PbX3 (X  =  Cl, Br, I), in 2009, to more than 22% for all-solid-state solar cells in 2016. Over the past few years, significant effort has been dedicated to realizing PSCs with even higher performance. In this review, recent advances in the interfacial engineering of PSCs are addressed. The specific strategies for the interfacial engineering of PSCs fall into two categories: (1) solvent treatment and additives to improve the light-harvesting capabilities of perovskite films, and (2) the incorporation of various functional materials at the interfaces between the active layers (e.g. electron transporting layer, perovskite layer, and hole transporting layer). This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of strategies for the interfacial engineering of PSCs with potential benefits including enhanced light harvesting, improved charge separation and transport, improved device stability, and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis.

  15. Preliminary conceptual engineering design considerations for the MX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, R.H.; Calderon, M.U.; Hibbs, S.M.; Kozman, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    The mirror experiment was designed to develop the technologies necessary to make the transition from the presently small-scale physics experiments (2XIIB and BBII) to large-scale steady-state DT burning systems, such as the Fusion Engineering Research Facility (FERF) and Controlled Thermonuclear Reactors (CTR) based on plasma confinement in open magnetic geometry. The confinement parameters in the design of the present machine include a 20-kG central field with a mirror ratio of 2 to 1 and an overall BL product approximately 5 times greater than that currently available with the 2XIIB compression coils (or a mirror-to-mirror length of 3.4 m). Several types of Yin-Yang minimum parallel B parallel geometries were studied, and a ''displaced'' Yin-Yang was chosen because the center of the machine is easily accessable between the coils and between the magnet lobes. Other important design considerations include the target plasma system, the vacuum system, and the injectors. The target plasma system includes a pellet generating system used to produce a 400-μm deuterium pellet and a two-arm laser system where the laser energy is produced from a 1-kJ, 10-GW CO 2 laser at 100 ns

  16. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2004-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis, are being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and ring-design concepts have been explored, and engine experiments have been done on a full-scale Waukesha VGF F18 in-line 6 cylinder power generation engine rated at 370 kW at 1800 rpm. Current accomplishments include designing and testing ring-packs using a subtle top-compression-ring profile (skewed barrel design), lowering the tension of the oil-control ring, employing a negative twist to the scraper ring to control oil consumption. Initial test data indicate that piston ring-pack friction was reduced by 35% by lowering the oil-control ring tension alone, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Although small in magnitude, this improvement represents a first step towards anticipated aggregate improvements from other strategies. Other ring-pack design strategies to lower friction have been identified, including reduced axial distance between the top two rings, tilted top-ring groove. Some of these configurations have been tested and some await further evaluation. Colorado State University performed the tests and Waukesha Engine Dresser, Inc. provided technical support. Key elements of the continuing work include optimizing the engine piston design, application of surface and material developments in conjunction with improved lubricant properties, system modeling and analysis, and continued technology

  17. Preliminary designs for 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion systems for dish electric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    Under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating heat engines for terrestrial Solar Distributed Heat Receivers. The Stirling engine has been identified by Sandia as one of the most promising engines for terrestrial applications. The Stirling engine also has the potential to meet DOE's performance and cost goals. The NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting Stirling engine technology development activities directed toward a dynamic power source for space applications. Space power systems requirements include high reliability, very long life, low vibration and high efficiency. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either nuclear or solar powered. Although both applications appear to be quite different, their requirements complement each other. Preliminary designs feature a free-piston Stirling engine, a liquid metal heat transport system, and a means to provide nominally 25 kW electric power to a utility grid while meeting DOE's performance and long term cost goals. The Cummins design incorporates a linear alternator to provide the electrical output, while the STC design generates electrical power indirectly through a hydraulic pump/motor coupled to an induction generator. Both designs for the ASCS's will use technology which can reasonably be expected to be available in the early 1990's.

  18. Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter Zell (left) and Dr Clifton Horne (right) are shown preparing a laser light sheet for a flow visualization test. Shown standing in the nacelle of the ADP is John Girvin, senior test engineer for Pratt & Whitney.

  19. Prediction of the Main Engine Power of a New Container Ship at the Preliminary Design Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepowski, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents mathematical relationships that allow us to forecast the estimated main engine power of new container ships, based on data concerning vessels built in 2005-2015. The presented approximations allow us to estimate the engine power based on the length between perpendiculars and the number of containers the ship will carry. The approximations were developed using simple linear regression and multivariate linear regression analysis. The presented relations have practical application for estimation of container ship engine power needed in preliminary parametric design of the ship. It follows from the above that the use of multiple linear regression to predict the main engine power of a container ship brings more accurate solutions than simple linear regression.

  20. Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval And Transfer System Preliminary Design Hazard Analysis Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.R.; Meichle, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  1. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  2. Advances in complex societal, environmental and engineered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Essaaidi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses recent technological progress that has led to an increased complexity in many natural and artificial systems. The resulting complexity research due to the emergence of new properties and spatio-temporal interactions among a large number of system elements - and between the system and its environment - is the primary focus of this text. This volume is divided into three parts: Part one focuses on societal and ecological systems, Part two deals with approaches for understanding, modeling, predicting and mastering socio-technical systems, and Part three includes real-life examples. Each chapter has its own special features; it is a self-contained contribution of distinguished experts working on different fields of science and technology relevant to the study of complex systems. Advances in Complex Systems of Contemporary Reality: Societal, Environmental and Engineered Systems will provide postgraduate students, researchers and managers with qualitative and quantitative methods for handling th...

  3. Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

  4. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the study was to generate the system design of a performance-optimized, advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle space engine. The engine requirements are summarized, and the development and operational experience with the expander cycle RL10 engine were reviewed. The engine development program is outlined.

  5. Advanced Materials Test Methods for Improved Life Prediction of Turbine Engine Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stubbs, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Phase I final report developed under SBIR contract for Topic # AF00-149, "Durability of Turbine Engine Materials/Advanced Material Test Methods for Improved Use Prediction of Turbine Engine Components...

  6. Adaptation of Advanced Diesel Engines for Military Requirements Under Severe Environmental Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henein, Naeim A; Taraza, Dinu; Chalhoub, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    .... The second area is to examine the different control strategies used in advanced diesel engines to meet the emission goals and their effect on engine performance, fuel economy and exhaust emissions...

  7. A preliminary study of a D-T tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket using the compact fusion advanced Brayton (CFAB) cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Umoto, J.; Fukuyama, A.; Mitarai, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sekimoto, H.; Nagatsu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary key issues for a synchrotron radiation-enhanced compact fusion advanced Brayton (CFAB) cycle fusion reactor similar to the CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle reactor are presented. These include plasma operation windows as a function of the first wall reflectivity and related issues, to estimate an allowance for deterioration of the first wall reflectivity due to dpa effects. It was found theoretically that first wall reflectivities down to 0.8 are still adequate for operation at an energy confinement scaling of 3 times Kaye-Goldston. Measurements of the graphite first wall reflectivities at Nagoya University indicate excellent reflectivities in excess of 90% for CC-312, PCC-2S, and PD-330S in the submillimeter regime, even at high temperatures in excess of 1000K. Some engineering issues inherent to the CFAB cycle are also discussed briefly in comparison with the CFAR cycle which uses hazardous limited-resource materials but is capable of using mercury as coolant for high heat removal. The CFAB cycle using helium coolant is found to achieve higher net plant conversion efficiencies in excess 60% using a non-equilibrium magnetohydrodynamic disk generator in the moderate pressure range, even at the cost of a relatively large pumping power, and at the penalty of high temperature materials, although excellent heat removal characteristics in the moderate pressure range need to be guaranteed in the future. (orig.)

  8. Engineering derivatives from biological systems for advanced aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Daniel L.; Hering, Dean H.; Cole, David

    1991-01-01

    The present study consisted of a literature survey, a survey of researchers, and a workshop on bionics. These tasks produced an extensive annotated bibliography of bionics research (282 citations), a directory of bionics researchers, and a workshop report on specific bionics research topics applicable to space technology. These deliverables are included as Appendix A, Appendix B, and Section 5.0, respectively. To provide organization to this highly interdisciplinary field and to serve as a guide for interested researchers, we have also prepared a taxonomy or classification of the various subelements of natural engineering systems. Finally, we have synthesized the results of the various components of this study into a discussion of the most promising opportunities for accelerated research, seeking solutions which apply engineering principles from natural systems to advanced aerospace problems. A discussion of opportunities within the areas of materials, structures, sensors, information processing, robotics, autonomous systems, life support systems, and aeronautics is given. Following the conclusions are six discipline summaries that highlight the potential benefits of research in these areas for NASA's space technology programs.

  9. Advanced tendencies in development of photovoltaic cells for power engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebkov, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Development of solar power engineering must be based on original innovative Russian and world technologies. It is necessary to develop promising Russian technologies of manufacturing of photovoltaic cells and semiconductor materials: chlorine-free technology for obtaining solar silicon; matrix solar cell technology with an efficiency of 25-30% upon the conversion of concentrated solar, thermal, and laser radiation; encapsulation technology for high-voltage silicon solar modules with a voltage up to 1000 V and a service life up to 50 years; new methods of concentration of solar radiation with the balancing illumination of photovoltaic cells at 50-100-fold concentration; and solar power systems with round-the-clock production of electrical energy that do not require energy storage devices and reserve sources of energy. The advanced tendency in silicon power engineering is the use of high-temperature reactions in heterogeneous modular silicate solutions for long-term (over one year) production of heat and electricity in the autonomous mode.

  10. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  11. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking inspiration from the role and multi-component construction of native extracellular matrices (ECMs) for cell accommodation, the synthetic biomaterials produced today routinely incorporate biologically active components to define an artificial in vivo milieu with complex and dynamic interactions that foster and regulate stem cells, similar to the events occurring in a natural cellular microenvironment. The range and degree of biomaterial sophistication have also dramatically increased as more knowledge has accumulated through materials science, matrix biology and tissue engineering. However, achieving clinical translation and commercial success requires regenerative biomaterials to be not only efficacious and safe but also cost-effective and convenient for use and production. Utilizing biomaterials of human origin as building blocks for therapeutic purposes has provided a facilitated approach that closely mimics the critical aspects of natural tissue with regard to its physical and chemical properties for the orchestration of wound healing and tissue regeneration. In addition to directly using tissue transfers and transplants for repair, new applications of human-derived biomaterials are now focusing on the use of naturally occurring biomacromolecules, decellularized ECM scaffolds and autologous preparations rich in growth factors/non-expanded stem cells to either target acceleration/magnification of the body's own repair capacity or use nature's paradigms to create new tissues for

  12. Status report on research on advanced fundamental engineering in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) has been promoting the cooperative research program on advanced fundamental engineering with the Japanese Universities. It is the 5th year of this program on 1999. JNC has been calling for the research themes of utilizing the equipment and facilities of JNC, which must be the leading research for the JNC projects. The expert committee has selected the issues from the applications of the universities; This report includes the list of the researches and individual summaries implemented in 1999, in which total 49 issues are categorized in the three fields, these are, fast breeder reactor, nuclear fuel cycle, and environment technology. The 26 issues are included in the field of fast breeder reactor. Topics in this area are neutron beam technology to measure voids, laser technology to detect failed fuel, ultra-sonic velocity meter to estimate passive cooling characteristics, behavior of sodium coolant in accidents, physics on TRU fuel, and mechanical and/or chemical characteristics on irradiated solid metals, ceramics and liquids. The 9 issues are included in the field of nuclear fuel cycle. Topics in this area are chemical erosion of material, computerized simulation on actinide by molecular orbit model, chemical stability on advanced reprocessing, laser technology to measure fuel particles, decomposition of fluoride oil, advanced dose evaluation. The 9 issues are included in the field of environment technology. Topics in this area are behavior of underground water, radioactivity ecology of plants, biochemical activities of microbes in deep bedrock. The individual report describes the title, related personnel, its time schedule, objectives, facilities, status, and references in the prearranged format. (Tanaka, T.)

  13. Bibliography of Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-01

    This report, published in two volumes, is a bibliography of the reports published at the Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (CANEL). The reports cover the period 1952 through 1965 and include the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion program, the Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor program, the Advanced Reactor Materials program and the SNAP-50 program. The bibliography contains the report number, title, author, date published, and classification. In some cases where the writing of a report was a group effort, and in some reports containing compilations of certain types of data, the author column is not applicable. This is indicated by a {open_quotes}n.a.{close_quotes} in the author column. The following types of reports are included: PWAC`s, TIM`s, CNLM`s, FXM`s and miscellaneous reports. PWAC and TIM reports conform to the requirements of AEC Manual Chapter 3202-041 and 3202-042, respectively. Most of the technical information of interest generated by this project is documented in these reports. CNLM and FXM reports were written primarily for internal distribution. However, these reports contain enough information of technical interest to warrant their inclusion. All CNLM`s and those FXM`s considered to be of interest are included in this bibliography. The MPR`s (Monthly Progress Reports) are the most important of the miscellaneous categories of reports. The other miscellaneous categories relate primarily to equipment and reactor specifications. The Division of Technical Information Extension (DTIE) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee has been designated as the primary recipient of the reports in the CANEL library. When more than one copy of a report was available, the additional copies were delivered to the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, California.

  14. Bibliography of Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-01

    This report, published in two, volumes, is a bibliography of the reports published at the Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (CANEL). The reports cover the period 1952 through 1965 and include the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion program, the Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor program, the Advanced Reactor Materials program and the SNAP-50 program. The bibliography contains the report number, title, author, date published, and classification. In some cases where the writing of a report was a group effort, and in some reports containing compilations of certain types of data, the author column is not applicable. This is indicated by a {open_quotes}n.a.{close_quotes} in the author column. The following types of reports are included: PWAC`s, TIM`s, CNLM`s. FXM`s and miscellaneous reports. PWAC and TIM reports conform to the requirements of AEC Manual Chapter 3202-041 and 3202-042, respectively. Most of the technical information of interest generated by this project is documented in these reports, CNLM and FXM reports were written primarily for internal distribution. However, these reports contain enough information of technical interest to warrant their inclusion. All CNLM`s and those FXM`s considered to be of interest are included in this bibliography. The MPR`s (Monthly Progress Reports) are the most important of the miscellaneous categories of reports. The other miscellaneous categories relate primarily to equipment and reactor specifications. The Division of Technical Information Extension (DTIE) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee has been designated as the primary recipient of the reports in the CANEL library. When more than one copy of a report was available, the additional copies were delivered to the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, California.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  16. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies

  17. Studies on an advanced repository system with enhanced engineered barriers (a framework)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Tashiro, S.; Ikari, S.; Suzuki, A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to propose advanced designs of repositories with enhanced engineered barriers of relatively high radioactive wastes such as burnable poisons, channel boxes, control rods and highly irradiated metals, studies started in 1987 and completed the first phase in 1992. This paper presents the framework and brief results of the first phase. The studies set preliminary design concepts of the repositories with various combinations with engineered barriers and natural barriers for different models and locations such as a silo type in shallow land or a tunnel type in intermediate depth. Through the designs, four component technics were picked up and studied for (1) construction of the components in repository; (2) performance evaluation to realize repository design; (3) improvement of circumstances inside or around repository; and (4) surveillance of repository performance to realize the repository designs. Finally, some repository systems were provided using obtained results, and then the applicability and the economy were evaluated. The studies will continue to the second phase focusing on the long-term performance of the repositories

  18. Preliminary analysis of start up characteristics on SPWR with NESSY (Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kyouya, Masahiko; Sako, Kiyoshi

    1993-09-01

    NESSY (Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem) has been developed to design advanced marine reactors. SPWR (System integrated PWR) has been designed by JAERI. It doesn't have control rod, and starts up by dilution of boron. we analyzed start up behavior of SPWR by NESSY, and evaluated the safety characteristics on start up and appropriate range of start up rate. (author)

  19. Notion Of Artificial Labs Slow Global Warming And Advancing Engine Studies Perspectives On A Computational Experiment On Dual-Fuel Compression-Ignition Engine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonye K. Jack

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate clean energy applications of the dual-fuel internal combustion engine D-FICE with pilot Diesel fuel to aid public policy formulation in terms of present and future benefits to the modern transportation stationary power and promotion of oil and gas green- drilling the brief to an engine research team was to investigate the feasible advantages of dual-fuel compression-ignition engines guided by the following concerns i Sustainable fuel and engine power delivery ii The requirements for fuel flexibility iii Low exhausts emissions and environmental pollution iv Achieving low specific fuel consumption and economy for maximum power v The comparative advantages over the conventional Diesel engines vi Thermo-economic modeling and analysis for the optimal blend as basis for a benefitcost evaluation Planned in two stages for reduced cost and fast turnaround of results - initial preliminary stage with basic simple models and advanced stage with more detailed complex modeling. The paper describes a simplified MATLAB based computational experiment predictive model for the thermodynamic combustion and engine performance analysis of dual-fuel compression-ignition engine studies operating on the theoretical limited-pressure cycle with several alternative fuel-blends. Environmental implications for extreme temperature moderation are considered by finite-time thermodynamic modeling for maximum power with predictions for pollutants formation and control by reaction rates kinetics analysis of systematic reduced plausible coupled chemistry models through the NCN reaction pathway for the gas-phase reactions classes of interest. Controllable variables for engine-out pollutants emissions reduction and in particular NOx elimination are identified. Verifications and Validations VampV through Performance Comparisons were made using a clinical approach in selection of StrokeBore ratios greater-than and equal-to one amp88051 low-to-high engine speeds and medium

  20. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Forester, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gertman, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Medema, Heather [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Persensky, Julius [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Whaley, April [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  1. Advancing the science of forest hydrology A challenge to agricultural and biological engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Wayne Skaggs; Carl Trettin

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, agricultural and biological engineers have provided major advances in science, engineering, and technology to increase food and fiber production to meet the demands of a rapidly growing global population. The land base for these technological advances has originated largely from forested lands, which have experienced dramatic declines over the...

  2. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  3. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  4. Application of the Advanced Distillation Curve Method to Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine Gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Jessica L.

    2015-07-16

    © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2015 by the American Chemical Society. Incremental but fundamental changes are currently being made to fuel composition and combustion strategies to diversify energy feedstocks, decrease pollution, and increase engine efficiency. The increase in parameter space (by having many variables in play simultaneously) makes it difficult at best to propose strategic changes to engine and fuel design by use of conventional build-and-test methodology. To make changes in the most time- and cost-effective manner, it is imperative that new computational tools and surrogate fuels are developed. Currently, sets of fuels are being characterized by industry groups, such as the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and other entities, so that researchers in different laboratories have access to fuels with consistent properties. In this work, six gasolines (FACE A, C, F, G, I, and J) are characterized by the advanced distillation curve (ADC) method to determine the composition and enthalpy of combustion in various distillate volume fractions. Tracking the composition and enthalpy of distillate fractions provides valuable information for determining structure property relationships, and moreover, it provides the basis for the development of equations of state that can describe the thermodynamic properties of these complex mixtures and lead to development of surrogate fuels composed of major hydrocarbon classes found in target fuels.

  5. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, T.H.; Gehner, P.D.; Stegen, Gary; Hymas, Jay; Pajunen, A.L.; Sexton, Rich; Ramsey, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  6. Transportation engineering advancement and mentoring program : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The numbers of female and minority students enrolled in engineering schools are increasing slowly; however, there are still : relatively small percentages drawn to the field of transportation civil engineering. As a consequence, there is a need to ed...

  7. Advanced Prop-fan Engine Technology (APET) single- and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. N.

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary design of advanced technology (1992) turboprop engines for single-rotation prop-fans and conceptual designs of pitch change mechanisms for single- and counter-rotation prop-fan application are discussed. The single-rotation gearbox is a split path, in-line configuration. The counter-rotation gearbox is an in-line, differential planetary design. The pitch change mechanisms for both the single- and counter-rotation arrangements are rotary/hydraulic. The advanced technology single-rotation gearbox yields a 2.4 percent improvement in aircraft fuel burn and a one percent improvement in operating cost relative to a current technology gearbox. The 1992 counter-rotation gearbox is 15 percent lighter, 15 percent more reliable, 5 percent lower in cost, and 45 percent lower in maintenance cost than the 1992 single-rotation gearbox. The pitch controls are modular, accessible, and external.

  8. Fish-Friendly Hydropower Turbine Development & Deployment: Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, J. [Voith Hydro, Inc., York, PA (USA); Hecker, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Li, S. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Allen, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA)

    2011-10-01

    The Alden turbine was developed through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) former Advanced Hydro Turbine Systems Program (1994-2006) and, more recently, through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the DOE's Wind & Water Power Program. The primary goal of the engineering study described here was to provide a commercially competitive turbine design that would yield fish passage survival rates comparable to or better than the survival rates of bypassing or spilling flow. Although the turbine design was performed for site conditions corresponding to 92 ft (28 m) net head and a discharge of 1500 cfs (42.5 cms), the design can be modified for additional sites with differing operating conditions. During the turbine development, design modifications were identified for the spiral case, distributor (stay vanes and wicket gates), runner, and draft tube to improve turbine performance while maintaining features for high fish passage survival. Computational results for pressure change rates and shear within the runner passage were similar in the original and final turbine geometries, while predicted minimum pressures were higher for the final turbine. The final turbine geometry and resulting flow environments are expected to further enhance the fish passage characteristics of the turbine. Computational results for the final design were shown to improve turbine efficiencies by over 6% at the selected operating condition when compared to the original concept. Prior to the release of the hydraulic components for model fabrication, finite element analysis calculations were conducted for the stay vanes, wicket gates, and runner to verify that structural design criteria for stress and deflections were met. A physical model of the turbine was manufactured and tested with data collected for power and efficiency, cavitation limits, runaway speed, axial and radial thrust, pressure pulsations, and wicket gate torque. All parameters were observed to fall

  9. Preliminary conceptual designs for advanced packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    The present study assumes that the spent fuel will be disposed of in mined repositories in continental geologic formations, and that the post-emplacement control of the radioactive species will be accomplished independently by both the natural barrier, i.e., the geosphere, and the engineered barrier system, i.e., the package components consisting of the stabilizer, the canister, and the overpack; and the barrier components external to the package consisting of the hole sleeve and the backfill medium. The present document provides an overview of the nature of the spent fuel waste; the general approach to waste containment, using the defense-in-depth philosophy; material options, both metallic and nonmetallic, for the components of the engineered barrier system; a set of strawman criteria to guide the development of package/engineered barrier systems; and four preliminary concepts representing differing approaches to the solution of the containment problem. These concepts use: a corrosion-resistant meta canister in a special backfill (2 barriers); a mild steel canister in a corrosion-resistant metallic or nonmetallic hole sleeve, surrounded by a special backfill (2 barriers); a corrosion-resistant canister and a corrosion-resistant overpack (or hole sleeve) in a special backfill (3 barriers); and a mild steel canister in a massive corrosion-resistant bore sleeve surrounded by a polymer layer and a special backfill (3 barriers). The lack of definitive performance requirements makes it impossible to evaluate these concepts on a functional basis at the present time.

  10. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials (1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF 4 or ThF 4 or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF 3 or PuF 4 as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. Preliminary design studies

  11. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J

    2008-10-23

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials [1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF{sub 4} or ThF{sub 4} or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF{sub 3} or PuF{sub 4} as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory

  12. Recent advances in electrical engineering and control applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bououden, Sofiane; Zelinka, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This book of proceedings includes papers presenting the state of art in electrical engineering and control theory as well as their applications. The topics focus on classical as well as modern methods for modeling, control, identification and simulation of complex systems with applications in science and engineering. The papers were selected from the hottest topic areas, such as control and systems engineering, renewable energy, faults diagnosis—faults tolerant control, large-scale systems, fractional order systems, unconventional algorithms in control engineering, signals and communications. The control and design of complex systems dynamics, analysis and modeling of its behavior and structure is vitally important in engineering, economics and in science generally science today. Examples of such systems can be seen in the world around us and are a part of our everyday life. Application of modern methods for control, electronics, signal processing and more can be found in our mobile phones, car engines, hom...

  13. Proceedings of the 1987 coatings for advanced heat engines workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This Workshop was conducted to enhance communication among those involved in coating development for improved heat engine performance and durability. We were fortunate to have Bill Goward review the steady progress and problems encountered along the way in the use of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in aircraft gas turbine engines. Navy contractors discussed their work toward the elusive goal of qualifying TBC for turbine airfoil applications. In the diesel community, Caterpillar and Cummins are developing TBC for combustion chamber components as part of the low heat rejection diesel engine concept. The diesel engine TBC work is based on gas turbine technology with a goal of more than twice the thickness used on gas turbine engine components. Adoption of TBC in production for diesel engines could justify a new generation of plasma spray coating equipment. Increasing interests in tribology were evident in this Workshop. Coatings have a significant role in reducing friction and wear under greater mechanical loadings at higher temperatures. The emergence of a high temperature synthetic lubricant could have an enormous impact on diesel engine design and operating conditions. The proven coating processes such as plasma spray, electron-beam physical vapor deposition, sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition have shown enhanced capabilities, particularly with microprocessor controls. Also, the newer coating schemes such as ion implantation and cathodic arc are demonstrating intriguing potential for engine applications. Coatings will play an expanding role in higher efficiency, more durable heat engines.

  14. Nano-Engineered Hierarchical Advanced Composite Materials for Space Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Composites are widely used throughout aerospace engineering and in numerous other applications where structures that possess high strength and toughness properties...

  15. Preliminary collection 891 of lectures/papers in symposium by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan. Jidosha gijutsukai gakujutsu koenkai maezurishu 891

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-29

    This preliminary collection collected lectures given and papers presented in the symposium by the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan to be held in May, 1989. Totally 86 papers, together with two basic lectures, were presented therein. The categories comprise two basic lectures titled Future problems on CVT and automatic transmission and Advances of gasoline engine and measuring techniques, ten papers for the gasoline engine, covering the supercharger, air/fuel mixture, noise, bore deformation, etc., ten papers for the diesel engine, covering the exhaust gas, supercharger, methanol engine, etc., ten papers for the car body, covering the aerodynamical characteristics and movement of car body, movement analysis of motor bicycle, head lamp, painting, etc., ten papers for the car parts, ten papers for the fuel injection, ten papers for the engine parts, covering the piston, oil ring, cylinder, connecting rod, plug, rotary, car heater, etc., three papers for the car production, covering the line control, welding, production method, etc., seven papers for the car steering and stability, eight papers for the vibration and noise attenuation and three papers for the others. 370 refs., 857 figs., 100 tabs.

  16. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  17. Preliminary assessment of safeguardability on the concepture design of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ha, Jang Ho; Ko, Won Il; Song, Dae Yong; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-04-01

    In this report, a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) was conducted with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The proposed ACP concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuels into metal forms, which can achieve significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel to be stored and disposed of. For the safeguardability analysis of the ACP facility, sub-processes and their KMPs (Key Measurement Points) were defined first, and then their material flows were analyzed. Finally, the standard deviation of the Inventory Difference (ID) value of the facility was estimated with assumption by assuming international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods and their uncertainty. From the preliminary calculation, we concluded that if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility, the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met. In the second phase of this study, further study on sensitivity analyses considering various factors such as measurement errors, facility capacities, MBA periods etc. may be needed

  18. Preliminary assessment of safeguardability on the concepture design of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ha, Jang Ho; Ko, Won Il; Song, Dae Yong; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-04-01

    In this report, a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) was conducted with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The proposed ACP concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuels into metal forms, which can achieve significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel to be stored and disposed of. For the safeguardability analysis of the ACP facility, sub-processes and their KMPs (Key Measurement Points) were defined first, and then their material flows were analyzed. Finally, the standard deviation of the Inventory Difference (ID) value of the facility was estimated with assumption by assuming international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods and their uncertainty. From the preliminary calculation, we concluded that if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility, the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met. In the second phase of this study, further study on sensitivity analyses considering various factors such as measurement errors, facility capacities, MBA periods etc. may be needed.

  19. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project: Semiannual progress report for April through September 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    An assessment of needs was completed, and a five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. Objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  20. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  1. Artificial Sight Basic Research, Biomedical Engineering, and Clinical Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Humayun, Mark S; Chader, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Artificial sight is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology combining the multidisciplinary skills of surgical ophthalmology, biomedical engineering, biological physics, and psychophysical testing. Many scientific, engineering, and surgical challenges must be surmounted before widespread practical applications can be realized. The goal of Artificial Sight is to summarize the state-of-the-art research in this exciting area, and to describe some of the current approaches and initiatives that may help patients in a clinical setting. The Editors are active researchers in the fields of artificial sight, biomedical engineering and biological physics. They have received numerous professional awards and recognition for their work. The artificial sight team at the Doheny Eye Institute, led by Dr. Mark Humayun, is a world leader in this area of biomedical engineering and clinical research. Key Features Introduces and assesses the state of the art for a broad audience of biomedical engineers, biophysicists, and clinical...

  2. CRISPR/Cas9 advances engineering of microbial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociunas, Tadas; Jensen, Michael Krogh; Keasling, Jay D.

    2016-01-01

    interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) have become the method of choice for precision genome engineering in many organisms due to their orthogonality, versatility and efficacy. Here we review the strategies adopted for implementation of RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing......-RNAs will be highlighted. Finally, this review will provide a perspective on the immediate challenges and opportunities foreseen by the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering and regulation in the context of metabolic engineering....

  3. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  4. LASL experimental engineered waste burial facility: design considerations and preliminary plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The LASL Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a part of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program on Shallow-Land Burial Technology. It is a test facility where basic information can be obtained on the processes that occur in shallow-land burial operations and where new concepts for shallow-land burial can be tested on an accelerated basis on an appropriate scale. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the factors considered in the design of the facility and to present a preliminary description of the experiments that are initially planned. This will be done by discussing waste management philosophies, the purposes of the facility in the context of the waste management philosophy for the facility, and the design considerations, and by describing the experiments initially planned for inclusion in the facility, and the facility site

  5. Optimal design of Stirling heat engine using an advanced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R V Rao

    The comparisons of the proposed algorithm are made with those obtained by using the decision-making methods like linear ... cooling water and had improved the thermal efficiency of ... integrated system of a free-piston Stirling engine and an.

  6. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gurpreet [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  7. Preliminary investigation of airgap electrospun silk-fibroin-based structures for ligament analogue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, S A; McClure, M J; Ayres, C E; Simpson, D G; Bowlin, G L

    2011-01-01

    The process of electrospinning has proven to be highly beneficial for use in a number of tissue-engineering applications due to its ease of use, flexibility and tailorable properties. There have been many publications on the creation of aligned fibrous structures created through various forms of electrospinning, most involving the use of a metal target rotating at high speeds. This work focuses on the use of a variation known as airgap electrospinning, which does not use a metal collecting target but rather a pair of grounded electrodes equidistant from the charged polymer solution to create highly aligned 3D structures. This study involved a preliminary investigation and comparison of traditionally and airgap electrospun silk-fibroin-based ligament constructs. Structures were characterized with SEM and alignment FFT, and underwent porosity, permeability, and mechanical anisotropy evaluation. Preliminary cell culture with human dermal fibroblasts was performed to determine the degree of cellular orientation and penetration. Results showed airgap electrospun structures to be anisotropic with significantly increased porosity and cellular penetration compared to their traditionally electrospun counterparts.

  8. A preliminary survey of the National Wetlands Inventory as mapped for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, N.L.; Rope, R.C.; Glennon, J.M.; Moor, K.S.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately 135 areas within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been mapped as wetland habitat as part of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). A preliminary survey of these wetlands was conducted to examine their general characteristics and status, to provide an estimation of relative ecological importance, to identify additional information needed to complete ecological characterization of important INEL wetlands, and to identify high priority wetland areas on the INEL. The purpose of the survey was to provide information to support the preparation of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Information characterizing general vegetation, hydrology, wildlife use, and archaeology was collected at 105 sample sites on the INEL. Sites representing NWI palustrine, lacustrine, and riverine wetlands (including manmade), and areas unmapped or unclassified by the NWI were included in the sample. The field information was used to develop a preliminary ranking of relative ecological importance for each wetland visited during this survey. Survey limitations are identified

  9. Advanced materials and protective coatings in aero-engines application

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hetmańczyk; L. Swadźba; B. Mendala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The following article demonstrates the characteristics of the materials applied as parts of aircraft engine turbines and the stationary gas turbines. The principal technologies for manufacturing the heat resistant coatings and the erosion and corrosion resistant coatings were characterized. Sample applications for the aforementioned coatings are presented: on turbine blades, compressor blades and on parts of combustion chambers of aircraft engines.Design/methodology/approach: The nic...

  10. Advances in Metabolic Engineering of Cyanobacteria for Photosynthetic Biochemical Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Martin C.; Lan, Ethan I.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering cyanobacteria into photosynthetic microbial cell factories for the production of biochemicals and biofuels is a promising approach toward sustainability. Cyanobacteria naturally grow on light and carbon dioxide, bypassing the need of fermentable plant biomass and arable land. By tapping into the central metabolism and rerouting carbon flux towards desirable compound production, cyanobacteria are engineered to directly convert CO2 into various chemicals. This review discusses the d...

  11. Advanced thermal management of diesel engines; Neues Thermomanagement beim Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Wolfgang; Becker, Michael [BorgWarner, Ludwigsburg (Germany). Konzernvorentwicklung fuer Pkw-Antriebssysteme; Shutty, John [BorgWarner, Auburn Hills (United States). Regelung und Simulation in der Konzernvorentwicklung

    2013-05-01

    The potential of thermal management with respect to CO{sub 2} reduction is given by faster warm-up of engine and drivetrain, reduced losses from water pump and fan and finally the operation of the engine in an optimal temperature range. In a new approach, BorgWarner applies a variable coolant pump and a controlled coolant valve to a conventional cooling system. Both components, as well as the viscous fan clutch, are controlled by a newly developed controls approach.

  12. CORONA DISCHARGE IGNITION FOR ADVANCED STATIONARY NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul D. Ronney

    2003-09-12

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. This corona generator is adaptable for use as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions. Work is underway to design a corona electrode that will fit in the new test engine and be capable igniting the mixture in one cylinder at first and eventually in all four cylinders. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder. With this configuration it will be possible to switch between corona ignition and conventional spark plug ignition without making any mechanical modifications.

  13. Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence: The Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    As NASA undertakes increasingly complex projects, the need for expert systems engineers and leaders in systems engineering is becoming more pronounced. As a result of this issue, the Agency has undertaken an initiative to develop more systems engineering leaders through its Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program; however, the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer has also called on the field Centers to develop mechanisms to strengthen their expertise in systems engineering locally. In response to this call, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a comprehensive development program for aspiring systems engineers and systems engineering leaders. This presentation will summarize the two-level program, which consists of a combination of training courses and on-the-job, developmental training assignments at the Center to help develop stronger expertise in systems engineering and technical leadership. In addition, it will focus on the success the program has had in its pilot year. The program hosted a formal kickoff event for Level I on October 13, 2009. The first class includes 42 participants from across MSFC and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). A formal call for Level II is forthcoming. With the new Agency focus on research and development of new technologies, having a strong pool of well-trained systems engineers is becoming increasingly more critical. Programs such as the Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, as well as those developed at other Centers, help ensure that there is an upcoming generation of trained systems engineers and systems engineering leaders to meet future design challenges.

  14. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF DIESEL ENGINE THROUGH VARIOUS ADVANCEMENTS IN TURBOCHARGING TECHNOLOGY: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Sherwani

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of various advancements in turbocharging technology on diesel engine power, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency and emissions are reviewed and analyzed.Turbochargers are used throughout the automotive industry to enhance the output of an internal combustion engine without increasing the cylinder capacity. The emphasis today is to provide a feasible engineering solution to manufacturing economics and greener road vehicles. It is because of thes...

  15. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis fueled by systems biology: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    By combining advanced omics technology and computational modeling, systems biologists have identified and inferred thousands of regulatory events and system-wide interactions of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is commonly used both in the laboratory and in industry. This dissection of the multiple layers of regulatory networks and their interactions has provided invaluable information for unraveling regulatory mechanisms and guiding metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the systems biology and metabolic engineering of B. subtilis and highlight current gaps in our understanding of global metabolism and global pathway engineering in this organism. We also propose future perspectives in the systems biology of B. subtilis and suggest ways that this approach can be used to guide metabolic engineering. Specifically, although hundreds of regulatory events have been identified or inferred via systems biology approaches, systematic investigation of the functionality of these events in vivo has lagged, thereby preventing the elucidation of regulatory mechanisms and further rational pathway engineering. In metabolic engineering, ignoring the engineering of multilayer regulation hinders metabolic flux redistribution. Post-translational engineering, allosteric engineering, and dynamic pathway analyses and control will also contribute to the modulation and control of the metabolism of engineered B. subtilis, ultimately producing the desired cellular traits. We hope this review will aid metabolic engineers in making full use of available systems biology datasets and approaches for the design and perfection of microbial cell factories through global metabolism optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advances and prospects in metabolic engineering of Zymomonas mobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; He, Qiaoning; Yang, Yongfu; Wang, Jingwen; Haning, Katie; Hu, Yun; Wu, Bo; He, Mingxiong; Zhang, Yaoping; Bao, Jie; Contreras, Lydia M; Yang, Shihui

    2018-04-05

    Biorefinery of biomass-based biofuels and biochemicals by microorganisms is a competitive alternative of traditional petroleum refineries. Zymomonas mobilis is a natural ethanologen with many desirable characteristics, which makes it an ideal industrial microbial biocatalyst for commercial production of desirable bioproducts through metabolic engineering. In this review, we summarize the metabolic engineering progress achieved in Z. mobilis to expand its substrate and product ranges as well as to enhance its robustness against stressful conditions such as inhibitory compounds within the lignocellulosic hydrolysates and slurries. We also discuss a few metabolic engineering strategies that can be applied in Z. mobilis to further develop it as a robust workhorse for economic lignocellulosic bioproducts. In addition, we briefly review the progress of metabolic engineering in Z. mobilis related to the classical synthetic biology cycle of "Design-Build-Test-Learn", as well as the progress and potential to develop Z. mobilis as a model chassis for biorefinery practices in the synthetic biology era. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 3: Engine data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The engine operating characteristics were examined. Inlet pressure effects, tank pressurization effects, steady-state specific impulse, and the steady-state cycle were studied. The propellant flow schematic and operating sequence are presented. Engine hardware drawings are included.

  18. Production of biopharmaceutical proteins by yeast: Advances through metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Production of recombinant proteins for use as pharmaceuticals, so-called biopharmaceuticals, is a multi-billion dollar industry. Many different cell factories are used for the production of biopharmaceuticals, but the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important cell factory as it is used for p...... production. The involvement of directed metabolic engineering through the integration of tools from genetic engineering, systems biology and mathematical modeling, is also discussed....... by yeast are human serum albumin, hepatitis vaccines and virus like particles used for vaccination against human papillomavirus. Here is given a brief overview of biopharmaceutical production by yeast and it is discussed how the secretory pathway can be engineered to ensure more efficient protein...

  19. Recent advances in benefits and hazards of engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radad, Khaled; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; Moldzio, Rudolf; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2012-11-01

    Over recent decades, engineered nanoparticles are increasingly produced as the result of the rapid development in nanotechnology. They are currently used in a wide range of industrial and public sectors including healthcare, agriculture, transport, energy, materials, and information and communication technologies. As the result, an increasing concern has been raised over the potential impacts of engineered nanoparticles to human health. In the light of this, it is the purpose of the present review to discuss: (1) novel properties of engineered nanoparticles particularly in biomedical sciences, (2) most recently reported adverse effects of manufactured nanoparticles on human health and (3) different aspects of toxicological risk assessment of these nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary analysis of engineered barrieer performances in geological disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Maki, Yasuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Motoi.

    1988-01-01

    This report represents preliminary results of safety analysis of a engineered barrier system in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three well-known computer codes; ORIGEN 2, TRUMP, and SWIFT were used in the simulation. Main conceptual design of the repository was almost identical to that of SKB in Sweden and NAGRA in Switzerland; the engineered barrier conasists glass solidified waste, steel overpack, and compacted bentonite. Two different underground formations are considered; granite and neogene sedimentary rock, which are typically found in Japan. We first determined the repository configuration, particularly the space between disposal pitts. The ORIGEN 2 was used to estimate heat generation in the waste glass reprocessed at 4 years after removal from PWR. Then, temperature distribution was calculated by the TRUMP. The results of two or three dimensional calculation indicated that the pit interval should be kept more than 5 m in the case of granite formation at 500 m depth, according to the temperature criteria in the bentonite layer ( 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239 Pu, and 237 Np were chosen in one or two dimensional calculations. For both cases of steady release and instanteneous release, the maximum concentration in the pore water at the boundary between bentonite and surrounding rock had the following order; 237 Np> 239 Pu> 90 Sr> 241 Am. Sensitivity analysis showed that the order mainly due to the different adsorption characteristics of the nuclides in bentonite layer. (author)

  1. Advanced FDTD methods parallelization, acceleration, and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has revolutionized antenna design and electromagnetics engineering. Here's a cutting-edge book that focuses on the performance optimization and engineering applications of FDTD simulation systems. Covering the latest developments in this area, this unique resource offer you expert advice on the FDTD method, hardware platforms, and network systems. Moreover the book offers guidance in distinguishing between the many different electromagnetics software packages on the market today. You also find a complete chapter dedicated to large multi-scale pro

  2. Recent advances in rational approaches for enzyme engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Steiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are an attractive alternative in the asymmetric syntheses of chiral building blocks. To meet the requirements of industrial biotechnology and to introduce new functionalities, the enzymes need to be optimized by protein engineering. This article specifically reviews rational approaches for enzyme engineering and de novo enzyme design involving structure-based approaches developed in recent years for improvement of the enzymes’ performance, broadened substrate range, and creation of novel functionalities to obtain products with high added value for industrial applications.

  3. 2000 Annual Progress Report for Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S.

    2000-12-11

    The Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 Annual Progress Report for the Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells Program highlights progress achieved during FY 2000 and comprises 22 summaries of industry and National Laboratory projects that were conducted. The report provides an overview of the exciting work being conducted to tackle the tough technical challenges associated with developing clean burning fuels that will enable meeting the performance goals of the Emission Control R and D for Advanced CIDI Engines and the Transportation Fuel Cell Power Systems Programs. The summaries cover the effects of CIDI engine emissions and fuel cell power system performance, the effects of lubricants on engine emissions, the effects of fuel and consumed lubricants on exhaust emission control devices and the health and safety, materials compatibility, and economics of advanced petroleum-based fuels.

  4. Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwafor, O.M.I.; Rice, G.; Ogbonna, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion studies on both diesel fuel and vegetable oil fuels, with the standard and advanced injection timing, were carried out using the same engine and test procedures so that comparative assessments may be made. The diesel engine principle demands self-ignition of the fuel as it is injected at some degrees before top dead centre (BTDC) into the hot compressed cylinder gas. Longer delays between injection and ignition lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock because too much fuel is ready to take part in premixed combustion. Alternative fuels have been noted to exhibit longer delay periods and slower burning rate especially at low load operating conditions hence resulting in late combustion in the expansion stroke. Advanced injection timing is expected to compensate these effects. The engine has standard injection timing of 30degC BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5degC given injection timing of 35.5degC BTDC. The engine performance was very erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5degC and the effects are presented in this paper. The engine performance was smooth especially at low load levels. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. Moderate advanced injection timing is recommended for low speed operations. (Author)

  5. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Ligament: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dedicated Multi-Chamber Tension-Torsion Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric P. Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering may constitute a promising alternative to current strategies in ligament repair, providing that suitable scaffolds and culture conditions are proposed. The objective of the present contribution is to present the design and instrumentation of a novel multi-chamber tension-torsion bioreactor dedicated to ligament tissue engineering. A preliminary biological evaluation of a new braided scaffold within this bioreactor under dynamic loading is reported, starting with the development of a dedicated seeding protocol validated from static cultures. The results of these preliminary biological characterizations confirm that the present combination of scaffold, seeding protocol and bioreactor may enable us to head towards a suitable ligament tissue-engineered construct.

  6. Maltose conjugation to PCL: Advanced structural characterization and preliminary biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Valeria; Guizzardi, Roberto; Russo, Laura; Pastori, Valentina; Lecchi, Marzia; Franchi, Stefano; Iucci, Giovanna; Battocchio, Chiara; Cipolla, Laura

    2018-05-01

    The emerging trends in regenerative medicine rely among others on biomaterial-based therapies, with the use of biomaterials as a central delivery system for biochemical and physical cues to manipulate transplanted or ingrowth cells and to orchestrate tissue regeneration. Cell adhesion properties of a biomaterial strongly depend on its surface characteristics. Among others poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is a biocompatible and biodegradable material with low cytotoxicity that is widely adopted as synthetic polymer in several applications. However, it is hydrophobic, which limits its use in tissue engineering. In order to improve its hydrophilicity and cellular compatibility, PCL surface was grafted with maltose through a two-step procedure in which controlled aminolysis of PCL ester bonds by hexanediamine was followed by reductive amination with the carbohydrate reducing end. The modified PCL surface was then characterized in detail by x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Near Edge x-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopies. In addition, the biocompatibility of the proposed biomaterial was investigated in preliminary biological assays.

  7. Advances for laser ignition of internal combustion and rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2011-01-01

    The scope of the PhD thesis presented here is the investigation of theoretical and practical aspects of laser-induced spark ignition and laser thermal ignition. Laser ignition systems are currently undergoing a rapidly development with growing intensity involving more and more research groups who mainly concentrate on the field of car and large combustion engines. This research is primarily driven by the engagement to meet the increasingly strict emission limits and by the intention to use the limited energy reserves more efficiently. For internal combustion engines, laser plasma-induced ignition will allow to combine the goals for legally required reductions of pollutant emissions and higher engine efficiencies. Also for rocket engines laser ignition turns out to be very attractive. A highly reliable ignition system like laser ignition would represent an option for introducing non-toxic propellants in order to replace highly toxic and carcinogenic hydrazine-based propellants commonly used in launch vehicle upper stages and satellites. The most important results on laser ignition and laser plasma generation, accomplished by the author and, in some respects, enriched by cooperation with colleagues are presented in the following. The emphasis of this thesis is placed on the following issues: - Two-color effects on laser plasma generation - Theoretical considerations about the focal volume concerning plasma generation - Plasma transmission experiments - Ignition experiments on laser-induced ignition - Ignition experiments on thermally-induced ignition - Feasibility study on laser ignition of rocket engines The purpose of the two-color laser plasma experiments is to investigate possible constructive interference effects of driving fields that are not monochromatic, but contain (second) harmonic radiation with respect to the goal of lowering the plasma generation threshold. Such effects have been found in a number of related processes, such as laser ablation or high

  8. Adapting advanced engineering design approaches to building design - potential benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopfe, C.J.; Struck, C.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Böhms, M.

    2006-01-01

    A number of industries continuously progress advancing their design approaches based on the changing market constraints. Examples such as car, ship and airplane manufacturing industries utilize process setups and techniques, that differ significantly from the processes and techniques used by the

  9. Adapting advanced engineering design approaches to building design. Potential benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhms, M.

    2006-01-01

    A number of industries continuously progress advancing their design approaches based on the changing market constraints. Examples such as car, ship and airplane manufacturing industries utilize process setups and techniques, that differ significantly from the processes and techniques used by the

  10. Engineering industrial yeast for renewable advanced biofuels applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development due to its unique genomic background and robust performance in fermentation-based production. In order to meet challenges of renewable and sustainable advanced biofuels conversion including ...

  11. Preliminary conceptual design and cost estimation for Korea Advanced Pyroprocessing Facility Plus (KAPF+)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il, E-mail: nwiko@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Hee, E-mail: nhhlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sungyeol, E-mail: csy@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ki, E-mail: sgkim1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Heung, E-mail: b.h.park@ut.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, 50 Daehak-ro, Chungju-si, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Jik, E-mail: hyojik@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Tae, E-mail: nitkim@kaeri.re.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, 50 Daehak-ro, Chungju-si, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Han Soo, E-mail: hslee5@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design is created for a pilot pyroprocessing plant treating PWR spent fuel. • Pilot-scale design is based on a capacity of 400 tHM/yr with 60 years lifetime. • All individual processes are integrated into a single system from feed to products. • Overall facility design is developed for a pilot pyroprocessing plant. • Unit process cost is estimated for pyroprocessing with uncertainties. - Abstract: Korea has developed pyroprocessing technology as a potential option for recycling spent fuels (SFs) from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The pyroprocessing consists of various key unit processes and a number of research activities have been focused on each process. However, to realize the whole pyroprocessing concept, there is a critical need for integrating the individual developments and addressing a material flow from feed to final products. In addition, the advancement on overall facility design is an indispensable aspect for demonstration and commercialization of the pyroprocessing. In this study, a facility named as Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility Plus (KAPF+) is conceptualized with a capacity of 400 tHM/yr. The process steps are categorized based on their own characteristics while the capacities of process equipment are determined based on the current technical levels. The facility concept with a site layout of 104,000 m{sup 2} is developed by analyzing the operation conditions and materials treated in each process. As an economic approach to the proposed facility, the unit cost (781 $/kgHM denominated in 2009 USD) for KAPF+ is also analyzed with the conceptual design with preliminary sensitivity assessments including decontamination and decommissioning costs, a discount rate, staffing costs, and plant lifetime. While classifying and describing cost details of KAPF+, this study compares the unit cost of KAPF+ treating PWR SF to that of the pyroprocessing facility treating sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) SF.

  12. ADVANCED APPROACH TO PRODUCTION WORKFLOW COMPOSITION ON ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE PORTALS

    OpenAIRE

    Novogrudska, Rina; Kot, Tatyana; Globa, Larisa; Schill, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the environment of engineering knowledge portals great amount of partial workflows is concentrated. Such workflows are composed into general workflow aiming to perform real complex production task. Characteristics of partial workflows and general workflow structure are not studied enough, that affects the impossibility of general production workflowdynamic composition.Objective. Creating an approach to the general production workflow dynamic composition based on the partial wor...

  13. Jet Engines - The New Masters of Advanced Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Or, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    ANTICIPATED UNITED STATES CONGRESS ACT should lead to reversing a neglected duty to the people by supporting FAA induced bill to civilize classified military air combat technology to maximize flight safety of airliners and cargo jet transports, in addition to FAA certifying pilots to master Jet-Engine Steering ("JES") as automatic or pilot recovery when Traditional Aerodynamic-only Flight Control ("TAFC") fails to prevent a crash and other related damages

  14. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-04-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation in to the development of new models and guidance for concepts of operations (ConOps) in advanced small modular reactor (aSMR) designs. In support of this objective, three important research areas were included: operating principles of multi-modular plants, functional allocation models and strategies that would affect the development of new, non-traditional concept of operations, and the requiremetns for human performance, based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements. As part of the approach for this report, we outline potential functions, including the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a new functional allocation model and the identification of specific regulatory requirements that will influence the development of future concept of operations. The report also highlights changes in research strategy prompted by confirmationof the importance of applying the work domain analysis methodology to a reference aSMR design. It is described how this methodology will enrich the findings from this phase of the project in the subsequent phases and help in identification of metrics and focused studies for the determination of human performance criteria that can be used to support the design process.

  15. Preliminary design of the beam loss monitor system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The preliminary design of the beam loss monitor for the ANL Advanced Photon Source is based on the use of an air dielectric coaxial cable as a long ionization chamber. Each coaxial cable section uses a high sensitivity DC current-to-voltage converter with both linear and integrating ranges. Pulse timing circuits determine the positions of individual losses by measuring the time at which the resulting voltage pulses arrive at the beginning of the coaxial ionization chamber. A possible timing ambiguity can be removed by correlating the particle bunch timing with the resulting voltage pulse timing. Measurements have shown that pulse rise times less than 15 nanoseconds can be obtained, so that determining loss locations to better than 7 feet may be possible. Best performance may be obtained when 500 VDC is applied to a 50-ohm, 7/8-inch air dielectric coaxial cable filled with approximately 8 psig of a 95% argon, 5% carbon dioxide gas mixture. Cable lengths will be between 100 and 300 feet long, depending on the part of the accelerator being monitored

  16. Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.

  17. Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, J.; West, B.; Toops, T.; Adelman, B. (Navistar, Inc.); Derybowski, E. (Navistar, Inc.)

    2011-09-30

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT, also known as NOx adsorber catalyst) regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  18. NASA universities advanced space design program, focus on nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F. III; George, J.A.; Alred, J.W.; Peddicord, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    In January 1985, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in affiliation with the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), inaugurated the NASA Universities Advanced Space Design Program. The purpose of the program was to encourage participating universities to utilize design projects for the senior and graduate level design courses that would focus on topics relevant to the nation's space program. The activities and projects being carried out under the NASA Universities Advanced Space Design Program are excellent experiences for the participants. This program is a well-conceived, well-planned effort to achieve the maximum benefit out of not only the university design experience but also of the subsequent summer programs. The students in the university design classes have the opportunity to investigate dramatic and new concepts, which at the same time have a place in a program of national importance. This program could serve as a very useful model for the development of university interaction with other federal agencies

  19. Effect of advanced injection timing on emission characteristics of diesel engine running on natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwafor, O.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State (Nigeria)

    2007-11-15

    There has been a growing concern on the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, whose consequence is global warming. The sources of greenhouse gases have been identified, of which the major contributor is the combustion of fossil fuel. Researchers have intensified efforts towards identifying greener alternative fuel substitutes for the present fossil fuel. Natural gas is now being investigated as potential alternative fuel for diesel engines. Natural gas appears more attractive due to its high octane number and perhaps, due to its environmental friendly nature. The test results showed that alternative fuels exhibit longer ignition delay, with slow burning rates. Longer delays will lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock. This work examines the effect of advanced injection timing on the emission characteristics of dual-fuel engine. The engine has standard injection timing of 30 BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5 and given injection timing of 35.5 BTDC. The engine performance was erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5 . The engine performance was smooth on this timing especially at low loading conditions. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection timing but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. The CO and CO{sub 2} emissions were reduced through advanced injection timing. (author)

  20. 4+D digital engineering for advanced nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, S. G.; Suh, K. Y.; Nam, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) require massive quantity of data during the design, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning stages because of their special features like size, cost, radioactivity, and so forth. The system engineering thus calls for a fully automated way of managing the information flow spanning their life cycle. In line with practice in disciplines of naval architecture, aerospace engineering, and automotive manufacturing, the paper proposes total digital systems engineering based on three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) models. The signature in the proposal lies with the four-plus-dimensional (4 + D) Technology T M, a critical know-how for digital management. The so-called OPIUM (Optimized Plant Integrated Ubiquitous Management) features a 4 + D Technology T M for nuclear energy systems engineering. The technology proposed in the 3D space and time plus cost coordinates, i.e. 4 + D, is the backbone of digital engineering in the nuclear systems design and management. Based on an integrated 3D configuration management system, OPIUM consists of solutions NOTUS (Nuclear Optimization Technique Ubiquitous System), VENUS (Virtual Engineering Nuclear Ubiquitous System), INUUS (Informatics Nuclear Utilities Ubiquitous System), JANUS (Junctional Analysis Numerical Ubiquitous System) and EURUS (Electronic Unit Research Ubiquitous System). These solutions will help initial simulation capability for NPPs to supply the crucial information. NOTUS contributes to reducing the construction cost of the NPPs by optimizing the component manufacturing procedure and the plant construction process. Planning and scheduling construction projects can thus benefit greatly by integrating traditional management techniques with digital process simulation visualization. The 3D visualization of construction processes and the resulting products intrinsically afford most of the advantages realized by incorporating a purely schedule level detail based the 4

  1. Development of Advanced Carbon Face Seals for Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaleev, S. V.; Bondarchuk, P. V.; Tisarev, A. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Modern aircraft gas turbine engines require the development of seals which can operate for a long time with low leakages. The basic type of seals applied for gas turbine engine rotor supports is face seal. To meet the modern requirements of reliability, leak-tightness and weight, low-leakage gas-static and hydrodynamic seals have to be developed. Dry gas seals use both gas-static and hydrodynamic principles. In dry gas seals microgrooves are often used, which ensure the reverse injection of leakages in the sealed cavity. Authors have developed a calculation technique including the concept of coupled hydrodynamic, thermal and structural calculations. This technique allows to calculate the seal performance taking into account the forces of inertia, rupture of the lubricant layer and the real form of the gap. Authors have compared the efficiency of seals with different forms of microgrooves. Results of calculations show that seal with rectangular form of microgrooves has a little gap leading to both the contact of seal surfaces and the wear. Reversible microgrooves have a higher oil mass flow rate, whereas HST micro-grooves have good performance, but they are difficult to produce. Spiral microgrooves have both an acceptable leakages and a high stiffness of liquid layer that is important in terms of ensuring of sealing performance at vibration conditions. Therefore, the spiral grooves were chosen for the developed seal. Based on calculation results, geometric dimensions were chosen to ensure the reliability of the seal operation by creating a guaranteed liquid film, which eliminates the wear of the sealing surfaces. Seals designed were tested both at the test rig and in the engine.

  2. Cell microenvironment engineering and monitoring for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: the recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Julien; Özçelik, Hayriye; Hindié, Mathilde; Ndreu-Halili, Albana; Hasan, Anwarul; Vrana, Nihal Engin

    2014-01-01

    In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, the conditions in the immediate vicinity of the cells have a direct effect on cells' behaviour and subsequently on clinical outcomes. Physical, chemical, and biological control of cell microenvironment are of crucial importance for the ability to direct and control cell behaviour in 3-dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds spatially and temporally. In this review, we will focus on the different aspects of cell microenvironment such as surface micro-, nanotopography, extracellular matrix composition and distribution, controlled release of soluble factors, and mechanical stress/strain conditions and how these aspects and their interactions can be used to achieve a higher degree of control over cellular activities. The effect of these parameters on the cellular behaviour within tissue engineering context is discussed and how these parameters are used to develop engineered tissues is elaborated. Also, recent techniques developed for the monitoring of the cell microenvironment in vitro and in vivo are reviewed, together with recent tissue engineering applications where the control of cell microenvironment has been exploited. Cell microenvironment engineering and monitoring are crucial parts of tissue engineering efforts and systems which utilize different components of the cell microenvironment simultaneously can provide more functional engineered tissues in the near future.

  3. Cell Microenvironment Engineering and Monitoring for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: The Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Barthes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, the conditions in the immediate vicinity of the cells have a direct effect on cells’ behaviour and subsequently on clinical outcomes. Physical, chemical, and biological control of cell microenvironment are of crucial importance for the ability to direct and control cell behaviour in 3-dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds spatially and temporally. In this review, we will focus on the different aspects of cell microenvironment such as surface micro-, nanotopography, extracellular matrix composition and distribution, controlled release of soluble factors, and mechanical stress/strain conditions and how these aspects and their interactions can be used to achieve a higher degree of control over cellular activities. The effect of these parameters on the cellular behaviour within tissue engineering context is discussed and how these parameters are used to develop engineered tissues is elaborated. Also, recent techniques developed for the monitoring of the cell microenvironment in vitro and in vivo are reviewed, together with recent tissue engineering applications where the control of cell microenvironment has been exploited. Cell microenvironment engineering and monitoring are crucial parts of tissue engineering efforts and systems which utilize different components of the cell microenvironment simultaneously can provide more functional engineered tissues in the near future.

  4. Novel Engineered Refractory Materials for Advanced Reactor Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, Steven; Eapen, Jacob; Maria, Jon-Paul; Weber, William

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of DOE-NEUP grant 10-853. The project spanned 48 months (36 months under the original grant plus a 12 month no cost extension). The overarching goal of this work was to fabricate and characterize refractory materials engineered at the atomic scale with emphasis on their tolerance to accumulated radiation damage. With an emphasis on nano-scale structure, this work included atomic scale simulation to study the underlying mechanisms for modified radiation tolerance at these atomic scales.

  5. Novel Engineered Refractory Materials for Advanced Reactor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, Steven [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Eapen, Jacob [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Maria, Jon-Paul [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Weber, William [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-03-14

    This report summarizes the results of DOE-NEUP grant 10-853. The project spanned 48 months (36 months under the original grant plus a 12 month no cost extension). The overarching goal of this work was to fabricate and characterize refractory materials engineered at the atomic scale with emphasis on their tolerance to accumulated radiation damage. With an emphasis on nano-scale structure, this work included atomic scale simulation to study the underlying mechanisms for modified radiation tolerance at these atomic scales.

  6. Innovations and advances in computing, informatics, systems sciences, networking and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Innovations and Advances in Computing, Informatics, Systems Sciences, Networking and Engineering  This book includes a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Computer Science, Informatics, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering. It includes selected papers from the conference proceedings of the Eighth and some selected papers of the Ninth International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 2012 & CISSE 2013). Coverage includes topics in: Industrial Electronics, Technology & Automation, Telecommunications and Networking, Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Engineering Education, Instructional Technology, Assessment, and E-learning.  ·       Provides the latest in a series of books growing out of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering; ·       Includes chapters in the most a...

  7. Systems engineering implementation in the preliminary design phase of the Giant Magellan Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiten, J.; Johns, M.; Trancho, G.; Sawyer, D.; Mady, P.

    2012-09-01

    Like many telescope projects today, the 24.5-meter Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is truly a complex system. The primary and secondary mirrors of the GMT are segmented and actuated to support two operating modes: natural seeing and adaptive optics. GMT is a general-purpose telescope supporting multiple science instruments operated in those modes. GMT is a large, diverse collaboration and development includes geographically distributed teams. The need to implement good systems engineering processes for managing the development of systems like GMT becomes imperative. The management of the requirements flow down from the science requirements to the component level requirements is an inherently difficult task in itself. The interfaces must also be negotiated so that the interactions between subsystems and assemblies are well defined and controlled. This paper will provide an overview of the systems engineering processes and tools implemented for the GMT project during the preliminary design phase. This will include requirements management, documentation and configuration control, interface development and technical risk management. Because of the complexity of the GMT system and the distributed team, using web-accessible tools for collaboration is vital. To accomplish this GMTO has selected three tools: Cognition Cockpit, Xerox Docushare, and Solidworks Enterprise Product Data Management (EPDM). Key to this is the use of Cockpit for managing and documenting the product tree, architecture, error budget, requirements, interfaces, and risks. Additionally, drawing management is accomplished using an EPDM vault. Docushare, a documentation and configuration management tool is used to manage workflow of documents and drawings for the GMT project. These tools electronically facilitate collaboration in real time, enabling the GMT team to track, trace and report on key project metrics and design parameters.

  8. Advances in computers dependable and secure systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hurson, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Since its first volume in 1960, Advances in Computers has presented detailed coverage of innovations in computer hardware, software, theory, design, and applications. It has also provided contributors with a medium in which they can explore their subjects in greater depth and breadth than journal articles usually allow. As a result, many articles have become standard references that continue to be of sugnificant, lasting value in this rapidly expanding field. In-depth surveys and tutorials on new computer technologyWell-known authors and researchers in the fieldExtensive bibliographies with m

  9. Multidisciplinary teaching – Engineering course in advanced building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Karlshøj, Jan; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2011-01-01

    Collaboration within the building process is difficult. This calls for employees who are experienced in collaborating in interdisciplinary teams. To fulfil this demand a multidisciplinary course in “Advanced building design” has been developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The goal....... The students could experience that collaboration can be improved. The traditional role distribution can be broken and generally a flat team structure, where decisions are made in consensus, can be induced. The transprofessionalism during the course was appreciated but it was also described as a challenge...

  10. Advances in environmental science and engineering. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfafflin, J.R.; Ziegler, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental topics address such concerns as analysis and control of pollutants, possible health and occupational safety hazards, and a variety of resource management topics that delve into legal, design, and other vital aspects of ecosystem concepts. Contents: The Disposal of Polychlorinated Biphenyls; A Review of Dry Gaseous Deposition and its Relation to the Biogeochemical Cycles of Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulfur; Formation and Electrostatic Precipitation of Coal Fly Ash; Physical and Chemical Phenomena; The Chemistry of Seawater Chlorination; Recent Advances in Environmental Planning; Remote Sensing of Air Pollutants; Fly Ash Particle Size Distributions and Their Effect on Cold-Side Electrostatic Precipitator Emissions.

  11. Manufacturing technology for advanced jet engines; Jisedai jetto engine no seizo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, H [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-04-05

    A part of the latest production technologies for aircraft jet engines is introduced. Outline of the turbofan engine, turbo-prop engine, and turbo-shaft engine are given. Every one of them employs a gas turbine engine comprising a compressor, combustor, and a turbine as the output generator. Increase in the turbine inlet temperature is effective for making the gas turbine engine more efficient. The development tread of heat resisting materials for realizing higher temperature is shown. The current status and future aspect of the manufacturing technology is discussed for each main component of the engine. Technological development for decreasing weight is important because the weight of the fan member increases when the fan diameter is increased to increase the bypass ratio. FRP is adopted for the blades and casing to decrease the weight of the compressor, and studies have been made on fiber reinforced materials to reduce the weight of the disks. The outlines of the latest manufacturing technologies for the combustor and turbine are introduced. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Preliminary engineering assessment of the HCLL and HCPB Neutron Activation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, Pattrick; Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona, (Spain); Angelone, Maurizio [ENEA, Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati, (Italy); Klix, Axel [KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Neutron Activation System (NAS) is one of the four types of neutronics sensors considered for the testing of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER. It measures the absolute neutron flux intensity with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the TBM. The working principle of the NAS is as follows: the system moves small activation probes (capsules) into selected positions in the TBM (irradiation ends) by means of pneumatic transport with pressurized helium gas; the capsules are irradiated for a selected period, depending on their materials composition (several tens of seconds up to the full plasma pulse length); immediately after the irradiation they are extracted and transported to a gamma spectrometer by means of the same pneumatic transport system; the gamma spectrometer determines the induced gamma activity; the neutron flux and neutron fluence is calculated from the measured gamma activity and the known activation cross section of the materials in the activation probe; after the measurement the capsule is sent either to a disposal or storage (for later measurement). This paper summarizes the results of the feasibility assessment of the TBM NAS in the conceptual design phase, including design justification, identification of requirements based on the expected operating conditions in ITER and preliminary engineering assessment of the activation materials, irradiation ends integration in the modules design and the counting station. (authors)

  13. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  14. Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine Study. Phase A, extension 1: Advanced expander cycle engine optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The performance optimization of expander cycle engines at vacuum thrust levels of 10K, 15K, and 20K lb is discussed. The optimization is conducted for a maximum engine length with an extendible nozzle in the retracted position of 60 inches and an engine mixture ratio of 6.0:1. The thrust chamber geometry and cycle analyses are documented. In addition, the sensitivity of a recommended baseline expander cycle to component performance variations is determined and chilldown/start propellant consumptions are estimated.

  15. Concurrent Multidisciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Final Report: Advanced Long-Life Lander Investigating the Venus Environment (ALIVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    The COncurrent Multidisciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Team partnered with the Applied Research Laboratory to perform a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program study to evaluate chemical based power systems for keeping a Venus lander alive (power and cooling) and functional for a period of days. The mission class targeted was either a Discovery ($500M) or New Frontiers ($750M to $780M) class mission.

  16. Assessment of advanced technologies for high performance single-engine business airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Holmes, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    The prospects for significantly increasing the fuel efficiency and mission capability of single engine business aircraft through the incorporation of advanced propulsion, aerodynamics and materials technologies are explored. It is found that turbine engines cannot match the fuel economy of the heavier rotary, diesel and advanced spark reciprocating engines. The rotary engine yields the lightest and smallest aircraft for a given mission requirement, and also offers greater simplicity and a multifuel capability. Great promise is also seen in the use of composite material primary structures in conjunction with laminar flow wing surfaces, a pusher propeller and conventional wing-tail configuration. This study was conducted with the General Aviation Synthesis Program, which can furnish the most accurate mission performance calculations yet obtained.

  17. 2nd International Conference on Advanced Engineering : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dao, Tran; Zelinka, Ivan; Choi, Hyeung-Sik; Chadli, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This proceeding book consists of 10 topical areas of selected papers like: telecommunication, power systems, robotics, control system, renewable energy, power electronics, computer science and more. All selected papers represent interesting ideas and state of the art overview. Readers will find interesting papers of those areas about design and implement of dynamic positioning control system for USV, scheduling problems, motor control, backtracking search algorithm for distribution network and others. All selected papers represent interesting ideas and state of art overview. The proceeding book will also be a resource and material for practitioners who want to apply discussed problems to solve real-life problems in their challenging applications. It is also devoted to the studies of common and related subjects in intensive research fields of modern electric, electronic and related technologies. For these reasons, we believe that this proceeding book will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the ...

  18. Advanced propulsion engine assessment based on a cermet reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Randy C.

    1993-01-01

    A preferred Pratt & Whitney conceptual Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine (NTRE) has been designed based on the fundamental NASA priorities of safety, reliability, cost, and performance. The basic philosophy underlying the design of the XNR2000 is the utilization of the most reliable form of ultrahigh temperature nuclear fuel and development of a core configuration which is optimized for uniform power distribution, operational flexibility, power maneuverability, weight, and robustness. The P&W NTRE system employs a fast spectrum, cermet fueled reactor configured in an expander cycle to ensure maximum operational safety. The cermet fuel form provides retention of fuel and fission products as well as high strength. A high level of confidence is provided by benchmark analysis and independent evaluations.

  19. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application

  20. Advances in process intensification through multifunctional reactor engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Miller, James Edward; O' Hern, Timothy John; Gill, Walter; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2011-02-01

    A multifunctional reactor is a chemical engineering device that exploits enhanced heat and mass transfer to promote production of a desired chemical, combining more than one unit operation in a single system. The main component of the reactor system under study here is a vertical column containing packing material through which liquid(s) and gas flow cocurrently downward. Under certain conditions, a range of hydrodynamic regimes can be achieved within the column that can either enhance or inhibit a desired chemical reaction. To study such reactors in a controlled laboratory environment, two experimental facilities were constructed at Sandia National Laboratories. One experiment, referred to as the Two-Phase Experiment, operates with two phases (air and water). The second experiment, referred to as the Three-Phase Experiment, operates with three phases (immiscible organic liquid and aqueous liquid, and nitrogen). This report describes the motivation, design, construction, operational hazards, and operation of the both of these experiments. Data and conclusions are included.

  1. Novel engineered compound semiconductor heterostructures for advanced electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Gregory E.; Holonyak, Nick, Jr.; Coleman, James J.

    1992-06-01

    To provide the technology base that will enable SDIO capitalization on the performance advantages offered through novel engineered multiple-lavered compound semiconductor structures, this project has focussed on three specific areas: (1) carbon doping of AlGaAs/GaAs and InP/InGaAs materials for reliable high frequency heterojunction bipolar transistors; (2) impurity induced layer disordering and the environmental degradation of AlxGal-xAs-GaAs quantum-well heterostructures and the native oxide stabilization of AlxGal-xAs-GaAs quantum well heterostructure lasers; and (3) non-planar and strained-layer quantum well heterostructure lasers and laser arrays. The accomplishments in this three year research are reported in fifty-six publications and the abstracts included in this report.

  2. Preliminary study on the combustion and emission in a direct injection LPG spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seungmook; Lee, Seokhwan [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    In the energy sector, with the implementation of stringent regulations on combustion emissions and the depletion of conventional fuels, there is an important need for low carbon fuel and advanced engine technology. Korea is the country with the most LPG vehicles in the world and the aim of this study, performed by the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, is to compare the performance of LPG direct injection spark ignition (DISI) with gasoline DISI. Heat release analyses were conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of both systems and experiments were performed to determine gaseous and nanoparticle emissions. Results showed that LPG provides a better thermal efficiency than gasoline and that THC, NOx, and particulate emissions were lower for LPG than for gasoline. This study demonstrated that LPG DISI can provide better combustion efficiency and lower emissions than gasoline DISI.

  3. System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnzen, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

  4. Novel strategies in tendon and ligament tissue engineering: Advanced biomaterials and regeneration motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo Catherine K; Marturano Joseph E; Tuan Rocky S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Tendon and ligaments have poor healing capacity and when injured often require surgical intervention. Tissue replacement via autografts and allografts are non-ideal strategies that can lead to future problems. As an alternative, scaffold-based tissue engineering strategies are being pursued. In this review, we describe design considerations and major recent advancements of scaffolds for tendon/ligament engineering. Specifically, we outline native tendon/ligament characteristics criti...

  5. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  6. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A. [Coal Technology Corporation, Bristol, VA (United States); Ferris, D.D. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  7. Dopant profile engineering of advanced Si MOSFET's using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolk, P.A.; Ponomarev, Y.V.; Schmitz, J.; Brandenburg, A.C.M.C. van; Roes, R.; Montree, A.H.; Woerlee, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantation has been used to realize non-uniform, steep retrograde (SR) dopant profiles in the active channel region of advanced Si MOSFET's. After defining the transistor configuration, SR profiles were formed by dopant implantation through the polycrystalline Si gate and the gate oxide (through-the-gate, TG, implantation). The steep nature of the as-implanted profile was retained by applying rapid thermal annealing for dopant activation and implantation damage removal. For NMOS transistors, TG implantation of B yields improved transistor performance through increased carrier mobility, reduced junction capacitances, and reduced susceptibility to short-channel effects. Electrical measurements show that the gate oxide quality is not deteriorated by the ion-induced damage, demonstrating that transistor reliability is preserved. For PMOS transistors, TG implantation of P or As leads to unacceptable source/drain junction broadening as a result of transient enhanced dopant diffusion during thermal activation

  8. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal's heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation's coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel

  9. Preliminary Performance Data on Westinghouse Electronic Power Regulator Operating on J34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, James R.; Blivas, Darnold; Pack, George J.

    1950-01-01

    The behavior of the Westinghouse electronic power regulator operating on a J34-WE-32 turbojet engine was investigated in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy. The object of the program was to determine the, steady-state stability and transient characteristics of the engine under control at various altitudes and ram pressure ratios, without afterburning. Recordings of the response of the following parameters to step changes in power lever position throughout the available operating range of the engine were obtained; ram pressure ratio, compressor-discharge pressure, exhaust-nozzle area, engine speed, turbine-outlet temperature, fuel-valve position, jet thrust, air flow, turbine-discharge pressure, fuel flow, throttle position, and boost-pump pressure. Representative preliminary data showing the actual time response of these variables are presented. These data are presented in the form of reproductions of oscillographic traces.

  10. Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokinsky, Gregory; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; George, Anthe; Holmes, Bradley M.; Steen, Eric J.; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Soon Lee, Taek; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle; Voigt, Christopher A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2011-01-01

    One approach to reducing the costs of advanced biofuel production from cellulosic biomass is to engineer a single microorganism to both digest plant biomass and produce hydrocarbons that have the properties of petrochemical fuels. Such an organism would require pathways for hydrocarbon production and the capacity to secrete sufficient enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose. To demonstrate how one might engineer and coordinate all of the necessary components for a biomass-degrading, hydrocarbon-producing microorganism, we engineered a microorganism naïve to both processes, Escherichia coli, to grow using both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of several types of plant biomass pretreated with ionic liquids. Our engineered strains express cellulase, xylanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylobiosidase enzymes under control of native E. coli promoters selected to optimize growth on model cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates. Furthermore, our strains grow using either the cellulose or hemicellulose components of ionic liquid-pretreated biomass or on both components when combined as a coculture. Both cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains were further engineered with three biofuel synthesis pathways to demonstrate the production of fuel substitutes or precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from ionic liquid-treated switchgrass without externally supplied hydrolase enzymes. This demonstration represents a major advance toward realizing a consolidated bioprocess. With improvements in both biofuel synthesis pathways and biomass digestion capabilities, our approach could provide an economical route to production of advanced biofuels. PMID:22123987

  11. Studies of dynamic contact of ceramics and alloys for advanced heat engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaydos, P.A.; Dufrane, K.F. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Advanced materials and coatings for low heat rejection engines have been investigated for almost a decade. Much of the work has concentrated on the critical wear interface between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simplified bench tests have identified families of coatings with high temperature wear performance that could meet or exceed that of conventional engine materials at today`s operating temperatures. More recently, engine manufacturers have begun to optimize material combinations and manufacturing processes so that the materials not only have promising friction and wear performance but are practical replacements for current materials from a materials and manufacturing cost standpoint. In this study, the advanced materials supplied by major diesel engine manufacturers were evaluated in an experimental apparatus that simulates many of the in-cylinder conditions of a low heat rejection diesel engine. Results include ring wear factors and average dynamic friction coefficients measured at intervals during the test. These results are compared with other advanced materials tested in the past as well as the baseline wear of current engines. Both fabricated specimens and sections of actual ring and cylinder liners were used in the testing. Observations and relative friction and wear performance of the individual materials are provided.

  12. Proceedings of the two day national workshop on advanced materials for engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Alexis, S.; Jayakumar, S.

    2012-01-01

    The subjects like material preparation, material forming, material properties, materials testing, material mechanics, material structure, metal materials, non-metallic materials, composite materials, medical materials, chemical materials, food materials, electrician/electrical materials, building materials, biological materials, electronic/magnetic/optical materials, advanced materials applications in engineering are included in the workshop. Processing of advanced materials, studies on novel ceramic coatings, high strength, light weight and nanostructured materials are discussed in this proceedings. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. Recent advances in engineering topography mediated antibacterial surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Jafar; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-09-01

    The tendency of bacterial cells to adhere and colonize a material surface leading to biofilm formation is a fundamental challenge underlying many different applications including microbial infections associated with biomedical devices and products. Although, bacterial attachment to surfaces has been extensively studied in the past, the effect of surface topography on bacteria-material interactions has received little attention until more recently. We review the recent progress in surface topography based approaches for engineering antibacterial surfaces. Biomimicry of antibacterial surfaces in nature is a popular strategy. Whereas earlier endeavors in the field aimed at minimizing cell attachment, more recent efforts have focused on developing bactericidal surfaces. However, not all such topography mediated bactericidal surfaces are necessarily cytocompatible thus underscoring the need for continued efforts for research in this area for developing antibacterial and yet cytocompatible surfaces for use in implantable biomedical applications. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the current strategies and challenges in the emerging field of topography mediated antibacterial surfaces.

  14. Advances in engineering nanometrology at the National Physical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K.; Claverley, James; Giusca, Claudiu; Jones, Christopher W.; Nimishakavi, Lakshmi; Sun, Wenjuan; Tedaldi, Matthew; Yacoot, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    The National Physical Laboratory, UK, has been active in the field of engineering nanometrology for a number of years. A summary of progress over the last five years is presented in this paper and the following research projects discussed in detail. (1) Development of an infrastructure for the calibration of instruments for measuring areal surface topography, along with the development of areal software measurement standards. This work comprises the use of the optical transfer function and a technique for the simultaneous measurement of topography and the phase change on reflection, allowing composite materials to be measured. (2) Development of a vibrating micro-CMM probe with isotropic probing reaction and the ability to operate in a non-contact mode. (3) A review of x-ray computed tomography and its use in dimensional metrology. (4) The further development of a metrology infrastructure for atomic force microscopy and the development of an instrument for the measurement of the effect of the probe-surface interaction. (5) Traceable measurement of displacement using optical and x-ray interferometry to picometre accuracy. (6) Development of an infrastructure for low-force metrology, including the development of appropriate transfer artefacts.

  15. Advances in engineering nanometrology at the National Physical Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard K; Claverley, James; Giusca, Claudiu; Jones, Christopher W; Nimishakavi, Lakshmi; Sun, Wenjuan; Tedaldi, Matthew; Yacoot, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The National Physical Laboratory, UK, has been active in the field of engineering nanometrology for a number of years. A summary of progress over the last five years is presented in this paper and the following research projects discussed in detail. (1) Development of an infrastructure for the calibration of instruments for measuring areal surface topography, along with the development of areal software measurement standards. This work comprises the use of the optical transfer function and a technique for the simultaneous measurement of topography and the phase change on reflection, allowing composite materials to be measured. (2) Development of a vibrating micro-CMM probe with isotropic probing reaction and the ability to operate in a non-contact mode. (3) A review of x-ray computed tomography and its use in dimensional metrology. (4) The further development of a metrology infrastructure for atomic force microscopy and the development of an instrument for the measurement of the effect of the probe–surface interaction. (5) Traceable measurement of displacement using optical and x-ray interferometry to picometre accuracy. (6) Development of an infrastructure for low-force metrology, including the development of appropriate transfer artefacts. (paper)

  16. Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) 4.44.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and efficient constitutive modeling remains a cornerstone issues for solid mechanics analysis. Over the years, the LAME advanced material model library has grown to address this challenge by implementing models capable of describing material systems spanning soft polymers to s ti ff ceramics including both isotropic and anisotropic responses. Inelastic behaviors including (visco) plasticity, damage, and fracture have all incorporated for use in various analyses. This multitude of options and flexibility, however, comes at the cost of many capabilities, features, and responses and the ensuing complexity in the resulting implementation. Therefore, to enhance confidence and enable the utilization of the LAME library in application, this effort seeks to document and verify the various models in the LAME library. Specifically, the broader strategy, organization, and interface of the library itself is first presented. The physical theory, numerical implementation, and user guide for a large set of models is then discussed. Importantly, a number of verification tests are performed with each model to not only have confidence in the model itself but also highlight some important response characteristics and features that may be of interest to end-users. Finally, in looking ahead to the future, approaches to add material models to this library and further expand the capabilities are presented.

  17. Emerging advances in nanomedicine with engineered gold nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Joseph A; Bardhan, Rizia

    2014-03-07

    Gold nanostructures possess unique characteristics that enable their use as contrast agents, as therapeutic entities, and as scaffolds to adhere functional molecules, therapeutic cargo, and targeting ligands. Due to their ease of synthesis, straightforward surface functionalization, and non-toxicity, gold nanostructures have emerged as powerful nanoagents for cancer detection and treatment. This comprehensive review summarizes the progress made in nanomedicine with gold nanostructures (1) as probes for various bioimaging techniques including dark-field, one-photon and two-photon fluorescence, photothermal optical coherence tomography, photoacoustic tomography, positron emission tomography, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering based imaging, (2) as therapeutic components for photothermal therapy, gene and drug delivery, and radiofrequency ablation, and (3) as a theranostic platform to simultaneously achieve both cancer detection and treatment. Distinct from other published reviews, this article also discusses the recent advances of gold nanostructures as contrast agents and therapeutic actuators for inflammatory diseases including atherosclerotic plaque and arthritis. For each of the topics discussed above, the fundamental principles and progress made in the past five years are discussed. The review concludes with a detailed future outlook discussing the challenges in using gold nanostructures, cellular trafficking, and translational considerations that are imperative for rapid clinical viability of plasmonic nanostructures, as well as the significance of emerging technologies such as Fano resonant gold nanostructures in nanomedicine.

  18. Construction and engineering report for advanced nuclear fuel development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Kwon, S.J.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, I. J.; Yu, C. H.

    2003-09-01

    The design and construction of the fuel technology development facility was aimed to accommodate general nuclear fuel research and development for the HANARO fuel fabrication and advanced fuel researches. 1. Building size and room function 1) Building total area : approx. 3,618m 2 , basement 1st floor, ground 3th floor 2) Room function : basement floor(machine room, electrical room, radioactive waste tank room), 1st floor(research reactor fuel fabrication facility, pyroprocess lab., metal fuel lab., nondestructive lab., pellet processing lab., access control room, sintering lab., etc), 2nd floor(thermal properties measurement lab., pellet characterization lab., powder analysis lab., microstructure analysis lab., etc), 3rd floor(AHU and ACU Room) 2. Special facility equipment 1) Environmental pollution protection equipment : ACU(2sets), 2) Emergency operating system : diesel generator(1set), 3) Nuclear material handle, storage and transport system : overhead crane(3sets), monorail hoist(1set), jib crane(2sets), tank(1set) 4) Air conditioning unit facility : AHU(3sets), packaged air conditioning unit(5sets), 5) Automatic control system and fire protection system : central control equipment(1set), lon device(1set), fire hose cabinet(3sets), fire pump(3sets) etc

  19. Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) 4.48.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2018-03-01

    Accurate and efficient constitutive modeling remains a cornerstone issues for solid mechanics analysis. Over the years, the LAME advanced material model library has grown to address this challenge by implement- ing models capable of describing material systems spanning soft polymers to stiff ceramics including both isotropic and anisotropic responses. Inelastic behaviors including (visco)plasticity, damage, and fracture have all incorporated for use in various analyses. This multitude of options and flexibility, however, comes at the cost of many capabilities, features, and responses and the ensuing complexity in the resulting imple- mentation. Therefore, to enhance confidence and enable the utilization of the LAME library in application, this effort seeks to document and verify the various models in the LAME library. Specifically, the broader strategy, organization, and interface of the library itself is first presented. The physical theory, numerical implementation, and user guide for a large set of models is then discussed. Importantly, a number of verifi- cation tests are performed with each model to not only have confidence in the model itself but also highlight some important response characteristics and features that may be of interest to end-users. Finally, in looking ahead to the future, approaches to add material models to this library and further expand the capabilities are presented.

  20. Aerospace Engineering Systems and the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: 1) Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; 2) Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; 3) Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and 4) Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. The Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) activity at NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities are reported.

  1. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications. Koku engine yo zairyo no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The thrust/weight ratio which is thrust per unit weight of engine is a parameter of aircraft engine performance. With a mean material density of 6.6g/cm[sup 3], some of the supersonic plane engines are 7.9 in thrust/weight ratio. Its attaining 20 is predicted by some reports. The turbine inlet temperature is a parameter of engine temperature heightening exceeds 1400[degree]C. Its attaining 2000[degree]C in the 21st century is also predicted by some reports. By dividing the aircraft engine materials into both improvement and innovation material systems, the present paper explained the characteristics and present status of materials, and how to put them in practical use. As an improvement material, titanium alloy, nickel base alloy and resinous composite materials were exhibited with examples of having improved the established material system in performance and cost. Used as a turbine vane member, the nickel base alloy contributes, as a unidirectional coagulation alloy, single crystal alloy and oxide dispersion exciting alloy, to the creep resistance strengthening at high temperatures against the fatigue due to thermal strain. It is also explained how to put TiAl and FRM to practical use. 8 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Recent Advances in Crystal Engineering from Nanoscience Views: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Arab Fashapoyeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal engineering has recently emerged as a method of choice for the design and construction of organic as well as metal-organic functional materials. Crystal engineering attempts to establish packing trends in whole families of compounds and seeks to establish connections between structure and function. The utility of crystal engineering has also been expanded to the nanoscience and the development of nanomaterials. The crystal engineering of materials on the nanoscale has attracted attention from various fields of research. Using bottom-up assembly strategies, a wide range of functional systems can be accessed. Materials of nanometer-scale dimensions having unique physicochemical properties are of great interest in various fields such as synthetic chemistry, materials science, catalysis and medicine. This review concerns to the recent advances in crystal engineering from nanoscience views. This study was conducted in four categories; nanococrystals, nano metal-organic frameworks, composites of polyoxometalates and also some of the nanocarbons.

  3. Advanced Silicon Carbide from Molecular Engineering and Actinide Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.J.M.; Garcia, J.; Guillaneux, D.; Wong-Chi-Man, M.; Moreau, J.J.E.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of nuclear fuels studies for generation IV, carbides or oxycarbides assemblies are one of the engaged material for high temperature reactors. The design of the fuels is not yet defined but some structures are actually considered with SiC as matrix for the actinide fuel. In this work we have studied the synthesis of a multi-scale structure controlled SiC matrix using molecular silicon organometallic precursors. The aim of this work was to develop a way to obtain multi-scale SiC matrix material which could be engineered to fit in any fuel structure defined for generation IV fuels. The control of this multi-scale structure was done using several simulation methods specific of the low temperature solution synthesis of the precursor. In a first step, we have focused our effort on the synthesis of the SiC material. A first level of template was successfully done by the use of solid silica 500 nm balls. A second level of template was studied by the use of meso-porous silica, structured at a 50 nm level. At least, supra-molecular simulation in non aqueous media was considered with the difficulty to build a molecular assembly (inverse micelles). In a second step, we have functionalized the primary silane phase with actinide complexing agent in order to blend directly the actinide inside this primary phase in a controlled way. During these studies, a new one pot synthesis route to obtain the functionalized primary silane phase was developed. (authors)

  4. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations

  5. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  6. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  7. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hern, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Evans, Lindsay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Miller, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Cooper, Marcia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetic Components Realization Center; Torczynski, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  8. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    A number of promising alternative rocket propulsion concepts have been developed over the past two decades that take advantage of unsteady combustion waves in order to produce thrust. These concepts include the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE), in which repetitive ignition, propagation, and reflection of detonations and shocks can create a high pressure chamber from which gases may be exhausted in a controlled manner. The Pulse Detonation Rocket Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector (PDRIME) is a modification of the basic PDRE concept, developed by Cambier (1998), which has the potential for performance improvements based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation. The PDRIME has the advantage of both low combustion chamber seeding pressure, per the PDRE concept, and efficient energy distribution in the system, per the rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) concept of Cole, et al. (1995). In the initial part of this thesis, we explore flow and performance characteristics of different configurations of the PDRIME, assuming quasi-one-dimensional transient flow and global representations of the effects of MHD phenomena on the gas dynamics. By utilizing high-order accurate solvers, we thus are able to investigate the fundamental physical processes associated with the PDRIME and PDRE concepts and identify potentially promising operating regimes. In the second part of this investigation, the detailed coupling of detonations and electric and magnetic fields are explored. First, a one-dimensional spark-ignited detonation with complex reaction kinetics is fully evaluated and the mechanisms for the different instabilities are analyzed. It is found that complex kinetics in addition to sufficient spatial resolution are required to be able to quantify high frequency as well as low frequency detonation instability modes. Armed with this quantitative understanding, we then examine the interaction of a propagating detonation and the applied MHD, both in one-dimensional and two

  9. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  10. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria

  11. Career Advancement Outcomes in Academic Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Gender, Mentoring Resources, and Homophily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement…

  12. Cam Design Projects in an Advanced CAD Course for Mechanical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present applications of solid modeling aimed at modeling of complex geometries such as splines and blended surfaces in advanced CAD courses. These projects, in CAD-based Mechanical Engineering courses, are focused on the use of the CAD system to solve design problems for applications in machine design, namely the…

  13. A Flipped Mode Teaching Approach for Large and Advanced Electrical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Jayashri; Epps, Julien; Ambikairajah, Eliathamby

    2018-01-01

    A fully flipped mode teaching approach is challenging for students in advanced engineering courses, because of demanding pre-class preparation load, due to the complex and analytical nature of the topics. When this is applied to large classes, it brings an additional complexity in terms of promoting the intended active learning. This paper…

  14. Progress of Journal‘Advanced Technology of Electrical Engineering and Energy’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jie; LIN Liang-zhen; QI Zhi-ping; MA Yu-huan; SHEN Guo-liao; JING Bo-hong

    2009-01-01

    The paper has introduced the Journal 'Advanced Technology of Electrical Engineering and Energy', presented its main journal evaluation indexes. The result indicates that the journal has made great progress in recent years. It gives much info. about the journal to authors.

  15. Increasing Early Opportunities in Engineering for Advanced Learners in Elementary Classrooms: A Review of Recent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Debbie; Cotabish, Alicia; Jackson, Nykela

    2018-01-01

    Present and future challenges in our society demand a solid science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) knowledge base, innovative thinking, and the ability to ask the right questions to generate multiple solutions. To prepare innovators to meet these challenges, we must recognize and develop their talents. This advancement and growth…

  16. The Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Capability Roadmap Vision for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Thomas; Lieber, Mike; Norton, Charles; Fucik, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes a subset of the Advanced Modeling Simulation and Analysis (AMSA) Capability Roadmap that was developed for NASA in 2005. The AMSA Capability Roadmap Team was chartered to "To identify what is needed to enhance NASA's capabilities to produce leading-edge exploration and science missions by improving engineering system development, operations, and science understanding through broad application of advanced modeling, simulation and analysis techniques." The AMSA roadmap stressed the need for integration, not just within the science, engineering and operations domains themselves, but also across these domains. Here we discuss the roadmap element pertaining to integration within the engineering domain, with a particular focus on implications for future observatory missions. The AMSA products supporting the system engineering function are mission information, bounds on information quality, and system validation guidance. The Engineering roadmap element contains 5 sub-elements: (1) Large-Scale Systems Models, (2) Anomalous Behavior Models, (3) advanced Uncertainty Models, (4) Virtual Testing Models, and (5) space-based Robotics Manufacture and Servicing Models.

  17. Material System Engineering for Advanced Electrocaloric Cooling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoshi

    Electrocaloric effect refers to the entropy change and/or temperature change in dielectrics caused by the electric field induced polarization change. Recent discovery of giant ECE provides an opportunity to realize highly efficient cooling devices for a broad range of applications ranging from household appliances to industrial applications, from large-scale building thermal management to micro-scale cooling devices. The advances of electrocaloric (EC) based cooling device prototypes suggest that highly efficient cooling devices with compact size are achievable, which could lead to revolution in next generation refrigeration technology. This dissertation focuses on both EC based materials and cooling devices with their recent advances that address practical issues. Based on better understandings in designing an EC device, several EC material systems are studied and improved to promote the performances of EC based cooling devices. In principle, applying an electric field to a dielectric would cause change of dipolar ordering states and thus a change of dipolar entropy. Giant ECE observed in ferroelectrics near ferroelectric-paraelectric (FE-PE) transition temperature is owing to the large dipolar orientation change, between random-oriented dipolar states in paraelectric phase and spontaneous-ordered dipolar states in ferroelectric phases, which is induced by external electric fields. Besides pursuing large ECE, studies on EC cooling devices indicated that EC materials are required to possess wide operational temperature window, in which large ECE can be maintained for efficient operations. Although giant ECE was first predicted in ferroelectric polymers, where the large effect exhibits near FEPE phase transition, the narrow operation temperature window poses obstacles for these normal ferroelectrics to be conveniently perform in wide range of applications. In this dissertation, we demonstrated that the normal ferroelectric polymers can be converted to relaxor

  18. Preliminary study on the control of direct injection diesel engine for better fuel flexibility and emissions control. Pt. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egnell, R.; Kassem, N.; Bohlin, T.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a preliminary study on turbocharged direct injection diesel engines. Part I reviews the qualitative dynamic aspects of turbocharged diesel engine and the factors that affect its transient behaviour. It gives a brief account of the model structure and the interrelationships between the different components of the model as well as the different types of engine models and the methods of simulation. The transient response of a turbocharged engine under changing load, speed, and ambient conditions are discussed. Methods to improve the transient response, thus reducing fuel consumption and smoke emissions are briefly reviewed. Finally, both conventional and advanced control strategies are discussed with emphasis on the control of fuel injection (Delta-control), injection time (Alfa-control), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR-control). Part II (in Swedish) consists of a literature survey on hardware components such as sensors, actuators, and injection systems that are, or expect to be, available with reasonable commercial costs. The objective of this survey is to provide the grounds on which to decide if these components satisfy the requirements of electronic control systems. Part III (in Swedish) discusses the transient response measurements obtained from two sets of experiments conducted on a six-cylinder motor working under varying conditions of load and speed. The objective of the first set of experiments was to quantify the difference in ignition delay between the transient and steady state operating conditions. The second set of experiments were aimed to provide a basis on which the engine efficiency obtained under transient conditions can be compared to that obtained from a single-cylinder motor working under steady state conditions.

  19. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project. Semiannual progress report, April-September 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    An assessment of needs was completed, and a five-year project plan was developed with input from private industry. Objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. Focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. The work described in this report is organized according to the following WBS project elements: management and coordination; materials and processing (monolithics, ceramic composites, thermal and wear coatings, joining); materials design methodology (contact interfaces, new concepts); data base and life prediction (time-dependent behavior, environmental effects, fracture mechanics, NDE development); and technology transfer. This report includes contributions from all currently active project participants.

  20. To MARS and Beyond with Nuclear Power - Design Concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung

    2013-01-01

    The President Park of ROK has also expressed support for space program promotion, praising the success of NARO as evidence of a positive outlook. These events hint a strong signal that ROK's space program will be accelerated by the national eager desire. In this national eager desire for space program, the policymakers and the aerospace engineers need to pay attention to the advanced nuclear technology of ROK that is set to a major world nuclear energy country, even exporting the technology. The space nuclear application is a very much attractive option because its energy density is the most enormous among available energy sources in space. This paper presents the design concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANuTER) that is one of the advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine developing in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) for space application. Solar system exploration relying on CRs suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard, nuclear propulsion is a very attractive option for that because of higher performance and already demonstrated technology. Although ROK was a late entrant into elite global space club, its prospect as a space racer is very bright because of the national eager desire and its advanced technology. Especially it is greatly meaningful that ROK has potential capability to launch its nuclear technology into space as a global nuclear energy leader and a soaring space adventurer. In this regard, KANuTER will be a kind of bridgehead for Korean space nuclear application

  1. To MARS and Beyond with Nuclear Power - Design Concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The President Park of ROK has also expressed support for space program promotion, praising the success of NARO as evidence of a positive outlook. These events hint a strong signal that ROK's space program will be accelerated by the national eager desire. In this national eager desire for space program, the policymakers and the aerospace engineers need to pay attention to the advanced nuclear technology of ROK that is set to a major world nuclear energy country, even exporting the technology. The space nuclear application is a very much attractive option because its energy density is the most enormous among available energy sources in space. This paper presents the design concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANuTER) that is one of the advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine developing in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) for space application. Solar system exploration relying on CRs suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard, nuclear propulsion is a very attractive option for that because of higher performance and already demonstrated technology. Although ROK was a late entrant into elite global space club, its prospect as a space racer is very bright because of the national eager desire and its advanced technology. Especially it is greatly meaningful that ROK has potential capability to launch its nuclear technology into space as a global nuclear energy leader and a soaring space adventurer. In this regard, KANuTER will be a kind of bridgehead for Korean space nuclear application.

  2. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  3. The Application of Advanced Technique of Fan Frame Unit on High Bypass Ratio Aero Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High bypass ratio aero-engine was widely used on military and civil aviation domain, as the power of larger aircraft. Fan frame unit was the main bearing frame of high bypass ratio aero-engine, which composed of strut, HUB MID BOX and external bypass parts. Resin/composite was used on external bypass parts(acoustic liner, containment ring, fan outlet guide vane and fan case skin fillets, which not only reduced the weight and manufacturing cost, but also improved the noise absorption, containment and anti-fatigue ability of engine. The design of composite was becoming a key technique for high bypass ratio aero-engine. In special test of the core engine, nitrogen cooling system was designed to cool the cavity of spool. The nitrogen pipeline passed through the inner cavity of fan frame, then inserted into NO. 3 bearing seal, so nitrogen gas was sent into the cavity of core engine spool. On high bypass ratio aero-engine, the external bypass and fan frame inner cavity were the design platform for advanced technique, such as composite and pipeline system, and also provided guarantee for reliable operation of engine.

  4. Preliminary study of clinical staging of moderately advanced and advanced thoracic esophageal carcinoma treated by non-surgical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shuchai; Li Ren; Li Juan; Qiu Rong; Han Chun; Wan Jun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical staging of moderately advanced and advanced thoracic esophageal carcinoma by evaluating the prognosis and provide criteria for individual treatment. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 500 patients with moderately advanced and advanced thoracic esophageal carcinoma treated by radiotherapy alone. According to the primary lesion length by barium meal X-ray film, the invasion range and the relation between location and the surrounding organs by CT scans the disease category was classified by a 6 stage method and a 4 stage method. With the primary lesion divide into T1, T2a, T2b, T3a, T3b and T4 incorporating the locregional lymph node metastasis, a 6 stage system was obtained, I, IIa , IIb, IIIa, IIIb and IV. The results of this as compared with those of 4 stage system, the following data were finally arrived at. Results: Among the 500 cases, there were T1 23, T2a 111, T2b 157, T3a 84, T3b 82 and T4 43. The survival rates of these six categories showed significant differences (χ 2 =63.32, P 2 =56.29, P 2 =94.29, P 2 =83.48, P<0.05). Conclusions: Both the 6 stage and 4 stage systems are adaptable to predict prognosis of moderately advanced and advanced esophageal carcinoma treated by radiotherapy alone. For simplicity and convenience, the 4 stage classification is recommended. (authors)

  5. Prioritization of engineering support requests and advanced technology projects using decision support and industrial engineering models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation and prioritization of Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) is a particularly difficult task at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) -- Shuttle Project Engineering Office. This difficulty is due to the complexities inherent in the evaluation process and the lack of structured information. The evaluation process must consider a multitude of relevant pieces of information concerning Safety, Supportability, O&M Cost Savings, Process Enhancement, Reliability, and Implementation. Various analytical and normative models developed over the past have helped decision makers at KSC utilize large volumes of information in the evaluation of ESR's. The purpose of this project is to build on the existing methodologies and develop a multiple criteria decision support system that captures the decision maker's beliefs through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes. The model utilizes the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), subjective probabilities, the entropy concept, and Maximize Agreement Heuristic (MAH) to enhance the decision maker's intuition in evaluating a set of ESR's.

  6. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  7. Selected Topics on Advanced Information Systems Engineering: Editorial Introduction to the Issue 5 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Grabis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5th issue of the journal on Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling (CSIMQ presents extended versions of five papers selected from the CAiSE Forum 2015. The forum was part of the 27th edition of international Conference on Advanced Information Systems engineering (CAiSE 2015, which took place in June 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. Information systems engineering draws its foundation from various interrelated disciplines including, e.g., conceptual modeling, database systems, business process management, requirements engineering, human computer interaction, and enterprise computing to address various practical challenges in development and application of information systems. The guiding subjects of CAiSE 2015 were Creativity, Ability, and Integrity. The CAiSE Forum aimed at presenting and discussing new ideas and tools related to information systems Engineering.

  8. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications advanced analysis of vehicle related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the broad field of engineering science through the lens of nonlinear approaches. Examples focus on issues in vehicle technology, including vehicle dynamics, vehicle-road interaction, steering, and control for electric and hybrid vehicles. Also included are discussions on train and tram systems, aerial vehicles, robot-human interaction, and contact and scratch analysis at the micro/nanoscale. Chapters are based on invited contributions from world-class experts in the field who advance the future of engineering by discussing the development of more optimal, accurate, efficient, and cost and energy effective systems. This book is appropriate for researchers, students, and practicing engineers who are interested in the applications of nonlinear approaches to solving engineering and science problems.

  9. Advanced Engine Health Management Applications of the SSME Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Tony R.; Lakin, David R., II; Reynolds, Tracy D.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is a 32-channel high speed vibration data acquisition and processing system developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It Delivers sample rates as high as 51,200 samples/second per channel and performs Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing via on-board digital signal processing (DSP) chips in a real-time format. Advanced engine health assessment is achieved by utilizing the vibration spectra to provide accurate sensor validation and enhanced engine vibration redlines. Discrete spectral signatures (such as synchronous) that are indicators of imminent failure can be assessed and utilized to mitigate catastrophic engine failures- a first in rocket engine health assessment. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  10. Advances in cellulosic conversion to fuels: engineering yeasts for cellulosic bioethanol and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2018-04-01

    Cellulosic fuels are expected to have great potential industrial applications in the near future, but they still face technical challenges to become cost-competitive fuels, thus presenting many opportunities for improvement. The economical production of viable biofuels requires metabolic engineering of microbial platforms to convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels with high titers and yields. Fortunately, integrating traditional and novel engineering strategies with advanced engineering toolboxes has allowed the development of more robust microbial platforms, thus expanding substrate ranges. This review highlights recent trends in the metabolic engineering of microbial platforms, such as the industrial yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica, for the production of renewable fuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineering Brevibacterium flavum for the production of renewable bioenergy: C4-C5 advanced alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, HaiFeng; Lin, JiaFu; Wang, YuanHong; Chen, Qiao; Wang, GuangWei; Tan, FuRong

    2017-09-01

    Biosynthesis of advanced biofuels by engineered non-natural microorganisms has been proposed to be the most promising approach for the replacement of dwindling fossil fuel resources. Brevibacterium flavum (Bf) is a model brevibacterium aerobe which lacks basic and applied research that could enable this species to produce biofuels. There are no reports regarding engineering this microorganism to produce advanced alcohols before. Here, for the first time, we developed the bacterium as a novel biosynthetic platform for advanced alcohols production via the mutagenesis and engineering to produce 2-ketoacids derived alcohols. In order to enhance the strain's capability of producing advanced alcohols, we preferentially improved intrinsic metabolism ability of the strain to obtain improved expression host (IEH) via generating mutagenesis libraries by whole cell mutagenesis (WCM). The IEH was determined via screening out the mutant strain with the highest production of branched-chain organic acids (BCOA) using high throughput screening method.. Subsequently, a novel vector system for Bf was established, and the corresponding biosynthetic pathway of directing carbon flux into the target advanced alcohols was recruited to make the bacterium possess the capability of producing advanced alcohols and further enhance the production using the IEH. Specifically, we generated bioengineered strains that were able to synthesize up to the highest 5362 and 4976 mg/L isobutanol, 1945 and 1747 mg/L 2-methyl-1-butanol (2 MB), and 785.34 and 781 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol (3 MB) from pure glucose and duckweed substrates, respectively. Our findings confirmed the feasibility and potential of using Bf as a novel biosynthetic platform to generate advanced biofuels with glucose and inexpensive renewable feedstock-duckweed as a fermentation substrate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1946-1958. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Crosstalk between Tissue Engineering and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Daniela P; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vítor M; Marques, Alexandra P

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs made of biotechnology-derived materials have been preferred due to their chemical and physical composition, which offers both high versatility and a support to enclose/ incorporate relevant signaling molecules and/or genes known to therapeutically induce tissue repair. Herein, a critical overview of the impact of different biotechnology-derived materials, scaffolds, and recombinant signaling molecules over the behavior of cells, another element of tissue engineered constructs, as well its regulatory role in tissue regeneration and disease progression is given. Additionally, these tissue-engineered constructs evolved to three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like models that, as an advancement of two-dimensional standard culture methods, are expected to be a valuable tool in the field of drug discovery and pharmaceutical research. Despite the improved design and conception of current proposed 3D tissue-like models, advanced control systems to enable and accelerate streamlining and automation of the numerous labor-intensive steps intrinsic to the development of tissue-engineered constructs are still to be achieved. In this sense, this review intends to present the biotechnology- derived materials that are being explored in the field of tissue engineering to generate 3D tissue-analogues and briefly highlight their foremost breakthroughs in tissue regeneration and drug discovery. It also aims to reinforce that the crosstalk between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology has been fostering the outcomes of tissue engineering approaches through the use of biotechnology-derived signaling molecules. Gene delivery/therapy is also discussed as a forefront area that represents another cross point between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology, in which nucleic acids can be considered a "super pharmaceutical" to drive biological responses, including tissue regeneration.

  13. A preliminary investigation of opinions and behaviors regarding advance directives for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpern, E H; Yellen, S B; Burton, L A

    1993-03-01

    Advance directives are a means of promoting patient autonomy in end-of-life decisions but are used infrequently. A recent federal law requires healthcare organizations to provide information to patients about advance directives. This study explored attitudes and behaviors related to the use of advance directives in three areas: familiarity with advance directives, reasons for completing or not completing advance directives and preferences for receiving information about advance directives. A questionnaire was administered by personal interview to a nonrandomized convenience sample of 46 inpatients and 50 outpatients at a large, tertiary care, urban academic medical center in the summer of 1991. Most respondents (77%) had heard of either the living will or durable power of attorney for healthcare, but only 52% correctly understood the purpose of these documents. Twenty-nine percent of the sample had executed an advance directive. Those who had advance directives were older and considered themselves less healthy than did those without advance directives. Unfamiliarity with advance directives and procrastination were cited most often as reasons for not having an advance directive. Most subjects (65%) had spoken with someone, usually a family member or close friend, about preferences for treatment during a critical illness. Although they had rarely discussed advance directives, 83% anticipated that they would be comfortable doing so with a physician or a nurse. Advance directives are used infrequently to document treatment preferences. The success of programs to promote greater use of advance directives depends on a clearer understanding of the factors that influence both decision and action to execute an advance directive. Patients claim to be comfortable in discussing the topic and prefer that such discussions occur in the outpatient setting.

  14. The ADVANCE Program: Targeting the Increase in the Participation and Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperanca, S.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of NSF's ADVANCE Program is to help increase the participation of women in the scientific and engineering workforce through the increased representation and advancement of women in academic science and engineering careers. The Program tries to address this under representation by focusing on support for men and women with three approaches: institutional (Institutional Transformation), grass-root (Leadership), and individual (Fellows) support. The ADVANCE Program alternates with a round of Institutional and Leadership awards in one year and a Fellows competition the next. Since its inception in 2001, NSF has had two competitive rounds for each of the three award types and will have spent approximately 75 M\\ by the end of the next fiscal year (2004). The first and second ADVANCE Institutional Transformation competitions (FY 2001 and 2003) received over 70 proposals each. These awards are for multi-year support in the amount of 3-4M\\ each. Details and access to the websites for the ADVANCE programs of each institution can be found in NSF's ADVANCE webpage at http://nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/advance/itwebsites.htm. The number of proposals submitted for the Leadership awards competition dropped from 35 in 2001 to 26 in 2003, despite an increase in the allowed award size for the second round. In terms of projected goals, this part of ADVANCE is perhaps the most eclectic. Some Leadership awards were made to professional societies to work specifically with their respective scientific communities in identifying needs that might be peculiar to a field of science. In the first round of the Leadership awards, PI Mary-Anne Holmes of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and collaborators received a grant to work with the Association of Women Geoscientists to determine the current status of women geoscientists in the US. These grantees hope to disseminate the information gathered under this award broadly in order to educate women students and faculty on strategies to

  15. Exploring Advanced Technology Gas Turbine Engine Design and Performance for the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nautical miles at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper explores gas turbine component performance and cycle parameters to quantify performance gains possible for additional improvements in component and material performance beyond those identified in previous LCTR2 propulsion studies and to identify additional research areas. The vehicle-level characteristics from this advanced technology generation 2 propulsion architecture will help set performance levels as additional propulsion and power systems are conceived to meet ever-increasing requirements for mobility and comfort, while reducing energy use, cost, noise and emissions. The Large Civil Tiltrotor vehicle and mission will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. A few, relevant engine and component technology studies, including previous LCTR2 engine study results will be summarized to help orient the reader on gas turbine engine architecture, performance and limitations. Study assumptions and methodology used to explore engine design and performance, as well as assess vehicle sizing and mission performance will then be discussed. Individual performance for present and advanced engines, as well as engine performance effects on overall vehicle size and mission fuel usage, will be given. All results will be summarized to facilitate understanding the importance and interaction of various component and system performance on overall vehicle characteristics.

  16. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 1; Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    For the preliminary design and the off-design performance analysis of axial flow turbines, a pair of intermediate level-of-fidelity computer codes, TD2-2 (design; reference 1) and AXOD (off-design; reference 2), are being evaluated for use in turbine design and performance prediction of the modern high performance aircraft engines. TD2-2 employs a streamline curvature method for design, while AXOD approaches the flow analysis with an equal radius-height domain decomposition strategy. Both methods resolve only the flows in the annulus region while modeling the impact introduced by the blade rows. The mathematical formulations and derivations involved in both methods are documented in references 3, 4 for TD2-2) and in reference 5 (for AXOD). The focus of this paper is to discuss the fundamental issues of applicability and compatibility of the two codes as a pair of companion pieces, to perform preliminary design and off-design analysis for modern aircraft engine turbines. Two validation cases for the design and the off-design prediction using TD2-2 and AXOD conducted on two existing high efficiency turbines, developed and tested in the NASA/GE Energy Efficient Engine (GE-E3) Program, the High Pressure Turbine (HPT; two stages, air cooled) and the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT; five stages, un-cooled), are provided in support of the analysis and discussion presented in this paper.

  17. Fastr: a workflow engine for advanced data flows in medical image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Christiaan Achterberg

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of datasets encountered in imaging studies, the increasingcomplexity of processing workflows, and a growing awareness for data stewardship, thereis a need for managed, automated workflows. In this paper we introduce Fastr, an automatedworkflow engine with support for advanced data flows. Fastr has built-in data provenance forrecording processing trails and ensuring reproducible results. The extensible plugin-based designallows the system to interface with virtually any image archive and processing infrastructure. Thisworkflow engine is designed to consolidate quantitative imaging biomarker pipelines in order toenable easy application to new data.

  18. Advanced exergy analysis for a bottoming organic rankine cycle coupled to an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, J.; Ruiz, S.; Dolz, V.; Royo-Pascual, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergy analysis were carried out using experimental data of an ORC. • Exergy destruction analyzed as endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable. • Exergy destruction was estimated by considering technological restrictions. - Abstract: This paper deals with the evaluation and analysis of a bottoming ORC cycle coupled to an IC engine by means of conventional and advanced exergy analysis. Using experimental data of an ORC coupled to a 2 l turbocharged engine, both conventional and advanced exergy analysis are carried out. Splitting the exergy in the advanced exergy analysis into unavoidable and avoidable provides a measure of the potential of improving the efficiency of this component. On the other hand, splitting the exergy into endogenous and exogenous provides information between interactions among system components. The result of this study shows that there is a high potential of improvement in this type of cycles. Although, from the conventional analysis, the exergy destruction rate of boiler is greater than the one of the expander, condenser and pump, the advanced exergy analysis suggests that the first priority of improvement should be given to the expander, followed by the pump, the condenser and the boiler. A total amount of 3.75 kW (36.5%) of exergy destruction rate could be lowered, taking account that only the avoidable part of the exergy destruction rate can be reduced.

  19. Advanced Engineering Methods for Assessing Welding Distortion in Aero-Engine Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Kathryn; Darlington, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Welding remains an attractive fabrication method for aero-engine assemblies, offering high production rates and reduced total cost, particularly for large complex assemblies. However, distortion generated during the welding process continues to provide a major challenge in terms of the control of geometric tolerances and residual stress. The welding distortion is influenced by the sequence and position of joints, the clamping configuration and the design of the assembly. For large complex assemblies the range of these options may be large. Hence the use of numerical simulation at an early stage of the product development process is valuable to enable a wide range of these factors to be explored with the aim of minimising welding distortions before production commences, and thereby reducing the product development time. In this paper, a new technique for simulation of welding distortions based on a shrinkage analysis is evaluated for an aero-engine assembly. The shrinkage simulations were built and solved using the ESI Group software Weld Planner. The rapid simulation speed enabled a wide range of welding plans to be explored, leading to recommendations for the fabrication process. The sensitivity of the model to mesh size and material properties is reported. The results of the shrinkage analysis were found to be similar to those of a transient analysis generated using ESI Group software SysWeld. The solution times were found to be significantly lower for the shrinkage analysis than the transient analysis. Hence it has been demonstrated that shrinkage analysis is a valuable tool for exploring the fabrication process of a welded assembly at an early stage of the product development process.

  20. Preliminary Results from Simulations of Temperature Oscillations in Stirling Engine Regenerator Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to create a Stirling engine model for studying the effects of regenerator matrix temperature oscillations on Stirling engine performance. A one-dimensional model with axial discretisation of engine components has been formulated using the control volume method...

  1. PREFACE: International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Natalia O.

    2015-01-01

    In October 15-17, 2014 International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014) took place at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (Tomsk, Russia). The Conference became a discussion platform for researchers in the fields of studying structure and properties of advanced building materials and included open lectures of leading scientists and oral presentations of master, postgraduate and doctoral students. A special session was devoted to reports of school children who further plan on starting a research career. The Conference included an industrial exhibition where companies displayed the products and services they supply. The companies also gave presentations of their products within the Conference sessions.

  2. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) represents the next evolutionary step in cryogenic liquid rocket engines. Deriving its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core, the NTR can generate high thrust at a specific impulse of approx. 900 seconds or more - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. In FY'11, as part of the AISP project, NASA proposed a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) effort that envisioned two key activities - "Foundational Technology Development" followed by system-level "Technology Demonstrations". Five near-term NTP activities identified for Foundational Technology Development became the basis for the NCPS project started in FY'12 and funded by NASA's AES program. During Phase 1 (FY'12-14), the NCPS project was focused on (1) Recapturing fuel processing techniques and fabricating partial length "heritage" fuel elements for the two candidate fuel forms identified by NASA and the DOE - NERVA graphite "composite" and the uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten "cermet". The Phase 1 effort also included: (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Mission Analysis and Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable and Sustainable NTP Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary plan for DDT&E was outlined by GRC, the DOE and industry for NASA HQ that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce development costs, the GTD and FTD tests use a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 or 16.5 klbf) engine. Both engines use graphite composite fuel and a "common" fuel element design that is scalable to higher thrust (approx. 25 klbf) engines by increasing the number of elements in a larger diameter core that can produce greater thermal power output. To keep the FTD mission cost down, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered along with

  3. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology and the advances in yeast strain engineering will stimulate development of novel yeast-based processes for chemicals production. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Launch Vehicle Design and Optimization Methods and Priority for the Advanced Engineering Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Korte, John J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a research and development program that will improve collaboration among design engineers for launch vehicle conceptual design and provide the infrastructure (methods and framework) necessary to enable that environment. In this paper, three major technical challenges facing the AEE program are identified, and three specific design problems are selected to demonstrate how advanced methods can improve current design activities. References are made to studies that demonstrate these design problems and methods, and these studies will provide the detailed information and check cases to support incorporation of these methods into the AEE. This paper provides background and terminology for discussing the launch vehicle conceptual design problem so that the diverse AEE user community can participate in prioritizing the AEE development effort.

  5. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  6. Model-based Engineering for the Integration of Manufacturing Systems with Advanced Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Lechevalier , David; Narayanan , Anantha; Rachuri , Sudarsan; Foufou , Sebti; Lee , Y Tina

    2016-01-01

    Part 3: Interoperability and Systems Integration; International audience; To employ data analytics effectively and efficiently on manufacturing systems, engineers and data scientists need to collaborate closely to bring their domain knowledge together. In this paper, we introduce a domain-specific modeling approach to integrate a manufacturing system model with advanced analytics, in particular neural networks, to model predictions. Our approach combines a set of meta-models and transformatio...

  7. Control of harmful hydrocarbon species in the exhaust of modern advanced GDI engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A. O.; Abu-jrai, A.; Turner, D.; Tsolakis, A.; Xu, H. M.; Golunski, S. E.; Herreros, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic but currently non-regulated hydrocarbon compounds ranging from C5-C11, before and after a zoned three-way catalytic converter (TWC) in a modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine has been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GDI engine has been operated under conventional and advanced combustion modes, which result in better fuel economy and reduced levels of NOx with respect to standard SI operation. However, these fuel-efficient conditions are more challenging for the operation of a conventional TWC, and could lead to higher level of emissions released to the environment. Lean combustion leads to the reduction in pumping losses, fuel consumption and in-cylinder emission formation rates. However, lean HCCI will lead to high levels of unburnt HCs while the presence of oxygen will lower the TWC efficiency for NOx control. The effect on the catalytic conversion of the hydrocarbon species of the addition of hydrogen upstream the catalyst has been also investigated. The highest hydrocarbon engine-out emissions were produced for HCCI engine operation at low engine load operation. The catalyst was able to remove most of the hydrocarbon species to low levels (below the permissible exposure limits) for standard and most of the advanced combustion modes, except for naphthalene (classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer) and methyl-naphthalene (which has the potential to cause lung damage). However, when hydrogen was added upstream of the catalyst, the catalyst conversion efficiency in reducing methyl-naphthalene and naphthalene was increased by approximately 21%. This results in simultaneous fuel economy and environmental benefits from the effective combination of advanced combustion and novel aftertreatment systems.

  8. The rehabilitation engineering research center for the advancement of cognitive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Patricia Cristine; Cassidy, Joy Lucille; Bodine, Cathy

    2015-02-01

    Barring few exceptions, allied health professionals, engineers, manufacturers of assistive technologies (ATs), and consumer product manufacturers have developed few technologies for individuals with cognitive impairments (CIs). In 2004, the National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) recognized the need to support research in this emergent field. They funded the first Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center for the Advancement of Cognitive Technologies (RERC-ACT). The RERC-ACT has since designed and evaluated existing and emerging technologies through rigorous research, improving upon existing AT devices, and creating new technologies for individuals with CIs. The RERC-ACT has contributed to the development and testing of AT products that assist persons with CIs to actively engage in tasks of daily living at home, school, work, and in the community. This article highlights the RERC-ACT's engineering development and research projects and discusses how current research may impact the quality of life for an aging population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  10. Current Advancements and Strategies in Tissue Engineering for Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jasmine; Walsh, Claire; Yue, Dominic; Dardik, Alan; Cheema, Umber

    2017-06-01

    Significance: With an aging population leading to an increase in diabetes and associated cutaneous wounds, there is a pressing clinical need to improve wound-healing therapies. Recent Advances: Tissue engineering approaches for wound healing and skin regeneration have been developed over the past few decades. A review of current literature has identified common themes and strategies that are proving successful within the field: The delivery of cells, mainly mesenchymal stem cells, within scaffolds of the native matrix is one such strategy. We overview these approaches and give insights into mechanisms that aid wound healing in different clinical scenarios. Critical Issues: We discuss the importance of the biomimetic niche, and how recapitulating elements of the native microenvironment of cells can help direct cell behavior and fate. Future Directions: It is crucial that during the continued development of tissue engineering in wound repair, there is close collaboration between tissue engineers and clinicians to maintain the translational efficacy of this approach.

  11. Barriers and strategies for the clinical translation of advanced orthopaedic tissue engineering protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, H; Alini, M; Stoddart, M J; Evans, C; Miclau, T; Steiner, S

    2014-05-06

    Research in orthopaedic tissue engineering has intensified over the last decade and new protocols continue to emerge. The clinical translation of these new applications, however, remains associated with a number of obstacles. This report highlights the major issues that impede the clinical translation of advanced tissue engineering concepts, discusses strategies to overcome these barriers, and examines the need to increase incentives for translational strategies. The statements are based on presentations and discussions held at the AO Foundation-sponsored symposium "Where Science meets Clinics 2013" held at the Congress Center in Davos, Switzerland, in September, 2013. The event organisers convened a diverse group of over one hundred stakeholders involved in clinical translation of orthopaedic tissue engineering, including scientists, clinicians, healthcare industry professionals and regulatory agency representatives. A major point that emerged from the discussions was that there continues to be a critical need for early trans-disciplinary communication and collaboration in the development and execution of research approaches. Equally importantly was the need to address the shortage of sustained funding programs for multidisciplinary teams conducting translational research. Such detailed discussions between experts contribute towards the development of a roadmap to more successfully advance the clinical translation of novel tissue engineering concepts and ultimately improve patient care in orthopaedic and trauma surgery.

  12. Barriers and strategies for the clinical translation of advanced orthopaedic tissue engineering protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Madry

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in orthopaedic tissue engineering has intensified over the last decade and new protocols continue to emerge. The clinical translation of these new applications, however, remains associated with a number of obstacles. This report highlights the major issues that impede the clinical translation of advanced tissue engineering concepts, discusses strategies to overcome these barriers, and examines the need to increase incentives for translational strategies. The statements are based on presentations and discussions held at the AO Foundation-sponsored symposium "Where Science meets Clinics 2013" held at the Congress Center in Davos, Switzerland, in September, 2013. The event organisers convened a diverse group of over one hundred stakeholders involved in clinical translation of orthopaedic tissue engineering, including scientists, clinicians, healthcare industry professionals and regulatory agency representatives. A major point that emerged from the discussions was that there continues to be a critical need for early trans-disciplinary communication and collaboration in the development and execution of research approaches. Equally importantly was the need to address the shortage of sustained funding programs for multidisciplinary teams conducting translational research. Such detailed discussions between experts contribute towards the development of a roadmap to more successfully advance the clinical translation of novel tissue engineering concepts and ultimately improve patient care in orthopaedic and trauma surgery.

  13. The iron swords from the necropolis of Son Pellisser; preliminary advance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Fernández Mártinez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper submits the iron swords from the necropolis of Son Pellisser (Calvià-Majorca. Although the materials that we find are numerous and still under research offer a preliminary study about three imported swords, found in burial objects, also their possible origin and way of introduction on the island. These weapons could be the first archaeological evidence that the Balearic mercenaries participated in the Wars of Sicily, between Carthaginians and Greeks, from the fifth century BC.

  14. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs

  15. Systems analysis and engineering of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Hands, J.A.; Raglin, P.S.; Ramirez, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source, which will produce ∼ 16 MJ in x-rays, represents the next step in providing US Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray sources needed for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation (RES), Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and Weapon Physics (WP) Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories' Z Accelerator in 1997 provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. This paper will introduce the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source Facility Project, describe the systems analysis and engineering approach being used, and identify critical technology areas being researched

  16. Preliminary study on the control of direct injection diesel engine for better fuel flexibility and emissions control. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egnell, R.; Kassem, N.; Bohlin, T.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a preliminary study on turbocharged direct injection diesel engines. The objectives and scope of this study are: 1. To explore the potential of using electronic control systems based on dynamic models of the engine in order to reduce fuel consumption, while maintaining good driveability. 2. To analyze the transient response of a turbocharged diesel engine based on experimental data collected from one of SAAB-SCANIA's test cells. 3. To survey the hardware components that would satisfy the requirements of the electronic control systems mentioned above. Part III discusses the transient response measurements obtained from two sets of experiments conducted on a six-cylinder motor working under varying conditions of load and speed. The objective of the first set of experiments was to quantify the difference in ignition delay between the transient and steady state operating conditions. The second set of experiments were aimed to provide a basis on which the engine efficiency obtained under transient conditions can be compared to that obtained from a single-cylinder motor working under steady state conditions.

  17. Genome and metabolic engineering in non-conventional yeasts: Current advances and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kathrin Löbs

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial production of chemicals and proteins from biomass-derived and waste sugar streams is a rapidly growing area of research and development. While the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent host for the conversion of glucose to ethanol, production of other chemicals from alternative substrates often requires extensive strain engineering. To avoid complex and intensive engineering of S. cerevisiae, other yeasts are often selected as hosts for bioprocessing based on their natural capacity to produce a desired product: for example, the efficient production and secretion of proteins, lipids, and primary metabolites that have value as commodity chemicals. Even when using yeasts with beneficial native phenotypes, metabolic engineering to increase yield, titer, and production rate is essential. The non-conventional yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus, Scheffersomyces stipitis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Hansenula polymorpha and Pichia pastoris have been developed as eukaryotic hosts because of their desirable phenotypes, including thermotolerance, assimilation of diverse carbon sources, and high protein secretion. However, advanced metabolic engineering in these yeasts has been limited. This review outlines the challenges of using non-conventional yeasts for strain and pathway engineering, and discusses the developed solutions to these problems and the resulting applications in industrial biotechnology.

  18. Genome and metabolic engineering in non-conventional yeasts: Current advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbs, Ann-Kathrin; Schwartz, Cory; Wheeldon, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Microbial production of chemicals and proteins from biomass-derived and waste sugar streams is a rapidly growing area of research and development. While the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia e is an excellent host for the conversion of glucose to ethanol, production of other chemicals from alternative substrates often requires extensive strain engineering. To avoid complex and intensive engineering of S. cerevisiae, other yeasts are often selected as hosts for bioprocessing based on their natural capacity to produce a desired product: for example, the efficient production and secretion of proteins, lipids, and primary metabolites that have value as commodity chemicals. Even when using yeasts with beneficial native phenotypes, metabolic engineering to increase yield, titer, and production rate is essential. The non-conventional yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus, Scheffersomyces stipitis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Hansenula polymorpha and Pichia pastoris have been developed as eukaryotic hosts because of their desirable phenotypes, including thermotolerance, assimilation of diverse carbon sources, and high protein secretion. However, advanced metabolic engineering in these yeasts has been limited. This review outlines the challenges of using non-conventional yeasts for strain and pathway engineering, and discusses the developed solutions to these problems and the resulting applications in industrial biotechnology.

  19. Advanced Low-Cost O2/H2 Engines for the SSTO Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goracke, B. David; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Nixon, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The recent NASA Access to Space study examined future Earth to orbit (ETO) transportation needs and fleets out to 2030. The baseline in the option 3 assessment was a single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicle. A study was conducted to assess the use of new advanced low cost O2/H2 engines for this SSTO application. The study defined baseline configurations and ground rules and defined six engine cycles to explore engine performance. The cycles included an open cycle, and a series of closed cycles with varying abilities to extract energy from the propellants to power he turbomachinery. The cycles thus varied in the maximum chamber pressure they could reach and in their weights at any given chamber pressure. The weight of each cycle was calculated for two technology levels versus chamber pressure up to the power limit of the cycle. The performance in the SSTO mission was then modeled using the resulting engine weights and specific impulse performance using the Access to Space option 3 vehicle. The results showed that new O2/H2 engines are viable and competitive candidates for the SSTO application using chamber pressures of 4,000 psi.

  20. Preliminary Results on the Influence of Engineered Artificial Mucus Layer on Phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döllinger, Michael; Gröhn, Franziska; Berry, David A.; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Luegmair, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have confirmed the influence of dehydration and an altered mucus (e.g., due to pathologies) on phonation. However, the underlying reasons for these influences are not fully understood. This study was a preliminary inquiry into the influences of mucus architecture and concentration on vocal fold oscillation. Method: Two…

  1. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...

  2. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  3. Preliminary study of optimum ductburning turbofan engine cycle design parameters for supersonic cruising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of turbofan engine overall pressure ratio, fan pressure ratio, and ductburner temperature rise on the engine weight and cruise fuel consumption for a mach 2.4 supersonic transport was investigated. Design point engines, optimized purely for the supersonic cruising portion of the flight where the bulk of the fuel is consumed, are considered. Based on constant thrust requirements at cruise, fuel consumption considerations would favor medium by pass ratio engines (1.5 to 1.8) of overall pressure ratio of about 16. Engine weight considerations favor low bypass ratio (0.6 or less) and low wverall pressure ratio (8). Combination of both effects results in bypass ratios of 0.6 to 0.8 and overall pressure ratio of 12 being the overall optimum.

  4. Preliminary study of used cooking oil methyl ester as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseli, A.; El-Awad, M.M.; Yusoff, M.Z.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental work has been carried out to compare the power performance and exhaust emissions of UCOME with OD on unmodified direct injection, four stroke single cylinder and stationary Robin diesel engine. Used cooking oil was transesterified by using methanol that yields immiscible fraction of glycerol and methyl ester (biodiesel). UCOME was separated by gravity before conducting further testing on its physical, chemical and thermal properties in the laboratory. For fuel power performance analysis, fuel consumption, gross energy input, torque, brake power, BMEP and SFC of the engine were measured and calculated. The analysis showed that at high engine speeds, the engine performances with UCOME are comparable to that of OD. However, UCOME increases specific fuel consumption due to its high specific density. In term of exhaust emissions UCOME showed a net reduction in exhaust emissions of NO x as compared with those of OD. This study has given optimistic information to pave the direction for further research on diesel engine

  5. Autoignition of straight-run naphtha: A promising fuel for advanced compression ignition engines

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed

    2017-11-24

    Naphtha, a low-octane distillate fuel, has been proposed as a promising low-cost fuel for advanced compression ignition engine technologies. Experimental and modelling studies have been conducted in this work to assess autoignition characteristics of naphtha for use in advanced engines. Ignition delay times of a certified straight-run naphtha fuel, supplied by Haltermann Solutions, were measured in a shock tube and a rapid comparison machine over wide ranges of experimental conditions (20 and 60 bar, 620–1223 K, ϕ = 0.5, 1 and 2). The Haltermann straight-run naphtha (HSRN) has research octane number (RON) of 60 and motor octane number (MON) of 58.3, with carbon range spanning C3–C9. Reactivity of HSRN was compared, via experiments and simulations, with three suitably formulated surrogates: a two-component PRF (n-heptane/iso-octane) surrogate, a three-component TPRF (toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane) surrogate, and a six-component surrogate. All surrogates reasonably captured the ignition delays of HSRN at high and intermediate temperatures. However, at low temperatures (T < 750 K), the six-component surrogate performed the best in emulating the reactivity of naphtha fuel. Temperature sensitivity and rate of production analyses revealed that the presence of cyclo-alkanes in naphtha inhibits the overall fuel reactivity. Zero-dimensional engine simulations showed that PRF is a good autoignition surrogate for naphtha at high engine loads, however, the six-component surrogate is needed to match the combustion phasing of naphtha at low engine loads.

  6. Autoignition of straight-run naphtha: A promising fuel for advanced compression ignition engines

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed; Issayev, Gani; Badra, Jihad; Voice, Alexander K.; Giri, Binod; Djebbi, Khalil; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Naphtha, a low-octane distillate fuel, has been proposed as a promising low-cost fuel for advanced compression ignition engine technologies. Experimental and modelling studies have been conducted in this work to assess autoignition characteristics of naphtha for use in advanced engines. Ignition delay times of a certified straight-run naphtha fuel, supplied by Haltermann Solutions, were measured in a shock tube and a rapid comparison machine over wide ranges of experimental conditions (20 and 60 bar, 620–1223 K, ϕ = 0.5, 1 and 2). The Haltermann straight-run naphtha (HSRN) has research octane number (RON) of 60 and motor octane number (MON) of 58.3, with carbon range spanning C3–C9. Reactivity of HSRN was compared, via experiments and simulations, with three suitably formulated surrogates: a two-component PRF (n-heptane/iso-octane) surrogate, a three-component TPRF (toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane) surrogate, and a six-component surrogate. All surrogates reasonably captured the ignition delays of HSRN at high and intermediate temperatures. However, at low temperatures (T < 750 K), the six-component surrogate performed the best in emulating the reactivity of naphtha fuel. Temperature sensitivity and rate of production analyses revealed that the presence of cyclo-alkanes in naphtha inhibits the overall fuel reactivity. Zero-dimensional engine simulations showed that PRF is a good autoignition surrogate for naphtha at high engine loads, however, the six-component surrogate is needed to match the combustion phasing of naphtha at low engine loads.

  7. Measuring death-related anxiety in advanced cancer: preliminary psychometrics of the Death and Dying Distress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Christopher; Hales, Sarah; Zimmermann, Camilla; Gagliese, Lucia; Rydall, Anne; Rodin, Gary

    2011-10-01

    The alleviation of distress associated with death and dying is a central goal of palliative care, despite the lack of routine measurement of this outcome. In this study, we introduce the Death and Dying Distress Scale (DADDS), a new, brief measure we have developed to assess death-related anxiety in advanced cancer and other palliative populations. We describe its preliminary psychometrics based on a sample of 33 patients with advanced or metastatic cancer. The DADDS broadly captures distress about the loss of time and opportunity, the process of death and dying, and its impact on others. The initial version of the scale has a one-factor structure and good internal reliability. Dying and death-related distress was positively associated with depression and negatively associated with spiritual, emotional, physical, and functional well-being, providing early evidence of construct validity. This distress was relatively common, with 45% of the sample scoring in the upper reaches of the scale, suggesting that the DADDS may be a relevant outcome for palliative intervention. We conclude by presenting a revised 15-item version of the scale for further study in advanced cancer and other palliative populations.

  8. Preliminary results from a numerical study on the appendix gap losses in a Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2005-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the losses in the displacer clearance gap, a.k.a. the appendix gap, have been refined during the last decades. But most real life Stirling engines violate the assumptions behind these expressions and hence the expressions may not be applicable. In this study the gap has...... been included directly into a one dimensional Stirling engine model. Practical aspects of the method, such as handling the moving wall in the gap while achieving an energy conserving model formulation and handling discontinuous derivatives in the equations, are discussed. A study on the convergence...... output of the engine....

  9. Preliminary Results from Simulations of Temperature Fluctuations in Stirling Engine Regenerator Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to create a model for studying effects of temperature fluctuations in regenerator matrices on Stirling engine performance. A one-dimensional model with axial discretisation of engine components has been formulated using a fixed Eulerian grid. The model contains...... that adjusts solutions so that they satisfy the necessary cyclic boundary conditions as well as integral conditions for cyclic heat transfer for walls in the engine and for the mean cycle pressure. It has been found that it is possible to accurately solve the stiff ODE system that describes the coupled...

  10. ADVANCED BIOMASS REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL AND BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES JOINT FINAL REPORT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir M Zamansky; Mark S. Sheldon; Vitali V. Lissianski; Peter M. Maly; David K. Moyeda; Antonio Marquez; W. Randall Seeker

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of studies under a Phase II SBIR program funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and a closely coordinated project sponsored by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL, formerly FETC). The overall Phase II objective of the SBIR project is to experimentally optimize the biomass reburning technologies and conduct engineering design studies needed for process demonstration at full scale. The DOE project addresses supporting issues for the process design including modeling activities, economic studies of biomass handling, and experimental evaluation of slagging and fouling. The performance of biomass has been examined in a 300 kW (1 x 10(sup 6) Btu/hr) Boiler Simulator Facility under different experimental conditions. Fuels under investigation include furniture waste, willow wood and walnut shells. Tests showed that furniture pellets and walnut shells provided similar NO(sub x) control as that of natural gas in basic reburning at low heat inputs. Maximum NO(sub x) reduction achieved with walnut shell and furniture pellets was 65% and 58% respectively. Willow wood provided a maximum NO(sub x) reduction of 50% and was no better than natural gas at any condition tested. The efficiency of biomass increases when N-agent is injected into reburning and/or burnout zones, or along with OFA (Advanced Reburning). Co-injection of Na(sub 2)CO(sub 3) with N-agent further increases efficiency of NO(sub x) reduction. Maximum NO(sub x) reduction achieved with furniture pellets and willow wood in Advanced Reburning was 83% and 78% respectively. All combustion experiments of the Phase II project have been completed. All objectives of the experimental tasks were successfully met. The kinetic model of biomass reburning has been developed. Model agrees with experimental data for a wide range of initial conditions and thus correctly represents main features of the reburning process. Modeling suggests that the most important factors that provide

  11. ADVANCED BIOMASS REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL AND BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES JOINT FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Mark S. Sheldon; Vitali V. Lissianski; Peter M. Maly; David K. Moyeda; Antonio Marquez; W. Randall Seeker

    2000-10-01

    This report presents results of studies under a Phase II SBIR program funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and a closely coordinated project sponsored by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL, formerly FETC). The overall Phase II objective of the SBIR project is to experimentally optimize the biomass reburning technologies and conduct engineering design studies needed for process demonstration at full scale. The DOE project addresses supporting issues for the process design including modeling activities, economic studies of biomass handling, and experimental evaluation of slagging and fouling. The performance of biomass has been examined in a 300 kW (1 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr) Boiler Simulator Facility under different experimental conditions. Fuels under investigation include furniture waste, willow wood and walnut shells. Tests showed that furniture pellets and walnut shells provided similar NO{sub x} control as that of natural gas in basic reburning at low heat inputs. Maximum NO{sub x} reduction achieved with walnut shell and furniture pellets was 65% and 58% respectively. Willow wood provided a maximum NO{sub x} reduction of 50% and was no better than natural gas at any condition tested. The efficiency of biomass increases when N-agent is injected into reburning and/or burnout zones, or along with OFA (Advanced Reburning). Co-injection of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with N-agent further increases efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction. Maximum NO{sub x} reduction achieved with furniture pellets and willow wood in Advanced Reburning was 83% and 78% respectively. All combustion experiments of the Phase II project have been completed. All objectives of the experimental tasks were successfully met. The kinetic model of biomass reburning has been developed. Model agrees with experimental data for a wide range of initial conditions and thus correctly represents main features of the reburning process. Modeling suggests that the most important factors that provide

  12. Defined Engineered Human Myocardium with Advanced Maturation for Applications in Heart Failure Modelling and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcy, Malte; Hudson, James E.; Balfanz, Paul; Schlick, Susanne; Meyer, Tim; Liao, Mei-Ling Chang; Levent, Elif; Raad, Farah; Zeidler, Sebastian; Wingender, Edgar; Riegler, Johannes; Wang, Mouer; Gold, Joseph D.; Kehat, Izhak; Wettwer, Erich; Ravens, Ursula; Dierickx, Pieterjan; van Laake, Linda W.; Goumans, Marie Jose; Khadjeh, Sara; Toischer, Karl; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Couture, Larry A.; Unger, Andreas; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Araki, Toshiyuki; Neel, Benjamin; Keller, Gordon; Gepstein, Lior; Wu, Joseph C.; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    Background Advancing structural and functional maturation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes remains a key challenge for applications in disease modelling, drug screening, and heart repair. Here, we sought to advance cardiomyocyte maturation in engineered human myocardium (EHM) towards an adult phenotype under defined conditions. Methods We systematically investigated cell composition, matrix and media conditions to generate EHM from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts with organotypic functionality under serum-free conditions. We employed morphological, functional, and transcriptome analyses to benchmark maturation of EHM. Results EHM demonstrated important structural and functional properties of postnatal myocardium, including: (1) rod-shaped cardiomyocytes with M-bands assembled as a functional syncytium; (2) systolic twitch forces at a similar level as observed in bona fide postnatal myocardium; (3) a positive force-frequency-response; (4) inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation mediated via canonical β1- and β2-adrenoceptor signaling pathways; and (5) evidence for advanced molecular maturation by transcriptome profiling. EHM responded to chronic catecholamine toxicity with contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death, and NT-proBNP release; all are classical hallmarks of heart failure. Additionally, we demonstrate scalability of EHM according to anticipated clinical demands for cardiac repair. Conclusions We provide proof-of-concept for a universally applicable technology for the engineering of macro-scale human myocardium for disease modelling and heart repair from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes under defined, serum-free conditions. PMID:28167635

  13. Defined Engineered Human Myocardium With Advanced Maturation for Applications in Heart Failure Modeling and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcy, Malte; Hudson, James E; Balfanz, Paul; Schlick, Susanne; Meyer, Tim; Chang Liao, Mei-Ling; Levent, Elif; Raad, Farah; Zeidler, Sebastian; Wingender, Edgar; Riegler, Johannes; Wang, Mouer; Gold, Joseph D; Kehat, Izhak; Wettwer, Erich; Ravens, Ursula; Dierickx, Pieterjan; van Laake, Linda W; Goumans, Marie Jose; Khadjeh, Sara; Toischer, Karl; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Couture, Larry A; Unger, Andreas; Linke, Wolfgang A; Araki, Toshiyuki; Neel, Benjamin; Keller, Gordon; Gepstein, Lior; Wu, Joseph C; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2017-05-09

    Advancing structural and functional maturation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes remains a key challenge for applications in disease modeling, drug screening, and heart repair. Here, we sought to advance cardiomyocyte maturation in engineered human myocardium (EHM) toward an adult phenotype under defined conditions. We systematically investigated cell composition, matrix, and media conditions to generate EHM from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts with organotypic functionality under serum-free conditions. We used morphological, functional, and transcriptome analyses to benchmark maturation of EHM. EHM demonstrated important structural and functional properties of postnatal myocardium, including: (1) rod-shaped cardiomyocytes with M bands assembled as a functional syncytium; (2) systolic twitch forces at a similar level as observed in bona fide postnatal myocardium; (3) a positive force-frequency response; (4) inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation mediated via canonical β 1 - and β 2 -adrenoceptor signaling pathways; and (5) evidence for advanced molecular maturation by transcriptome profiling. EHM responded to chronic catecholamine toxicity with contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death, and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide release; all are classical hallmarks of heart failure. In addition, we demonstrate the scalability of EHM according to anticipated clinical demands for cardiac repair. We provide proof-of-concept for a universally applicable technology for the engineering of macroscale human myocardium for disease modeling and heart repair from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes under defined, serum-free conditions. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Preliminary Study on Acoustic Detection of Faults Experienced by a High-Bypass Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Devin K.

    2014-01-01

    The vehicle integrated propulsion research (VIPR) effort conducted by NASA and several partners provided an unparalleled opportunity to test a relatively low TRL concept regarding the use of far field acoustics to identify faults occurring in a high bypass turbofan engine. Though VIPR Phase II ground based aircraft installed engine testing wherein a multitude of research sensors and methods were evaluated, an array of acoustic microphones was used to determine the viability of such an array to detect failures occurring in a commercially representative high bypass turbofan engine. The failures introduced during VIPR testing included commanding the engine's low pressure compressor (LPC) exit and high pressure compressor (HPC) 14th stage bleed values abruptly to their failsafe positions during steady state

  15. Preliminary Comparison of Three Search Engines for Point of Care Access to MEDLINE® Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Ford, Glenn M.; Jacobs, Joshua L.; Thoma, George

    2006-01-01

    Medical resident physicians used MD on Tap in real time to search for MEDLINE citations relevant to clinical questions using three search engines: Essie, Entrez and Google™, in order of performance. PMID:17238564

  16. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF ENGINEERED-MANUFACTURED NANOMATERIALS: RESEARCH CHALLENGES AND PRELIMINARY FINDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology continues to produce a diversity of engineered nanomaterials (NMs), displaying novel physicochemical properties with applications in commercial, consumer, electronic, biomedical, energy, and environmental sectors. Nanotechnology has been referred to as the next in...

  17. A preliminary investigation on the effects of characteristics and contractual behaviour on civil engineering project performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, W. N. W.; Adnan, H.; Yusuwan, N.; Maisham, M.; Hassan, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The significant role of civil engineering project is not only to make the lives of people easier and secure but also to trigger the economic growth by providing infrastructure facilities as well as job opportunities. As it is dominantly initiated by government sectors, performance of the civil engineering projects is always observed. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of civil engineering project and the contractual behavior of the key participants and how do these two factors affect civil engineering projects performance. Literature reviews, content analysis and questionnaires survey were conducted to undertake the research. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed and 10 questionnaires were returned, resulting in a 20% response rate. The research unveiled that performance of civil engineering projects are influenced greatly by the ability to handle the unpredictable character of the civil engineering projects and adequate behavioral management. Apart from that, balancing the factors with high quality of workmanship, avoidance or well managed conflicts and high satisfaction level will ensure performance in projects.

  18. Engineering the fatty acid metabolic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for advanced biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals have attracted a great deal of attention in recent decades, due to their following properties of high compatibility to gasoline-based fuels and existing infrastructure for their direct utilization, storage and distribution. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ideal biofuel producing candidate, based on the wealth of available genetic information and versatile tools designed to manipulate its metabolic pathways. Engineering the fatty acid metabolic pathways in S. cerevisiae is an effective strategy to increase its fatty acid biosynthesis and provide more pathway precursors for production of targeted products. This review summarizes the recent progress in metabolic engineering of yeast cells for fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives production, including the regulation of acetyl-CoA biosynthesis, NADPH production, fatty acid elongation, and the accumulation of activated precursors of fatty acids for converting enzymes. By introducing specific enzymes in the engineered strains, a powerful platform with a scalable, controllable and economic route for advanced biofuel production has been established. Keywords: Metabolic engineering, Fatty acid biosynthesis, Fatty acid derivatives, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  19. Towards Precision Engineering of Canonical Polyketide Synthase Domains: Recent Advances and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Bayly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Modular polyketide synthases (mPKSs build functionalized polymeric chains, some of which have become blockbuster therapeutics. Organized into repeating clusters (modules of independently-folding domains, these assembly-line-like megasynthases can be engineered by introducing non-native components. However, poor introduction points and incompatible domain combinations can cause both unintended products and dramatically reduced activity. This limits the engineering and combinatorial potential of mPKSs, precluding access to further potential therapeutics. Different regions on a given mPKS domain determine how it interacts both with its substrate and with other domains. Within the assembly line, these interactions are crucial to the proper ordering of reactions and efficient polyketide construction. Achieving control over these domain functions, through precision engineering at key regions, would greatly expand our catalogue of accessible polyketide products. Canonical mPKS domains, given that they are among the most well-characterized, are excellent candidates for such fine-tuning. The current minireview summarizes recent advances in the mechanistic understanding and subsequent precision engineering of canonical mPKS domains, focusing largely on developments in the past year.

  20. Lexical bundles in an advanced INTOCSU writing class and engineering texts: A functional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquraishi, Mohammed Abdulrahman

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the functions of lexical bundles in two corpora: a corpus of engineering academic texts and a corpus of IEP advanced writing class texts. This study is concerned with the nature of formulaic language in Pathway IEPs and engineering texts, and whether those types of texts show similar or distinctive formulaic functions. Moreover, the study looked into lexical bundles found in an engineering 1.26 million-word corpus and an ESL 65000-word corpus using a concordancing program. The study then analyzed the functions of those lexical bundles and compared them statistically using chi-square tests. Additionally, the results of this investigation showed 236 unique frequent lexical bundles in the engineering corpus and 37 bundles in the pathway corpus. Also, the study identified several differences between the density and functions of lexical bundles in the two corpora. These differences were evident in the distribution of functions of lexical bundles and the minimal overlap of lexical bundles found in the two corpora. The results of this study call for more attention to formulaic language at ESP and EAP programs.

  1. Methodological advances in predicting flow-induced dynamics of plants using mechanical-engineering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Langre, Emmanuel

    2012-03-15

    The modeling of fluid-structure interactions, such as flow-induced vibrations, is a well-developed field of mechanical engineering. Many methods exist, and it seems natural to apply them to model the behavior of plants, and potentially other cantilever-like biological structures, under flow. Overcoming this disciplinary divide, and the application of such models to biological systems, will significantly advance our understanding of ecological patterns and processes and improve our predictive capabilities. Nonetheless, several methodological issues must first be addressed, which I describe here using two practical examples that have strong similarities: one from agricultural sciences and the other from nuclear engineering. Very similar issues arise in both: individual and collective behavior, small and large space and time scales, porous modeling, standard and extreme events, trade-off between the surface of exchange and individual or collective risk of damage, variability, hostile environments and, in some aspects, evolution. The conclusion is that, although similar issues do exist, which need to be exploited in some detail, there is a significant gap that requires new developments. It is obvious that living plants grow in and adapt to their environment, which certainly makes plant biomechanics fundamentally distinct from classical mechanical engineering. Moreover, the selection processes in biology and in human engineering are truly different, making the issue of safety different as well. A thorough understanding of these similarities and differences is needed to work efficiently in the application of a mechanistic approach to ecology.

  2. Tissue engineering: technological advances to improve its applications in reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, C

    2012-01-01

    Tremendous advances in biomaterials science and nanotechnologies, together with thorough research on stem cells, have recently promoted an intriguing development of regenerative medicine/tissue engineering. The nanotechnology represents a wide interdisciplinary field that implies the manipulation of different materials at nanometer level to achieve the creation of constructs that mimic the nanoscale-based architecture of native tissues. The purpose of this article is to highlight the significant new knowledges regarding this matter. To widen the range of scaffold materials resort has been carried out to either recombinant DNA technology-generated materials, such as a collagen-like protein, or the incorporation of bioactive molecules, such as RDG (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid), into synthetic products. Both the bottom-up and the top-down fabrication approaches may be properly used to respectively obtain sopramolecular architectures or, instead, micro-/nanostructures to incorporate them within a preexisting complex scaffold construct. Computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) scaffold technique allows to achieve patient-tailored organs. Stem cells, because of their peculiar properties - ability to proliferate, self-renew and specific cell-lineage differentiate under appropriate conditions - represent an attractive source for intriguing tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications. New developments in the realization of different organs tissue engineering will depend on further progress of both the science of nanoscale-based materials and the knowledge of stem cell biology. Moreover the in vivo tissue engineering appears to be the logical step of the current research.

  3. Systems Engineering and Integration for Advanced Life Support System and HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarani, Ali K.

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) discipline has revolutionized the way engineers and managers think about solving issues related to design of complex systems: With continued development of state-of-the-art technologies, systems are becoming more complex and therefore, a systematic approach is essential to control and manage their integrated design and development. This complexity is driven from integration issues. In this case, subsystems must interact with one another in order to achieve integration objectives, and also achieve the overall system's required performance. Systems engineering process addresses these issues at multiple levels. It is a technology and management process dedicated to controlling all aspects of system life cycle to assure integration at all levels. The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project serves as the systems engineering and integration function for the Human Support Technology (HST) program. AIM provides means for integrated test facilities and personnel for performance trade studies, analyses, integrated models, test results, and validated requirements of the integration of HST. The goal of AIM is to address systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. It will use an incremental systems integration approach to yield technologies, baselines for further development, and possible breakthrough concepts in the areas of technological and organizational interfaces, total information flow, system wide controls, technical synergism, mission operations protocols and procedures, and human-machine interfaces.

  4. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2 (ASRG EU2) Final Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently completed the assembly of a unique Stirling generator test article for laboratory experimentation. Under the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight development contract, NASA GRC initiated a task to design and fabricate a flight-like generator for in-house testing. This test article was given the name ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2) as it was effectively the second engineering unit to be built within the ASRG project. The intent of the test article was to duplicate Lockheed Martin's qualification unit ASRG design as much as possible to enable system-level tests not previously possible at GRC. After the cancellation of the ASRG flight development project, the decision was made to continue the EU2 build, and make use of a portion of the hardware from the flight development project. GRC and Lockheed Martin engineers collaborated to develop assembly procedures, leveraging the valuable knowledge gathered by Lockheed Martin during the ASRG development contract. The ASRG EU2 was then assembled per these procedures at GRC with Lockheed Martin engineers on site. The assembly was completed in August 2014. This paper details the components that were used for the assembly, and the assembly process itself.

  5. Preliminary engineering assessment of treatment alternatives for groundwater from the Hanford 200 Area 200-BP-5 plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of the Preliminary Engineering Assessment of Treatment Alternatives (PEATA), an engineering evaluation of potential treatment alternatives for groundwater extracted from the 200-BP-5 Area's 216-BY Cribs and 216-B-5 Reverse Well plumes. The primary objective of the PEATA was to identify treatment technologies that are worth further consideration (i.e., treatability testing or a more refined engineering evaluation). It will also provide a basis for evaluating the results of the treatability testing that is currently being conducted on the presumptive remedy of ion exchange with disposal of spent resin and will serve as a guide for selection of other technologies for additional testing. Because there are little data or past experience with groundwater similar to the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well Plumes, treatment efficiencies cannot be predicted with certainty and rigorous treatment system designs and costs cannot be developed. This applies to all alternatives, including the presumptive remedy of ion exchange. The approach for this study was to develop conceptual designs and approximate costs for the treatment technologies that were most likely to be effective on the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well groundwater

  6. Linkages from DOE’s Vehicle Technologies R&D in Advanced Combustion to More Efficient, Cleaner-Burning Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Thomas, Patrick [1790 Analytics LLC., Haddonfield, NC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report uses bibliometric analysis, supported by interview and review of documents and databases, to trace linkages from knowledge outputs resulting from DOE's advances in vehicle engine combustion to downstream innovations in commercial diesel engines and other areas. This analysis covers the period from 1974 through 2008 (and in some cases to early 2009).

  7. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltman, L.R.; Van, Raan A.F.J.; Smart, S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach

  8. Proceedings of chemical engineering in nuclear technology - national seminar on recent advances in fuel cycle technologies: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Kalpakkam Regional Centre of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers is embarking on conducting a series of national seminars on Chemical Engineering in Nuclear Technology 2014. For CHEMENT-2014 the theme was Seminar on recent advances in fuel cycle technologies. The topics covered included research and development, modeling and simulation and equipment development. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  9. Recent advancements in electrospinning design for tissue engineering applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishan, Alysha P; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2017-10-01

    Electrospinning, a technique used to fabricate fibrous scaffolds, has gained popularity in recent years as a method to produce tissue engineered grafts with architectural similarities to the extracellular matrix. Beyond its versatility in material selection, electrospinning also provides many tools to tune the fiber morphology and scaffold geometry. Recent efforts have focused on extending the capabilities of electrospinning to produce scaffolds that better recapitulate tissue properties and enhance regeneration. This review highlights these advancements by providing an overview of the processing variables and setups used to modulate scaffold architecture, discussing strategies to improve cellular infiltration and guide cell behavior, and providing a summary of electrospinning applications in tissue engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2892-2905, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Advanced engineering design program at the University of Illinois for the 1987-1988 academic year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivier, Kenneth R.; Lembeck, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The participation of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the NASA/USRA Universities Advanced Engineering Design Program (Space) is reviewed for the 1987 to 88 academic year. The University's design project was the Manned Marsplane and Delivery System. In the spring of 1988 semester, 107 students were enrolled in the Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering Departments' undergraduate Aerospace Vehicle Design course. These students were divided into an aircraft section (responsible for the Marsplane design), and a spacecraft section (responsible for the Delivery System Design). The design results are presented in Final Design Reports, copies of which are attached. In addition, five students presented a summary of the design results at the Program's Summer Conference.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  12. The outline report of advanced basic engineering research in the fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The JNC has initiated the cooperation with universities and research institutes for advanced basic engineering on 1995. The number of research cooperation theme is increasing and satisfactorily improving in the forth year, 1998. The objective of this program is to promote the advanced basic engineering research with universities and research institutes in relation with the JNC's projects. The facilities and equipment of the JNC are mainly provided to the cooperation. The JNC has settled the research cooperation themes. The universities and research institute have applied to the themes with their issues, working plans and personnel. The JNC has selected the issues and personnel, and put into practice the cooperation with accepting guest staffs and/or research fellows from the universities. This report summarizes the results of the advanced basic engineering research cooperation executed in the fiscal year, 1998. The total number of issues is 34 for the 29 themes; those are categorized in to two groups. The one is related to the fast breeder reactor technologies and the other is on the environmental technologies. The 12 issues are finished in the fiscal year, 1998, in which the 9 issues are for the fast breeder reactor technologies and the 3 issues are for the environmental technologies. The themes/the issues, the host group, host key persons, university side key persons, a form of cooperation are summarized in the tables. The summary reports of research activities by the all cooperators are presented under the particular format. Those describe the total schedule, a form of cooperation, the research objective, the outline of research contents, main facilities for using, research status, research results, future schedules and bibliographies relevant to the research cooperation. The 25 tables and 158 figures are included. (Y. Tanaka)

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR ADVANCED SMRs: THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2014-04-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) will use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. These advances not only pose technical and operational challenges, but will inevitably have an effect on the operating and maintenance (O&M) cost of new plants. However, there is much uncertainty about the impact of AdvSMR designs on operational and human factors considerations, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. New models and guidance for operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems need to adopt a state-of-the-art approach such as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) that gives due consideration to the role of personnel. This approach we report on helps to identify and evaluate human challenges related to non-traditional concepts of operations. A framework - defining operational strategies was developed based on the operational analysis of Argonne National Laboratory’s Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), a small (20MWe) sodium-cooled reactor that was successfully operated for thirty years. Insights from the application of the systematic application of the methodology and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of CSE as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  14. The outline report of advanced basic engineering research in the fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The JNC has initiated the cooperation with universities and research institutes for advanced basic engineering on 1995. The number of research cooperation theme is increasing and satisfactorily improving in the forth year, 1998. The objective of this program is to promote the advanced basic engineering research with universities and research institutes in relation with the JNC's projects. The facilities and equipment of the JNC are mainly provided to the cooperation. The JNC has settled the research cooperation themes. The universities and research institute have applied to the themes with their issues, working plans and personnel. The JNC has selected the issues and personnel, and put into practice the cooperation with accepting guest staffs and/or research fellows from the universities. This report summarizes the results of the advanced basic engineering research cooperation executed in the fiscal year, 1998. The total number of issues is 34 for the 29 themes; those are categorized in to two groups. The one is related to the fast breeder reactor technologies and the other is on the environmental technologies. The 12 issues are finished in the fiscal year, 1998, in which the 9 issues are for the fast breeder reactor technologies and the 3 issues are for the environmental technologies. The themes/the issues, the host group, host key persons, university side key persons, a form of cooperation are summarized in the tables. The summary reports of research activities by the all cooperators are presented under the particular format. Those describe the total schedule, a form of cooperation, the research objective, the outline of research contents, main facilities for using, research status, research results, future schedules and bibliographies relevant to the research cooperation. The 25 tables and 158 figures are included. (Y. Tanaka)

  15. Engineering for high heat loads on ALS [Advanced Light Source] beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGennaro, R.; Swain, T.

    1989-08-01

    This paper discussed general thermal engineering problems and specific categories of thermal design issues for high photon flux beam lines at the LBL Advanced Light Source: thermal distortion of optical surfaces and elevated temperatures of thermal absorbers receiving synchrotron radiation. A generic design for water-cooled heat absorbers is described for use with ALS photon shutters, beam defining apertures, and heat absorbing masks. Also, results of in- situ measurements of thermal distortion of a water-cooled mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam line are compared with calculated performance estimates. 17 refs., 2 figs

  16. FIBER-TEX 1991: The Fifth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at a joint NASA/North Carolina State University/DoD/Clemson University/Drexel University conference on Fibers, Textile Technology, and Composites Structures held at the College of Textiles Building on Centennial Campus of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina on October 15-17, 1991. Conference papers presented information on advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, pultruded composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report

  17. Uncertainty quantification an accelerated course with advanced applications in computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Soize, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental notions and advanced mathematical tools in the stochastic modeling of uncertainties and their quantification for large-scale computational models in sciences and engineering. In particular, it focuses in parametric uncertainties, and non-parametric uncertainties with applications from the structural dynamics and vibroacoustics of complex mechanical systems, from micromechanics and multiscale mechanics of heterogeneous materials. Resulting from a course developed by the author, the book begins with a description of the fundamental mathematical tools of probability and statistics that are directly useful for uncertainty quantification. It proceeds with a well carried out description of some basic and advanced methods for constructing stochastic models of uncertainties, paying particular attention to the problem of calibrating and identifying a stochastic model of uncertainty when experimental data is available. < This book is intended to be a graduate-level textbook for stu...

  18. Engineering, installation, testing, and initial operation of the DIII-D Advanced Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Smith, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    The Advanced Divertor (AD) for General Atomics tokamak, DIII-D, was installed in the summer of 1990. The AD has enabled two classes of physics experiments to be run: divertor biasing and divertor baffling. Both are new experiments for DIII-D. The AD has two principal components: (1) a continuous ring electrode; and (2) a toroidally symmetric baffle. The tokamak can be run in bias baffle or standard DIII-D divertor modes by accurate positioning of the outer divertor strike point through the use of the DIII-D control system. The paper covers design, analysis, fabrication, installation, instrumentation, testing, initial operation, and future plans for the Advanced Divertor from an engineering viewpoint. 2 refs., 5 figs

  19. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the deve......Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up...... the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology...

  20. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis of a gas engine heat pump (GEHP) for food drying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungor, Aysegul; Tsatsaronis, George; Gunerhan, Huseyin; Hepbasli, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between conventional and advanced exergoconomic analyses for food drying. • 74% of the total energy destruction can be avoided. • The condenser has the highest improvement potential. • Inefficiencies and options for improvement are identified for each component. - Abstract: Exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are often used to evaluate the performance of energy systems from the thermodynamic and economic points of view. While a conventional exergetic analysis can be used to recognize the sources of inefficiencies, the so-called advanced exergy-based analysis is convenient for identifying the real potential for thermodynamic improvements and the system component interactions by splitting the exergy destruction and the total operating cost within each component into endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable parts. In this study for the first time an advanced exergoeconomic analysis is applied to a gas-engine-driven heat pump (GEHP) drying system used in food drying for evaluating its performance along with each component. The advanced exergoeconomic analysis shows that the unavoidable part of the exergy destruction cost rate within the components of the system is lower than the avoidable part. The most important components based on the total avoidable costs are drying ducts, the condenser and the expansion valve. The inefficiencies within the condenser could particularly be improved by structural improvements of the whole system and the remaining system components. Finally, it can be concluded that the internal design changes play a more essential role in determining the cost of each component

  1. Short animation movies as advance organizers in physics teaching: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscianski, André; João Ribeiro, Rafael; Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2012-11-01

    Background : Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose : The study aimed to determine guidelines for the construction of an instructional short animation movie, with the role of an advance organizer. A film was created in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach, making part of a physics lesson and concerning the subject 'moment of a force'. Sample : The study took place in a Brazilian school in the city of Arapoti, in the south region of the country. Thirty-eight students participated, having an average age of 16 and following the third year of high school. Design and methods : Criteria drawn from a literature review directed the construction of the movie and the lesson. Data were collected using pre- and post-tests; registers of oral comments were also done during the class. The post-test included open-ended questions, allowing students to write remarks concerning the lesson and the animation. Conclusions : The article describes steps and guidelines to orient the process of designing an animation movie with the role of advance organizer. Data indicated that the movie facilitated the construction of links between pre-existent knowledge and the new information presented in the lesson. The proposed methodology can be considered a valid framework to derive similar approaches.

  2. Preliminary results on performance testing of a turbocharged rotary combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, P. R.; Rice, W. J.; Schock, H. J.; Pringle, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a turbocharged rotary engine at power levels above 75 kW (100 hp) was studied. A twin rotor turbocharged Mazda engine was tested at speeds of 3000 to 6000 rpm and boost pressures to 7 psi. The NASA developed combustion diagnostic instrumentation was used to quantify indicated and pumping mean effect pressures, peak pressure, and face to face variability on a cycle by cycle basis. Results of this testing showed that a 5900 rpm a 36 percent increase in power was obtained by operating the engine in the turbocharged configuration. When operating with lean carburetor jets at 105 hp (78.3 kW) and 4000 rpm, a brake specific fuel consumption of 0.45 lbm/lb-hr was measured.

  3. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...... system - high content of heavy metals - high emissions of particulate matter and PAH This investigation deals with the problem of separation due to high shear stress in the injection system. It is shown that the viscosity of the injected fuel can be used to estimate whether the emulsion has separated...

  4. Preliminary Assessment of the Emporium Model in a Redesigned Engineering Mechanics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Walters, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A lecture-based engineering mechanics course (Statics) is redesigned using the Emporium model. Whereas students study the material outside of class via asynchronous online delivery of the content and instructional videos, they do all the other activities (e.g., assignments, tests) either individually or in groups inside the classroom. Computer-…

  5. "Fish Friendly" Hydropower Turbine Development and Deployment. Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of a collaborative research project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and hydropower industry partners with the objective of completing the remaining developmental engineering required for a “fish-friendly” hydropower turbine called the Alden turbine.

  6. Preliminary physics-engine model of dolosse interacting with one another

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of armour units are used to protect breakwaters, piers and other harbour infrastructure, serving both to absorb the impact of violent seas and to reduce overtopping. A common type of armour unit is the dolos. Coastal engineers use three...

  7. Research and Development of Some Advanced High Temperature Titanium Alloys for Aero-engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Jian-ming

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Some advanced high temperature titanium alloys are usually selected to be manufactured into blade, disc, case, blisk and bling under high temperature environment in compressor and turbine system of a new generation high thrust-mass ratio aero-engine. The latest research progress of 600℃ high temperature titanium alloy, fireproof titanium alloy, TiAl alloy, continuous SiC fiber reinforced titanium matrix composite and their application technology in recent years in China were reviewed in this paper. The key technologies need to be broken through in design, processing and application of new material and component are put forward, including industrial ingot composition of high purified and homogeneous control technology, preparation technology of the large size bar and special forgings, machining technology of blisk and bling parts, material property evaluation and application design technique. The future with the continuous application of advanced high temperature titanium alloys, will be a strong impetus to the development of China's aero-engine technology.

  8. A flipped mode teaching approach for large and advanced electrical engineering courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Jayashri; Epps, Julien; Ambikairajah, Eliathamby

    2018-05-01

    A fully flipped mode teaching approach is challenging for students in advanced engineering courses, because of demanding pre-class preparation load, due to the complex and analytical nature of the topics. When this is applied to large classes, it brings an additional complexity in terms of promoting the intended active learning. This paper presents a novel selective flipped mode teaching approach designed for large and advanced courses that has two aspects: (i) it provides selective flipping of a few topics, while delivering others in traditional face-to-face teaching, to provide an effective trade-off between the two approaches according to the demands of individual topics and (ii) it introduces technology-enabled live in-class quizzes to obtain instant feedback and facilitate collaborative problem-solving exercises. The proposed approach was implemented for a large fourth year course in electrical power engineering over three successive years and the criteria for selecting between the flipped mode teaching and traditional teaching modes are outlined. Results confirmed that the proposed approach improved both students' academic achievements and their engagement in the course, without overloading them during the teaching period.

  9. Preliminary analysis of advanced equilibrium configuration for the fusion-driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Delin; Wu Bin; Wu Yican

    2003-01-01

    The Fusion-Driven Subcritical System (FDS) is a subcritical nuclear energy system driven by fusion neutron source. In this paper, an advanced plasma configuration for FDS system has been proposed, which aims at high beta, high bootstrap current and good confinement. A fixed-boundary equilibrium code has been used to obtain ideal equilibrium configuration. In order to determine the feasibility of FDS operation, a two-dimensional time-dependent free boundary simulation code has been adopted to simulate time-scale evolution of plasma current profile and boundary position. By analyses, the Reversed Shear mode as the most attractive one has been recommended for the FDS equilibrium configuration design

  10. Some preliminary design considerations for the ANS [Advanced Neutron Source] reactor cold source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Two areas concerned with the design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold source have been investigated by simple one-dimensional calculations. The gain factors computed for a possible liquid nitrogen-15 cold source moderator are considerably below those computed for the much colder liquid deuterium moderator, as is reasonable considering the difference in moderator temperature. Nevertheless, nitrogen-15 does represent a viable option should safety related issues prohibit the use of deuterium as a moderating material. The slab geometry calculations have indicated that reflection of neutrons may be the dominant moderating mechanism and should be a consideration in the design of the cold source. 9 refs., 2 figs

  11. Career Advancement Outcomes in Academic Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Gender, Mentoring Resources, and Homophily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun

    This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement outcomes at early career stages. Female academic scientists have disadvantages in the career progress in the academic STEM. They tend to fall behind throughout their career paths and to leave the field compared to their male colleagues. Researchers have found that gender differences in the career advancement are shaped by gender-biased evaluations derived from gender stereotypes. Other studies demonstrate the positive impacts of mentoring and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads. To add greater insights to the current findings of female academic scientists' career disadvantages, this dissertation investigates comprehensive effects of gender, mentoring, and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on female scientists' career advancement outcomes in academic science. Based on the Status Characteristics Theory, the concept of mentoring, Social Capital Theory, and Ingroup Bias Theory, causal path models are developed to test direct and indirect effects of gender, mentoring resources, and gender homophily on STEM faculty's career advancement. The research models were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with data collected from a national survey, funded by the National Science Foundation, completed in 2011 by tenured and tenure-track academic STEM faculty from higher education institutions in the United States. Findings suggest that there is no gender difference in career advancement controlling for mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads and other factors including research productivity and domestic caregiving responsibilities. Findings also show that the positive relationship between

  12. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, S. K.; Sefcik, R. J.; Fittje, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B. G; Werner, J.; Weitzberg, A.; Joyner, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In FY'11, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was identified as a key propulsion option under the Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP) component of NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program A strategy was outlined by GRC and NASA HQ that included 2 key elements -"Foundational Technology Development" followed by specific "Technology Demonstration" projects. The "Technology Demonstration "element proposed ground technology demonstration (GTD) testing in the early 2020's, followed by a flight technology demonstration (FTD) mission by approx. 2025. In order to reduce development costs, the demonstration projects would focus on developing a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 -16.5 klb(f)) engine that utilizes a "common" fuel element design scalable to the higher thrust (approx. 25 klb(f)) engines used in NASA's Mars DRA 5.0 study(NASA-SP-2009-566). Besides reducing development costs and allowing utilization of existing, flight proven engine hard-ware (e.g., hydrogen pumps and nozzles), small, lower thrust ground and flight demonstration engines can validate the technology and offer improved capability -increased payloads and decreased transit times -valued for robotic science missions identified in NASA's Decadal Study.

  13. Preliminary Study for Conceptual Design of Advanced Long Life Small Modular Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Taewoo; Choe, Jiwon; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2015-05-15

    As one of the non-water coolant Small-Modular Reactor (SMR) core concepts for use in the mid- to long-term, ANL has proposed a 100 MWe Advanced sodium-cooled Fast Reactor core concept (AFR-100) targeting a small grid, transportable from pre-licensed factories to the remote plant site for affordable supply. Various breed-and-burn core concepts have been proposed to extend the reactor cycle length, which includes CANDLE with a cigar-type depletion strategy, TerraPower reactors with fuel shuffling for effective breeding, et al. UNIST has also proposed an ultra-long cycle fast reactor (UCFR) core concept having the power rating of 1000 MWe. By adopting the breed-and-burn strategies, the UCFR core can maintain criticality for a targeting reactor lifetime of 60 years without refueling. The objective of this project is to develop an advanced long-life SMR core concept by adopting both the small modular design features of the AFR-100 and the long-life breed-and-burn concept of the UCFR. A conceptual design of long life small modular fast reactor is under development by adopting both the small modular design features of the AFR-100 and the long-life breed-and-burn concept of the UCFR. The feasibility of the long-life fast reactor concepts was reviewed to obtain the core design guidelines and the reactor design requirements of long life small modular fast reactor were proposed in this study.

  14. Honoring Choices Minnesota: preliminary data from a community-wide advance care planning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kent S; Kottke, Thomas E; Schettle, Sue

    2014-12-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) increases the likelihood that individuals who are dying receive the care that they prefer. It also reduces depression and anxiety in family members and increases family satisfaction with the process of care. Honoring Choices Minnesota is an ACP program based on the Respecting Choices model of La Crosse, Wisconsin. The objective of this report is to describe the process, which began in 2008, of implementing Honoring Choices Minnesota in a large, diverse metropolitan area. All eight large healthcare systems in the metropolitan area agreed to participate in the project, and as of April 30, 2013, the proportion of hospitalized individuals 65 and older with advance care directives in the electronic medical record was 12.1% to 65.6%. The proportion of outpatients aged 65 and older was 11.6% to 31.7%. Organizations that had sponsored recruitment initiatives had the highest proportions of records containing healthcare directives. It was concluded that it is possible to reduce redundancy by recruiting all healthcare systems in a metropolitan area to endorse the same ACP model, although significantly increasing the proportion of individuals with a healthcare directive in their medical record requires a campaign with recruitment of organizations and individuals. © 2014 The Authors.The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Development of advanced instrumentation for the Phebus FP project-preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, G.; Poss, G.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the project was to examine advanced measuring methods for on-line determination of aerosol, thermohydraulic and hydrogen parameters for their usefulness in the French core melting programme PHEBUS FP. Advanced methods that are known from reactor safety programmes as well as novel measuring techniques as used in related fields such as fuel reprocessing and in non-nuclear process technology have been described and analysed with a view to their potential application in the planned tests. Possibly necessary further developments and modifications have been identified and approaches to solution have been outlined. Special emphasis has been put on the present state of radiation resistant optical fibre wave-guides, which might be integrated in several instruments. As regards the particularly important on-line aerosol measurements in PHEBUS FP, a combined system is recommended as the most promising further development. This novel system configuration comprises the mass monitor of a MESA dust monitoring system and one or several photometers of EIR design

  16. Preliminary comparison of the Essie and PubMed search engines for answering clinical questions using MD on Tap, a PDA-based program for accessing biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Victoria R; Hauser, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    MD on Tap, a PDA application that searches and retrieves biomedical literature, is specifically designed for use by mobile healthcare professionals. With the goal of improving the usability of the application, a preliminary comparison was made of two search engines (PubMed and Essie) to determine which provided most efficient path to the desired clinically-relevant information.

  17. One semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, K.

    2006-01-01

    The recent increase in energy consumption in India is resulting in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to harness new renewable energy sources such as wind power is creating the need for trained manpower in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering. The course outline for a one semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology was presented in this paper. A history of wind energy was also presented along with the approaching global environmental crisis. International efforts and conventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. India's geography and relationship to wind resources were presented in terms of its latitude and geostrophic winds. The course outline also includes a section on measuring instruments (anemometers) and organization of wind data using Weibull distribution as well as the impacts of summer and monsoon winds. The aerodynamics of wind turbines including airfoils, airscrew theory, and its application to wind turbines were discussed. Rural and remote area usage of wind turbines as well as the structural design and construction of wind turbine blades using composite materials are also examined in the course. Last, the course presents a video cassette and a 16 mm film on wind energy and advises students that they are exposed to laboratory and field practices and encouraged to do practical projects. The course contains a discussion of policy issues such as reaching the common people, and industry-academia interaction. 8 refs., 10 figs

  18. One semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    2006-07-01

    The recent increase in energy consumption in India is resulting in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to harness new renewable energy sources such as wind power is creating the need for trained manpower in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering. The course outline for a one semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology was presented in this paper. A history of wind energy was also presented along with the approaching global environmental crisis. International efforts and conventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. India's geography and relationship to wind resources were presented in terms of its latitude and geostrophic winds. The course outline also includes a section on measuring instruments (anemometers) and organization of wind data using Weibull distribution as well as the impacts of summer and monsoon winds. The aerodynamics of wind turbines including airfoils, airscrew theory, and its application to wind turbines were discussed. Rural and remote area usage of wind turbines as well as the structural design and construction of wind turbine blades using composite materials are also examined in the course. Last, the course presents a video cassette and a 16 mm film on wind energy and advises students that they are exposed to laboratory and field practices and encouraged to do practical projects. The course contains a discussion of policy issues such as reaching the common people, and industry-academia interaction. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Guest editorial: Industrial Engineering in Namibia - A personal and preliminary view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Snaddon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While Namibia is a Republic with just over two thirds the geographical area of South Africa, its population is only 2.3 million (under 5 percent of that in South Africa. Its estimated production (measured by GDP is $ 9.4billion (US as compared with $ 287billion (US for South Africa (just over 3 percent making it less wealthy per person than South Africa. As a small economy in Southern Africa many people may say that Industrial Engineering in Namibia does not exist. They are incorrect as Industrial Engineers do “the integration of resources and processes into cohesive strategies, structures and systems for the effective and efficient production of quality goods and services” (Sperotto 19941. That includes all who start and run the wealth creating organisations including those in Namibia.

  20. A preliminary study for an engineering assessment of a shallow land burial facility in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Murray, N.

    1987-02-01

    This study characterises a notional low-level waste repository site within the Oxford clay belt, provides a conceptual design for a shallow, engineered repository at the site, and presents a rationale of the multiple-barrier design basis in sufficient detail to enable BRE to rehearse an engineering assessment. Parameters are identified which describe the repository's structural integrity, permeability and effectiveness in physical and chemical containment of nuclides by resistance to diffusive and advective transport. Such parameters may be used by the DoE as input for the mathematical modelling of the repository's post-closure performance under various release scenarios, as part of a full radiological assessment. Limitations in the analytical methods and experience base available for such assessments are identified and suggestions are made for future research activities. (author)

  1. Scale-up of nature’s tissue weaving algorithms to engineer advanced functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joanna L.; Knothe, Lillian E.; Whan, Renee M.; Knothe, Ulf; Tate, Melissa L. Knothe

    2017-01-01

    We are literally the stuff from which our tissue fabrics and their fibers are woven and spun. The arrangement of collagen, elastin and other structural proteins in space and time embodies our tissues and organs with amazing resilience and multifunctional smart properties. For example, the periosteum, a soft tissue sleeve that envelops all nonarticular bony surfaces of the body, comprises an inherently “smart” material that gives hard bones added strength under high impact loads. Yet a paucity of scalable bottom-up approaches stymies the harnessing of smart tissues’ biological, mechanical and organizational detail to create advanced functional materials. Here, a novel approach is established to scale up the multidimensional fiber patterns of natural soft tissue weaves for rapid prototyping of advanced functional materials. First second harmonic generation and two-photon excitation microscopy is used to map the microscopic three-dimensional (3D) alignment, composition and distribution of the collagen and elastin fibers of periosteum, the soft tissue sheath bounding all nonarticular bone surfaces in our bodies. Then, using engineering rendering software to scale up this natural tissue fabric, as well as multidimensional weaving algorithms, macroscopic tissue prototypes are created using a computer-controlled jacquard loom. The capacity to prototype scaled up architectures of natural fabrics provides a new avenue to create advanced functional materials.

  2. 3D Printing of Scaffold for Cells Delivery: Advances in Skin Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury or damage to tissue and organs is a major health problem, resulting in about half of the world’s annual healthcare expenditure every year. Advances in the fields of stem cells (SCs and biomaterials processing have provided a tremendous leap for researchers to manipulate the dynamics between these two, and obtain a skin substitute that can completely heal the wounded areas. Although wound healing needs a coordinated interplay between cells, extracellular proteins and growth factors, the most important players in this process are the endogenous SCs, which activate the repair cascade by recruiting cells from different sites. Extra cellular matrix (ECM proteins are activated by these SCs, which in turn aid in cellular migrations and finally secretion of growth factors that can seal and heal the wounds. The interaction between ECM proteins and SCs helps the skin to sustain the rigors of everyday activity, and in an attempt to attain this level of functionality in artificial three-dimensional (3D constructs, tissue engineered biomaterials are fabricated using more advanced techniques such as bioprinting and laser assisted printing of the organs. This review provides a concise summary of the most recent advances that have been made in the area of polymer bio-fabrication using 3D bio printing used for encapsulating stem cells for skin regeneration. The focus of this review is to describe, in detail, the role of 3D architecture and arrangement of cells within this system that can heal wounds and aid in skin regeneration.

  3. Materials and structural aspects of advanced gas-turbine helicopter engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Acurio, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advances in materials, coatings, turbine cooling technology, structural and design concepts, and component-life prediction of helicopter gas-turbine-engine components are presented. Stationary parts including the inlet particle separator, the front frame, rotor tip seals, vanes and combustors and rotating components - compressor blades, disks, and turbine blades - are discussed. Advanced composite materials are considered for the front frame and compressor blades, prealloyed powder superalloys will increase strength and reduce costs of disks, the oxide dispersion strengthened alloys will have 100C higher use temperature in combustors and vanes than conventional superalloys, ceramics will provide the highest use temperature of 1400C for stator vanes and 1370C for turbine blades, and directionally solidified eutectics will afford up to 50C temperature advantage at turbine blade operating conditions. Coatings for surface protection at higher surface temperatures and design trends in turbine cooling technology are discussed. New analytical methods of life prediction such as strain gage partitioning for high temperature prediction, fatigue life, computerized prediction of oxidation resistance, and advanced techniques for estimating coating life are described.

  4. Los Alamos Experimental Engineering Waste Burial Facility: design considerations and preliminary experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Experimental Engineered Waste Burial Facility is a field test site where generic experiments can be performed on several scales to get the basic information necessary to understand the processes occurring in low-level waste disposal facilities. The experiments include hydrological, chemical, mechanical, and biological factors. In order to separate these various factors in the experiments and to extrapolate the experimental results to actual facilities, experiments will be performed on several different scales

  5. A preliminary study of MR sickness evaluation using visual motion aftereffect for advanced driver assistance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sawako; Ino, Shuichi; Ifukube, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    Mixed Reality (MR) technologies have recently been explored in many areas of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) such as medicine, manufacturing, entertainment and education. However MR sickness, a kind of motion sickness is caused by sensory conflicts between the real world and virtual world. The purpose of this paper is to find out a new evaluation method of motion and MR sickness. This paper investigates a relationship between the whole-body vibration related to MR technologies and the motion aftereffect (MAE) phenomenon in the human visual system. This MR environment is modeled after advanced driver assistance systems in near-future vehicles. The seated subjects in the MR simulator were shaken in the pitch direction ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 Hz. Results show that MAE is useful for evaluation of MR sickness incidence. In addition, a method to reduce the MR sickness by auditory stimulation is proposed.

  6. Preliminary experience with external hemipelvectomy for locally advanced and recurrent pelvic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Bak; Rasmussen, Peter Chr.; Keller, Johnny Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    was found. With agreement by the multidisciplinary team, surgery was performed by a colorectal surgeon and an orthopaedic sarcoma surgeon and, if needed, by an urologist and vascular surgeon. Patients were reconstructed with either a femoral or a gluteal musculocutaneous flap. Results Of the eight women...... [median age 54.5 (40– 68) years], two had primary carcinoma and six local recurrence of a previously treated carcinoma. R0 was possible in six patients and R1 resection in two. The median duration of hospital stay was 29.5 (17– 102) days. The median follow up was 8.3 (4.7– 52.8) months. Three patients...... for a highly selected group of patients with locally advanced carcinoma or recurrence involving the lumbosacral neural plexus....

  7. A preliminary exploration of Advanced Molecular Bio-Sciences Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Yanai, Takanori; Onodera, Jun'ichi; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Sakata, Hiroshi; Sota, Masahiro; Takemura, Tatsuo; Koyama, Kenji; Sato, Fumiaki

    2000-01-01

    Low-dose and low-dose-rate radiation effects on life-span, pathological changes, hemopoiesis and cytokine production in experimental animals have been investigated in our laboratory. In the intermediate period of the investigation, an expert committee on radiation biology, which was composed of two task groups, was organized. The purposes of the committee were to assess of previous studies and plan future research for Advanced Molecular Bio-Sciences Research Center (AMBIC). In its report, the committee emphasized the necessity of molecular research in radiation biology and ecology, and proposed six subjects for the research: 1) Molecular carcinogenesis of low-dose radiation; 2) Radiation effects on the immune system and hemopoietic system; 3) Molecular mechanisms of hereditary effect; 4) Non cancer effect of low-dose radiation; 5) Gene targeting for ion transport system in plants; 6) Bioremediation with transgenic plant and bacteria. Exploration of the AMBIC project will continue under the committee's direction. (author)

  8. A preliminary exploration of the advanced molecular bio-sciences research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Takanori; Yamada, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kimio; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Sota, Masahiro; Takemura, Tatsuo; Koyama, Kenji; Sato, Fumiaki

    2001-01-01

    Low dose and low dose rate radiation effects on lifespan, pathological changes, hemopoiesis and cytokine production in mice have been investigated in our laboratory. In the intermediate period of the investigation, an expert committee on radiation biology was organized. The purposes of the committee were to assess previous studies and advise on a future research plan for the Advanced Molecular Bio-Sciences Research Center (AMBIC). The committee emphasized the necessity of molecular research in radiation biology, and proposed the following five subjects: 1) molecular carcinogenesis by low dose radiation; 2) radiation effects on the immune and hemopoietic systems; 3) molecular mechanisms of hereditary effect; 4) noncancer diseases of low dose radiation, and 5) cellular mechanisms by low dose radiation. (author)

  9. Depression and demoralization as distinct syndromes: Preliminary data from a cohort of advanced cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Juliet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The term demoralization has been used to describe existential distress and despair of patients with advanced disease. Aim: This study sought to determine whether a cluster of symptoms interpreted as demoralization could be identified and distinguished from a cluster of depressive symptoms. Materials and Methods: As part of the Coping with Cancer Study, a federally funded multi-site study of advanced cancer patients, 242 patients were interviewed on a broad range of mental health parameters related to depression, grief, quality of life, self-efficacy, coping and religiousness/spirituality. Results: A principal components analysis revealed separate depression and demoralization/despair factors. Seven symptoms constituted the demoralization/despair factor: loss of control, loss of hope, anger/bitterness, sense of failure, feeling life was a burden, loss of meaning and a belief that life′s meaning is dependent on health and were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach′s a = 0.78. Only 14.8% of subjects with "syndromal demoralization" met DSM-IV criteria for Major Depression (MDD; 7.4% for Minor Depression. Of those with MDD only 28.6% had syndromal level demoralization. Prior history of MDD predicted current MDD, but not syndromal demoralization. Demoralization, not MDD, was significantly associated with the patient′s reported level of inner peacefulness. When compared with MDD, syndromal demoralization was more strongly associated with wish to live and wish to die and equally predictive of mental health service use. Conclusion: The symptoms of demoralization are distinct from depressive symptoms and appear to be associated with the patient′s degree of inner peacefulness.

  10. Preliminary results from a four-working space, double-acting piston, Stirling engine controls model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    A four working space, double acting piston, Stirling engine simulation is being developed for controls studies. The development method is to construct two simulations, one for detailed fluid behavior, and a second model with simple fluid behaviour but containing the four working space aspects and engine inertias, validate these models separately, then upgrade the four working space model by incorporating the detailed fluid behaviour model for all four working spaces. The single working space (SWS) model contains the detailed fluid dynamics. It has seven control volumes in which continuity, energy, and pressure loss effects are simulated. Comparison of the SWS model with experimental data shows reasonable agreement in net power versus speed characteristics for various mean pressure levels in the working space. The four working space (FWS) model was built to observe the behaviour of the whole engine. The drive dynamics and vehicle inertia effects are simulated. To reduce calculation time, only three volumes are used in each working space and the gas temperature are fixed (no energy equation). Comparison of the FWS model predicted power with experimental data shows reasonable agreement. Since all four working spaces are simulated, the unique capabilities of the model are exercised to look at working fluid supply transients, short circuit transients, and piston ring leakage effects.

  11. Preliminary results in advanced head and neck cancer with radiotherapy by multiple fractions a day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.G.; Breur, K.; Schueren, E. v.d.

    1980-01-01

    Nine patients with advanced head and neck cancer were treated by irradiation consisting of three fractions a day of 180 rad administered with intervals of 4 h. The total dose was 4860-5400 rad in an overall time of 11-12 days. The acute mucosal reactions produced by this multifractionated schedule were similar to those observed with conventional fractionation. The acute skin reactions were minimal. The period of acute reactions were shorter than is generally observed with conventional fractionation. In six patients with a follow-up time of six months or longer no late reactions were detected with the exception of one patient requiring permanent tracheostomy because of laryngeal oedema. In the whole group of patients loco-regional control of the disease was achieved. Six patients had maintained the full response for six months or longer. The results so far obtained with this multiple fractions a day schedule are encouraging. More patients have to be entered in this study in order to draw definitive conclusions. (author)

  12. Preliminary fracture analysis of the core pressure boundary tube for the Advanced Neutron Source Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, K.C.

    1995-08-01

    The outer core pressure boundary tube (CPBT) of the Advanced neutron Source (ANS) reactor being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently specified as being composed of 6061-T6 aluminum. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code fracture analysis rules for nuclear components are based on the use of ferritic steels; the expressions, tables, charts and equations were all developed from tests and analyses conducted for ferritic steels. Because of the nature of the Code, design with thin aluminum requires analytical approaches that do not directly follow the Code. The intent of this report is to present a methodology comparable to the ASME Code for ensuring the prevention of nonductile fracture of the CPBT in the ANS reactor. 6061-T6 aluminum is known to be a relatively brittle material; the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) approach is utilized to determine allowable flaw sizes for the CPBT. A J-analysis following the procedure developed by the Electric Power Research Institute was conducted as a check; the results matched those for the LEFM analysis for the cases analyzed. Since 6061-T6 is known to embrittle when irradiated, the reduction in K Q due to irradiation is considered in the analysis. In anticipation of probable requirements regarding maximum allowable flaw size, a survey of nondestructive inspection capabilities is also presented. A discussion of probabilistic fracture mechanics approaches, principally Monte Carlo techniques, is included in this report as an introduction to what quantifying the probability of nonductile failure of the CPBT may entail

  13. Home Palliative Care for Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Teruel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD on conservative treatment very often poses healthcare problems that are difficult to solve. At the end of 2011, we began a program based on the care and monitoring of these patients by Primary Care Teams. ACKD patients who opted for conservative treatment were offered the chance to be cared for mainly at home by the Primary Care doctor and nurse, under the coordination of the Palliative Care Unit and the Nephrology Department. During 2012, 2013, and 2014, 76 patients received treatment in this program (mean age: 81 years; mean Charlson age-comorbidity index: 10, and mean glomerular filtration rate: 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m2. The median patient follow-up time (until death or until 31 December 2014 was 165 days. During this period, 51% of patients did not have to visit the hospital’s emergency department and 58% did not require hospitalization. Forty-eight of the 76 patients died after a median time of 135 days in the program; 24 (50% died at home. Our experience indicates that with the support of the Palliative Care Unit and the Nephrology Department, ACKD patients who are not dialysis candidates may be monitored at home by Primary Care Teams.

  14. Home Palliative Care for Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruel, José L.; Rexach, Lourdes; Burguera, Victor; Gomis, Antonio; Fernandez-Lucas, Milagros; Rivera, Maite; Diaz, Alicia; Collazo, Sergio; Liaño, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) on conservative treatment very often poses healthcare problems that are difficult to solve. At the end of 2011, we began a program based on the care and monitoring of these patients by Primary Care Teams. ACKD patients who opted for conservative treatment were offered the chance to be cared for mainly at home by the Primary Care doctor and nurse, under the coordination of the Palliative Care Unit and the Nephrology Department. During 2012, 2013, and 2014, 76 patients received treatment in this program (mean age: 81 years; mean Charlson age-comorbidity index: 10, and mean glomerular filtration rate: 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m2). The median patient follow-up time (until death or until 31 December 2014) was 165 days. During this period, 51% of patients did not have to visit the hospital’s emergency department and 58% did not require hospitalization. Forty-eight of the 76 patients died after a median time of 135 days in the program; 24 (50%) died at home. Our experience indicates that with the support of the Palliative Care Unit and the Nephrology Department, ACKD patients who are not dialysis candidates may be monitored at home by Primary Care Teams. PMID:27417813

  15. WSSRAP [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project] quarry preliminary engineering report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The removal, transport, and temporary storage of radiologically and chemically contaminated bulk waste from the Weldon Spring Quarry will be accomplished by dividing the work into three subcontract packages. The major portion of the work will come under the bulk waste excavation package; construction of a temporary storage area (TSA) at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and of a haul road between the quarry and the TSA comprise the other two packages. Cost estimates to complete the removal range from $5 million to $9.4 million due to a high degree of uncertainty regarding both the productivity of the excavating equipment and the effectiveness of planned dewatering efforts. Quarry wastes will be substantially dewatered and the water treated before discharge. Waste will be excavated in three phases, using conventional construction equipment, with preliminary sorting of waste at the quarry before transport to the TSA. Special attention will be given to controlling the spread of contamination by careful monitoring and control of surface and groundwater drainage and of particulate and radiological contamination of the air. 6 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Clinical pharmacokinetics, safety, and preliminary efficacy evaluation of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyang; Zhang, Li; Wu, Yiwen; Jiang, Ji; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yingxiang; Liu, Yong; Hu, Pei

    2015-09-01

    To receive pharmacokinetics, safety, and anti-tumor activity of icotinib, a novel epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients (n=40) with advanced NSCLC were enrolled to receive escalating doses of icotinib, which was administrated on Day 1 followed by 28-day continuous dosing starting from Day 4. Four dosing regimens, 100mg b.i.d., 150 mg b.i.d., 125 mg t.i.d., and 200mg b.i.d. were studied. Pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and efficacy of icotinib were evaluated. Icotinib was well tolerated in Chinese patients with refractory NSCLC. No toxicity with >3 grades were reported in more than 2 patients under any dose levels. One complete response (3%) and 9 partial responses (23%) were received. Total disease control rate could reach at 73% and median progress-free survival (range) was 154 (17-462) days. PK exposure of icotinib increased with increase of dose in NSCLC patients. Food was suggested to increase PK exposure by ∼30%. Mean t1/2β was within 5.31-8.07 h. No major metabolite (>10% plasma exposure of icotinib) was found in NSCLC patients. Icotinib with up to 400 mg/day exhibited good tolerance and preliminary antitumor activity in Chinese NSCLC patients. Pharmacokinetics of icotinib and 5 major metabolites were fully investigated in NSCLC patients. Optimized biologic dose (OBD) was finally recommended to be 125 mg t.i.d. for the later clinical study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is being considered to power deep space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG-EU, was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently on an extended operation test at NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for testing the ASRG-EU. Details of the test facility design are discussed. The facility can operate the convertors under AC bus control or with the ASRG-EU controller. It can regulate input thermal power in either a fixed temperature or fixed power mode. An enclosure circulates cooled air around the ASRG-EU to remove heat rejected from the ASRG-EU by convection. A custom monitoring and data acquisition system supports the test. Various safety features, which allow 2417 unattended operation, are discussed.

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Synthetic Membranes : Science, Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, H; Pinho, M

    1986-01-01

    The chapters in this book are based upon lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Synthetic Membranes (June 26-July 8, 1983, Alcabideche, Portugal), which provided an integrated presentation of syn­ thetic membrane science and technology in three broad areas. Currently available membrane formation mechanisms are reviewed, as well as the manner in which synthesis conditions can be controlled to achieve desired membrane structures. Membrane performance in a specific separa­ tionprocess involves complex phenomena, the understanding of which re­ quires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing polymer chemistry, phys­ ical chemistry, and chemical engineering. Progress toward a global understanding of membrane phenomena is described in chapters on the principles of membrane transport. The chapters on membrane processes and applications highlight both established and emerging membrane processes, and elucidate their myriad applications. It is our hope that this book will be an enduring, comprehensi...

  19. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, Vesna; Hector, Louis G.; Ezzat, Hesham; Sachdev, Anil K.; Quinn, James; Krupitzer, Ronald; Sun, Xin

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980 grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.

  20. Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a high-efficiency generator being developed for potential use on a Discovery 12 space mission. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in 2008 and has been undergoing extended operation testing to generate long-term performance data for an integrated system. It has also been used for tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs, both when controlled with an alternating current (AC) bus and with a digital controller. The ASRG EU currently has over 27,000 hours of operation. This paper summarizes all of the tests that have been conducted on the ASRG EU over the past 3 years and provides an overview of the test results and what was learned.

  1. Parallel local search for solving Constraint Problems on the Cell Broadband Engine (Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvator Abreu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell/BE for short for combinatorial optimization applications: we present a parallel version of a constraint-based local search algorithm that has been implemented on a multiprocessor BladeCenter machine with twin Cell/BE processors (total of 16 SPUs per blade. This algorithm was chosen because it fits very well the Cell/BE architecture and requires neither shared memory nor communication between processors, while retaining a compact memory footprint. We study the performance on several large optimization benchmarks and show that this achieves mostly linear time speedups, even sometimes super-linear. This is possible because the parallel implementation might explore simultaneously different parts of the search space and therefore converge faster towards the best sub-space and thus towards a solution. Besides getting speedups, the resulting times exhibit a much smaller variance, which benefits applications where a timely reply is critical.

  2. Identification of advanced human factors engineering analysis, design and evaluation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plott, C.; Ronan, A. M.; Laux, L.; Bzostek, J.; Milanski, J.; Scheff, S.

    2006-01-01

    NUREG-0711 Rev.2, 'Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model,' provides comprehensive guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in assessing the human factors practices employed by license applicants for Nuclear Power Plant control room designs. As software based human-system interface (HSI) technologies supplant traditional hardware-based technologies, the NRC may encounter new HSI technologies or seemingly unconventional approaches to human factors design, analysis, and evaluation methods which NUREG-0711 does not anticipate. A comprehensive survey was performed to identify advanced human factors engineering analysis, design and evaluation methods, tools, and technologies that the NRC may encounter in near term future licensee applications. A review was conducted to identify human factors methods, tools, and technologies relevant to each review element of NUREG-0711. Additionally emerging trends in technology which have the potential to impact review elements, such as Augmented Cognition, and various wireless tools and technologies were identified. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the survey results and to highlight issues that could be revised or adapted to meet with emerging trends. (authors)

  3. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Design of Mathematical Modelling Courses for Engineering Education

    CERN Document Server

    Moscardini, Alfredo

    1994-01-01

    As the role of the modern engineer is markedly different from that of even a decade ago, the theme of engineering mathematics educa­ tion (EME) is an important one. The need for mathematical model­ ling (MM) courses and consideration of the educational impact of computer-based technology environments merit special attention. This book contains the proceeding of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop held on this theme in July 1993. We have left the industrial age behind and have entered the in­ formation age. Computers and other emerging technologies are penetrating society in depth and gaining a strong influence in de­ termining how in future society will be organised, while the rapid change of information requires a more qualified work force. This work force is vital to high technology and economic competitive­ ness in many industrialised countries throughout the world. Within this framework, the quality of EME has become an issue. It is expected that the content of mathematics courses taught in schools o...

  4. Advances of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and dental tissue in craniofacial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maobin; Zhang, Hongming; Gangolli, Riddhi

    2014-05-01

    Bone and dental tissues in craniofacial region work as an important aesthetic and functional unit. Reconstruction of craniofacial tissue defects is highly expected to ensure patients to maintain good quality of life. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been developed in the last two decades, and been advanced with the stem cell technology. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are one of the most extensively studied post-natal stem cell population, and are widely utilized in cell-based therapy. Dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells are a relatively new stem cell population that isolated from various dental tissues. These cells can undergo multilineage differentiation including osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation, thus provide an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the important issues in mesenchymal stem cell biology including the origin and functions of mesenchymal stem cells, compare the properties of these two types of mesenchymal cells, update recent basic research and clinic applications in this field, and address important future challenges.

  5. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration.

  6. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Advanced Data and Information Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Deris, Mustafa; Abawajy, Jemal

    2014-01-01

    The proceeding is a collection of research papers presented  at the International Conference on Data Engineering 2013 (DaEng-2013), a conference dedicated to address the challenges in the areas of database, information retrieval, data mining and knowledge management, thereby presenting a consolidated view to the interested researchers in the aforesaid fields. The goal of this conference was to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on advanced on data engineering concepts and establishing new collaborations in these areas. The topics of interest are as follows but are not limited to: • Database theory • Data management • Data mining and warehousing • Data privacy & security • Information retrieval, integration and visualization • Information system • Knowledge discovery in databases • Mobile, grid and cloud computing • Knowledge-based • Knowledge management • Web data, services and intelligence

  7. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration. PMID:27069484

  8. 3D bioprinting for biomedical devices and tissue engineering: A review of recent trends and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroosh Derakhshanfar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing, an additive manufacturing based technology for precise 3D construction, is currently widely employed to enhance applicability and function of cell laden scaffolds. Research on novel compatible biomaterials for bioprinting exhibiting fast crosslinking properties is an essential prerequisite toward advancing 3D printing applications in tissue engineering. Printability to improve fabrication process and cell encapsulation are two of the main factors to be considered in development of 3D bioprinting. Other important factors include but are not limited to printing fidelity, stability, crosslinking time, biocompatibility, cell encapsulation and proliferation, shear-thinning properties, and mechanical properties such as mechanical strength and elasticity. In this review, we recite recent promising advances in bioink development as well as bioprinting methods. Also, an effort has been made to include studies with diverse types of crosslinking methods such as photo, chemical and ultraviolet (UV. We also propose the challenges and future outlook of 3D bioprinting application in medical sciences and discuss the high performance bioinks.

  9. Ceramic technology for advanced heat engines project: Semiannual progress report, October 1986-March 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report contains four subelements: (1) Monolithics, (2) Ceramic Composites, (3) Thermal and Wear Coatings, and (4) Joining. Ceramic research conducted within the Monolithics subelement currently includes work activities on green state ceramic fabrication, characterization, and densification and on structural, mechanical, and physical properties of these ceramics. Research conducted within the Ceramic Composites subelement currently includes silicon carbide and oxide-based composites, which, in addition to the work activities cited for Monolithics, include fiber synthesis and characterization. Research conducted in the Thermal and Wear Coatings subelement is currently limited to oxide-base coatings and involves coating synthesis, characterization, and determination of the mechanical and physical properties of the coatings. Research conducted in the Joining subelement currently includes studies of processes to produce strong stable joints between zirconia ceramics and iron-base alloys. A major objective of the research in the Materials and Processing project element is to systematically advance the understanding of the relationships between ceramic raw materials such as powders and reactant gases, the processing variables involved in producing the ceramic materials, and the resultant microstructures and physical and mechanical properties of the ceramic materials. Success in meeting this objective will provide US companies with new or improved ways for producing economical highly reliable ceramic components for advanced heat engines.

  10. On recent advances in human engineering Provocative trends in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Advances in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine regularly attract attention from scientists, scholars, journalists, and policymakers, yet implications of these advances may be broader than commonly supposed. Laboratories culturing human embryos, editing human genes, and creating human-animal chimeras have been working along lines that are now becoming intertwined. Embryogenic methods are weaving traditional in vivo and in vitro distinctions into a new "in vivitro" (in life in glass) fabric. These and other methods known to be in use or thought to be in development promise soon to bring society to startling choices and discomfiting predicaments, all in a global effort to supply reliably rejuvenating stem cells, to grow immunologically non-provocative replacement organs, and to prevent, treat, cure, or even someday eradicate diseases having genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. With humanity's human-engineering era now begun, procedural prohibitions, funding restrictions, institutional controls, and transparency rules are proving ineffective, and business incentives are migrating into the most basic life-sciences inquiries, wherein lie huge biomedical potentials and bioethical risks. Rights, health, and heritage are coming into play with bioethical presumptions and formal protections urgently needing reassessment.

  11. Preliminary Physics Motivation and Engineering Design Assessment of the National High Power Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    In April 2006, Dr. Ray Orbach, Director of the DOE Office of Science, challenged the fusion community to 'propose a new facility... which will put the U.S. at the lead in world fusion science'. Analysis of the gaps between expected ITER performance and the requirements of a demonstration power plant (Demo) pointed to the critical and urgent need to develop fusion-relevant plasma-material interface (PMI) solutions consistent with sustained high plasma performance. A survey of world fusion program indicated that present and planned experimental devices do not advance the PMI issue beyond ITER, and a major dedicated experimental facility is warranted. Such a facility should provide the flexibility and access needed to solve plasma boundary challenges related to divertor heat flux and particle exhaust while also developing methods to minimize hydrogenic isotope retention and remaining compatible with high plasma performance.

  12. Preliminary Physics Motivation and Engineering Design Assessment of the National High Power Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Woolley

    2009-06-11

    In April 2006, Dr. Ray Orbach, Director of the DOE Office of Science, challenged the fusion community to "propose a new facility... which will put the U.S. at the lead in world fusion science." Analysis of the gaps between expected ITER performance and the requirements of a demonstration power plant (Demo) pointed to the critical and urgent need to develop fusion-relvant plasma-material interface (PMI) solutions consistent with sustained high plasma performance. A survey of world fusion program indicated that present and planned experimental devices do not advance the PMI issue beyond ITER, and a major dedicated experimental facility is warranted. Such a facility should provide the flexibility and access needed to solve plasma boundary challenges related to divertor heat flux and particle exhaust while also developing methods to minimize hydrogenic isotope retention and remaining compatible with high plasma performance.

  13. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 2; Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary studies on two turbine engine applications relevant to the tilt-rotor rotary wing aircraft are performed. The first case-study is the application of variable pitch turbine for the turbine performance improvement when operating at a substantially lower shaft speed. The calculations are made on the 75 percent speed and the 50 percent speed of operations. Our results indicate that with the use of the variable pitch turbines, a nominal (3 percent (probable) to 5 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 75 percent speed, and a notable (6 percent (probable) to 12 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 50 percent speed, without sacrificing the turbine power productions, are achievable if the technical difficulty of turning the turbine vanes and blades can be circumvented. The second casestudy is the contingency turbine power generation for the tilt-rotor aircraft in the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) scenario. For this study, calculations are performed on two promising methods: throttle push and steam injection. By isolating the power turbine and limiting its air mass flow rate to be no more than the air flow intake of the take-off operation, while increasing the turbine inlet total temperature (simulating the throttle push) or increasing the air-steam mixture flow rate (simulating the steam injection condition), our results show that an amount of 30 to 45 percent extra power, to the nominal take-off power, can be generated by either of the two methods. The methods of approach, the results, and discussions of these studies are presented in this paper.

  14. Preliminary report of biological intrusion studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Arthur, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a larger study on the effects of biological intrusion of plants and animals into the soil cover placed over low-level radioactive wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), research was initiated in the summer of 1982 to determine the burrow characteristics and movement patterns of several small mammal species, and the rooting depths of various plants. The depth, length, and volume of burrows were determined for four small mammal species: deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), montane vole (Microtus montanus), and Townsend's ground squirrel (Spermophilis townsendii). The latter species excavated the greatest mean burrow depth (39 cm), length (404 cm), and volume (14.8 1). Movement patterns of three species were determined by radiotelemetry. The mean area of use for P. maniculatus, D. ordii, and M. montanus was 2.3, 1.5, and 1.2 ha respectively. Limited data on rooting depths of various native and introduced plant species at the SDA were obtained by literature review and excavation. During FY-83, experiments will be conducted, using the information obtained from the first year of this study, to evaluate the impact of burrowing mammals and root intrusion on the integrity of the soil cover currently existing at the SDA. Details of these experimental studies are presented

  15. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei

    2015-01-01

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals...... and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals......, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable...

  16. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-11-15

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in Multimedia, Software Engineering and Computing Vol.1 : Proceedings of the 2011 MSEC International Conference on Multimedia, Software Engineering and Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    MSEC2011 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus upon Multimedia ,Software Engineering, Computing and Education. In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about Multimedia, Software Engineering ,Computing and Education of researchers all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned field. In order to meet high standard of Springer, AISC series ,the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organization had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.

  18. Advances in Multimedia, Software Engineering and Computing Vol.2 : Proceedings of the 2011 MSEC International Conference on Multimedia, Software Engineering and Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    MSEC2011 is an integrated conference concentrating its focus upon Multimedia ,Software Engineering, Computing and Education. In the proceeding, you can learn much more knowledge about Multimedia, Software Engineering, Computing and Education of researchers all around the world. The main role of the proceeding is to be used as an exchange pillar for researchers who are working in the mentioned field. In order to meet high standard of Springer, AISC series ,the organization committee has made their efforts to do the following things. Firstly, poor quality paper has been refused after reviewing course by anonymous referee experts. Secondly, periodically review meetings have been held around the reviewers about five times for exchanging reviewing suggestions. Finally, the conference organization had several preliminary sessions before the conference. Through efforts of different people and departments, the conference will be successful and fruitful.

  19. Advanced SiC/SiC Ceramic Composites For Gas-Turbine Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.; Easler, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing a variety of advanced SiC/SiC ceramic composite (ASC) systems that allow these materials to operate for hundreds of hours under stress in air at temperatures approaching 2700 F. These SiC/SiC composite systems are lightweight (approximately 30% metal density) and, in comparison to monolithic ceramics and carbon fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, are able to reliably retain their structural properties for long times under aggressive gas-turbine engine environments. The key for the ASC systems is related first to the NASA development of the Sylramic-iBN Sic fiber, which displays higher thermal stability than any other SiC- based ceramic fibers and possesses an in-situ grown BN surface layer for higher environmental durability. This fiber is simply derived from Sylramic Sic fiber type that is currently produced at ATK COI Ceramics (COIC). Further capability is then derived by using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) and/or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) to form a Sic-based matrix with high creep and rupture resistance as well as high thermal conductivity. The objectives of this study were (1) to optimize the constituents and processing parameters for a Sylramic-iBN fiber reinforced ceramic composite system in which the Sic-based matrix is formed at COIC almost entirely by PIP (full PIP approach), (2) to evaluate the properties of this system in comparison to other 2700 F Sylramic-iBN systems in which the matrix is formed by full CVI and CVI + PIP, and (3) to examine the pros and cons of the full PIP approach for fabricating hot-section engine components. A key goal is the development of a composite system with low porosity, thereby providing high modulus, high matrix cracking strength, high interlaminar strength, and high thermal conductivity, a major property requirement for engine components that will experience high thermal gradients during service. Other key composite property goals are demonstration at

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S ampersand A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S ampersand A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S ampersand A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs

  1. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs.

  2. Preliminary draft: environmental impact statement for Hot Engineering Test Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.W.; Baxter, B.J.; Carpenter, J.A.

    1978-08-01

    The project considered is the Hot Engineering Test Project (HETP), which is to be located in largely existing facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The project is a part of the National High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel Recycle Program, which seeks to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the recycle processes. The HETP will attempt to confirm the operability of the processes (proven feasible in cold or nonradioactive, benchtop experimentation) under the more realistic radioactive condition. As such, the operation will involve the reprocessing and refabrication of spent HTGR fuel rods obtained from the Fort St. Vrain reactor. The reference fuel is highly enriched uranium. No significant radiological impacts are expected from routine operation of the facility to any biota or ecosystem. Concentrations of one or more radionuclides in Whiteoak Lake will increase as a result of the combination of HETP wastes with other ORNL wastes. Nonradiological effects from construction activities and routine operation should be insignificant on land and water use and on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. No significant socioeconomic impacts should occur from either construction or operation of the facility. Some conservative accident scenarios depict significant releases of radioactivity. Effects should be localized and would not be severe for all but the most unlikely of such incidents. No significant long-term commitment of resources is expected to be required for the project. Nor are any large quantities of scarce or critical resources likely to be irreversibly or irretrievably committed to the project. Principal alternatives considered were: relocation of the project site, postponement of the project schedule, project cancellation, and chemical process variations

  3. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation

  4. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rista, P. E. C.; Shull, J.; Sargent, S.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen & helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper.

  5. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C Rista, P E; Shull, J; Sargent, S

    2015-01-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen and helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper. (paper)

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  7. New Advances Push Engineered Tissues Toward 3-D: Multidisciplinary Collaboration is Key to the Success of Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Although doctors still cannot simply order new, functioning organs for patients who need replacements, researchers in labs around the world are making the important advances in tissue engineering that set the stage for regenerative medicine as well as make other biomedical technologies possible.

  8. Contribution of developing advanced engineering methods in interdisciplinary studying the piston rings from 1.6 spark ignited Ford engine at Technical University of Cluj-Napoca

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Aurel Cherecheş, Ioan; -Ioana Borzan, Adela; -Laurean Băldean, Doru

    2017-10-01

    Study of construction and wearing process in the case of piston-rings and other significant components from internal combustion engines leads at any time to creative and useful optimizing ideas, both in designing and manufacturing phases. Main objective of the present paper is to realize an interdisciplinary research using advanced methods in piston-rings evaluation of a common vehicle on the streets which is Ford Focus FYDD. Specific objectives are a theoretical study of the idea for advanced analysis method in piston-rings evaluation and an applied research developed in at Technical University from Cluj-Napoca with the motor vehicle caught in the repairing process.

  9. Development of Advanced Continuum Models that Incorporate Nanomechanical Deformation into Engineering Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; McDowell, David L.; Mayeur, Jason R.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Gao, Huajian

    2008-09-01

    Materials with characteristic structures at nanoscale sizes exhibit significantly different mechani-cal responses from those predicted by conventional, macroscopic continuum theory. For example,nanocrystalline metals display an inverse Hall-Petch effect whereby the strength of the materialdecreases with decreasing grain size. The origin of this effect is believed to be a change in defor-mation mechanisms from dislocation motion across grains and pileup at grain boundaries at mi-croscopic grain sizes to rotation of grains and deformation within grain boundary interface regionsfor nanostructured materials. These rotational defects are represented by the mathematical conceptof disclinations. The ability to capture these effects within continuum theory, thereby connectingnanoscale materials phenomena and macroscale behavior, has eluded the research community.The goal of our project was to develop a consistent theory to model both the evolution ofdisclinations and their kinetics. Additionally, we sought to develop approaches to extract contin-uum mechanical information from nanoscale structure to verify any developed continuum theorythat includes dislocation and disclination behavior. These approaches yield engineering-scale ex-pressions to quantify elastic and inelastic deformation in all varieties of materials, even those thatpossess highly directional bonding within their molecular structures such as liquid crystals, cova-lent ceramics, polymers and biological materials. This level of accuracy is critical for engineeringdesign and thermo-mechanical analysis is performed in micro- and nanosystems. The researchproposed here innovates on how these nanoscale deformation mechanisms should be incorporatedinto a continuum mechanical formulation, and provides the foundation upon which to develop ameans for predicting the performance of advanced engineering materials.4 AcknowledgmentThe authors acknowledge helpful discussions with Farid F. Abraham, Youping Chen, Terry J

  10. Hand-in-hand advances in biomedical engineering and sensorimotor restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisotta, Iolanda; Perruchoud, David; Ionta, Silvio

    2015-05-15

    Living in a multisensory world entails the continuous sensory processing of environmental information in order to enact appropriate motor routines. The interaction between our body and our brain is the crucial factor for achieving such sensorimotor integration ability. Several clinical conditions dramatically affect the constant body-brain exchange, but the latest developments in biomedical engineering provide promising solutions for overcoming this communication breakdown. The ultimate technological developments succeeded in transforming neuronal electrical activity into computational input for robotic devices, giving birth to the era of the so-called brain-machine interfaces. Combining rehabilitation robotics and experimental neuroscience the rise of brain-machine interfaces into clinical protocols provided the technological solution for bypassing the neural disconnection and restore sensorimotor function. Based on these advances, the recovery of sensorimotor functionality is progressively becoming a concrete reality. However, despite the success of several recent techniques, some open issues still need to be addressed. Typical interventions for sensorimotor deficits include pharmaceutical treatments and manual/robotic assistance in passive movements. These procedures achieve symptoms relief but their applicability to more severe disconnection pathologies is limited (e.g. spinal cord injury or amputation). Here we review how state-of-the-art solutions in biomedical engineering are continuously increasing expectances in sensorimotor rehabilitation, as well as the current challenges especially with regards to the translation of the signals from brain-machine interfaces into sensory feedback and the incorporation of brain-machine interfaces into daily activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Liner for Advanced Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar; Greene, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    NARloy-Z (Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr) alloy is state-of-the-art combustion chamber liner material used in liquid propulsion engines such as the RS-68 and RS-25. The performance of future liquid propulsion systems can be improved significantly by increasing the heat transfer through the combustion chamber liner. Prior work1 done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has shown that the thermal conductivity of NARloy-Z alloy can be improved significantly by embedding high thermal conductivity diamond particles in the alloy matrix to form NARloy-Z-diamond composite (fig. 1). NARloy-Z-diamond composite containing 40vol% diamond showed 69% higher thermal conductivity than NARloy-Z. It is 24% lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 120% better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. The research work consists of (a) developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) of NARloy-Z-D composite, (b) fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and (c) hot-fire testing of the liner to test performance. Initially, NARloy-Z-D composite slabs were made using the Field Assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) for the purpose of determining design properties. In the next step, a cylindrical shape was fabricated to demonstrate feasibility (fig. 3). The liner consists of six cylinders which are sintered separately and then stacked and diffusion bonded to make the liner (fig. 4). The liner will be heat treated, finish-machined, and assembled into a combustion chamber and hot-fire tested in the MSFC test facility (TF 115) to determine perform.

  12. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-19

    {open_quotes}Evaluation Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes{close_quotes} is one of the DOE-PETC sponsored advanced coal cleaning projects, which share a number of specific goals. These goals are to produce a 6% ash product, reject 85% of the parent coal`s pyritic sulfur, recover 85% of the parent coal`s Btu value, and provide products that are less than 30% moisture. The process in this project, as the name implies, relies on a cyclone or cyclonic separator to achieve physical beneficiation based on the gravimetric differences between clean coal and its impurities. Just as important as the cyclonic separator, if not more so, is the selection of a parting liquid or medium for use in the separator. Selection of a separating medium is regarded as a significant portion of the project because it has a profound impact on the required unit operations, the performance of the separator, and economics of the process. The choice of medium especially influences selection of media recovery system(s), and the characteristics of clean coal and refuse products. Since medium selection is such an important aspect of the project, portions of the project are dedicated to the study, evaluation, and selection of the most desirable medium. Though separators are an important component, this project initially focused on media study, rather than the separators themselves. In coal processing, discussion of media requires description of the handling and recovery system(s), separation performance, interaction with coal, cost, and health, environmental and safety issues. In order to be effective, a candidate must perform well in all of these categories.

  13. Advanced biomaterial strategies to transplant preformed micro-tissue engineered neural networks into the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. P.; Struzyna, L. A.; Murphy, P. L.; Adewole, D. O.; Kuo, E.; Cullen, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Connectome disruption is a hallmark of many neurological diseases and trauma with no current strategies to restore lost long-distance axonal pathways in the brain. We are creating transplantable micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), which are preformed constructs consisting of embedded neurons and long axonal tracts to integrate with the nervous system to physically reconstitute lost axonal pathways. Approach. We advanced micro-tissue engineering techniques to generate micro-TENNs consisting of discrete populations of mature primary cerebral cortical neurons spanned by long axonal fascicles encased in miniature hydrogel micro-columns. Further, we improved the biomaterial encasement scheme by adding a thin layer of low viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to enable needle-less insertion and rapid softening for mechanical similarity with brain tissue. Main results. The engineered architecture of cortical micro-TENNs facilitated robust neuronal viability and axonal cytoarchitecture to at least 22 days in vitro. Micro-TENNs displayed discrete neuronal populations spanned by long axonal fasciculation throughout the core, thus mimicking the general systems-level anatomy of gray matter—white matter in the brain. Additionally, micro-columns with thin CMC-coating upon mild dehydration were able to withstand a force of 893 ± 457 mN before buckling, whereas a solid agarose cylinder of similar dimensions was predicted to withstand less than 150 μN of force. This thin CMC coating increased the stiffness by three orders of magnitude, enabling needle-less insertion into brain while significantly reducing the footprint of previous needle-based delivery methods to minimize insertion trauma. Significance. Our novel micro-TENNs are the first strategy designed for minimally invasive implantation to facilitate nervous system repair by simultaneously providing neuronal replacement and physical reconstruction of long-distance axon pathways in the brain

  14. Advances in Computer Science, Engineering & Applications : Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zizka, Jan; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan

    2012-01-01

    The International conference series on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA) aims to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on understanding computer science, engineering and applications and to establish new collaborations in these areas. The Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA-2012), held in Delhi, India, during May 25-27, 2012 attracted many local and international delegates, presenting a balanced mixture of  intellect and research both from the East and from the West. Upon a strenuous peer-review process the best submissions were selected leading to an exciting, rich and a high quality technical conference program, which featured high-impact presentations in the latest developments of various areas of computer science, engineering and applications research.  

  15. Advances in Computer Science, Engineering & Applications : Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zizka, Jan; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan

    2012-01-01

    The International conference series on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA) aims to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on understanding computer science, engineering and applications and to establish new collaborations in these areas. The Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA-2012), held in Delhi, India, during May 25-27, 2012 attracted many local and international delegates, presenting a balanced mixture of  intellect and research both from the East and from the West. Upon a strenuous peer-review process the best submissions were selected leading to an exciting, rich and a high quality technical conference program, which featured high-impact presentations in the latest developments of various areas of computer science, engineering and applications research.

  16. Recent advances in T-cell engineering for use in immunotherapy [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T-cell therapies have shown exceptional promise in the treatment of cancer, especially B-cell malignancies. Two distinct strategies have been used to redirect the activity of ex vivo engineered T cells. In one case, the well-known ability of the T-cell receptor (TCR to recognize a specific peptide bound to a major histocompatibility complex molecule has been exploited by introducing a TCR against a cancer-associated peptide/human leukocyte antigen complex. In the other strategy, synthetic constructs called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs that contain antibody variable domains (single-chain fragments variable and signaling domains have been introduced into T cells. Whereas many reviews have described these two approaches, this review focuses on a few recent advances of significant interest. The early success of CARs has been followed by questions about optimal configurations of these synthetic constructs, especially for efficacy against solid tumors. Among the many features that are important, the dimensions and stoichiometries of CAR/antigen complexes at the synapse have recently begun to be appreciated. In TCR-mediated approaches, recent evidence that mutated peptides (neoantigens serve as targets for endogenous T-cell responses suggests that these neoantigens may also provide new opportunities for adoptive T-cell therapies with TCRs.

  17. Genome editing and genetic engineering in livestock for advancing agricultural and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telugu, Bhanu P; Park, Ki-Eun; Park, Chi-Hun

    2017-08-01

    Genetic modification of livestock has a longstanding and successful history, starting with domestication several thousand years ago. Modern animal breeding strategies predominantly based on marker-assisted and genomic selection, artificial insemination, and embryo transfer have led to significant improvement in the performance of domestic animals, and are the basis for regular supply of high quality animal derived food. However, the current strategy of breeding animals over multiple generations to introduce novel traits is not realistic in responding to the unprecedented challenges such as changing climate, pandemic diseases, and feeding an anticipated 3 billion increase in global population in the next three decades. Consequently, sophisticated genetic modifications that allow for seamless introgression of novel alleles or traits and introduction of precise modifications without affecting the overall genetic merit of the animal are required for addressing these pressing challenges. The requirement for precise modifications is especially important in the context of modeling human diseases for the development of therapeutic interventions. The animal science community envisions the genome editors as essential tools in addressing these critical priorities in agriculture and biomedicine, and for advancing livestock genetic engineering for agriculture, biomedical as well as "dual purpose" applications.

  18. A Physics-Based Engineering Approach to Predict the Cross Section for Advanced SRAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhou, Wanting; Liu, Huihua

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a physics-based engineering approach to estimate the heavy ion induced upset cross section for 6T SRAM cells from layout and technology parameters. The new approach calculates the effects of radiation with junction photocurrent, which is derived based on device physics. The new and simple approach handles the problem by using simple SPICE simulations. At first, the approach uses a standard SPICE program on a typical PC to predict the SPICE-simulated curve of the collected charge vs. its affected distance from the drain-body junction with the derived junction photocurrent. And then, the SPICE-simulated curve is used to calculate the heavy ion induced upset cross section with a simple model, which considers that the SEU cross section of a SRAM cell is more related to a “radius of influence” around a heavy ion strike than to the physical size of a diffusion node in the layout for advanced SRAMs in nano-scale process technologies. The calculated upset cross section based on this method is in good agreement with the test results for 6T SRAM cells processed using 90 nm process technology.

  19. Advances and Prospects in Tissue-Engineered Meniscal Scaffolds for Meniscus Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The meniscus plays a crucial role in maintaining knee joint homoeostasis. Meniscal lesions are relatively common in the knee joint and are typically categorized into various types. However, it is difficult for inner avascular meniscal lesions to self-heal. Untreated meniscal lesions lead to meniscal extrusions in the long-term and gradually trigger the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA. The relationship between meniscal lesions and knee OA is complex. Partial meniscectomy, which is the primary method to treat a meniscal injury, only relieves short-term pain; however, it does not prevent the development of knee OA. Similarly, other current therapeutic strategies have intrinsic limitations in clinical practice. Tissue engineering technology will probably address this challenge by reconstructing a meniscus possessing an integrated configuration with competent biomechanical capacity. This review describes normal structure and biomechanical characteristics of the meniscus, discusses the relationship between meniscal lesions and knee OA, and summarizes the classifications and corresponding treatment strategies for meniscal lesions to understand meniscal regeneration from physiological and pathological perspectives. Last, we present current advances in meniscal scaffolds and provide a number of prospects that will potentially benefit the development of meniscal regeneration methods.

  20. Heart research advances using database search engines, Human Protein Atlas and the Sydney Heart Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Amy; Estigoy, Colleen; Raftery, Mark; Cameron, Darryl; Odeberg, Jacob; Pontén, Fredrik; Lal, Sean; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G

    2013-10-01

    This Methodological Review is intended as a guide for research students who may have just discovered a human "novel" cardiac protein, but it may also help hard-pressed reviewers of journal submissions on a "novel" protein reported in an animal model of human heart failure. Whether you are an expert or not, you may know little or nothing about this particular protein of interest. In this review we provide a strategic guide on how to proceed. We ask: How do you discover what has been published (even in an abstract or research report) about this protein? Everyone knows how to undertake literature searches using PubMed and Medline but these are usually encyclopaedic, often producing long lists of papers, most of which are either irrelevant or only vaguely relevant to your query. Relatively few will be aware of more advanced search engines such as Google Scholar and even fewer will know about Quertle. Next, we provide a strategy for discovering if your "novel" protein is expressed in the normal, healthy human heart, and if it is, we show you how to investigate its subcellular location. This can usually be achieved by visiting the website "Human Protein Atlas" without doing a single experiment. Finally, we provide a pathway to discovering if your protein of interest changes its expression level with heart failure/disease or with ageing. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.