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Sample records for advanced direct liquefaction

  1. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  2. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher

  3. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  4. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flum......-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction.......A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave...

  5. The direct liquefaction proof of concept program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.

  6. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred G. Comolli; Peizheng Zhou; HTI Staff

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the U.S. DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, is to ensure the US a secure energy supply at an affordable price. An integral part of this program was the demonstration of fully developed coal liquefaction processes that could be implemented if market and supply considerations so required, Demonstration of the technology, even if not commercialized, provides a security factor for the country if it is known that the coal to liquid processes are proven and readily available. Direct liquefaction breaks down and rearranges complex hydrocarbon molecules from coal, adds hydrogen, and cracks the large molecules to those in the fuel range, removes hetero-atoms and gives the liquids characteristics comparable to petroleum derived fuels. The current processes being scaled and demonstrated are based on two reactor stages that increase conversion efficiency and improve quality by providing the flexibility to adjust process conditions to accommodate favorable reactions. The first stage conditions promote hydrogenation and some oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen removal. The second stage hydrocracks and speeds the conversion to liquids while removing the remaining sulfur and nitrogen. A third hydrotreatment stage can be used to upgrade the liquids to clean specification fuels.

  7. Biomedical implications of altered product composition in advanced coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Mahlum, D.D.; Pelroy, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Chemical and toxicologic characteristics of direct coal liquefaction materials are highly dependent upon the specific process operations by which the coal liquids were produced, including, in particular, those that affect boiling point range and degree of hydrogen incorporation. Recent advances in direct coal liquefaction technology, such as the use of catalytic hydrogenation, reduced liquefaction severity and lowering the upper temperature cut point for the distillation of fuels, have resulted in products with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios and lower heteroatom content. These higher-quality fuels tend to be less mutagenic and carcinogenic in laboratory assays than earlier coal liquefaction products. It is likely that application of postproduction hydrotreatment, as well as restriction of upper distillation temperature, for coal-based fuel products could result in materials that exhibit mutagenic or carcinogenic activity which is no greater than that of their petroleum-derived counterparts. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs.

  8. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  9. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. FIMS analysis of direct coal liquefaction process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This study was designed to apply the method of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) for the analysis of direct coal liquefaction process-stream samples. The FIMS method was shown to have a high potential for application to direct coal liquefaction-derived samples in a Phase 1 project in this program. In this Phase 3 project, the FIMS method was applied to a set of samples produced in HRI bench-scale liquefaction Runs CC-15 and CC-16. FIMS was used to obtain the molecular weight profile of the samples and to identify specific prominent peaks in the low end (160--420 Da) region of the molecular weight profile. In the samples examined in this study, species were identified which previously were recognized as precursors to the formation of high molecular weight structures associated with the formation of coke in petroleum vacuum gas oils.

  10. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  11. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  12. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Gutterman, C. (Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)); Chander, S. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  13. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  14. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    Using a reactor in which the coal is physically separated from the solid catalyst by a porous wall permeable to the hydrogen donor solvent, it was shown that direct contact between the catalyst and the coal is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. This occurs however only when there is a hydrogen atmosphere, as liquefaction with catalyst participation does not occur in a nitrogen atmosphere. Liquefaction by hydrogen transfer from the donor solvent itself does occur. This suggests that there is transfer of hydrogen from the catalyst to the coal via the solvent. The character of the solvent makes a significant difference, the better solvents being good hydrogen donors. These results indicate that the role of the catalyst may be to regenerate the spent hydrogen donor solvent during the liquefaction process. The peak temperature for volatiles evolution has been shown to be a reproducible measure of the coal rank. This was shown by an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.998) between peak volatiles temperatures (by TGA) and vitrinite reflectance. Using TG/MS, the volatiles contents of coals of a wide range of ranks was determined. The low rank coals emit largely phenols and some other oxygen compounds and olefins. The higher rank coals emit largely aromatic hydrocarbons and some olefins.

  15. Examination of alternative catalysts for biomass direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, A.D.; Rogers, D.Z.

    1985-08-01

    We have now completed a survey study of several water-soluble salts of transition metals that are deemed likely to have utility as catalysts for direct biomass liquefaction in a carbon monoxide steam process. Certain salts of molybdenum and nickel are the most effective catalysts, and are the only species for which some catalytic activity independent of the ligand can be shown. The most effective forms of the nickel and molybdenum are cyanide and oxyanion complexes. 30 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. An advanced extruder-feeder biomass liquefaction reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Don H.; Wolf, D.; Davenport, G.; Mathews, S.; Porter, M.; Zhao, Y.

    1987-11-01

    A unique method of pumping concentrated, viscous biomass slurries that are characteristic of biomass direct liquefaction systems was developed. A modified single-screw extruder was shown to be capable of pumping solid slurries as high as 60 weight percent wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms, as compared to only 10 to 20 weight percent wood flour in wood oil in conventional systems. During the period August, 1985 to April, 1987, a total of 18 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using white birch feedstock. Good operability with feed rates up to 30 lb/hr covering a range of carbon monoxide, sodium carbonate catalyst, pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350 C to 430 C was achieved. Crude wood oils containing 6 to 10 weight percent residual oxygen were obtained. Other wood oil characteristics are reported.

  17. Solvent recyclability in a multistep direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Direct liquefaction research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has, for a number of years, concentrated on developing a direct liquefaction process specifically for low-rank coals (LRCs) through the use of hydrogen-donating solvents and solvents similar to coal-derived liquids, the water/gas shift reaction, and lower-severity reaction conditions. The underlying assumption of all of the research was that advantage could be taken of the reactivity and specific qualities of LRCs to produce a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble material that might be easier to upgrade than the soluble residuum produced during direct liquefaction of high-rank coals. A multistep approach was taken to produce the THF-soluble material, consisting of (1) preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, (2) solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and (3) polishing to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrotreatment step. The results of the EERC`s research indicated that additional studies to develop this process more fully were justified. Two areas were targeted for further research: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The current project was funded to investigate these two areas.

  18. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, N.; Rinaldi, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Due to decreasing of petroleum reserves, direct coal liquefaction is attracting renewed interest as an alternative process to produce liquid fuels. The combination of hydrogen peroxide and coal is not a new one. In the early 1980, Vasilakos and Clinton described a procedure for desulfurization by leaching coal with solutions of sulphuric acid/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. But so far, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has never been ascribed a major role in coal liquefaction. Herein, we describe a novel approach for liquefying low-rank coals using a solution of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in presence of a soluble non-transition metal catalyst. (orig.)

  19. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt % wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3,000 psi. By comparison, conventional pumping systems are capable of pumping slurries containing only 10--20 wt % wood flour in wood oil under similar conditions. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a 3,000 psi pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed during 1983--84. Following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. During the period January 1985 through July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3,000 psi and temperatures from 350{degrees}C to 430{degrees}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt % residual oxygen were produced. 43 refs., 81 figs., 52 tabs.

  20. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  1. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  2. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    There are several aspects of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process which are not fully understood and which if better understood might lead to improved yields and conversions. Among these questions are the roles of the catalyst and the solvent. While the solvent is known to act by transfer of hydrogen atoms to the free radicals formed by thermal breakdown of the coal in an uncatalyzed system, in the presence of a solid catalyst as is now currently practiced, the yields and conversions are higher than in an uncatalyzed system. The role of the catalyst in this case is not completely understood. DOE has funded many projects to produce ultrafine and more active catalysts in the expectation that better contact between catalyst and coal might result. This approach has met with limited success probably because mass transfer between two solids in a fluid medium i.e. the catalyst and the coal, is very poor. It is to develop an understanding of the role of the catalyst and solvent in Direct Liquefaction that this project was initiated. Specifically it was of interest to know whether direct contact between the coal and the catalyst was important. By separating the solid catalyst in a stainless steel basket permeable to the solvent but not the coal in the liquefaction reactor, it was shown that the catalyst still maintains a catalytic effect on the liquefaction process. There is apparently transfer of hydrogen atoms from the catalyst through the basket wall to the coal via the solvent. Strong hydrogen donor solvents appear to be more effective in this respect than weak hydrogen donors. It therefore appears that intimate contact between catalyst and coal is not a requirement, and that the role of the catalyst may be to restore the hydrogen donor strength to the solvent as the reaction proceeds. A range of solvents of varying hydrogen donor strength was investigated. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory in was noted that the peak

  3. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  4. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies, including...

  5. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies including...

  6. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Effect of Recycle Solvent Hydrotreatment on Oil Yield of Direct Coal Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shansong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the recycle solvent hydrotreatment on oil yield of direct coal liquefaction were carried out in the 0.18 t/day direct coal liquefaction bench support unit of National Engineering Laboratory for Direct Coal Liquefaction (China. Results showed that the hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent improved and the hydrogen consumption of solvent hydrotreatment was increased by decreasing liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 and increasing reaction pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent was enhanced, thus promoting the oil yield and coal conversion of the liquefaction reaction. The coal conversion and distillates yield of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.74% to 88.82% and from 47.41% to 49.10%, respectively, with the increase in the solvent hydrotreatment pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The coal conversion and distillates of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.82% to 89.27% and from 49.10% to 54.49%, respectively, when the LHSV decreased from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 under the solvent hydrotreatment pressure of 19.0 MPa.

  8. The role of recycle oil in direct coal liquefaction process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, F.P.

    1995-08-01

    It has long been recognized that use of a recycle oil is a convenient and perhaps necessary feature of a practical direct coal liquefaction process. The recycle oil performs a number of important functions. It serves as a vehicle to convey coal into the liquefaction reactor and products from the reactor. It is a medium for mass and heat transfer among the solid, liquid, and gaseous components of the reactor inventory. It can act as a reactant or intermediate in the liquefaction process. Therefore, the nature of the recycle oil can have a determining effect on process configuration and performance, and the characterization of recycle oil composition and chemistry has been the subject of considerable interest. This paper discusses recycle oil characterization and its influence on the industrial development of coal liquefaction technology,

  9. Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in the Modern Economic Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Oster; Joshua Strege; Marc Kurz; Anthony Snyder; Melanie Jensen

    2009-06-15

    Coal liquefaction provides an alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and economics, is necessary to determine the optimal technology. This report summarizes historical DCL efforts in the United States, describes the technical challenges facing DCL, overviews Shenhua's current DCL project in China, provides a DCL conceptual cost estimate based on a literature review, and compares the carbon dioxide emissions from a DCL facility to those from an ICL facility.

  10. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-07-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes.

  11. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  12. Biomass Direct Liquefaction Options. TechnoEconomic and Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Drennan, Corinne; Elliott, Douglas C.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Onarheim, Kristin; Solantausta, Yrjo; Beckman, David

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this work was to assess the competitiveness of two biomass to transportation fuel processing routes, which were under development in Finland, the U.S. and elsewhere. Concepts included fast pyrolysis (FP), and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), both followed by hydrodeoxygenation, and final product refining. This work was carried out as a collaboration between VTT (Finland), and PNNL (USA). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an update of the earlier comparative technoeconomic assessment performed by the IEA Bioenergy Direct Biomass Liquefaction Task in the 1980s. New developments in HTL and the upgrading of the HTL biocrude product triggered the interest in reinvestigating this comparison of these biomass liquefaction processes. In addition, developments in FP bio-oil upgrading had provided additional definition of this process option, which could provide an interesting comparison.

  13. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-12-17

    The overall objective of the program was to improve the understanding of retrograde reactions and their dependencies on coal rank and structure, and/or coal modifications and reaction conditions. Because retrograde reactions are competitive with bond breaking reactions, an understanding of both is required to shift the competition in favor of the latter. Related objectives were to clarify the conflicting observations reported in literature on such major topics as the role of oxygen groups in retrograde reactions and to provide a bridge from very fundamental studies on pure compounds to phenomenological studies on actual coal. This information was integrated into the FG-DVC model, which was improved and extended to the liquefaction context.

  14. Trace component analysis of process hydrogen streams at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfenbrenner, J.C.

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes subcontracted work done by the Radian Corporation to analyze trace components in process hydrogen streams at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The data will be used to help define whether the gas streams to be treated in the hydrogen processing unit in the SRC-I Demonstration Plant will require further treatment to remove trace contaminants that could be explosive under certain conditions. 2 references.

  15. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  16. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  17. Characterization of the impregnated iron based catalyst for direct coal liquefaction by EXAFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianliYang; JishengZhun; 等

    2001-01-01

    Catalyst plays an important role in direct cola liquefaction(DCL)[1],Due to relatively high activity,low cost and environmentally benign for disposal,iron catalysts are regarded as the most attractive catalysts for DCL.To maximize catalytic effect and minimize catalyst usage,ultra-fine size catalysts are preferred.The most effective catalysts are found to be those impregnated onto coal because of their high dispersion on coal surface and intimate contact with coal particles.

  18. Direct liquefaction of Dunaliella tertiolecta for bio-oil in sub/supercritical ethanol-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Yulong; Zhang, Peiling; Hua, Derun; Yang, Mingde; Li, Chun; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Ji

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents bio-oil preparation by direct liquefaction of Dunaliella tertiolecta (D. tertiolecta) with sub/supercritical ethanol-water as the medium in a batch autoclave with high temperature and high pressure. The results indicated that ethanol and water showed synergistic effects on direct liquefaction of D. tertiolecta. The maximum bio-oil yield was 64.68%, with an optimal D. tertiolecta conversion of 98.24% in sub/supercritical ethanol-water. The detailed chemical compositional analysis of the bio-oil was performed using an EA, FT-IR, and GC-MS. The empirical formulas of the bio-oil obtained using the ethanol-water co-solvent (40%, v/v) and sole water as the reaction medium were CH(1.52)O(0.14)N(0.06) and CH(1.43)O(0.23)N(0.09), with calorific values of 34.96 and 29.80 MJ kg(-1), respectively. XPS and SEM results showed that ethanol-water is a very effective reaction medium in the liquefaction. A plausible reaction mechanism of the main chemical component in D. tertiolecta is proposed based on our results and the literatures.

  19. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  20. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  1. Advanced directives: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Negrini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In Italy Advanced directives have not been regulated by law yet. Moreover, there is a confusion of concepts: advanced directives, refusal of treatment, medical futility and euthanasia are not synonymous.DISCUSSION The following aspects are then discussed: object of directives; elapse of time between their expression and their application; knowledge of the directives and their obligatory nature. The refusal of a treatment that can save a person’s life is a critical subject. There are different ethical points of view: according to lay ethics, the patient’s self-determination prevails; the religious viewpoint, instead, says that life is a gift which we cannot dispose of. In any case, the patient will be confronted with the professional autonomy of the doctor. Should the doctor save a patient’s life in any case or should he achieve best clinical practice, in respect of his will? The doctor should interpret the patient’s will but with caution and judgment. An exemption from responsibility should be provided by law for doctors who respect patient’s living will.

  2. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis. Quarterly report, January--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  3. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  4. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  5. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Technical progress report, Run 243 with Illinois 6 coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the operating results for Run 243 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run was made in an Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode using Illinois 6 coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary objective was to demonstrate the effect of a dissolver on the ITSL product slate, especially on the net C/sub 1/-C/sub 5/ gas production and hydrogen consumption. Run 243 began on 3 February 1983 and continued through 28 June 1983. During this period, 349.8 tons of coal was fed in 2947 hours of operation. Thirteen special product workup material balances were defined, and the results are presented herein. 29 figures, 19 tables.

  6. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  7. Advance directives: prerequisites and usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D

    2006-10-01

    Advance directives allow competent persons to extend their right of self-determination into the future, by recording choices that are intended to influence their future care should they become unable to make choices. They are considered tools to facilitate end-of-life decision making. Advance directives are a form of anticipatory decision-making. This article will focus on instruction directives against a certain treatment, so-called advance refusals. The most important legal requirement is the acknowledgement of patient autonomy. This condition is met in all European countries. The legal uncertainties surrounding advance refusals are focused on practical modalities rather than on the validity of the general principle. According to leading ethics the underlying moral rule of advanced directives is that all truly autonomous refusals of treatment must be respected, no matter what the consequences. Physicians find it hard to adhere to the wishes and choices of patients as expressed in directives. They find the text ambiguous. Another weakness is that directives give little information about what in the patient's view constitutes a good quality of life. Some health professionals lack the willingness to step outside their own value systems and fully embrace that of the patient. Empathic skills are required. Very few persons create an advance directive. Furthermore, of the created directives only some are accessible when patients are admitted to hospital. However, when directives are available they usually influence medical treatment decisions.

  8. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  9. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 1, Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrated coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Heterofunctional solvents were the most effective in swelling coals. Also solvent blends such as isopropanol/water were more effective than pure solvents alone. Impregnating slurry catalysts simultaneously during coal swelling showed that better uptake was achieved with nonswelling solvent and higher impregnation temperature. Some enhancement in initial coal conversion was seen liquefying SO{sub 2}-treated Black Thunder coal with slurry catalysts, and also when hydrogen donor liquefaction solvents were used. Noncatalytic reactions showed no benefit from SO{sub 2} treatment. Coupling coal swelling and SO{sub 2} treatment with slurry catalysts was also not beneficial, although high conversion was seen with continuous operation and long residence time, however, similar high conversion was observed with untreated coal. SO{sub 2} treatment is not economically attractive unless it provides about 17% increase in coal reactivity. In most cases, the best results were obtained when the coal was untreated and the slurry catalyst was added directly into the reactor. Foster Wheeler`s ASCOT process had better average liquid yields than either Wilsonville`s vacuum tower/ROSE combination or delayed coking process. This liquid product also had good quality.

  10. Optimization for microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of bamboo residue in glycerol/methanol mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. We investigated the effects of lique-faction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liq-uefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. The optimal liquefaction conditions were under the temperature of 120 °C, the reaction time of 7 min, the glycerol–methanol–bamboo ratio of 8/0/2 (W/W), and the microwave power of 300 W. Maximum conversion yield was 96.7%. The liquid products were separated into two contents (water soluble part and precipitate part) by addi-tion of a sufficient amount of water. By Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), the water soluble content mainly con-tained glycerol and its derivate and carbohydrate degra-dation products, and the precipitate content was mainly lignin derivatives.

  11. Research on the direct liquefaction of peat at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). [Peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P.; Solantausta, Y.

    1985-01-01

    At the Laboratory of Fuel Processing and Lubrication Technology, VTT, a process for the high-pressure liquefaction of peat into motor fuels is being developed. Because the different process steps are strongly interrelated, the production chain has to be optimized as a whole. The optimization is based on the results of both experimential investigations and techno-economic studies. To this date the research has concentrated on a process concept, where dry peat (10% moisture) is fed to the reactor as a slurry with recycle oil from the process. Promising results have been obtained in both experiments and economic evaluations of the process. Research on liquefaction via flash pyrolysis has also been initiated. In addition the Laboratory has participated in an International Energy Agency (IEA) co-operative project where several biomass liquefaction processes were examined.

  12. Separation of solids from coal liquefaction products using sonic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slomka, B.J.

    1994-10-01

    Product streams containing solids are generated in both direct and indirect coal liquefaction processes. This project seeks to improve the effectiveness of coal liquefaction by novel application of sonic and ultrasonic energy to separation of solids from coal liquefaction streams.

  13. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  14. 藻类直接液化制取液体燃料研究进展%Research progress in direct liquefaction to prepare liquid fuels from algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄付彬; 冯丽娟; 杨文超; 谭文娟; 徐康文; 李春虎

    2012-01-01

    Algae are considered to be the most promising biomass due to their high photosynthetic efficiency,short growth period,large biomass.The research activities and trends in direct liquefaction technology of Chlorella,Spirulina and Dunaliella salina,which had been industrialized,and some other kinds of microalgae were presented in detail.The traditional direct liquefaction process with water and organic solvent as medium were reviewed,and further study focus on new direct liquefaction process,such as normal pressure catalytic liquefaction and co-liquefaction,were provided.Besides,direct liquefaction of some macroalgae was also remarked,and it showed that enhancing research on direct liquefaction of macroalgae is needed.%藻类因其光合作用效率高、生长周期短、生物量大等优点被认为是最有应用前景的生物质。本文详细介绍了3种已实现工业化生产的小球藻、螺旋藻和杜氏盐藻以及其它几种微藻直接液化的研究现状和发展趋势。阐述了以水和有机溶剂为介质的传统直接液化工艺的优缺点,指出常压催化液化和共液化等新型直接液化工艺将是未来研究的重点。此外,对几种大型藻的直接液化作了简单评述,指出需加强对大型藻直接液化的研究。

  15. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program: POC bench option run 01 (227-90). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Popper, G.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of bench-scale work, Bench Run PB-01, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept-Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The Bench Run PB-01 was the first of nine runs planned under the POC Bench Option Contract between the US DOE and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. The primary goal of this bench run was to evaluate the most successful of the process improvements concepts, evolving out of the earlier CMSL Project, for conventional direct liquefaction as well as coprocessing of a sub-bituminous Black Thunder mine coal with waste organics such as waste plastics and heavy resid. The interstage separation of light ends and gases was indeed found to reduce the overall light gas-make from the liquefaction process. The organic waste feeds such as mixed plastics and vacuum resid, employed during Bench Run PB-01, in combined processing with coal, resulted in making the overall process more hydrogen efficient by virtue of reducing the light gas make and also decreasing the hydrogen consumption from the process, while at the same time improving the yields and quality of the distillate products. A definite synergy was found during the combined processing of coal with mixtures of vacuum resid and mixed waste plastics. The application of an all dispersed catalyst conversion reactor resulted in higher feed throughput at equivalent process performance, but also necessitated the use of an in-line hydrotreater for improving the quality of IBP-400{degrees}C distillate products. The combination of HTI`s iron gel catalyst and Molyvan-A was found very effective in achieving high levels of process performance; although, in recycled form, these catalysts were not as effective as the freshly added precursors.

  16. DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT PROGRAM - BENCH RUN PB-10 (HTI 227-109)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-12-30

    This report presents the results of the bench-scale test, PB-10, performed at HTI's facilities under DOE contract (HTI Run No. 227-109). This bench test continues the work that was started in PDU testing 260-007. Previous bench test (PB-09, HTI 227-106) was performed on different seams of Chinese coal (Shenhua Ningtiaota Coal No.2 and No.3). Since another coal, Shangwan coal was selected for the liquefaction plant, PB-10 was made as approved by DOE/COR. The objective of this test was to evaluate the liquefaction performance of Shangwan coal utilizing various backend processing and recycle schemes. Additionally, this test was to collect available process data to allow for the best scale-up process design possible from this particular unit.

  17. Improving performance of direct coal liquefaction through swelling with solvent under the radiation of ultrasonic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Xian-zhi; LI Ke-jian; WANG Li

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of lower rank bituminous coals from Yanzhou mine and Tengxian mine from Shandong Province were treated and hydrogenated in the study. The test results show that the performance of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is improved markedly. Under the test condition of H2 initial pressure 8.2 MPa, addition of the oil yield of pretreated YZ1 coal is 69.76% compared with 62.53% of oil yield of untreated YZ1. Seminally the oil yield of pretreated YZ2 coal is 55.43% compared with20.88% of untreated YZ2 coal. The results of tests also prove that the improving degree of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is related with radiation duration when the radiation frequency and radiation power of ultrasonic wave are fixed.

  18. Direct liquefaction of paulownia in hot compressed water: Influence of catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Peiqin; Heng, Mingxing; Sun, Shaohui; Chen, Junwu [School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Henan (China)

    2010-12-15

    The liquefaction of paulownia in hot compressed water with and without the presence of catalysts such as Fe and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was studied to investigate the catalyst's effects on the biomass liquefaction process. Experiments were conducted in a 1000 ml stainless steel autoclave in the conditions of temperature range of 280-360 C for 10 min under vacuum, with 60 g biomass and 360 g water, respectively. All the catalysts tested, i.e., Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Fe, were found effective for enhancing the formation of heavy oil products, while they significantly promoted the formation of gas. The experimental results showed that the maximum heavy oil yield rate was 36.34% with Fe catalyst and the minimum solid residue yield was obtained when Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was employed as catalyst. The heavy oils from with and without catalyst were characterized by GC-MS and FTIR. The results showed that the oils mainly contained phenol derivatives, ketones, carboxylic acid/ester, benzene derivatives and long-chain alkanes, aldehydes and its derivatives and that employing different catalysts could change the distribution and relative abundance of produced compounds. (author)

  19. Advanced oxidation of water soluble organics (WSO) from near- and supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arturi, Katarzyna Ratajczyk; Nielsen, Rudi Pankratz; Muff, Jens

    The challenges involving procuring the necessary water and energy resources for the future generations are partially entwined. An example of the close water-energy dependency is the production of drop-in biofuels by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in near- and supercritical water....... Numerous applications of HTL for conversion of wastes with high water contents (sewage, manure, or lipid-rich algae cultivated on wastewater nutrients) to high-value drop-in biofuels have been studied. The main bulk of the research focuses on the optimization of the biocrude production, while management...... of the water phase, which contains a large part of the converted biomass (approx. 40 wt.%), is considered a secondary issue. This approach is short-sighted, as an efficient water management, either extraction of the valuables or wastewater treatment, will have to be an integral part of a sustainable HTL...

  20. Advance directives: role of nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenk, J S

    1997-07-01

    Advance directives are documents that guide end of life decisions. Although advance directives are a fairly recent phenomenon in health care, they are grounded in both legal and ethical principles. Studies show few people have completed advance directives. Persons do not tend to complete advance directives for various reasons. Lack of knowledge has been identified, as well as belief that physicians should initiate the discussion and that the topic is appropriate only for the elderly or those in poor health. Many nurse practitioners practice in primary care settings, which are ideal for discussions about advance directives. Nurse practitioners possess the opportunities and skills to discuss advance directives with their patients.

  1. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1988--November 20, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-12-17

    The overall objective of the program was to improve the understanding of retrograde reactions and their dependencies on coal rank and structure, and/or coal modifications and reaction conditions. Because retrograde reactions are competitive with bond breaking reactions, an understanding of both is required to shift the competition in favor of the latter. Related objectives were to clarify the conflicting observations reported in literature on such major topics as the role of oxygen groups in retrograde reactions and to provide a bridge from very fundamental studies on pure compounds to phenomenological studies on actual coal. This information was integrated into the FG-DVC model, which was improved and extended to the liquefaction context.

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...

  3. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  4. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Topical report No. 14. Catalyst activity trends in two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The Two Stage Coal Liquefaction process became operational at Wilsonville in May 1981, with the inclusion of an H-OIL ebullated-bed catalytic reactor. The two stage process was initially operated in a nonintegrated mode and has recently been reconfigurated to fully integrate the thermal and the catalytic stages. This report focuses on catalyst activity trends observed in both modes of operation. A literature review of relevant catalyst screening studies in bench-scale and PDU units is presented. Existing kinetic and deactivation models were used to analyze process data over an extensive data base. Based on the analysis, three separate, application studies have been conducted. The first study seeks to elucidate the dependence of catalyst deactivation rate on type of coal feedstock used. A second study focuses on the significance of catalyst type and integration mode on SRC hydrotreatment. The third study presents characteristic deactivation trends observed in integrated operation with different first-stage thermal severities. In-depth analytical work was conducted at different research laboratories on aged catalyst samples from Run 242. Model hydrogenation and denitrogenation activity trends are compared with process activity trends and with changes observed in catalyst porosimetric properties. The accumulation of metals and coke deposits with increasing catalyst age, as well as their distribution across a pellet cross-section, are discussed. The effect of catalyst age and reactor temperature on the chemical composition of flashed bottoms product is addressed. Results from regenerating spent catalysts are also presented. 35 references, 31 figures, 18 tables.

  5. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  6. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. EROI Analysis for Direct Coal Liquefaction without and with CCS: The Case of the Shenhua DCL Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyang Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are considerable discrepancies between China’s central government and some local governments in attitudes towards coal to liquids (CTL technology. Energy return on investment (EROI analysis of CTL could provide new insights that may help solve this dilemma. Unfortunately, there has been little research on this topic; this paper therefore analyses the EROI of China’s Shenhua Group Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL project, currently the only DCL commercial project in the world. The inclusion or omission of internal energy and by-products is controversial. The results show that the EROIstnd without by-product and with internal energy is 0.68–0.81; the EROIstnd (the standard EROI without by-product and without internal energy is 3.70–5.53; the EROIstnd with by-product and with internal energy is 0.76–0.90; the EROIstnd with by-product and without internal energy is 4.13–6.14. Furthermore, it is necessary to consider carbon capture and storage (CCS as a means to control the CO2 emissions. Considering the added energy inputs of CCS at the plant level, the EROIs decrease to 0.65–0.77, 2.87–3.97, 0.72–0.85, and 3.20–4.40, respectively. The extremely low, even negative, net energy, which may be due to high investments in infrastructure and low conversion efficiency, suggests CTL is not a good choice to replace conventional energy sources, and thus, Chinese government should be prudent when developing it.

  8. Implementing effective staff education about advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRosiers, M; Navin, P

    1997-01-01

    The Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990 guarantees the right to refuse medical or surgical treatment and the right to draft advance directives. This review of the current literature provides those in nursing staff development and inservice education with an overview of advance directives and their implications for nursing education and practice. Possible core subjects for inclusion in planned, purposeful, advance directive education programs are examined, including cultural sensitivity, facilitator skills, interviewing techniques, legal information, patient autonomy, and reasoning and decision making. This review provides a platform for future research.

  9. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  10. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. [Effect of preconversion heat soak with coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  11. Chemical analysis and mutational assay of distilled oils from the H-coal direct liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Later, D.W.; Wright, C.W.; Stewart, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Samples from the H-Coal process, a catalytic, single-stage, coal liquefaction technology, were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. For these investigations, a blend of light and heavy H-Coal process oils was fractionally distilled into 50/sup 0/F boiling point cuts. The chemical analyses and biological testing results presented in this status report deal primarily with the blended material and the distillate fractions boiling above 650/sup 0/F. Results from the microbial mutagenicity assays indicated that onset of biological activity in the crude materials occurred above 700/sup 0/F. Similar trends have been observed for Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) I, SRC II, Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) and Exxon EDS process materials. After chemical class fractionation, the primary source of microbial mutagenicity of the crude boiling point cuts was the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) fractions. Amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (amino-PAH) were present at sufficient concentration levels in the N-PAC fractions to account for the observed mutagenic responses. In general, the chemical composition of the H-Coal materials studied was similar to that of other single-stage liquefaction materials. The degree of alkylation in these materials was determined to be greater than in the SRC and less than in the EDS process distillate cuts. 13 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  12. A genetic algorithm approach for assessing soil liquefaction potential based on reliability method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M H Bagheripour; I Shooshpasha; M Afzalirad

    2012-02-01

    Deterministic approaches are unable to account for the variations in soil’s strength properties, earthquake loads, as well as source of errors in evaluations of liquefaction potential in sandy soils which make them questionable against other reliability concepts. Furthermore, deterministic approaches are incapable of precisely relating the probability of liquefaction and the factor of safety (FS). Therefore, the use of probabilistic approaches and especially, reliability analysis is considered since a complementary solution is needed to reach better engineering decisions. In this study, Advanced First-Order Second-Moment (AFOSM) technique associated with genetic algorithm (GA) and its corresponding sophisticated optimization techniques have been used to calculate the reliability index and the probability of liquefaction. The use of GA provides a reliable mechanism suitable for computer programming and fast convergence. A new relation is developed here, by which the liquefaction potential can be directly calculated based on the estimated probability of liquefaction (), cyclic stress ratio (CSR) and normalized standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts while containing a mean error of less than 10% from the observational data. The validity of the proposed concept is examined through comparison of the results obtained by the new relation and those predicted by other investigators. A further advantage of the proposed relation is that it relates and FS and hence it provides possibility of decision making based on the liquefaction risk and the use of deterministic approaches. This could be beneficial to geotechnical engineers who use the common methods of FS for evaluation of liquefaction. As an application, the city of Babolsar which is located on the southern coasts of Caspian Sea is investigated for liquefaction potential. The investigation is based primarily on in situ tests in which the results of SPT are analysed.

  13. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1991--September 19, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    One of the main goals for competitive coal liquefaction is to decrease gas yields to reduce hydrogen consumption. Complexing this element as methane and ethane decreases process efficiently and is less cost effective. To decrease the gas yield and increase the liquid yield, an effective preconversion process has been explored on the basis of the physically associated molecular nature of coal. Activities have been focused on two issues: (1) maximizing the dissolution of associated coal and (2) defining the different reactivity associated with a wide molecular weight distribution. Two-step soaking at 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C in a recycle oil was found to be very effective for coal solubilization. No additional chemicals, catalysts, and hydrogen are required for this preconversion process. High-volatile bituminous coals tested before liquefaction showed 80--90% conversion with 50--55% oil yields. New preconversion steps suggested are as follows: (1) dissolution of coal with two-step high-temperature soaking, (2) separation into oil and heavy fractions of dissolved coal with vacuum distillation, and (3) selective liquefaction of the separated heavy fractions under relatively mild conditions. Laboratory scale tests of the proposed procedure mode using a small autoclave showed a 30% increase in the oil yield with a 15--20% decrease in the gas yield. This batch operation projects a substantial reduction in the ultimate cost of coal liquefaction.

  14. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The experimental study of coal swelling ratios have been determined with a wide variety of solvents. Only marginal levels of coal swelling were observed for the hydrocarbon solvents, but high levels were found with solvents having heteroatom functionality. Blends were superior to pure solvents. The activity of various catalyst precursors for pyrene hydrogenation and coal conversion was measured. Higher coal conversions were observed for the S0{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Coal conversions were highest for Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively. Bottoms processing consists of a combination of the ASCOT process coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking. Initial results indicate that a blend of butane and pentane used near the critical temperature of butane is the best solvent blend for producing a yield/temperature relationship of proper sensitivity and yet retaining an asphalt phase of reasonable viscosity. The literature concerning coal swelling, both alone and in combination with coal liquefaction, and the use of dispersed or unsupported catalysts in coal liquefaction has been updated.

  15. Effect of molybdenum catalysts on direct Shendong coal liquefaction%钼系催化剂对神东煤直接液化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾军; 黄澎; 谷小会; 赵渊

    2011-01-01

    利用间歇式高压釜,采用钼系催化剂钼酸铵、三氧化钼和二硫化钼对神东煤进行煤直接液化性能的研究.研究表明,钼的添加量为0.1%时,钼酸铵的效果最好,转化率和油产率最高,分别为82.14%,39.47%.%Study on direct Shendong coal liquefaction reaction with molybdenum catalysts containing annnonium molybdate, molybdenum trioxide, molybdenum disulfide in batch high-pressure reactor.The results show that molybdenum addition account for 0.1% of dry coal, ammonium molybdate plays well, conversion and oil yield is highest,which is 82.14% and 39.47% ,respectively.

  16. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  17. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  18. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  19. The Texas Advanced Directive Law: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapottos, Michael; Youngner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Advance Directive Act allows physicians and hospitals to overrule patient or family requests for futile care. Purposefully not defining futility, the law leaves its determination in specific cases to an institutional process. While the law has received several criticisms, it does seem to work constructively in the cases that come to the review process. We introduce a new criticism: While the law has been justified by an appeal to professional values such as avoiding harm to patients, avoiding the provision of unseemly care, and good stewardship of medical resources, it is applied incompletely. It allows physicians and institutional committees to refuse "futile" treatments desired by patients and families while at the same time providing no way of regulating physicians who recommend or even push "futile" treatments in similar cases. In this sense, the TADA is incomplete on its own terms.

  20. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrick Valisa E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  1. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-12-14

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  2. The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, D. C.; Reeves, F. A.; Jeter, L. B.; Sledd, J. D.; Cole, J. M.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a five zone tubular furnace designed for Bridgman-Stockbarger, other techniques of crystal growth involving multiple temperature zones such as vapor transport experiments and other materials science experiments. The five zones are primarily designed to produce uniform hot and cold temperature regions separated by an adiabatic region constructed of a heat extraction plate and an insert to reduce radiation from the hot to the cold zone. The hot and cold zone temperatures are designed to reach 1600 C and 1100 C, respectively. AADSF operates on a Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) within the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle on the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) missions. Two successful flights, both employing the directional solidification or Bridgman Stockbarger technique for crystal growth have been made, and crystals of HgCdTe and PbSnTe grown in microgravity have been produced on USMP-2 and USMP-3, respectively. The addition of a Sample Exchange Mechanism (SEM) will enable three different samples to be processed on future flights including the USMP-4 mission.

  3. [Corticobasal syndrome: recent advances and future directions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Ikuko

    2012-04-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder described by Rebeiz et al. It is characterized by progressive, asymmetric, cortical (eg, apraxia, alien limb phenomena, cortical sensory loss, and myoclonus), and extrapyramidal (eg, rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, and tremor) dysfunction. However, CBD has many clinical phenotypes, and the features used for predicting CBD have low sensitivity. Therefore, the term corticobasal syndrome (CBS) has been used to characterize such clinical features, whereas the term CBD is used to refer to the pathological disorder. The most frequent causes of CBS are CBD, followed by Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (sporadic and familial), Pick's disease, Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with fused in sarcoma-positive inclusions, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (GRN) genes. The topography of neurodegeneration dictates the clinical syndrome not according to the underlying pathology. Researchers have attempted to develop fluid biomarkers or imaging analysis for diagnosing CBS. The aim of this review was to highlight recent advances in CBS diagnosis and discuss future directions.

  4. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  5. Put It in Writing: Questions and Answers on Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decisions support it. Formal advance directives can be critical to establishing such clear and convincing evidence of ... discussed in advance. Preferences can be clarified by thinking about and discussing with your family, friends and ...

  6. Fractionally distilled SRC-I, SRC-II, EDS, H-Coal and ITSL direct coal liquefaction process materials: a comparative summary of chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-07-01

    This document reports and compares the results compiled from chemical analyses and biological testing of coal liquefaction process materials which were fractionally distilled, after production, into various comparable boiling-point range cuts. Comparative analyses were performed on solvent refined coal (SRC)-I, SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) distillate materials. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative, chemical and biological assessments. Where possible, results obtained from the distillate cuts are compared to those from coal liquefaction materials with limited boiling ranges. Work reported here was conducted by investigators in the Biology and Chemistry Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, WA. 38 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  8. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  9. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  10. Analysis of Catalyst Vulcanization of Coal Direct Liquefaction to Oil Hydrogenation Modification Combination%煤直接液化油加氢改质组合催化剂硫化过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭贵贵

    2013-01-01

    神华煤直接液化先期工程1.0Mt/a煤直接液化油加氢改质装置在首次工业应用中,采用了中国石化石油化工科学研究院开发的煤直接液化油加氢改质技术(RCHU),以及配套的RGC-1/RNC-2/RCC-1催化剂组合,该技术通过对煤直接液化轻馏分油进行加氢改质,以达到改善产品品质、提高柴油产品十六烷值。本文对煤直接液化油加氢改质装置,首次工业应用开工过程中的催化剂预硫化进行了总结,通过对比催化剂实际上硫量与理论上硫量、实际生成水量与理论生成水量,可知此次开工过程中催化剂的上硫率较高、硫化效果较好。%Shenhua coal direct liquefaction front engineering of the 1.0Mt/a coal direct liquefaction to oil hydrogenation modification unit in the first industrial application was using the coal direct liquefaction oil hydrogenation modified techonlogy (RCHU) and the supporting RGC-1/RNC-2/RCC-1 composition catalyst empoldered by Research Institute of the Petroleum Processing. The technology upgrades the coal direct liquefaction light distillate oil and improves product quality increasing the cetane number of diesel products. This article sum-marizes the catalyst pre-sulfuration process in first commercial application found that the rate of sulfur consumption on the catalyst finally is higher in the process and the sulfuration is successful by comparing sulfur consumed by the catalyst and generated water in fact and theory.

  11. Effect of properties of iron compounds on the catalytic activity in direct coal liquefaction; Tetsu kagobutsu no keitai to sekitan ekika kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T.; Tazawa, K. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shimasaki, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-08-20

    When considering merchandising scale of the coal liquefaction process, it is a preliminary condition that metal used for its catalyst is rich in resource volume, cheap in production cost, without pollution, and so forth, and application of cheap iron ore and ferrous compounds to disposable catalyst is desired. As liquefaction activity of the iron ore was hitherto improved by its micro crushing, its mechanical crush had a limit of about 2 {mu}m in mean particle diameter. However, together with recent crushing technique, crushers with high performance were developed, and then micro crushing by sub-micron became possible industri8ally even for iron ore. In this study, three kinds of Australian iron ores such as limonite of ferric hydroxide type iron ore, pyrite of ferrous sulfide type, and hematite of ferric oxide type were micro crushed to examine coal liquefaction activity and hydrogenation reaction activity of 1-methyl naphthalene (1-MN) and also relationship between properties and activity of catalyst for the latter before and after reaction. 11 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Controlling death: the false promise of advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Henry S

    2007-07-03

    Advance directives promise patients a say in their future care but actually have had little effect. Many experts blame problems with completion and implementation, but the advance directive concept itself may be fundamentally flawed. Advance directives simply presuppose more control over future care than is realistic. Medical crises cannot be predicted in detail, making most prior instructions difficult to adapt, irrelevant, or even misleading. Furthermore, many proxies either do not know patients' wishes or do not pursue those wishes effectively. Thus, unexpected problems arise often to defeat advance directives, as the case in this paper illustrates. Because advance directives offer only limited benefit, advance care planning should emphasize not the completion of directives but the emotional preparation of patients and families for future crises. The existentialist Albert Camus might suggest that physicians should warn patients and families that momentous, unforeseeable decisions lie ahead. Then, when the crisis hits, physicians should provide guidance; should help make decisions despite the inevitable uncertainties; should share responsibility for those decisions; and, above all, should courageously see patients and families through the fearsome experience of dying.

  13. [Advance Directives: theoretical concept and practical significance in the USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, J; Pfaff, M

    2003-07-01

    The article examines on the basic of empirical data the discrepancy between the theoretical demand and the practical role of advance directives. Often advance directives have no influence on medical decision-making in clinical care of critically ill patients. The vague language of the widely used standard living wills and the lack of physician-patient communication in the process of delivering an advance directives are contributing factors. However, many physicians even disregard patients' preferences in concrete and meaningful living wills at the end of life. Besides the lack of information many even seriously ill patients do not deliver an advance because they misjudge their medical prognosis and life expectancy. Often the communication between patients and doctors are blocked because they expect from the each other the first step to talk about end of life decisions and advance directives. In this context physicians claim lack of time, training in communication skills and their discomfort in talking about death and dying with their patients.

  14. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Basing on Hansen Solubility Parameters%基于Hansen溶度参数的煤直接液化残渣超临界萃取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜广策; 林雄超; 张生娟; 王中奇; 王永刚; 陈强; 朱豫飞

    2015-01-01

    以丙酮、异丙醇和苯为溶剂在超临界状态下对煤直接液化残渣进行萃取,应用溶度参数分析了超临界萃取环境中溶剂和萃取原料的变化;基于Hansen拓展方法建立了关联Hansen溶度参数和萃取收率的理论方程。结果表明,临界温度较高。以色散力溶度参数为主的苯的萃取收率明显高于其它2种溶剂;液化残渣中可萃出组分的理想溶解度随温度的升高而增大,该效应也是超临界溶剂萃取重质组分时萃取收率提高的重要原因;萃取收率与Hansen溶度参数之间的回归模型与实验结果具有较好的一致性,证明Hansen溶度参数理论和Hansen拓展方法适用于描述煤直接液化残渣的超临界萃取过程。%The supercritical fluid extraction( SFE) of direct coal liquefaction residue using acetone, isopro-panol and benzene as solvents was investigated. The Hansen solubility parameters were used to clarify the variations of both solvent and the solute in SFE process. An empirical equation in terms of the extended Hansen approach was proposed to correlate the extraction capacity with the Hansen solubility parameters of solvents. The results show that the extraction yield using supercritical benzene, of which the dispersive compo-nent is the major in total solubility parameters, obtained the highest extraction yield. The ideal solubility on organic components in direct coal liquefaction residue improved with the extraction temperature increasing. The empirical equation shows high consistency with experimental results. As a consequence, the theory of Hansen solubility parameter and extended Hansen approach are applicable to the study on supercritical fluid extraction of direct coal liquefaction residue.

  15. University Students' Views on the Utility of Psychiatric Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyett, Anna M.; Rooks, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rates of serious mental illnesses (SMIs) among university students are increasing, and universities are struggling with how to respond to students who show SMI symptoms. Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) allow individuals, when well, to document their wishes for treatment during a psychiatric crisis. This project explored the…

  16. A Method for Increasing Elders' Use of Advance Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luptak, Marilyn K.; Boult, Chad

    1994-01-01

    Studied effectiveness of intervention to help frail elders to record advance directives (ADs). In collaboration with physicians and lay volunteer, social worker provided information/counseling to elderly subjects, families, and proxies in series of visits to geriatric evaluation and management clinic. Seventy-one percent of subjects recorded ADs.…

  17. Progress in Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide primary energy consumption is entering an era of pluralism and high quality under the influence of rapid economic development, increasing energy shortage and strict environmental policies. Although renewable energy technology is developing rapidly, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are still the dominant energy sources in the world. As a country rich in coal but short ofoil and gas, China's oil imports have soared in the past few years. Government, research organizations and enterprises in China are paying more and more attention to the processes of converting coal into clean liquid fuels. Direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies are compared in this paper based on China's current energy status and technological progress not only in China itself but also in the world.

  18. Advance Directive from the Romanian Social Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia DUMITRAS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Giving value to the wishes of the terminal patients regarding the treatment at the end of their life, the use of the advance directive, as an extension of their autonomy when the patients are incompetent, represents a mean to respect and promote their dignity. The authors present and discuss the results of their research that analysed the attitude of Romanians toward the use of the advance directive to identify the usefulness of implementing such a document in the Romanian social cultural context.The target group in this research is general population over 18 years old, speaking Romanian and without psychological illnesses. The representative random sample lot included 828 persons from Iasi County. The data were recorded based on a transversal descriptive study, using the method of questionnaire enquiryThe persons participating in the study admitted the importance of respecting the patient’s dignity and autonomy with reference to decisions concerning the treatment at the end of life. For the subjects agreeing with legalizing the advance directive, the main advantages of such a document are firstly the respect of the patient’s right to decide and secondly the improvement of the medical treatment.The study showed that young, healthy and better educated individuals are interested in the advance directive and are in favour of introducing it in the current medical practice. The results of our research suggest that educational and informative programmes are needed in Romania regarding the role and usefulness of the advance directive, as well as the way to implement it, in order to encourage the implication of all adult persons in planning their own medical treatment in general and in particular in the medical decisions concerning the end of life.

  19. 褐煤与煤直接液化残渣共热解产物半焦性能研究%Properties of semi-coke from co-pyrolysis of lignite and direct liquefaction residue of Shendong coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓红; 马江山; 薛艳利; 李文英

    2015-01-01

    为使煤直接液化残渣得到清洁高效再利用,采用常压固定床反应器,对神东煤直接液化残渣与呼伦贝尔褐煤共热解制取的半焦进行了研究。结合扫描电镜、N2-吸附、X射线衍射、拉曼光谱以及热重分析发现,共热解过程中存在的软化熔融现象导致液化残渣与褐煤相互黏结,共热解半焦比表面积与孔体积减小,半焦结构有序化程度增加。与褐煤单独热解半焦相比,共热解半焦CO2气化反应性能低。%In order to make use of coal direct liquefaction residue efficiently, co-pyrolysis of Hulunbuir lignite and direct liquefaction residue ( DLR) of Shendong coal were conducted in a fixed bed reactor under atmospheric pressure. The physicochemical properties of co-pyrolysis semi-coke were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyzer. The results show that DLR semi-coke and lignite semi-coke are cohered each other, because the DLR is softened and melted during co-pyrolysis. The specific surface area and pore volume of co-pyrolysis semi-coke decrease. Characterization of both XRD and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the order degree of co-pyrolysis semi-coke increases with the addition of DLR. Compared with the lignite semi-coke, the CO2 gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis semi-coke decreases.

  20. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Olga

    The objectives of this work are to test the application of steam pretreatment to direct coal liquefaction, to investigate the reaction of model compounds with water, and to explore the use of zeolites in these processes. Previous work demonstrated the effectiveness of steam pretreatment in a subsequent flash pyrolysis. Apparently, subcritical steam ruptures nearly all of the ether cross links, leaving a partially depolymerized structure. It was postulated that very rapid heating of the pretreated coal to liquefaction conditions would be required to preserve the effects of such treatment. Accordingly, a method was adopted in which coal slurry is injected into a hot autoclave containing solvent. Since oxygen is capable of destroying the pretreatment effect, precautions were taken for its rigorous exclusion. Tests were conducted with Illinois No. 6 coal steam treated at 340sp°C, 750 psia for 15 minutes. Both raw and pretreated samples were liquified in deoxygenated tetralin at high severity (400sp°C, 30 min.) and low severity (a: 350sp°C, 30 min., and b: 385sp°C, 15 min.) conditions under 1500 psia hydrogen. Substantial improvement in liquid product quality was obtained and the need for rapid heating and oxygen exclusion demonstrated. Under low severity conditions, the oil yield was more than doubled, going from 12.5 to 29 wt%. Also chemistry of the pretreatment process was studied using aromatic ethers as model compounds. alpha-Benzylnaphthyl ether (alpha-BNE), alpha-naphthylmethyl phenyl (alpha-NMPE), and 9-phenoxyphenanthrene were exposed to steam and inert gas at pretreatment conditions and in some cases to liquid water at 315sp°C. alpha-BNE and alpha-NMPE showed little difference in conversion in inert gas and in steam. Hence, these compounds are poor models for coal in steam pretreatment. Thermally stable 9-phenoxyphenanthrene, however, was completely converted in one hour by liquid water at 315sp°C. At pretreatment conditions mostly rearranged starting

  1. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Wayne L; López, Carlos J; Altenbach, Christian; Yang, Zhongyu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular flexibility over a wide time range is of central importance to the function of many proteins, both soluble and membrane. Revealing the modes of flexibility, their amplitudes, and time scales under physiological conditions is the challenge for spectroscopic methods, one of which is site-directed spin labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR). Here we provide an overview of some recent technological advances in SDSL-EPR related to investigation of structure, structural heterogeneity, and dynamics of proteins. These include new classes of spin labels, advances in measurement of long range distances and distance distributions, methods for identifying backbone and conformational fluctuations, and new strategies for determining the kinetics of protein motion.

  2. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  3. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  4. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  5. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...... wave height. Recommendations are made as to how to assess liquefaction potential in standing waves. Copyright © 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  6. Strategic directions and actions for advanced practice nursing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha N. Hill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need and opportunity for China to develop education and practice innovations given that advance practice nurses (APNs improve health care and outcomes. The China Medical Board (CMB China Nursing Network (CCNN began planning for an Advanced Nursing Practice Program for education and career development that will facilitate CCNN's contributions to meeting national nursing policy priorities. This paper presents the discussion, recommendations and action plans developed at the inaugural planning meeting on June 26, 2015 at Fudan University in Shanghai. The recommendations are: Develop standards for advanced nursing practice; Develop Master's level curricula based on the standards; Commence pilot projects across a number of University affiliated hospitals; and Prepare clinical tutors and faculty. The strategic directions and actions are: Develop a clinical career ladder system; Expand the nursing role from hospital to community; and Build a specialty nurse accreditation system.

  7. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL's contract.

  9. Advances in generating functional diversity for directed protein evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivange, Amol V; Marienhagen, Jan; Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schenk, Alexander; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2009-02-01

    Despite advances in screening technologies, only a very small fraction of theoretical protein sequence can be sampled in directed evolution experiments. At the current state of random mutagenesis technologies mutation frequencies have often been adjusted to values that cause a limited number of amino acid changes (often one to four amino acid changes per protein). For harvesting the power of directed evolution algorithms it is therefore important that generated mutant libraries are rich in diversity and enriched in active population. Insufficient knowledge about protein traits, mutational robustness of protein folds and technological limitations in diversity generating methods are main challenges for managing the complexity of protein sequence space. This review covers computational and experimental advances for high quality mutant library generation that have been achieved in the past two years.

  10. Liquefaction of lignocellulose in light cycle oil: A process concept study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Segins, A.; Lange, J.P.; Rossum, van G.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biocrude can be produced by direct liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass, which can be further upgraded into biofuels in an oil refinery. Refinery streams, namely vacuum gas oil (VGO) and light cycle oil (LCO), were found suitable liquefaction solvents in our previous study. This p

  11. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  12. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  13. Living wills and advance directives in South African Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The legal status of living wills and advance directives in South African Law will be considered. Presently there is no reported judgment of a court in South Africa which has directly ruled on the validity of an advance directive or living will. In a case decided in 1992 the issue as to whether to discontinue life supporting treatment was decided with reference to the legal persuasions of society and whether, in light of these, it would be reasonable to discontinue artificial feeding of the patient. The judge indicated that just as a living person has an interest in the disposal of his body so did he think that the patient's wishes as expressed when he was in good health should be given effect. In South African law every person is legally entitled to refuse medical treatment even if the consequences may be to hasten death. The South African Law Convention has extensively investigated the issue in its report entitled Report on Euthanasia and the Artificial Preservation of Life in 1998. Certain problems were identified and a draft bill was suggested.

  14. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  15. Free report from Liquefaction Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The technical report Proceedings From the 2nd U.S.-Japan Workshop on Liquefaction, Large Ground Deformation and Their Effects on Lifelines is available free of charge from the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, headquartered at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The 499-page proceedings contain more than 30 reports on case studies of liquefaction and earthquake-induced ground deformation from previous earthquakes in the U.S. and Japan.

  16. Two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville Facility operated in the nonintegrated and integrated modes: chemical analyses and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This document reports the results from chemical analyses and biological testing of process materials sampled during operation of the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, Alabama) in both the noncoupled or nonintegrated (NTSL Run 241) and coupled or integrated (ITSL Run 242) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative chemical and biological assessments of several NTSL and ITSL process materials. In general, the NTSL process materials were biologically more active and chemically more refractory than analogous ITSL process materials. To provide perspective, the NTSL and ITSL results are compared with those from similar testing and analyses of other direct coal liquefaction materials from the solvent refined coal (SRC) I, SRC II and EDS processes. Comparisons are also made between two-stage coal liquefaction materials from the Wilsonville pilot plant and the C.E. Lummus PDU-ITSL Facility in an effort to assess scale-up effects in these two similar processes. 36 references, 26 figures, 37 tables.

  17. Supercritical solvent extraction of direct liquefaction residue from Shenhua coal%神华煤直接液化残渣超临界溶剂萃取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋飞; 张永奇; 房倚天; 赵建涛

    2012-01-01

    利用甲苯、苯和乙醇三种溶剂在反应釜中对神华煤直接液化残渣进行了超临界溶剂萃取,考察了压力、温度、萃取时间、溶剂/残渣比等对萃取产物收率和重质液体萃取组成的影响.结果表明,以甲苯为溶剂进行萃取时,萃取时间对重质液体产率及HS和A收率的影响不大,而温度、压力以及溶剂/残渣质量比都会影响萃取产物的产率及组成.溶剂超临界萃取过程中,有其他组分向HS组分转化,提高了HS的收率.三种溶剂中,苯显示了和甲苯相似的萃取性能,而乙醇的萃取性能相比苯和甲苯则较差,但乙醇萃取得到的重质液体中轻质组分含量高于苯和甲苯.萃取过程中,残渣中的灰分和硫分主要富集至萃取残渣中.%Extraction of direct liquefaction residue from Shenhua coal with three solvents was investigated in a batch autoclave at supercritical conditions to clarify the impacts of pressure, temperature, and extraction time on the yields of heavy liquid and its compositions. It is found that when toluene is used as a solvent, extract time has no obvious effect on yield of heavy liquid, hexane soluble(HS) and asphaltene( A). Extract temperature, extract pressure and mass ratio of solvent to residue have significant effect on yield and composition of residue extract. During the supercritical solvent extraction of liquefaction residue, some other components are transformed into HS and this results in increasing yield of HS. Benzene shows similar extraction ability to toluene while ethanol is poor in dissolving heavy liquid. There are more light components in heavy liquid extracted by ethanol than those by benzene and toluene. Sulfur and ash are mainly enriched in extract residue during extraction process.

  18. 煤直接液化减压塔进料球阀失效分析及修复%Failure Analysis and Repair of Feedstock Ball Valve in Direct Coal Liquefaction Vacuum Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙云飞; 龚宝龙

    2016-01-01

    介绍了煤直接液化工艺流程及其特点。根据减压塔进料球阀的工作参数和功能作用,比照其失效形貌,分析了该球阀发生磨损失效的原因,制定了相应的拆解和修复方案。对修复后的球阀进行检查和试验,以满足标准规范的要求。最后对该球阀的优化运行给出了建议。%The technological process and characteristics of the direct coal liquefaction are introduced. In consideration of the working parameters and functions as well as the failure morphology of the feedstock ball valve in the vacuum tower, the reason of the wear failure is analyzed and the corresponding disassembly and repair scheme are proposed. Then the examinations and tests are performed to meet the requirements of the standards. At last, the advices on the optimal operation are given.

  19. Novel interfaces for light directed neuronal stimulation: advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bareket-Keren L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lilach Bareket-Keren,1,2 Yael Hanein1,21School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, 2Tel-Aviv University Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Light activation of neurons is a growing field with applications ranging from basic investigation of neuronal systems to the development of new therapeutic methods such as artificial retina. Many recent studies currently explore novel methods for optical stimulation with temporal and spatial precision. Novel materials in particular provide an opportunity to enhance contemporary approaches. Here we review recent advances towards light directed interfaces for neuronal stimulation, focusing on state-of-the-art nanoengineered devices. In particular, we highlight challenges and prospects towards improved retinal prostheses.Keywords: neuronal stimulation, light, retinal implant, prosthesis, quantum dots, conducting polymers, photoconductive

  20. Advances in imaging gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Srabani

    2011-04-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is one of the promising alternatives to conventional chemotherapy. Suicide gene therapy based anticancer strategy involves selective introduction of a foreign gene into tumor cells to produce a foreign enzyme that can activate an inert prodrug to its cytotoxic form and cause tumor cell death. In this review, we present three most promising suicide gene/prodrug combinations (1) herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) with ganciclovir (GCV), (2) cytosine deaminase (CD) from bacteria or yeast with 5-fluorocytodine (5-FC) and (3) bacterial nitroreductase (NTR) with 5-(azaridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (CB1954) and discuss how molecular imaging may improve therapy strategies. Current advances in noninvasive imaging technologies can measure vector dose, tumor selectivity, transgene expression and biodistribution of therapeutic gene with the aid of reporter genes and imageable probes from live animal. In this review we will discuss various imaging modalities - Optical, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and highlight some of the approaches that can advance prodrug cancer therapy from bench to clinic.

  1. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  2. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  3. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  4. Experimental Validation of a Mathematical Model for Seabed Liquefaction Under Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kirca, Özgür; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study directed towards the validation of a mathematical model for the buildup of pore water pressure and resulting liquefaction of marine soils under progressive waves. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with silt (d(50) = 0.......070 mm) in a wave flume with a soil pit. Waves with wave heights in the range of 7.7-18 cm, 55-cm water depth and 1.6-s wave period enabled us to study both the liquefaction and no-liquefaction regime pore water pressure buildup. The experimental data were used to validate the model. A numerical example...

  5. Experimental validation of a mathematical model for seabed liquefaction in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kirca, Özgür; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study directed towards the validation of a mathematical model for the buildup of pore water pressure and resulting liquefaction of marine soils under progressive waves. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with silt ( d50 = 0.......070 mm) in a wave flume with a soil pit. Waves with wave heights in the range 7.7-18 cm with the water depth 55 cm and the wave period 1.6 s enabled us to study both the liquefaction and no-liquefaction regime pore water pressure buildup. The experimental data was used to validate the model. A numerical...

  6. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muni Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines.

  7. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti composition

  8. Marine impact on liquefaction processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, M.M.E. van; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Oldenburg, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade the interest for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is growing. A tendency is to produce and transport LNG on large floating vessels. One important choice in designing such a vessel is the liquefaction process. Several processes have been developed in recent years, ranging from mixed ref

  9. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  10. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  12. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  13. Liquefaction, flow, and associated ground failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youd, T. Leslie

    1973-01-01

    Ambiguities in the use of the term liquefaction and in defining the relation between liquefaction and ground failure have led to encumbered communication between workers in various fields and between specialists in the same field, and the possibility that evaluations of liquefaction potential could be misinterpreted or misapplied. Explicit definitions of liquefaction and related concepts are proposed herein. These definitions, based on observed laboratory behavior, are then used to clarify the relation between liquefaction and ground failure. Soil liquefaction is defined as the transformation of a granular material from a solid into a liquefied state as a consequence of increased pore-water pressures. This definition avoids confusion between liquefaction and possible flow-failure conditions after liquefaction. Flow-failure conditions are divided into two types: (1) unlimited flow if pore-pressure reductions caused by dilatancy during flow deformation are not sufficient to solidify the material and thus arrest flow, and (2) limited flow if they are sufficient to solidify the material after a finite deformation. After liquefaction in the field, unlimited flow commonly leads to flow landslides, whereas limited flow leads at most to lateral-spreading landslides. Quick-condition failures such as loss of bearing capacity form a third type of ground failure associated with liquefaction.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  15. Experiment and mechanism of vibration liquefaction and compacting of saturated bulk solid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper studies the probability of industrial application of vibration liquefaction of bulk solid from the opposite point of view, and proposing turning its harmful effects into benefits. Utilizing a new device of vibration liquefaction and by compacting saturated bulk solid, a set of additional device for experiment was designed. These experiments examined the problems related to vibration liquefaction of fine-ores and tailings on the basis of DSA-1 type direct shear apparatus, including models of straight tubes, curved tubes and a sandbox. The changing properties of tailings under vibration and the mechanism of vibration liquefaction and compacting of tailings were studied, and future application of the technique to mines has been put forward.

  16. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  17. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction...... is increased with increasing clay content, up to 30%, beyond which the mixture of silt and clay is not liquefied. Sand may become prone to liquefaction with the introduction of clay, contrary to the general perception that this type of sediment is normally liquefaction resistant under waves....

  18. Earthquake Risk - MO 2013 Liquefaction Potential (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soil liquefaction potential was determined using existing geologic and alluvium maps. Quaternary, Tertiary, and Cretaceous-age sediments, and alluvium deposits are...

  19. Evaluation for Earthquake Liquefaction of Loess Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Wang Lanmin; Wang Ping

    2009-01-01

    ugh the sinusoid loading dynamic triaxial test, the liquefaction property of saturated loess and sand selected from a civil airport of Lanzhou, Gansu is examined. Based on the laboratory results, a comprehensive assessment on the earthquake liquefaction potential of the loess and sand is given, using the liquefaction resistance shear stress method and the results of seismic hazard assessment. It is found that under the effect of ground motion with exceedance probability of 10% within 50 years, the loess in the study is more susceptible to liquefaction than sand.

  20. 藻类液化生物油的催化脱氧改质进展%Recent advances on catalytic deoxygenation upgrading of liquefaction microalgae bio-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁冉冉; 吴玉龙; 陈宇; 段亚南; 杨明德

    2014-01-01

    Fuel production from renewable and carbon-neutral biomass has attracted much attention due to concerns for the depletion of petroleum reserves and global warming by greenhouse gases. Microalgae offer several advantages over conventional biomass as they have faster growth rate, do not require agricultural land for growth, and consume less water than terrestrial biomass. However, crude bio-oil from noncatalytic liquefaction of microalgae has a high content of oxygen, limiting its direct applications for transportation fuel. The high oxygen content suffers from some drawbacks such as lower energy density, poor oxidation stability and high corrosivity, so it should be deoxygenation upgraded as a high grade fuel. In this review, the effect of reaction atmosphere and nature of catalyst on the reaction pathways of the deoxygenation of fatty acids model compounds is discussed firstly. Then, related researches are reviewed based on crude oil of microalgal. Finally, problems in current bio-oil catalytic deoxygenation technologies, improvement advices and future prospect are also presented.%含氧过多是限制藻类液化油实际应用的最大障碍,高含氧量意味着热值低、稳定性差、酸性强等,因此必须经过脱氧改质才能使其转化为高品位燃油。结合最新研究进展,首先选取藻类液化油中具有代表性的成分脂肪酸为模型化合物,总结了催化剂组成和反应气氛对脂肪酸脱氧机理及反应活性的影响。其次对目前国内外藻类液化原油及其轻馏分的催化脱氧改质研究现状进行综述。最后指出藻类液化生物油催化改质存在的问题,并对改进方法及未来的发展进行了展望。

  1. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  2. Effect of Health Literacy on the Utilization of Advance Directives Based on the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkelman, Wallace J.

    2010-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that only a small proportion of individuals in the United States complete advance directives as part of their planning for end-of-life care. This study sought to determine if health literacy is a significant factor in advance directive completion as has been posited by previous researchers. Analysis of the data collected…

  3. Liquefaction technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    A survey of coal liquefaction technology and analysis of projected relative performance of high potential candidates has been completed and the results are reported here. The key objectives of the study included preparation of a broad survey of the status of liquefaction processes under development, selection of a limited number of high potential process candidates for further study, and an analysis of the relative commercial potential of these candidates. Procedures which contributed to the achievement of the above key goals included definition of the characteristics and development status of known major liquefaction process candidates, development of standardized procedures for assessing technical, environmental, economic and product characteristics for the separate candidates, and development of procedures for selecting and comparing high potential processes. The comparisons were made for three production areas and four marketing areas of the US. In view of the broad scope of the objectives the survey was a limited effort. It used the experience gained during preparation of seven comprehensive conceptual designs/economic evaluations plus comprehensive reviews of the designs, construction and operation of several pilot plants. Results and conclusions must be viewed in the perspective of the information available, how this information was treated, and the full context of the economic comparison results. Comparative economics are presented as ratios; they are not intended to be predictors of absolute values. Because the true cost of constructing and operating large coal conversion facilities will be known only after commercialization, relative values are considered more appropriate. (LTN)

  4. Overview of the Hemostasis Research Program: Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    advanced to treat such an injury in the field. The hypothesis was that a hemostatic material could be infused into a closed body cavity by a trocar ...Research Program of the US Army Medical Research and Material Command is to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries on the

  5. Geological occurrence response to trace elemental migration in coal liquefaction based on SPSS: take no. 11 coalbed in Antaibao mine for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Qin, Yong; Yang, Weifeng

    2013-03-01

    Coal liquefaction is an adoptable method to transfer the solid fossil energy into liquid oil in large scale, but the dirty material in which will migrate to different step of liquefaction. The migration rule of some trace elements is response to the react activity of macerals in coal and the geological occurrence of the element nature of itself. In this paper, from the SPSS data correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering dendrogram about the trace elements with macerals respond to coal liquefaction yield, it shows the trace elements in No.11 Antaibao coal seam originated from some of lithophile and sulphophle elements. Correlation coefficient between liquefaction yield of three organic macerals and migration of the elements in liquefaction residue indicated that the lithophile are easy to transfer to residue, while sulphophle are apt to in the liquid products. The activated macerals are response to sulphophle trace elements. The conclusion is useful to the coal blending and environmental effects on coal direct liquefaction.

  6. The positive attitudes and perceptions of care managers about advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Adam G; Tewary, Sweta; Qadri, Syeda; Zaw, Khin; Ruiz, Jorge G; Roos, Bernard A

    2011-03-01

    In a previous intervention, we found that reminders from care managers failed to increase the number of their homebound older adult clients with advance directives. Thus, in the current study, we looked at the perceptions and attitudes of care managers about the need to discuss advance directives with their clients. Ninety-five care managers serving community-based nursing home-eligible older adults completed an 18-question survey, which found that care managers overwhelmingly believe it is important to address advance directives. Only 3.2% reported that discussing advance directives is time consuming. No attitudinal barriers were identified. Given their positive attitudes about advance directives, care managers need educational interventions that will provide the knowledge and skills to interact effectively with clients who are resistant to addressing end-of-life issues.

  7. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  8. Cancer and Radiation Therapy: Current Advances and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Baskar, Kuo Ann Lee, Richard Yeo, Kheng-Wei Yeoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness; it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed.

  9. Advancements in Catheter-Directed Ultrasound-Accelerated Thrombolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, Denise E.; Schrijver, A. Marjolein; Zeebregts, Clark J.; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review all available literature on catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis for peripheral artery occlusions, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. A total

  10. Advancements in catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Schrijver, A.M.; Zeebregts, C.J.A.; Vries, J.P. de; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review all available literature on catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis for peripheral artery occlusions, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. A total

  11. 42 CFR 422.128 - Information on advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the incapacitating condition or a mental disorder) or articulate whether or not he or she has executed... directives with respect to all adult individuals receiving medical care by or through the MA organization....

  12. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. Recording-based identification of site liquefaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yuxian; Zhang Yushan; Liang Jianwen; Ray Ruichong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Reconnaissance reports and pertinent research on seismic hazards show that liquefaction is one of the key sources of damage to geotechnical and structural engineering systems. Therefore, identifying site liquefaction conditions plays an important role in seismic hazard mitigation. One of the widely used approaches for detecting liquefaction is based on the time-frequency analysis of ground motion recordings, in which short-time Fourier transform is typically used. It is known that recordings at a site with liquefaction are the result of nonlinear responses of seismic waves propagating in the liquefied layers underneath the site. Moreover, Fourier transform is not effective in characterizing such dynamic features as time-dependent frequency of the recordings rooted in nonlinear responses. Therefore, the aforementioned approach may not be intrinsically effective in detecting liquefaction. An alternative to the Fourier-based approach is presented in this study,which proposes time-frequency analysis of earthquake ground motion recordings with the aid of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and offers justification for the HHT in addressing the liquefaction features shown in the recordings. The paper then defines the predominant instantaneous frequency (PIF) and introduces the PIF-related motion features to identify liquefaction conditions at a given site. Analysis of 29 recorded data sets at different site conditions shows that the proposed approach is effective in detecting site liquefaction in comparison with other methods.

  14. Recording-based identification of site liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxian; Zhang, Yushan; Liang, Jianwen; Zhang, Ray Ruichong

    2005-12-01

    Reconnaissance reports and pertinent research on seismic hazards show that liquefaction is one of the key sources of damage to geotechnical and structural engineering systems. Therefore, identifying site liquefaction conditions plays an important role in seismic hazard mitigation. One of the widely used approaches for detecting liquefaction is based on the time-frequency analysis of ground motion recordings, in which short-time Fourier transform is typically used. It is known that recordings at a site with liquefaction are the result of nonlinear responses of seismic waves propagating in the liquefied layers underneath the site. Moreover, Fourier transform is not effective in characterizing such dynamic features as time-dependent frequency of the recordings rooted in nonlinear responses. Therefore, the aforementioned approach may not be intrinsically effective in detecting liquefaction. An alternative to the Fourier-based approach is presented in this study, which proposes time-frequency analysis of earthquake ground motion recordings with the aid of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and offers justification for the HHT in addressing the liquefaction features shown in the recordings. The paper then defines the predominant instantaneous frequency (PIF) and introduces the PIF-related motion features to identify liquefaction conditions at a given site. Analysis of 29 recorded data sets at different site conditions shows that the proposed approach is effective in detecting site liquefaction in comparison with other methods.

  15. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    The DOE Coal Liquefaction Research Needs (COLIRN) Panel reviewed, developed, and assessed R and D needs for the development of coal liquefaction for the production of transportation fuels. Technical, economics, and environmental considerations were important components of the panel's deliberations. The panel examined in some depth each of the following technologies: direct liquefaction of coal, indirect liquefaction via conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas, pyrolysis, coprocessing of combined coal/oil feedstocks, and bioconversion of coal and coal-derived materials. In this assessment particular attention was given to highlighting the fundamental and applied research which has revealed new and improved liquefaction mechanisms, the potentially promising innovative processes currently emerging, and the technological and engineering improvements necessary for significant cost reductions. As the result of this assessment, the COLIRN panel developed a list of prioritized research recommendations needed to bring coal liquefaction to technical and economic readiness in the next 5--20 years. The findings and the research recommendations generated by the COLIRN panel are summarized in this publication. 107 figs., 63 tabs.

  16. Radiation-induced erectile dysfunction: Recent advances and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Mahmood, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the United States. A large number of patients undergo radiation therapy (RT as a standard care of treatment; however, RT causes erectile dysfunction (radiation-induced erectile dysfunction; RiED because of late side effects after RT that significantly affects quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Within 5 years of RT, approximately 50% of patients could develop RiED. Based on the past and current research findings and number of publications from our group, the precise mechanism of RiED is under exploration in detail. Recent investigations have shown prostate RT induces significant morphologic arterial damage with aberrant alterations in internal pudendal arterial tone. Prostatic RT also reduces motor function in the cavernous nerve which may attribute to axonal degeneration may contributing to RiED. Furthermore, the advances in radiogenomics such as radiation induced somatic mutation identification, copy number variation and genome-wide association studies has significantly facilitated identification of biomarkers that could be used to monitoring radiation-induced late toxicity and damage to the nerves; thus, genomic- and proteomic-based biomarkers could greatly improve treatment and minimize arterial tissue and nerve damage. Further, advanced technologies such as proton beam therapy that precisely target tumor and significantly reduce off-target damage to vital organs and healthy tissues. In this review, we summarize recent advances in RiED research and novel treatment modalities for RiED. We also discuss the possible molecular mechanism involved in the development of RiED in prostate cancer patients. Further, we discuss various readily available methods as well as novel strategies such as stem cell therapies, shockwave therapy, nerve grafting with tissue engineering, and nutritional supplementations might be used to

  17. 铁基催化剂对将军庙煤低压直接液化性能影响%Effect of Iron-based Catalysts on Direct Liquefaction Performance of Coal From Jiangjunmiao, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海龙; 廖玲

    2015-01-01

    以将军庙煤为研究对象,催化剂用量按活性金属元素计为3%(wtCoaldaf)、反应温度T=420℃、反应时间τ=75 min、溶煤比S/C=2/1和氢初压PH2=6.5 MPa条件下,首先,以油产率为目标,Fe2O3为主催化剂,S为助催化剂,通过考察S/Fe对煤样直接液化性能的影响,确定了最佳S/Fe=1/1。其次,在S/Fe为1/1和上述反应条件下,考察了一系列铁基催化剂对煤样液化性能的影响。结果表明,以油产率为目标,其活性由高到低为:Fe2O3/S>油溶性Fe3O4/S >油溶性Fe3O4(中试)/S >飞灰/S >纳米Fe3O4/S>黄铁矿/Fe2O3>油酸铁/S > FeSO4/S> Fe(NO3)3/S>β-FeOOH/S >FeCl3/S >还原铁粉/S >FeS。最后,将Fe2O3/S与MoO3/S、FeSO4/S与NiSO4/S和CoSO4/S分别进行了比较。结果表明:Fe2O3/S比MoO3/S更能促进沥青质向油的转化;FeSO4/S与NiSO4/S和CoSO4/S三者油产率相差甚小,均约67%。故此,Fe2O3/S的催化活性最好。%The research objectwasthe coal from Jiangjunmiao. First of all,takingoil yield as the target and Fe2O3as the maincatalyst and S as the sub-catalyst, the best S/Fe=1∶1wasconfirmedby investigating the effect of S/Fe on direct liquefaction performanceof coal sample under the reaction conditions of catalysts 3%( wt), 420℃,reaction time 75 min, solvent/coal=2/1 and H2initial pressure 6.5 MPa. Theneffect of a series of iron-based catalysts on liquefaction performanceof coal sample under S/Fe=1/1andotheraboveconditionswas investigated. The results showthat:the rank ordering of the activity of catalysts according to the oil yield is Fe2O3/S>oil-soluble Fe3O4/S > oil-soluble(pilot plant) Fe3O4/S >fly ash/S >nanometer Fe3O4/S>pyrite/Fe2O3>oleic acid iron/S > FeSO4/S> Fe(NO3)3/S > β-FeOOH/S>FeCl3/S >iron powder/S >FeS. At last,Fe2O3/S and MoO3/S, FeSO4/S and NiSO4/S and CoSO4/Swererespectively compared. Theresults show that:Fe2O3/S can more promote theconversionof asphaltene to oil than MoO3/S;thegap of the oil yieldsamong FeSO4/S

  18. Cardiac gene therapy: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Daniel; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Krishnan, Harini Venkata; Sant, Shilpa

    2015-10-10

    Gene therapy has the potential to serve as an adaptable platform technology for treating various diseases. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in the developed world and genetic modification is steadily becoming a more plausible method to repair and regenerate heart tissue. Recently, new gene targets to treat cardiovascular disease have been identified and developed into therapies that have shown promise in animal models. Some of these therapies have advanced to clinical testing. Despite these recent successes, several barriers must be overcome for gene therapy to become a widely used treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we evaluate specific genetic targets that can be exploited to treat cardiovascular diseases, list the important delivery barriers for the gene carriers, assess the most promising methods of delivering the genetic information, and discuss the current status of clinical trials involving gene therapies targeted to the heart.

  19. Recent Advances and Future Directions for Quality Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vining, Geoff; Kulahci, Murat; Pedersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The origins of quality engineering are in manufacturing, where quality engineers apply basic statistical methodologies to improve the quality and productivity of products and processes. In the past decade, people have discovered that these methodologies are effective for improving almost any type...... of system or process, such as financial, health care, and supply chains. This paper begins with a review of key advances and trends within quality engineering over the past decade. The second part uses the first part as a foundation to outline new application areas for the field. It also discusses how...... quality engineering needs to evolve in order to make significant contributions to these new areas. © 2015 The Authors Quality and Reliability Engineering International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  20. Immunotherapy in melanoma: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, C; Livingstone, E; Roesch, A; Schilling, B; Schadendorf, D

    2017-03-01

    Malignant melanoma contributes the majority of skin cancer related deaths and shows an increasing incidence in the past years. Despite all efforts of early diagnosis, metastatic melanoma still has a poor prognosis and remains a challenge for treating physicians. In recent years, improved knowledge of the pathophysiology and a better understanding of the role of the immune system in tumour control have led to the development and approval of several immunotherapies. Monoclonal antibodies against different immune checkpoints have been revolutionizing the treatment of metastatic and unresectable melanoma. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody against the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) as well as nivolumab and pembrolizumab which target the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have been shown to prolong overall survival in patients with advanced melanoma. The latter substances seem to have an increased response rate and more tolerable safety profile compared to ipilimumab. The combination of a CTLA-4 and a PD-1 inhibitor seems to be superior to the monotherapies, especially in patients with PD-L1 negative tumours. Checkpoint inhibitors are currently being tested in the adjuvant setting with initial data for ipilimumab suggesting efficacy in this context. Talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) is the first oncolytic virus approved in the therapy of metastatic melanoma offering a treatment option especially for patients with limited disease. In this review, data on these recently developed and approved immunotherapies are presented. However, further studies are necessary to determine the optimal duration, sequencing and combinations of immunotherapies to further improve the outcome of patients with advanced melanoma.

  1. 77 FR 58118 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 31, 2012, Freeport LNG... natural gas liquefaction and export facilities will be constructed adjacent to the existing Freeport...

  2. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  3. Recent Advances in Directed Assembly of Nanowires or Nanotub es

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Liu; Zhizheng Wu; Woon Ming Lau; Jun Yang

    2012-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes of diverse material compositions, properties and/or functions have been produced or fabricated through various bottom-up or top-down approaches. These nanowires or nanotubes have also been utilized as potential building blocks for functional nanodevices. The key for the integration of those nanowire or nanotube based devices is to assemble these one dimensional nanomaterials to specific locations using techniques that are highly controllable and scalable. Ideally such techniques should enable assembly of highly uniform nanowire/nanotube arrays with precise control of density, location, dimension or even ma-terial types of nanowires/nanotubes. Numerous assembly techniques are being developed that can quickly align and assemble large quantities of one type or multiple types of nanowires through parallel processes, in-cluding flow-assisted alignment, Langmuir-Blodgett assembly, bubble-blown technique, electric/magnetic- field directed assembly, contact/roll printing, knocking-down, etc.. With these assembling techniques, applications of nanowire/nanotube based devices such as flexible electronics and sensors have been demonstrated. This paper delivers an overall review of directed nanowire/nanotube assembling approaches and analyzes advantages and limitations of each method. The future research directions have also been discussed.

  4. Evaluation of wastewater treatment requirements for thermochemical biomass liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D C [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Biomass can provide a substantial energy source. Liquids are preferred for use as transportation fuels because of their high energy density and handling ease and safety. Liquid fuel production from biomass can be accomplished by any of several different processes including hydrolysis and fermentation of the carbohydrates to alcohol fuels, thermal gasification and synthesis of alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct extraction of biologically produced hydrocarbons such as seed oils or algae lipids, or direct thermochemical conversion of the biomass to liquids and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. This report discusses direct thermochemical conversion to achieve biomass liquefaction and the requirements for wastewater treatment inherent in such processing. 21 refs.

  5. Advances and directions of ion nitriding/carburizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1989-01-01

    Ion nitriding and carburizing are plasma activated thermodynamic processes for the production of case hardened surface layers not only for ferrous materials, but also for an increasing number of nonferrous metals. When the treatment variables are properly controlled, the use of nitrogenous or carbonaceous glow discharge medium offers great flexibility in tailoring surface/near-surface properties independently of the bulk properties. The ion nitriding process has reached a high level of maturity and has gained wide industrial acceptance, while the more recently introduced ion carburizing process is rapidly gaining industrial acceptance. The current status of plasma mass transfer mechanisms into the surface regarding the formation of compound and diffusion layers in ion nitriding and carbon build-up ion carburizing is reviewed. In addition, the recent developments in design and construction of advanced equipment for obtaining optimized and controlled case/core properties is summarized. Also, new developments and trends such as duplex plasma treatments and alternatives to dc diode nitriding are highlighted.

  6. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  7. Advance in the synthesis of aromatic amine via direct amination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Arylamines are very common and important organic molecules. Acting as important intermediates in medical and chemical industry, they are widely used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, rubber additives, isocyanates and heterocyclic compounds. The traditional methods for the synthesis of arylamines include several steps. The production of aniline, for example, includes the following steps: the production of nitro-benzene by the nitration of benzene, and the reduction of the resulting nitro-benzene by catalytic hydrogenation or other reduction ways[1-6]; or the substitution of phenol or chlorbenzene by amino groups, etc.[7-10]. There are several disadvantages for these methods: low atom utilization, strict operation condition, large amount of by-products and serious environmental pollution, which could not afford for the needs of a sustainable civilization. So there has been growing interest in the direct amination to produce arylamines recently. With the direct methods, the multi- step reaction may change into one step, the atom utilization can be evidently improved, and the by-products H2 or/and H2O are harmless to the environment.

  8. Liquefaction of crop residues for polyol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan, C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The liquefaction of crop residues in the presence of ethylene glycol, ethylene carbonate, or polyethylene glycol using sulfuric acid as a catalyst was studied. For all experiments, the liquefaction was conducted at 160C and atmospheric pressure. The mass ratio of feedstock to liquefaction solvents used in all the experiments was 30:100. The results show that the acid catalyzed liquefaction process fit a pseudo-first-order kinetics model. Liquefaction yields of 80, 74, and 60% were obtained in 60 minutes of reaction when corn stover was liquefied with ethylene glycol, a mixture of polyethylene glycol and glycerol (9:1, w/w, and ethylene carbonate, respectively. When ethylene carbonate was used as solvent, the liquefaction yields of rice straw and wheat straw were 67% and 73%, respectively, which is lower than that of corn stover (80%. When a mixture of ethylene carbonate and ethylene glycol (8:2, w/w was used as solvent, the liquefaction yields for corn stover, rice straw and wheat straw were 78, 68, and 70%, respectively.

  9. Advances and Research Directions in Data-Warehousing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Mohania

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organisation and when used properly can assist in intelligent decision making that can significantly improve the functioning of an organisation. Data Warehousing is a recent technology that allows information to be easily and efficiently accessed for decision-making activities by collecting data from many operational, legacy and possibly heterogeneous data sources. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP tools are well-suited for complex data analysis, such as multi-dimensional data analysis, and to assist in decision support activities while data mining tools take the process one step further and actively search the data for patterns and hidden knowledge in the data held in the warehouse. Many organisations are building, or are planning to develop, a data warehouse for their operational and decision support needs. In this paper, we present an overview of data warehousing, multi-dimensional databases, OLAP and data mining technology and discuss the directions of current research in the area. We also discuss recent developments in data warehouse modelling, view selection and maintenance, indexing schemes, parallel query processing and data mining issues. A number of technical issues for exploratory research are presented and possible solutions are also discussed.

  10. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  11. Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

  12. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  13. Beyond advance directives: importance of communication skills at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, James A

    2005-07-20

    Patients and their families struggle with myriad choices concerning medical treatments that frequently precede death. Advance directives have been proposed as a tool to facilitate end-of-life decision making, yet frequently fail to achieve this goal. In the context of the case of a man with metastatic cancer for whom an advance directive was unable to prevent a traumatic death, I review the challenges in creating and implementing advance directives, discuss factors that can affect clear decision making; including trust, uncertainty, emotion, hope, and the presence of multiple medical providers; and offer practical suggestions for physicians. Advance care planning remains a useful tool for approaching conversations with patients about the end of life. However, such planning should occur within a framework that emphasizes responding to patient and family emotions and focuses more on goals for care and less on specific treatments.

  14. Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential for level ground during earthquakes. A summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, H.B.; Arango, I.; Chan, C.K.

    1975-10-01

    The results of a three-year research program conducted to investigate the settlement and liquefaction of sands under multi-directional shaking are evaluated. The investigation indicated that the behavior of a saturated sand under cyclic loading conditions is a function of its geologic and seismic history and grain structure as well as its placement density. It is concluded that the resistance to liquefaction of a sand deposit can best be estimated by laboratory testing on undisturbed samples. It is shown that cyclic triaxial tests used in conjunction with appropriate correction factors to account for multi-directional shaking, simple shear loading conditions, and overconsolidation effects can provide valid data on cyclic loading characteristics. The concepts of ''limited strain potential'' and acceptable value of the factor of safety against initial liquefaction are introduced. Finally, the two basic methods for evaluating liquefaction potential and the effects of liquefaction are reviewed and updated with the information obtained through this research effort.

  15. Geotechnical Trainspotting: Early Observations From the New Seattle Liquefaction Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, P.; Yelin, T.; Weaver, C. S.; Steidl, J. H.; Steller, R. A.; Gomberg, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Seattle Liquefaction Array (SLA) is a geotechnical monitoring array established by the US Geological Survey earlier this year in industrialized Seattle, Washington. Funding for the array was provided by the Advanced National Seismic System, at the behest of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network's regional advisory committee. The SLA aims to further the understanding of earthquake-induced liquefaction, particularly the processes associated with repeatedly liquefied soils and the liquefaction of deeply buried deposits. The SLA occupies a site at which shaking-induced liquefaction was observed during earthquakes in 1949, 1965, and 2001. The SLA site is seismically noisy but important as it is similar to sites that host many structures in Seattle. The site is comprised chiefly by loose-to-dense interbedded coastal and river outwash sands. Instrumentation at the site includes four 3-component accelerometers at the surface and at depths of 5.4, 44.9, and 56.4 meters, a surface barometer, and six piezometers at depths of 6.9, 22.9, 28.9, 43.1, 46.9, and 51.9 meters. Emplacement depths were selected to sample a variety of liquefaction susceptibilities. Continuous data from all sensors are sampled at 200 samples per second, and are available from the IRIS DMC archive, with a buffer of data stored on site in the event of telemetry failure. To date, only a handful of earthquakes have produced shaking strong enough at the SLA to be observed within the high levels of background noise. However, the noise itself provides data useful to constrain the low-strain seismic and pressure response of the site. Notably, the array is within a few meters of a set of busy railroad tracks. Passing and parked trains expose the site to a broad bandwidth of deformations, including seismic frequencies, albeit with a source at the surface. Many times each day the site experiences both high levels of shaking, and step changes in the pressure field of a variety of amplitudes that may last from

  16. Catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, S W

    1981-01-01

    Monolith catalysts of MoO/sub 3/-CoO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were prepared and tested for coal liquefaction in a stirred autoclave. In general, the monolith catalysts were not as good as particulate catalysts prepared on Corning alumina supports. Measurement of O/sub 2/ chemisorption and BET surface area has been made on a series of Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts obtained from PETC. The catalysts were derived from Cyanamid 1442A and had been tested for coal liquefaction in batch autoclaves and continuous flow units. MoO/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts over the loading range 3.9 to 14.9 wt % MoO/sub 3/ have been studied with respect to BET surface (before and after reduction), O/sub 2/ chemisorption at -78/sup 0/C, redox behavior at 500/sup 0/C, and activity for cyclohexane dehydrogenation at 500/sup 0/C. In connection with the fate of tin catalysts during coal liquefaction, calculations have been made of the relative thermodynamic stability of SnCl/sub 2/, Sn, SnO/sub 2/, and SnS in the presence of H/sub 2/, HCl, H/sub 2/S and H/sub 2/O. Ferrous sulfate dispersed in methylnaphthalene has been shown to be reduced to ferrous sulfide under typical coal hydroliquefaction conditions (1 hour, 450/sup 0/C, 1000 psi initial p/sub H/sub 2//). This suggests that ferrous sulfide may be the common catalytic ingredient when either (a) ferrous sulfate impregnated on powdered coal, or (b) finely divided iron pyrite is used as the catalyst. Old research on impregnated ferrous sulfate, impregnated ferrous halides, and pyrite is consistent with this assumption. Eight Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts from commercial suppliers, along with SnCl/sub 2/, have been studied for the hydrotreating of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) in a stirred autoclave at 450 and 500/sup 0/C.

  17. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... were synchronized with video recording of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height H= 5.9-12.0 cm, wave period T= 1.09s, and water depth h=30 cm. The experiments show that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although...... with a diffusion coefficient equal to the coefficient of consolidation. The experiments further show that the number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same wave height. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers....

  18. Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every Minute ... 227.2345 Live Chat Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram help site map privacy accessibility terms of use ...

  19. Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflects your values. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or social worker for advice or help with ... document is legal in 42 states and the District of Columbia, and is available in 26 languages, ...

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  1. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: Indirect Liquefaction (oxygenated fuels); and Indirect Liquefaction (Fischer-Tropsch technology). Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Estimation of sand liquefaction based on support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏永华; 马宁; 胡检; 杨小礼

    2008-01-01

    The origin and influence factors of sand liquefaction were analyzed, and the relation between liquefaction and its influence factors was founded. A model based on support vector machines (SVM) was established whose input parameters were selected as following influence factors of sand liquefaction: magnitude (M), the value of SPT, effective pressure of superstratum, the content of clay and the average of grain diameter. Sand was divided into two classes: liquefaction and non-liquefaction, and the class label was treated as output parameter of the model. Then the model was used to estimate sand samples, 20 support vectors and 17 borderline support vectors were gotten, then the parameters were optimized, 14 support vectors and 6 borderline support vectors were gotten, and the prediction precision reaches 100%. In order to verify the generalization of the SVM method, two other practical samples’ data from two cities, Tangshan of Hebei province and Sanshui of Guangdong province, were dealt with by another more intricate model for polytomies, which also considered some influence factors of sand liquefaction as the input parameters and divided sand into four liquefaction grades: serious liquefaction, medium liquefaction, slight liquefaction and non-liquefaction as the output parameters. The simulation results show that the latter model has a very high precision, and using SVM model to estimate sand liquefaction is completely feasible.

  3. The Effect of Advance Directive Completion on Hospital Care Among Chronically Homeless Persons: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K; To, Matthew J; Luong, Linh; Vahabi, Zahra Syavash; Gonçalves, Victor L; Song, John; Hwang, Stephen W

    2016-12-27

    Advance care planning is relevant for homeless individuals because they experience high rates of morbidity and mortality. The impact of advance directive interventions on hospital care of homeless individuals has not been studied. The objective of this study was to determine if homeless individuals who complete an advance directive through a shelter-based intervention are more likely to have information from their advance directive documented and used during subsequent hospitalizations. The advance directive included preferences for life-sustaining treatments, resuscitation, and substitute decision maker(s). A total of 205 homeless men from a homeless shelter for men in Toronto, Canada, were enrolled in the study and offered an opportunity to complete an advance directive with the guidance of a trained counselor from April to June 2013. One hundred and three participants chose to complete an advance directive, and 102 participants chose to not complete an advance directive. Participants were provided copies of their advance directives. In addition, advance directives were electronically stored, and hospitals within a 1.0-mile radius of the shelter were provided access to the database. A prospective cohort study was performed using chart reviews to ascertain the documentation, availability, and use of advance directives, end-of-life care preferences, and medical treatments during hospitalizations over a 1-year follow-up period (April 2013 to June 2014) after the shelter-based advance directive intervention. Chart reviewers were blinded as to whether participants had completed an advance directive. The primary outcome was documentation or use of an advance directive during any hospitalization. The secondary outcome was documentation of end-of-life care preferences, without reference to an advance directive, during any hospitalization. After unblinding, charts were studied to determine whether advance directives were available, hospital care was consistent with

  4. Advance directives in english and French law: different concepts, different values, different societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ruth Judith

    2014-03-01

    In Western societies advance directives are widely recognised as important means to extend patient self-determination under circumstances of incapacity. Following other countries, England and France have adopted legislation aiming to clarify the legal status of advance directives. In this paper, I will explore similarities and differences in both sets of legislation, the arguments employed in the respective debates and the socio-political structures on which these differences are based. The comparison highlights how different legislations express different concepts emphasising different values accorded to the duty to respect autonomy and to protect life, and how these differences are informed by different socio-political contexts. Furthermore each country associates different ethical concerns with ADs which raise doubts about whether these directives are a theoretical idea which is hardly applicable in practice.

  5. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. The paper describes activities carried out this quarter. 11 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The United States has more energy available in coal than in petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, and tar sands combined. Nationwide energy shortages, together with the availability of abundant coal reserves, make commercial production of synthetic fuels from coal vital to the Nation's total supply of clean energy. In response to this need, the Office of Fossil Energy of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is conducting a research and development program to provide technology that will permit rapid commercialization of processes for converting coal to synthetic liquid and gaseous fuels and for improved direct combustion of coal. These fuels must be storable and suitable for power generation, transportation, and residential and industrial uses. ERDA's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of ERDA's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, in the 1930's. Current work in coal liquefaction is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. Coal liquefaction can now be achieved under more moderate processing conditions and more rapidly than was the case in the 1930's. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquid fuels also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To determine the most efficient means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Nineteen projects under development are described and progress for each in the quarter is detailed briefly

  7. Probabilistic versus deterministic hazard assessment in liquefaction susceptible zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Gerosa, Daniele; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), usually adopted in the framework of seismic codes redaction, is based on Poissonian description of the temporal occurrence, negative exponential distribution of magnitude and attenuation relationship with log-normal distribution of PGA or response spectrum. The main positive aspect of this approach stems into the fact that is presently a standard for the majority of countries, but there are weak points in particular regarding the physical description of the earthquake phenomenon. Factors like site effects, source characteristics like duration of the strong motion and directivity that could significantly influence the expected motion at the site are not taken into account by PSHA. Deterministic models can better evaluate the ground motion at a site from a physical point of view, but its prediction reliability depends on the degree of knowledge of the source, wave propagation and soil parameters. We compare these two approaches in selected sites affected by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, that caused widespread liquefaction phenomena unusually for magnitude less than 6. We focus on sites liquefiable because of their soil mechanical parameters and water table level. Our analysis shows that the choice between deterministic and probabilistic hazard analysis is strongly dependent on site conditions. The looser the soil and the higher the liquefaction potential, the more suitable is the deterministic approach. Source characteristics, in particular the duration of strong ground motion, have long since recognized as relevant to induce liquefaction; unfortunately a quantitative prediction of these parameters appears very unlikely, dramatically reducing the possibility of their adoption in hazard assessment. Last but not least, the economic factors are relevant in the choice of the approach. The case history of 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, with an officially estimated cost of 6 billions

  8. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  9. Decision tree approach for soil liquefaction assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomi, Amir H; Fridline, Mark M; Roke, David A

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, the performances of some decision tree (DT) techniques are evaluated for postearthquake soil liquefaction assessment. A database containing 620 records of seismic parameters and soil properties is used in this study. Three decision tree techniques are used here in two different ways, considering statistical and engineering points of view, to develop decision rules. The DT results are compared to the logistic regression (LR) model. The results of this study indicate that the DTs not only successfully predict liquefaction but they can also outperform the LR model. The best DT models are interpreted and evaluated based on an engineering point of view.

  10. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  11. Advancement in additive manufacturing & numerical modelling considerations of direct energy deposition process

    OpenAIRE

    Quanren Zeng; Zhenhai Xu; Yankang Tian; Yi Qin

    2016-01-01

    The development speed and application range of the additive manufacturing (AM) processes, such as selective laser melting (SLM), laser metal deposition (LMD) or laser-engineering net shaping (LENS), are ever-increasing in modern advanced manufacturing field for rapid manufacturing, tooling repair or surface enhancement of the critical metal components. LMD is based on a kind of directed energy deposition (DED) technology which ejects a strand of metal powders into a moving molten pool caused ...

  12. Advance Directives and Communication Skills of Prehospital Physicians Involved in the Care of Cardiovascular Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gigon, Fabienne; Merlani, Paolo; Ricou, Bara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Advance directives (AD) were developed to respect patient autonomy. However, very few patients have AD, even in cases when major cardiovascular surgery is to follow. To understand the reasons behind the low prevalence of AD and to help decision making when patients are incompetent, it is necessary to focus on the impact of prehospital practitioners, who may contribute to an increase in AD by discussing them with patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate self-rated commun...

  13. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: Recent advances and future directions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eBoly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This joint article reflects the authors’ personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last ten years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of feedback processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological advances. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation.

  14. A Korean perspective on developing a global policy for advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoon; Hahm, Ki-Hyun; Park, Hyoung Wook; Kang, Hyun Hee; Sohn, Myongsei

    2010-03-01

    Despite the wide and daunting array of cross-cultural obstacles that the formulation of a global policy on advance directives will clearly pose, the need is equally evident. Specifically, the expansion of medical services driven by medical tourism, just to name one important example, makes this issue urgently relevant. While ensuring consistency across national borders, a global policy will have the additional and perhaps even more important effect of increasing the use of advance directives in clinical settings and enhancing their effectiveness within each country, regardless of where that country's state of the law currently stands. One cross-cultural issue that may represent a major obstacle in formulating, let alone applying, a global policy is whether patient autonomy as the underlying principle for the use of advance directives is a universal norm or a construct of western traditions that must be reconciled with alternative value systems that may place lesser significance on individual choice. A global policy, at a minimum, must emphasize respect for patient autonomy, provision of medical information, limits to the obligations for physicians, and portability. And though the development of a global policy will be no easy task, active engagement in close collaboration with the World Health Organization can make it possible.

  15. Parallel finite element modeling of earthquake ground response and liquefaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinchi Lu(陆金池); Jun Peng(彭军); Ahmed Elgamal; Zhaohui Yang(杨朝晖); Kincho H. Law

    2004-01-01

    Parallel computing is a promising approach to alleviate the computational demand in conducting large-scale finite element analyses. This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for earthquake ground response and liquefaction using the parallel nonlinear finite element program, ParCYCLIC, designed for distributed-memory message-passing parallel computer systems. In ParCYCLIC, finite elements are employed within an incremental plasticity, coupled solid-fluid formulation. A constitutive model calibrated by physical tests represents the salient characteristics of sand liquefaction and associated accumulation of shear deformations. Key elements of the computational strategy employed in ParCYCLIC include the development of a parallel sparse direct solver, the deployment of an automatic domain decomposer, and the use of the Multilevel Nested Dissection algorithm for ordering of the finite element nodes. Simulation results of centrifuge test models using ParCYCLIC are presented. Performance results from grid models and geotechnical simulations show that ParCYCLIC is efficiently scalable to a large number of processors.

  16. Study on the mechanism of coal liquefaction reaction and a new process concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-dong; LI Wen-bo; WANG Yong; GUO Zhi; LI Ke-jian

    2008-01-01

    The coal hydrogenation reaction process is simply considered as three steps. In the first step, the smaller molecules associated with coal structure units are released as some gases and water in the condition of solvent and heating. In this step, some weaker bonds of the coal structure units are ruptured to form free radicals. The radicals are stabi-lized by hydrogen atoms from donor solvent and/or H2. In the second step, chain reaction occurs quickly. In the process of chain reaction, the covalent bonds of coal structure units are attacked by the radicals to form some asphaltenes. In the third step, asphaltenes are hydrogenated form more liquids and some gases. In coal liquefaction, the second step of coal hydrogenation reaction should be controlled to avoid integration of radicals, and the third step of coal hydrogenation should be accelerated to increase the coal conversion and the oil yield. A new concept of coal liquefaction process named as China direct coal lique-faction (CDCL) process is presented based on the mechanism study of coal liquefaction.

  17. Induced liquefaction experiment in relatively dense, clay-rich sand deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzor, Yossef H.; Gvirtzman, Haim; Wainshtein, Ilia; Orian, Itay

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we report results from a controlled blast-induced liquefaction experiment at the field scale. The physical and mechanical properties of the materials at the subsurface are characterized by a suite of in situ and laboratory tests, including the Standard Penetration Test (SPT); downhole and cross-hole seismic velocity tests; density, porosity, and gradation tests; and direct shear tests. Since the blast experiment was performed above groundwater table, the subsurface was saturated by a sequence of controlled infiltration tests. A 50-kg TNT charge was detonated at a depth of 10 m, and seismic ground motions were recorded in a vertical geophone array positioned at a horizontal distance of 30 m from the blast borehole. Obtained liquefaction features include a water fountain that erupted from the blast borehole, prolonged bubbling of the water surface inside the infiltration trench (a process equivalent to "sand boils" typically observed at sites which have experienced liquefaction), lateral spreading, and surface settlement. We argue that in contrast to conventional predictions, liquefaction may be induced in relatively dense silty and clayey sands (shear wave velocity >300 m s-1; relative density = 63-89%) relatively rich in clays (fines content >30%) and that the driving mechanism should not necessarily be restricted to cyclic shear stress loading.

  18. Vertical ground motion and its effects on liquefaction resistance of fully saturated sand deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparli, Vasiliki; Kontoe, Stavroula; Taborda, David M G; Potts, David M

    2016-08-01

    Soil liquefaction has been extensively investigated over the years with the aim to understand its fundamental mechanism and successfully remediate it. Despite the multi-directional nature of earthquakes, the vertical seismic component is largely neglected, as it is traditionally considered to be of much lower amplitude than the components in the horizontal plane. The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence in New Zealand is a prime example that vertical accelerations can be of significant magnitude, with peak amplitudes well exceeding their horizontal counterparts. As research on this topic is very limited, there is an emerging need for a more thorough investigation of the vertical motion and its effect on soil liquefaction. As such, throughout this study, uni- and bidirectional finite-element analyses are carried out focusing on the influence of the input vertical motion on sand liquefaction. The effects of the frequency content of the input motion, of the depth of the deposit and of the hydraulic regime, using variable permeability, are investigated and exhaustively discussed. The results indicate that the usual assumption of linear elastic response when compressional waves propagate in a fully saturated sand deposit does not always hold true. Most importantly post-liquefaction settlements appear to be increased when the vertical component is included in the analysis.

  19. Nitroreductase gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: insights and advances toward clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elsie M; Little, Rory F; Mowday, Alexandra M; Rich, Michelle H; Chan-Hyams, Jasmine V E; Copp, Janine N; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Ackerley, David F

    2015-10-15

    This review examines the vast catalytic and therapeutic potential offered by type I (i.e. oxygen-insensitive) nitroreductase enzymes in partnership with nitroaromatic prodrugs, with particular focus on gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT; a form of cancer gene therapy). Important first indications of this potential were demonstrated over 20 years ago, for the enzyme-prodrug pairing of Escherichia coli NfsB and CB1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide]. However, it has become apparent that both the enzyme and the prodrug in this prototypical pairing have limitations that have impeded their clinical progression. Recently, substantial advances have been made in the biodiscovery and engineering of superior nitroreductase variants, in particular development of elegant high-throughput screening capabilities to enable optimization of desirable activities via directed evolution. These advances in enzymology have been paralleled by advances in medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of second- and third-generation nitroaromatic prodrugs that offer substantial advantages over CB1954 for nitroreductase GDEPT, including greater dose-potency and enhanced ability of the activated metabolite(s) to exhibit a local bystander effect. In addition to forging substantial progress towards future clinical trials, this research is supporting other fields, most notably the development and improvement of targeted cellular ablation capabilities in small animal models, such as zebrafish, to enable cell-specific physiology or regeneration studies.

  20. LIQUEFACTION AND DISPLACEMENT OF SATURATED SAND UNDER VERTICAL VIBRATION LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiaobing; TAN Qingming; CHENG C.M.; YU Shanbing; CUI Peng

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the vertical vibration loading on the liquefaction of saturated sand, one dimensional model for the saturated sand with a vertical vibration is presented based on the two phase continuous media theory. The development of the liquefaction and the liquefaction region are analyzed. It is shown that the vertical vibration loading could induce liquefaction.The rate of the liquefaction increases with the increase of the initial limit strain or initial porosity or amplitude and frequency of loading, and increases with the decrease of the permeability or initial modulus. It is shown also that there is a phase lag in the sand column. When the sand permeability distribution is non-uniform, the pore pressure and the strain will rise sharply where the permeability is the smallest, and fracture might be induced. With the development of liquefaction, the strength of the soil foundation becomes smaller and smaller. In the limiting case, landslides or debris flows could occur.

  1. Guest Editorial Special Issue on Recent Advances and New Directions in Switched Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ As guest editors, it is our great honor to bring this special issue of the Journal of Control Theory and Applications devoted to Recent Advances and New Directions in Switched Control Systems. Recently, switched control systems have attracted much attention in the control systems community. Problems in this area are not only academically challenging for the inherent mathematical complexity, but also are derived or motivated from advanced applications in natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences. For survival, natural biological systems switch their survival strategies in accordance with environmental changes. For improved performance, switching has been extensively utilized/exploited in engineering systems such as automotive drive train control, electronic devices, control of power systems, etc.

  2. Earthquake Risk - MO 2013 Liquefaction Potential St. Louis Area (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soil liquefaction potential was determined using existing surficial materials and floodplain alluvium maps. Alluvium deposits and artificial deposits are generally...

  3. (AADSF) Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace Onboard STS-87 USMP-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments for the Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is to determine how gravity-driven convection affects the composition and properties of alloys (mixtures of two or more materials, usually metal). During the USMP-4 mission, the AADSF will solidify crystals of lead tin telluride and mercury cadmium telluride, alloys of compound semiconductor materials used to make infrared detectors and lasers, as experiment samples. Although these materials are used for the same type application their properties and compositional uniformity are affected differently during the solidification process.

  4. Wild orangutan males plan and communicate their travel direction one day in advance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carel P van Schaik

    Full Text Available The ability to plan for the future beyond immediate needs would be adaptive to many animal species, but is widely thought to be uniquely human. Although studies in captivity have shown that great apes are capable of planning for future needs, it is unknown whether and how they use this ability in the wild. Flanged male Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii emit long calls, which females use to maintain earshot associations with them. We tested whether long calls serve to communicate a male's ever-changing predominant travel direction to facilitate maintaining these associations. We found that the direction in which a flanged male emits his long calls predicts his subsequent travel direction for many hours, and that a new call indicates a change in his main travel direction. Long calls given at or near the night nest indicate travel direction better than random until late afternoon on the next day. These results show that male orangutans make their travel plans well in advance and announce them to conspecifics. We suggest that such a planning ability is likely to be adaptive for great apes, as well as in other taxa.

  5. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  6. Evaluation Of Bucharest Soil Liquefaction Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Arion

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the experimental research performed in Bucharest like the borehole data (Standard Penetration Test and the data obtained from seismic investigations (down-hole prospecting and surface-wave methods. The evaluation of the soils liquefaction resistance based on the results of the SPT, down-hole prospecting and surface-wave method tests and the use of the earthquake records will be presented.

  7. Potential environmental regulations for coal liquefaction facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzvardis, P.; Gasper, J.; Surles, T.

    1979-12-01

    Although this report deals with potential regulatory constraints only on development of coal liquids, it should be noted that every basic industry in the national economy is constrained by a myriad of state, local, and federal laws, and many of these existing laws may eventually affect coal liquids development. The American Petroleum Institute has prepared a list of the 12 most generally applicable environmental laws; these are summarized. For the present study, the most comprehensive constraining regulations likely to apply to coal liquefaction were chosen from this list. The choices depended in part upon which laws could be complied with by appropriate facility design. Therefore, for this study, the regulations examined were those covering solid and hazardous wastes and emissions of air and water pollutants. It should be noted that there are at present no emission regulations pertaining specifically to coal liquefaction. A survey of such analogous industries was conducted to identify regulations on air and water pollutants and solid waste disposal that might pertain to coal synfuel plants. The Federal New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for air and water pollutants were specified where applicable. Wherever federal standards for a particular emission source or pollutant did not exist but appeared necessary, appropriate standards were specified on the basis of state regulations.Estimates of emission and effluent standards that may be applicable to coal liquefaction facilities are presented. Emission standards are defined for coal driers, boilers, process, and combustion equipment and for Claus sulfur plants. Effluent standards are provided for process, boiler, and miscellaneous waste streams. Sources of solid wastes from coal liquefaction and proposed disposal regulations for hazardous wastes are also described.

  8. Low Severity Coal Liquefaction Promoted by Cyclic Olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine W. Curtis

    1998-04-09

    The development of the donor solvent technology for coal liquefaction has drawn a good deal of attention over the last three decades. The search for better hydrogen donors led investigators to a class of compounds known as cyclic olefins. Cyclic olefins are analogues of the conventional hydroaromatic donor species but do not contain aromatic rings. The cyclic olefins are highly reactive compounds which readily release their hydrogen at temperatures of 200 C or higher. Considerable effort has been o expended toward understanding the process of hydrogen donation. Most of this work was conducted in bomb reactors, with product analysis being carried out after the reaction was complete. Efforts directed towards fundamental studies of these reactions in situ are rare. The current work employs a high temperature and high pressure infrared cell to monitor in situ the concentrations of reactants and products during hydrogen release from hydrogen donor compounds.

  9. Health Care Providers’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding the use of Advance Directives in a Military Health Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and skills about advance directives have been cited for low completion rates. Family nurse practitioners ( FNPs ), in both civilian and military settings...receive training on ethical and moral implications of advanced nursing practice. These characteristics make the FNP an ideal candidate for promoting...environment (Hunter et al., 1997). Advanced Nursing Role Family nurse practitioners ( FNPs ) are well suited to initiate conversations concerning end-of-life

  10. Intricate decision making: ambivalences and barriers when fulfilling an advance directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder L

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lars Schröder,1 Gerhard Homme,1,2 Stephan Sahm3,4 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Center of Integrated Oncology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, 2Institute of Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Informatics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, 3Department of Gastroenterology and Oncology, Ketteler Hospital, Offenbach, 4Institute for Ethics and History of Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany Background: Despite a recent statutory ruling stating the binding nature of advance directives (ADs, only a minority of the population has signed one. Yet, a majority deem it of utmost importance to ensure their wishes are followed through in case they are no longer able to decide. The reasons for this discrepancy have not yet been investigated sufficiently.Patients and methods: This article is based on a survey of patients using a well-established structured questionnaire. First, patients were asked about their attitudes with respect to six therapeutic options at the end of life: intravenous fluids, artificial feeding, antibiotics, analgesia, chemotherapy/dialysis, and artificial ventilation; and second, they were asked about the negative effects related to the idea of ADs surveying their apprehensions: coercion to fulfill an AD, dictatorial reading of what had been laid down, and abuse of ADs.Results: A total of 1,260 interviewees completed the questionnaires. A significant percentage of interviewees were indecisive with respect to therapeutic options, ranging from 25% (analgesia to 45% (artificial feeding. There was no connection to health status. Apprehensions about unwanted effects of ADs were widespread, at 51%, 35%, and 43% for coercion, dictatorial reading, and abuse, respectively.Conclusion: A significant percentage of interviewees were unable to anticipate decisions about treatment options at the end of life. Apprehensions about negative adverse effects of ADs are widespread. Keywords: advance directive, living

  11. Fabric Behavior of Sand in Post-liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amirodin Sadrnejad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An anisotropic plasticity model for post-liquefaction of the undrained behavior of sand is presented. The model incorporates the critical/steady state concept that postulates the existence of a state where sand continuously deforms at a certain constant effective stress depending two main parameters of both initial bulk parameters (void ratio or relative density and the stress level (mean stress. The local instability of saturated sand within post-liquefaction is highly dependent on the residual inherent/induced anisotropy, bedding plane effects and stress/strain path. Most of the models developed using stress/strain invariants are not capable of identifying the parameters depending on orientation such as fabric. This is mainly because stress/strain invariants are quantities similar to scalar quantities and not capable of carrying directional information with them. The constitutive equations of the model are derived within the context of non-linear elastic behavior of the whole medium and plastic sliding of interfaces of predefined multi-planes. The proposed multi-plane based model is capable of predicting the behavior of soils on the basis of plastic sliding mechanisms, elastic behavior of particles and possibilities to see the micro-fabric effects as natural anisotropy as well as induced anisotropy in plasticity. The model is capable of predicting the behavior of soil under different orientation of bedding plane, history of strain progression during the application of any stress/strain paths. The influences of rotation of the direction of principal stress and strain axes and induced anisotropy are included in a rational way without any additional hypotheses. The spatial strength distribution at a location as an approximation of probable mobilized sliding mechanism is proposed as an ellipsoid function built up on bedding plane.

  12. Ethanol Manufacture through One-step Cellulose Liquefaction Developed by Zhongren Bioenergy Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The pilot scale tests of one-step direct liquefaction of cel-lulose biomass developed by a Sino-US joint venture, the Huaibei Zhongren Bioenergy Technical Development Company, Ltd. in Anhui province, have made great success. This method aiming to produce fuel and chemical feedstocks from cellulose biomass requires mild reaction conditions and all organic substances contained in the cellulose biom-ass can be completely converted without losses (without carbonization and gasification).

  13. Age-related liquefaction of the human vitreous body : LM and TEM evaluation of the role of proteoglycans and collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; van der Worp, RJ; van Luyn, MJA; Hooymans, JMM

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate morphologic aspects of age-related liquefaction of the human vitreous body by fight and electron microscopy to provide a basis from which future studies directed at the pathogenesis of this phenomenon can be undertaken. The study focuses on changes in fibrillar Collagen and prot

  14. Liquefaction hazard analysis for infrastructure development in gulf of Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinata, Indra A.; Darlan, Yudi; Sadisun, Imam A.; Pindratno, Haris; Saryanto, Agus

    2016-05-01

    Gulf of Jakarta is an area of active sedimentation. There exist a wide sediment deposition area on the north coast of Jakarta. Generally, these sediments have not been consolidated, so that the conditions in these area is an important factor to determining liquefaction in these area. Liquefaction may occur because of earthquake that cause loss of strength and stiffness in soils. Analysis of liquefaction potential based from SPT data taken at gulf of Jakarta, include susceptibility rate and the factors that triggering. Liquefaction analysis methods compared with each other to get the factor of safety against liquefaction according to the characteristics of the soil. Liquefaction analysis at surface using susceptibility rating factor (SRF). SRF method controled by factors: history, geology, composition, and groundwater. Each factors have parameters that determine the value of SRF.From the analysis, Gulf of Jakarta has susceptibility rating from liquefaction with SRF value 12 - 35. The value shows that Gulf of Jakarta dominated by area that have susceptibility rating from medium to high. High susceptibility rating from liquefaction concentrated at coast area.

  15. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A Modified Time Advancement Algorithm for Optimizing Channel Flow Analysis in Direct Numerical Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rajabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research a direct numerical simulation (DNS of turbulent flow is performed in a geometrically standard case like plane channel flow. Pseudo spectral (PS method is used due to geometry specifications and very high accuracy achieved despite relatively few grid points. A variable time-stepping algorithm is proposed which may reduce requirement of computational cost in simulation of such wall-bounded flow. Channel flow analysis is performed with both constant and varied time-step for 128 × 65×128 grid points. The time advancement is carried out by implicit third-order backward differentiation scheme for linear terms and explicit forward Euler for nonlinear convection term. PS method is used in Cartesian coordinates with Chebychev polynomial expansion in normal direction for one non-periodic boundary condition. Also Fourier series is employed in stream-wise and span-wise directions for two periodic boundary conditions. The friction Reynolds number is about Reτ=175 based on a friction velocity and channel half width. Standard common rotational form was chosen for discritization of nonlinear convective term of Navier-Stocks equation. The comparison is made between turbulent quantities such as the turbulent statistics, Reynolds stress, wall shear velocity, standard deviation of (u and total normalized energy of instantaneous velocities in both time-discretization methods. The results show that if final decision rests on economics, the proposed variable time-stepping algorithm will be proper choice which satisfies the accuracy and reduces the computational cost.

  17. Probabilistic liquefaction triggering based on the cone penetration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R.E.S.; Seed, R.B.; Kayen, R.E.; Stewart, J.P.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Performance-based earthquake engineering requires a probabilistic treatment of potential failure modes in order to accurately quantify the overall stability of the system. This paper is a summary of the application portions of the probabilistic liquefaction triggering correlations proposed recently proposed by Moss and co-workers. To enable probabilistic treatment of liquefaction triggering, the variables comprising the seismic load and the liquefaction resistance were treated as inherently uncertain. Supporting data from an extensive Cone Penetration Test (CPT)-based liquefaction case history database were used to develop a probabilistic correlation. The methods used to measure the uncertainty of the load and resistance variables, how the interactions of these variables were treated using Bayesian updating, and how reliability analysis was applied to produce curves of equal probability of liquefaction are presented. The normalization for effective overburden stress, the magnitude correlated duration weighting factor, and the non-linear shear mass participation factor used are also discussed.

  18. Defending to the Four Directions Evolving Uechi-ryu’s Hojoundo Exercises for Advanced Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Rymaruk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces “Defending to the Four Directions,” techniques that add challenge to Uechi-ryu while incorporating and building upon the traditional katas which have formed the basis of the style. Making changes within a style’s training methods just to be different without any other purpose is of little value and actually destructive to the system. This article describes a meaningful and realistic addition to the practice of hojoundo, the formal exercises incorporating basic movements. “Defending to the Four Directions” is intended for advanced students who have mastered Uechi-ryu’s foundamentals. In addition, the practice is well-suited for adaptation and adoption into other martial art styles.

  19. 78 FR 35625 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ..., LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.: Notice of Intent To Prepare an... Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... metric tonnes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per annum (mtpa) via LNG carriers. Trains 5 and 6...

  20. Tuberculosis--advances in development of new drugs, treatment regimens, host-directed therapies, and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Robert S; Maeurer, Markus; Mwaba, Peter; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Rustomjee, Roxana; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Marais, Ben; Schito, Marco; Churchyard, Gavin; Swaminathan, Soumya; Hoelscher, Michael; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, with 9·6 million cases and 1·5 million deaths reported in 2014. WHO estimates 480,000 cases of these were multidrug resistant (MDR). Less than half of patients who entered into treatment for MDR tuberculosis successfully completed that treatment, mainly due to high mortality and loss to follow-up. These in turn illustrate weaknesses in current treatment regimens and national tuberculosis programmes, coupled with operational treatment challenges. In this Review we provide an update on recent developments in the tuberculosis drug-development pipeline (including new and repurposed antimicrobials and host-directed drugs) as they are applied to new regimens to shorten and improve outcomes of tuberculosis treatment. Several new or repurposed antimicrobial drugs are in advanced trial stages for MDR tuberculosis, and two new antimicrobial drug candidates are in early-stage trials. Several trials to reduce the duration of therapy in MDR and drug-susceptible tuberculosis are ongoing. A wide range of candidate host-directed therapies are being developed to accelerate eradication of infection, prevent new drug resistance, and prevent permanent lung injury. As these drugs have been approved for other clinical indications, they are now ready for repurposing for tuberculosis in phase 2 clinical trials. We assess risks associated with evaluation of new treatment regimens, and highlight opportunities to advance tuberculosis research generally through regulatory innovation in MDR tuberculosis. Progress in tuberculosis-specific biomarkers (including culture conversion, PET and CT imaging, and gene expression profiles) can support this innovation. Several global initiatives now provide unique opportunities to tackle the tuberculosis epidemic through collaborative partnerships between high-income countries and middle-income and low-income countries for clinical trials training and research, allowing funders to

  1. Degradation pathways of lamotrigine under advanced treatment by direct UV photolysis, hydroxyl radicals, and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Olya S; Ferrer, Imma; Michael Thurman, E; Linden, Karl G

    2014-12-01

    Lamotrigine is recently recognized as a persistent pharmaceutical in the water environment and wastewater effluents. Its degradation was studied under UV and ozone advanced oxidation treatments with reaction kinetics of lamotrigine with ozone (≈4 M(-1)s(-1)), hydroxyl radical [(2.1 ± 0.3) × 10(9)M(-1)s(-1)] and by UV photolysis with low and medium pressure mercury vapor lamps [quantum yields ≈0 and (2.7 ± 0.4)× 10(-4) respectively] determined. All constants were measured at pH 6 and at temperature ≈20°C. The results indicate that lamotrigine is slow to respond to direct photolysis or oxidation by ozone and no attenuation of the contaminant is expected in UV or ozone disinfection applications. The compound reacts rapidly with hydroxyl radicals indicating that advanced oxidation processes would be effective for its treatment. Degradation products were identified under each treatment process using accurate mass time-of-flight spectrometry and pathways of decay were proposed. The main transformation pathways in each process were: dechlorination of the benzene ring during direct photolysis; hydroxyl group addition to the benzene ring during the reaction with hydroxyl radicals; and triazine ring opening after reaction with ozone. Different products that form in each process may be to a varying degree less environmentally stable than the parent lamotrigine. In addition, a novel method of ozone quenching without addition of salts is presented. The new quenching method would allow subsequent mass spectrometry analysis without a solid phase extraction clean-up step. The method involves raising the pH of the sample to approximately 10 for a few seconds and lowering it back and is therefore limited to applications for which temporary pH change is not expected to affect the outcome of the analysis.

  2. Early experience with digital advance care planning and directives, a novel consumer-driven program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Robert L; Yang, Zhiyong; Spivey, Christy; Boardman, Bonnie; Courtney, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    Barriers to traditional advance care planning (ACP) and advance directive (AD) creation have limited the promise of ACP/AD for individuals and families, the healthcare team, and society. Our objectives were to determine the results of a digital ACP/AD through which consumers create, store, locate, and retrieve their ACP/AD at no charge and with minimal physician involvement, and the ACP/AD can be integrated into the electronic health record. The authors chose 900 users of MyDirectives, a digital ACP/AD tool, to achieve proportional representation of all 50 states by population size and then reviewed their responses. The 900 participants had an average age of 50.8 years (SD = 16.6); 84% of the men and 91% of the women were in self-reported good health when signing their ADs. Among the respondents, 94% wanted their physicians to consult a supportive and palliative care team if they were seriously ill; nearly 85% preferred cessation of life-sustaining treatments during their final days; 76% preferred to spend their final days at home or in a hospice; and 70% would accept attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in limited circumstances. Most respondents wanted an autopsy under certain conditions, and 62% wished to donate their organs. In conclusion, analysis of early experience with this ACP/AD platform demonstrates that individuals of different ages and conditions can engage in an interrogatory process about values, develop ADs that are more nuanced than traditional paper-based ADs in reflecting those values, and easily make changes to their ADs. Online ADs have the potential to remove barriers to ACP/AD and thus further improve patient-centered end-of-life care.

  3. Effects of coal rank on the chemical composition and toxicological activity of coal liquefaction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of coal liquefaction materials from the EDS and H-Coal processes operated using different ranks of coal. Samples of recycle solvent from the bottoms recycle mode of the EDS direct coal liquefaction process derived from bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals were analyzed. In addition, the H-Coal heavy fuel oils derived from bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsoprtion column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. The toxicological activity of selected samples was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay, an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity, and a static bioassy with Daphnia magna for aquatic toxicity of the water-soluble fractions. 22 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  5. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D. (Consolidation Coal Co., Library, PA (United States). Research and Development Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    SRI International evaluated two analytical methods for application to coal liquefaction. These included field ionization mass spectrometry and a technique employing iodotrimethylsilane for the derivatization of oxygen bound to alkyl carbon (alkyl ethers). The full report authored by the SRI researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by Consol into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract. (VC)

  6. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  7. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  8. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Comprehensive laboratory monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to evaluate the static characteristics, dynamic characteristics and the cyclic resistance against liquefaction of the foundation soils. The distribution of the factor of safety considering liquefaction is given. It is found that the zones beneath the dam edges and near the upstream of the diaphragm wall are more susceptible to liquefaction than in free field, whereas the zone beneath the center of the dam is less susceptible to liquefaction than in free field. According to the results, the strategies of ground improvement are proposed to mitigate the liquefaction hazards.

  9. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wang a; Xing Wei b; Hanlong Liu a

    2015-01-01

    The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Comprehensive laboratory monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to evaluate the static characteristics, dynamic char-acteristics and the cyclic resistance against liquefaction of the foundation soils. The distribution of the factor of safety considering liquefaction is given. It is found that the zones beneath the dam edges and near the upstream of the diaphragm wall are more susceptible to liquefaction than in free field, whereas the zone beneath the center of the dam is less susceptible to liquefaction than in free field. According to the results, the strategies of ground improvement are proposed to mitigate the liquefaction hazards.

  10. Recent advances in direct methanol fuel cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Zelenay, Piotr; Thomas, Sharon; Davey, John; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    This paper describes recent advances in the science and technology of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) made at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The effort on DMFCs at LANL includes work devoted to portable power applications, funded by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), and work devoted to potential transport applications, funded by the US DOE. We describe recent results with a new type of DMFC stack hardware that allows to lower the pitch per cell to 2 mm while allowing low air flow and air pressure drops. Such stack technology lends itself to both portable power and potential transport applications. Power densities of 300 W/l and 1 kW/l seem achievable under conditions applicable to portable power and transport applications, respectively. DMFC power system analysis based on the performance of this stack, under conditions applying to transport applications (joint effort with U.C. Davis), has shown that, in terms of overall system efficiency and system packaging requirements, a power source for a passenger vehicle based on a DMFC could compete favorably with a hydrogen-fueled fuel cell system, as well as with fuel cell systems based on fuel processing on board. As part of more fundamental studies performed, we describe optimization of anode catalyst layers in terms of PtRu catalyst nature, loading and catalyst layer composition and structure. We specifically show that, optimized content of recast ionic conductor added to the catalyst layer is a sensitive function of the nature of the catalyst. Other elements of membrane/electrode assembly (MEA) optimization efforts are also described, highlighting our ability to resolve, to a large degree, a well-documented problem of polymer electrolyte DMFCs, namely "methanol crossover". This was achieved by appropriate cell design, enabling fuel utilization as high as 90% in highly performing DMFCs.

  11. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  12. Earthquake Risk - EARTHQUAKE_LIQUEFACTION_POTENTIAL_MM81_IN: Liquefaction Potential of Surficial Materials in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — EARTHQUAKE_LIQUEFACTION_POTENTIAL_MM81_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows highly generalized categories (low, moderate, and high) of liquefaction potential, based...

  13. Perspectives on advance directives in Japanese society: A population-based questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slingsby Brian

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, discussion concerning advance directives (ADs has been on the rise during the past decade. ADs are one method proposed to facilitate the process of communication among patients, families and health care providers regarding the plan of care of a patient who is no longer capable of communicating. In this paper, we report the results of the first in-depth survey on the general population concerning the preferences and use of ADs in Japan. Method A self-administered questionnaire was sent via mail to a stratified random sampling of 560 residents listed in the residential registry of one district of Tokyo, Japan (n = 165,567. Association between correlating factors and specific preferences toward ADs was assessed using contingency table bivariate analysis and multivariate regression model to estimate independent contribution. Results Of the 560 questionnaires sent out, a total of 425 participants took part in the survey yielding a response rate of 75.9 %. The results of the present study indicate that: 1 the most important components to be addressed are the specifics of medical treatment at the end of life stage and disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis; 2 the majority of participants found it suitable to express their directives by word to family and/or physician and not by written documentation; 3 there is no strong need for legal measures in setting up an AD; 4 it is permissible for family and physician to loosely interpret one's directives; 5 the most suitable proxy is considered to be a family member, relative, or spouse. Multivariate analysis found the following five factors as significantly associated with preferences: 1 awareness regarding living wills, 2 experience with the use of ADs, 3 preferences for end-of-life treatment, 4 preferences for information disclosure, and 5 intentions of creating a will. Conclusions Written ADs might be useful in the Japanese setting when the individual either wishes: 1 to not

  14. Liquefaction of corn stover and preparation of polyester from the liquefied polyol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Liu, Yuhuan; Pan, Xuejun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Chengmei; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated a novel process to prepare polyester from corn stover through liquefaction and crosslinking processes. First, corn stover was liquefied in organic solvents (90 wt% ethylene glycol and 10 wt% ethylene carbonate) with catalysts at moderate temperature under atmospheric pressure. The effect of liquefaction temperature, biomass content, and type of catalyst, such as H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and ZnCl2, was evaluated. Higher liquefaction yield was achieved in 2 wt% sulfuric acid, 1/4 (w/w) stover to liquefying reagent ratio; 160 degrees C temperature, in 2 h. The liquefied corn stover was rich in polyols, which can be directly used as feedstock for making polymers without further separation or purification. Second, polyester was made from the liquefied corn stover by crosslinking with multifunctional carboxylic acids and/or cyclic acid anhydrides. The tensile strength of polyester is about 5 MPa and the elongation is around 35%. The polyester is stable in cold water and organic solvents and readily biodegradable as indicated by 82% weight loss when buried in damp soil for 10 mo. The results indicate that this novel polyester could be used for the biodegradable garden mulch film production.

  15. Vibrating Liquefaction Experiment and Mechanism Study in Saturated Granular Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianhua; Xu Ming; Ju Haiyan; Zhao Jiangqian; Huang Hongyuan; Sun Yezhi

    2006-01-01

    By the vibrating liquefaction experiment of tailings and fine-ores of iron, it is observed and noted that the change of pore water pressure when the vibrating liquefaction takes place. Based on relevant suppositions, the equation of wave propagation in saturated granular media is obtained. This paper postulates the potential vector equation and the velocity expression of three kinds of body waves under normal conditions.Utilizing the wave theory and the experimental results, the influence of three body waves on pore water pressure and granules has been analyzed in detail. This revealed the rapid increment mechanism of pore water pressure and the wave mechanism of vibrating liquefaction.

  16. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  17. The Attitudes of Chinese Cancer Patients and Family Caregivers toward Advance Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advance directives (ADs have been legislated in many countries to protect patient autonomy regarding medical decisions at the end of life. China is facing a serious cancer burden and cancer patients’ quality at the end of life should be a concern. However, limited studies have been conducted locally to gather information about attitudes toward ADs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers toward ADs and to explore the predictors that are associated with attitudes. The study indicated that although there was low awareness of ADs, most cancer patients and family caregivers had positive attitudes toward ADs after related information was explained to them. Participants preferred to discuss ADs with medical staff when they were diagnosed with a life-threatening disease. Preferences for refusing life-sustaining treatment and choosing Hospice-Palliative Care (HPC at the end of life would increase the likelihood of agreeing with ADs. This suggests that some effective interventions to help participants better understand end-of-life treatments are helpful in promoting ADs. Moreover, the development of HPC would contribute to Chinese cancer patients and family caregivers agreeing with ADs.

  18. [Physicians' views and perspectives on advanced directives in patients with incipient dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Mercedes; Dawidowski, Adriana; Restibo, Jimena; Pollán, Javier; Pezzano, Laura; Cámera, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Dementia is a progressive disease in which patients lose their ability to decide and communicate. Advance directives (AD) allow patients to express their preferences on end of life care in the early stages of the disease. Primary care practitioners (PCP) are in the best position to promote AD. The aim of this study was to elicit PCPs views about the discussion of AD with early stage dementia patients. A qualitative approach was taken, focus groups and individual interviews to elderly patients' PCPs from the Hospital italiano de buenos aires were conducted. A purposive sampling was performed, conforming homogeneous groups according to age and seniority. The discussion was stimulated by a vignette. We performed thematic content analysis in an interdisciplinary team. Twelve PCPs = 30 year of age, 32 middle-aged and 8 over 45 years participated of the study. The youngest group favored the discussion of AD while those over 45 regarded the family as the decision maker, and thus, the discussion as useless. Besides, they expressed that our society is not mature enough to discuss AD. Difficulties in AD implementation, in predicting the evolution of a patient's disease, the span of time between the discussion and AD implementation, lack of legislation and specific institutional policies were other factors that conditioned the discussion. Younger PCPs expressed concern on the lack of communication skills and difficulties to broach this subject with patients. PCPs perspectives on AD vary, their age should be taken into account when designing strategies to their implementation.

  19. [A case of advanced esophageal cancer with direct bronchial invasion successfully treated by multidisciplinary therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yusuke; Okamoto, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Makino, Isamu; Nakamura, Keishi; Oyama, Katsunobu; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-11-01

    A 66-year-old man with advanced esophageal cancer (staging Mt, 6.0 cm, cT3N0M0, cStage II) was administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC: 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin). As the tumor continued to grow after one course of NAC, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery(VATS) was used to perform an esophagectomy along with 3-field lymph node dissection and retrosternal route reconstruction using a gastric tube. The second course of NAC was not administered. Intraoperative findings showed the direct invasion of the primary esophageal cancer into the membranous portion of the left bronchus. The maximum possible tumor tissue was resected and removed. The tumor tissue was exposed extensively to the surface of the esophageal adventitia and a residual tumor at the surface of the left bronchus was suspected. It was diagnosed as CT-pT4 (left bronchus), N0, M0, CT-pStage III. Subsequently, we administered chemoradiotherapy consisting of weekly low-dose docetaxel with radiation for the residual tumor (60 Gy/30 Fr). The patient is still alive 40 months after surgery without any signs of recurrence.

  20. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  1. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m{sup 3} or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m{sup 3}. Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes.

  2. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    Progress on seventeen projects related to coal liquefaction or the upgrading of coal liquids and supported by US DOE is reported with emphasis on funding, brief process description history and current progress. (LTN)

  3. Self-organized criticality of liquefaction in saturated granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爱祥; 孙业志; 李青松

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing the dissipative structure theory, the evolutionary process of vibrating liquefaction in saturatedgranules was analyzed. When the irreversible force increases to some degree, the system will be in a state far fromequilibrium, and the new structure probably occurs. According to synergetics, the equation of liquefaction evolutionwas deduced, and the evolutionary process was analyzed by dynamics. The evolutionary process of vibrating lique-faction is a process in which the period doubling accesses to chaos, and the fluctuation is the original driving force ofsystem evolution. The liquefaction process was also analyzed by fractal geometry. The steady process of vibratingliquefaction obeys the scaling form, and shows self-organized criticality in the course of vibration. With the incre-ment of the recurrence number, the stress of saturated granules will decrease rapidly or lose completely, and thestrain will increase rapidly, so that the granules can not sustain load and the "avalanche" phenomenon takes place.

  4. Asspects Concerning the Improvement of Soils Against Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costel Pleşcan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specialized literature concerning the Geotechnical Engineering Field indicates the problems due to soil liquefaction and the aggravating consequences that liquefaction phenomenon may cause to buildings. Some procedures of foundation soil improvement for both existing and future foundations are presented. The paper also presents three soil remediation methods involving a low level of vibration generated in the process of foundation soil improvement and two case studies representing the usual method in Romania.

  5. Asspects Concerning the Improvement of Soils Against Liquefaction

    OpenAIRE

    Costel Pleşcan; Ancuţa Rotaru

    2010-01-01

    The specialized literature concerning the Geotechnical Engineering Field indicates the problems due to soil liquefaction and the aggravating consequences that liquefaction phenomenon may cause to buildings. Some procedures of foundation soil improvement for both existing and future foundations are presented. The paper also presents three soil remediation methods involving a low level of vibration generated in the process of foundation soil improvement and two case studies representing the usu...

  6. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Wang; Xing Wei; Hanlong Liu

    2015-01-01

    The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Compr...

  7. Liquefaction hazard for the region of Evansville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Jennifer S.; Choi, Yoon S.; Nowack, Robert L.; Cramer, Chris H.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Bauer, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We calculated liquefaction potential index for a grid of sites in the Evansville, Indiana area for two scenario earthquakes-a magnitude 7.7 in the New Madrid seismic zone and a M6.8 in the Wabash Valley seismic zone. For the latter event, peak ground accelerations range from 0.13 gravity to 0.81 gravity, sufficiently high to be of concern for liquefaction.

  8. Twelve-year results of a direct-bonded partial prosthesis in a patient with advanced periodontitis: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Hiroyuki; Minesaki, Yoshito; Suzuki, Shiro; Tanaka, Takuo

    2012-08-01

    Prosthodontic treatment for patients with advanced periodontitis is a therapeutic challenge. A minimally invasive technique is preferred to preserve the remaining mobile abutment teeth. This report describes the initial clinical treatment and 12-year follow-up of a direct-bonded prosthesis reinforced with a cast metal framework, used as a conservative treatment option to replace periodontally involved maxillary lateral incisors.

  9. Liquefaction of Sand under Low Confining Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shaoli; Rolf Sandven; Lars Grande

    2003-01-01

    Undrained behaviour of sand under low cell pressure was studied in static and cyclic triaxial tests. It was found that very loose sand liquefies under static loading with the relative density being a key parameter for the undrained behaviour of sand. In cyclic triaxial tests, pore water pressures built up during the cyclic loading and exceeded the confining cell pressure. This process was accompanied by a large sudden increase in axial deformation. The necessary number of cycles to obtain liquefaction was related to the confining cell pressure, the amplitude of cyclic loading and the relative density of sand.In addition, the patterns of pore water pressure response are different from those of sand samples with different relative densities. The test results are very useful for expounding scour mechanism around coastal structures since they relate to the low stress behaviour of the sand.

  10. Post-liquefaction reconsolidation of sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamidis, O; Madabhushi, G S P

    2016-02-01

    Loosely packed sand that is saturated with water can liquefy during an earthquake, potentially causing significant damage. Once the shaking is over, the excess pore water pressures that developed during the earthquake gradually dissipate, while the surface of the soil settles, in a process called post-liquefaction reconsolidation. When examining reconsolidation, the soil is typically divided in liquefied and solidified parts, which are modelled separately. The aim of this paper is to show that this fragmentation is not necessary. By assuming that the hydraulic conductivity and the one-dimensional stiffness of liquefied sand have real, positive values, the equation of consolidation can be numerically solved throughout a reconsolidating layer. Predictions made in this manner show good agreement with geotechnical centrifuge experiments. It is shown that the variation of one-dimensional stiffness with effective stress and void ratio is the most crucial parameter in accurately capturing reconsolidation.

  11. Liquefaction mathematical analysis for improvement structures stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Khodashenas Pelko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The stability of any structure is possible if foundation is appropriately designed. The Bandar abbas is the largest and most important port of Iran, with high seismicity and occurring strong earthquakes in this territory, the soil mechanical properties of different parts of city have been selected as the subject of current research. The data relating to the design of foundation for improvement of structure at different layer of subsoil have been collected and, accordingly, soil mechanical properties have been evaluated. The results of laboratory experiments can be used for evaluation of geotechnical characteristics of urban area for development a region with high level of structural stability. Ultimately, a new method for calculation of liquefaction force is suggested. It is applicable for improving geotechnical and structure codes and also for reanalysis of structure stability of previously constructed buildings.

  12. Mongolian coal liquefaction test; Mongorutan no ekika tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Kubo, H. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsedevsuren, T. [National Research Center of Chemistry and Technology of Coal in Mongoria (Mongolia)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes the results of liquefaction tests of Mongolian coals using an autoclave and a flow micro reactor. Uvdughudag coal, Hootiinhonhor coal, and Shivee-Ovoo coal were used for liquefaction tests with an autoclave. Oil yields of Uvdughudag and Hootiinhonhor coals were 55.56 wt% and 55.29 wt%, respectively, which were similar to that of Wyoming coal. Similar results were obtained, as to produced gas and water yields. These coals were found to be suitable for coal liquefaction. Lower oil yield, 42.55 wt% was obtained for Shivee-Ovoo coal, which was not suitable for liquefaction. Liquefaction tests were conducted for Uvdughudag coal with a flow micro reactor. The oil yield was 55.7 wt%, which was also similar to that of Wyoming coal, 56.1 wt%. Hydrogen consumption of Uvdughudag coal was also similar to that of Wyoming coal. From these, Uvdughudag coal can be a prospective coal for liquefaction. From the distillation distribution of oil, distillate fraction yield below 350{degree}C of Uvdughudag coal was 50.7 wt%, which was much higher than that of Wyoming coal, 35.6 wt%. Uvdughudag coal is a coal with high light oil fraction yield. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Intensity measures for seismic liquefaction hazard evaluation of sloping site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志雄; 程印; 肖杨; 卢谅; 阳洋

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the correlation between a large number of widely used ground motion intensity measures (IMs) and the corresponding liquefaction potential of a soil deposit during earthquake loading. In order to accomplish this purpose the seismic responses of 32 sloping liquefiable site models consisting of layered cohesionless soil were subjected to 139 earthquake ground motions. Two sets of ground motions, consisting of 80 ordinary records and 59 pulse-like near-fault records are used in the dynamic analyses. The liquefaction potential of the site is expressed in terms of the the mean pore pressure ratio, the maximum ground settlement, the maximum ground horizontal displacement and the maximum ground horizontal acceleration. For each individual accelerogram, the values of the aforementioned liquefaction potential measures are determined. Then, the correlation between the liquefaction potential measures and the IMs is evaluated. The results reveal that the velocity spectrum intensity (VSI) shows the strongest correlation with the liquefaction potential of sloping site. VSI is also proven to be a sufficient intensity measure with respect to earthquake magnitude and source-to-site distance, and has a good predictability, thus making it a prime candidate for the seismic liquefaction hazard evaluation.

  14. Biological assessment of bisphenol A degradation in water following direct photolysis and UV advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Linden, Karl G; Hinton, David E; Kashiwada, Shosaku; Rosenfeldt, Erik J; Kullman, Seth W

    2006-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are exogenous environmental chemicals that can interfere with normal hormone function and present a potential threat to both environmental and human health. The fate, distribution and degradation of EDCs is a subject of considerable investigation. To date, several studies have demonstrated that conventional water treatment processes are ineffective for removal of most EDCs and in some instances produce multiple unknown transformation products. In this study we have investigated the use of direct photolysis with low-pressure (LP) Hg UV lamps and UV+hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the degradation of a prototypic endocrine disrupter, bisphenol A (BPA), in laboratory water. Removal rates of BPA and formation of degradation products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Changes in estrogenic activity were evaluated using both in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and in vivo vitellogenin (VTG) assays with Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Our results demonstrate that UV alone did not effectively degrade BPA. However, UV in combination with H(2)O(2) significantly removed BPA parent compound and aqueous estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Removal rates of in vivo estrogenic activity were significantly lower than those observed in vitro, demonstrating differential sensitivities of these bioassays and that certain UV/AOP metabolites may retain estrogenic activity. Furthermore, the UV/H(2)O(2) AOP was effective for reducing larval lethality in treated BPA solutions, suggesting BPA degradation occurred and that the degradation process did not result in the production of acutely toxic intermediates.

  15. Advance Directives and Communication Skills of Prehospital Physicians Involved in the Care of Cardiovascular Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigon, Fabienne; Merlani, Paolo; Ricou, Bara

    2015-12-01

    Advance directives (AD) were developed to respect patient autonomy. However, very few patients have AD, even in cases when major cardiovascular surgery is to follow. To understand the reasons behind the low prevalence of AD and to help decision making when patients are incompetent, it is necessary to focus on the impact of prehospital practitioners, who may contribute to an increase in AD by discussing them with patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate self-rated communication skills and the attitudes of physicians potentially involved in the care of cardiovascular patients toward AD.Self-administered questionnaires were sent to general practitioners, cardiologists, internists, and intensivists, including the Quality of Communication Score, divided into a General Communication score (QOCgen 6 items) and an End-of-life Communication score (QOCeol 7 items), as well as questions regarding opinions and practices in terms of AD.One hundred sixty-four responses were received. QOCgen (mean (±SD)): 9.0/10 (1.0); QOCeol: 7.2/10 (1.7). General practitioners most frequently start discussions about AD (74/149 [47%]) and are more prone to designate their own specialty (30/49 [61%], P communication skills as good, whereas end-of-life communication was rated much lower. Only half of those surveyed speak about AD with cardiovascular patients. The majority would prefer that physicians of another specialty, most frequently general practitioners, initiate conversation about AD. In order to increase prehospital AD incidence, efforts must be centered on improving practitioners' communication skills regarding death, by providing trainings to allow physicians to feel more at ease when speaking about end-of-life issues.

  16. [Advance directives in Italy: a goal not yet reached but already passed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Luigi; Gristina, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The advance directives (ADs) have been adopted in many countries to defend patients' autonomy. In Italy, in the past, this topic gave rise to a heated debate involving philosophers, theologians, and politicians. In 2009, the government presented a bill of law on ADs firmly criticized from a scientific, moral and juridical point of view because the bill's content is against the principles of Italian Constitution, Italian Code of Medical Ethics, Oviedo Convention, and official statements of many scientific societies. Although the bill has passed the Low Chamber it lies, even since, in the Senate, lacking in regard any agreement among the political parties. The purpose of this article is to highlight that, in our country, patients, relatives and doctors deserve a law not only related to the specific topic of ADs, but - as in other European countries (Germany, Spain, France, UK) - aimed to deal with the complex issue of end of life care as a whole. This law should take into account the sound evidence existing in regard to the four fundamental principles supporting the best scientific and ethical approaches to the end of life issues: shared decision making process between doctors and patients/relatives; rejection of dying process marked by the suffering; withholding/withdrawing futile treatments together with palliative sedation as two crucial contributions to suppress the patient suffering and pain; clear-cut difference between these clinical/ethical options and euthanasia. At the same time, this law should be able to provide physicians with a legal coverage to make all the clinical and ethical decisions more and more complex because of the continuous evolution of medical science on one hand, and the impressive development of biotechnology on the other hand.

  17. The role of advance directives in end-of-life decisions in Austria: survey of intensive care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schopper Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, intensive care medicine strives to define a generally accepted way of dealing with end-of-life decisions, therapy limitation and therapy discontinuation. In 2006 a new advance directive legislation was enacted in Austria. Patients may now document their personal views regarding extension of treatment. The aim of this survey was to explore Austrian intensive care physicians' experiences with and their acceptance of the new advance directive legislation two years after enactment (2008. Methods Under the aegis of the OEGARI (Austrian Society of Anaesthesiology, Resuscitation and Intensive Care an anonymised questionnaire was sent to the medical directors of all intensive care units in Austria. The questions focused on the physicians' experiences regarding advance directives and their level of knowledge about the underlying legislation. Results There were 241 questionnaires sent and 139 were turned, which was a response rate of 58%. About one third of the responders reported having had no experience with advance directives and only 9 directors of intensive care units had dealt with more than 10 advance directives in the previous two years. Life-supporting measures, resuscitation, and mechanical ventilation were the predominantly refused therapies, wishes were mainly expressed concerning pain therapy. Conclusion A response rate of almost 60% proves the great interest of intensive care professionals in making patient-oriented end-of-life decisions. However, as long as patients do not make use of their right of co-determination, the enactment of the new law can be considered only a first important step forward.

  18. Late Holocene liquefaction features in the Dominican Republic: A powerful tool for earthquake hazard assessment in the northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.P.; Prentice, C.S.; Dyer-Williams, K.; Pena, L.R.; Burr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Several generations of sand blows and sand dikes, indicative of significant and recurrent liquefaction, are preserved in the late Holocene alluvial deposits of the Cibao Valley in northern Dominican Republic. The Cibao Valley is structurally controlled by the Septentrional fault, an onshore section of the North American-Caribbean strike-slip plate boundary. The Septentrional fault was previously studied in the central part of the valley, where it sinistrally offsets Holocene terrace risers and soil horizons. In the eastern and western parts of the valley, the Septentrional fault is buried by Holocene alluvial deposits, making direct study of the structure difficult. Liquefaction features that formed in these Holocene deposits as a result of strong ground shaking provide a record of earthquakes in these areas. Liquefaction features in the eastern Cibao Valley indicate that at least one historic earthquake, probably the moment magnitude, M 8, 4 August 1946 event, and two to four prehistoric earthquakes of M 7 to 8 struck this area during the past 1100 yr. The prehistoric earthquakes appear to cluster in time and could have resulted from rupture of the central and eastern sections of the Septentrional fault circa A.D. 1200. Liquefaction features in the western Cibao Valley indicate that one historic earthquake, probably the M 8, 7 May 1842 event, and two prehistoric earthquakes of M 7-8 struck this area during the past 1600 yr. Our findings suggest that rupture of the Septentrional fault circa A.D. 1200 may have extended beyond the central Cibao Valley and generated an earthquake of M 8. Additional information regarding the age and size distribution of liquefaction features is needed to reconstruct the prehistoric earthquake history of Hispaniola and to define the long-term behavior and earthquake potential of faults associated with the North American-Caribbean plate boundary.

  19. Sigma Team for Advanced Actinide Recycle FY2015 Accomplishments and Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    noncomplexing aqueous solution and submission of this scientific breakthrough as a paper in Science; The first-ever co-crystallization of Am(VI) with UO2(NO3)2 ∙ 6H2O, opening the door to a new approach for separating hexavalent actinides as a group; Results showing that three potentially problematic metals will not present risk in ALSEP; Improvement in ALSEP contactor stripping kinetics to acceptable performance; A comparison of centrifugal contactors vs mixer-settlers showing the former performs better in ALSEP stripping; Synthesis of new mixed N,O-donor extractants with enhanced solubility and strength for selective trivalent actinide extraction; Development of computational methods showing promise in prediction of the selectivity of new extractants for trivalent actinides vs lanthanides; An order-of-magnitude improvement in aqueous Am/Eu complexation selectivity of an alternative macrocyclic stripping agent for ALSEP, potentially enabling an option for an Am product stream free from both Ln and Cm. An alternative aqueous combination of dipicolinate complexant and malonate buffer that may present options for ALSEP and TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) type separations. The ALSEP concept is advancing toward a benchtop flowsheet demonstration planned for FY 2016, and a bench-scale test bed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be employed to demonstrate at least one tandem Am oxidation and separation concept. This report outlines the goals of the STAAR, significance of achieving these goals, STAAR organization around the above aims and questions, recent highlights, and future directions. The report also includes a listing of publications, reports, patents, and dissertations.

  20. Coal liquefaction technology. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technologies and processes for converting coal to liquid chemicals and fuels. Topics include materials characterization of liquefaction processes, catalysis, pyrolysis, depolymerization, coprocessing, and integrated liquefaction. Also discussed are liquid fuel use in automobiles and power generation, low-temperature carbonization technology, multi-stage liquefaction, cost benefit analysis, and commercialization of liquefaction technology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. A modified criterion for wave-induced momentary liquefaction of sandy seabed

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Gang Qi; Fu-Ping Gao

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the wave-induced soil liquefaction plays a key role in the geotechnical design for offshore foundations. The underlying shortcomings of the existing momentary liquefaction criteria are identified and clarified by mechanism analyses and the recent field observations. A modified criterion for the wave-induced momentary liquefaction of a sandy seabed is given to describe the vertical pore-pressure distributions. An improved approximation of the momentary liquefaction depth is f...

  2. The impact of Roman Catholic moral theology on end-of-life care under the Texas Advance Directives Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, David M

    2006-04-01

    This essay reviews the Roman Catholic moral tradition surrounding treatments at the end of life together with the challenges presented to that tradition by the Texas Advance Directives Act. The impact on Catholic health care facilities and physicians, and the way in which the moral tradition should be applied under this statute, particularly with reference to the provision dealing with conflicts over end-of-life treatments, will be critically assessed. I will argue, based on the traditional treatment of end-of-life issues, that Catholic physicians and institutions should appeal to the conflict resolution process of the Advance Directives Act only under a limited number of circumstances. The implications, under the Texas statute, of varied interpretations of Pope John Paul II's recent allocution on artificial feeding and hydration in the persistent vegetative state will also be considered.

  3. Advances in the management of melanoma: targeted therapy, immunotherapy and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Emma; Lorigan, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive, immunogenic and molecularly heterogeneous disease for which most patients require systemic treatment. Recently, significant clinical breakthroughs have revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma, leading to the licensing of ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, and vemurafenib, a BRAF inhibitor used in patients whose tumors contain a V600 mutation in the BRAF gene. This recent success has led to optimism and momentum has gathered with updated trial results from these therapies, next-generation compounds that target validated molecular pathways and novel agents that are mechanistically distinct. This review summarizes the recent advances and updated results since the licensing of vemurafenib and ipilimumab, the benefits and limitations of these agents, future strategies to improve upon existing treatments and overcome acquired resistance, in-progress and future clinical trials, as well as novel therapeutic targets, pathways and therapies that hold promise in advancing clinical benefit.

  4. Japan's Sunshine Project 1988 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Describes work carried out during the year on coal liquefaction and gasification technologies, bituminous and brown coal liquefaction, development of machinery and materials for coal liquefaction plant, coal type selection studies, data collection and processing, utilization and upgrading technology of coal derived products, toxicological and environmental effects of liquefied coal, coal-based hydrogen production technology and technology for entrained flow coal gasification.

  5. Remote access directional drilling : an innovative technological advancement in directional drilling based on a collaborative and strategic R and D effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buker, M. [Phoenix Income Trust, Toronto, ON (Canada); Gillett, G. [EnCana Oil and Gas Partnership, Bonnyville, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    EnCana and Phoenix Income Trust identified an opportunity to develop a system that could reduce directional personnel in the field because of numerous rigs that were in close proximity to each other and the repetitive nature of well profiles. Directional personnel also had familiarity with drilling programs. This presentation discussed an innovative technological advancement in directional drilling based on a collaborative and strategic research and development effort between EnCana and Phoenix Income Trust called remote access directional drilling (RADD). The RADD system and process were presented in detail. Challenges that were addressed included the development of a system that could provide all the necessary drilling information remotely; establishing effective communication between the command center and rig; and training of Phoenix and EnCana personnel. The presentation also reviewed equipment solutions and re-defining job roles. A total of 265 wells have been drilled with this system at a cost savings of $350,000 and a savings of 12-15 per cent of total directional costs. It was concluded that fewer wellsite trailers are needed when field personnel is reduced, resulting in reduced cost and reduced safety liability. 2 figs.

  6. Soil liquefaction potential in Eskişehir, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tosun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction is one of the critical problems in geotechnical engineering. High ground water levels and alluvial soils have a high potential risk for damage due to liquefaction, especially in seismically active regions. Eskişehir urban area, studied in this article, is situated within the second degree earthquake region on the seismic hazard zonation map of Turkey and is surrounded by Eskişehir, North Anatolian, Kütahya and Simav Fault Zones. Geotechnical investigations are carried out in two stages: field and laboratory. In the first stage, 232 boreholes in different locations were drilled and Standard Penetration Test (SPT was performed. Test pits at 106 different locations were also excavated to support geotechnical data obtained from field tests. In the second stage, experimental studies were performed to determine the Atterberg limits and physical properties of soils. Liquefaction potential was investigated by a simplified method based on SPT. A scenario earthquake of magnitude M=6.4, produced by Eskişehir Fault Zone, was used in the calculations. Analyses were carried out for PGA levels at 0.19, 0.30 and 0.47 g. The results of the analyses indicate that presence of high ground water level and alluvial soil increase the liquefaction potential with the seismic features of the region. Following the analyses, liquefaction potential maps were produced for different depth intervals and can be used effectively for development plans and risk management practices in Eskişehir.

  7. Energy-based numerical models for assessment of soil liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Alavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents promising variants of genetic programming (GP, namely linear genetic programming (LGP and multi expression programming (MEP to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of sandy soils. Generalized LGP and MEP-based relationships were developed between the strain energy density required to trigger liquefaction (capacity energy and the factors affecting the liquefaction characteristics of sands. The correlations were established based on well established and widely dispersed experimental results obtained from the literature. To verify the applicability of the derived models, they were employed to estimate the capacity energy values of parts of the test results that were not included in the analysis. The external validation of the models was verified using statistical criteria recommended by researchers. Sensitivity and parametric analyses were performed for further verification of the correlations. The results indicate that the proposed correlations are effectively capable of capturing the liquefaction resistance of a number of sandy soils. The developed correlations provide a significantly better prediction performance than the models found in the literature. Furthermore, the best LGP and MEP models perform superior than the optimal traditional GP model. The verification phases confirm the efficiency of the derived correlations for their general application to the assessment of the strain energy at the onset of liquefaction.

  8. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  9. Advance Directives for End-of-Life Care and the Role of Health Education Specialists: Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Johnson, Maureen K.; Carter, Mary R.

    2011-01-01

    Quality end-of-life care is subjective and based on individual values and beliefs. An advance directive provides a legal means of communicating these values and beliefs, as well as preferences in regards to end-of-life care when an individual is no longer able to make his or her desires known. In many nations, advance directives are underused…

  10. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to calibrate'' the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850[degrees]F[sup +] , 1050[degrees]F[sup +], and 850 [times] 1050[degrees]F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of an Advanced Practice Nurse-Directed Transitional Care Model Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradway, Christine; Trotta, Rebecca; Bixby, M. Brian; McPartland, Ellen; Wollman, M. Catherine; Kapustka, Heidi; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe barriers and facilitators to implementing a transitional care intervention for cognitively impaired older adults and their caregivers lead by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Design and Methods: APNs implemented an evidence-based protocol to optimize transitions from hospital to home. An…

  12. 77 FR 277 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project The staff of the...) for the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project (Project), proposed by Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC...

  13. Seismic liquefaction potential assessment by using relevance vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pijush Samui

    2007-01-01

    Determining the liquefaction potential of soil is important in earthquake engineering.This study proposes the use of the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) to determine the liquefaction potential of soil by using actual cone penetration test(CPT) data.RVM is based on a Bayesian formulation of a linear model with an appropriate prior that results in a sparse representation.The results are compared with a widely used artificial neural network(ANN) model.Overall,the RVM shows good performance and is proven to be more accurate than the ANN model.It also provides probabilistic output.The model provides a viable tool for earthquake engineers to assess seismic conditions for sites that are susceptible to liquefaction.

  14. Effects of catalysts on liquefaction of Agaricus versicolor (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical liquefaction process is used for producing energy from biomass. The common reaction conditions for supercritical liquefaction process are the 240-380 °C temperature range and 5-20 Mpa pressure values range. Agaricus versicolor (L.) was liquefied by acetone in an autoclave (75 mL) under high pressure with (aluminium oxide and calcium hydroxide) and without catalyst at 290 °C for producing bio-oil. The products of liquefaction (bio-oil) were analysed and characterized using various methods including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. GC-MS identified 27 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 290 °C.

  15. Influence of clay content on wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    of measurements were carried out: (1) pore-water pressure measurements across the soil depth and (2) water-surface elevation measurements. These measurements were synchronized with video recordings of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height......:17 mmwas partially liquefied with CC as small as 2.9%. Remarks are made as to how to check for liquefaction of clayey soils exposed to waves in real-life situations......This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (CC) on liquefaction of seabed beneath progressive waves. Experiments were, for the most part, conducted with silt and silt-clay mixtures; in supplementary tests, sand-clay mixtures were used. Two types...

  16. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Current ERDA work in coal liquefaction is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. Coal liquefaction can now be achieved under more moderate processing conditions and more rapidly than was the case in the 1930's. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquid fuels also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To determine the most efficient means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Nineteen projects under development are described and progress for each in the quarter is detailed briefly. (LTN)

  17. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.

    2012-01-01

    simplified method have been developed over the years. Although simplified methods are available in calculating the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit and shear stresses induced at any point in the ground due to earthquake loading, these methods cannot be applied to all earthquakes with the same...... accuracy, also they lack the potential to predict the pore pressure developed in the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a ground response analysis to obtain pore pressures and shear stresses in the soil due to earthquake loading. Using soil historical, geological and compositional criteria......, a zone of the corridor of Tabriz urban railway line 2 susceptible to liquefaction was recognized. Then, using numerical analysis and cyclic stress method using QUAKE/W finite element code, soil liquefaction potential in susceptible zone was evaluated based on design earthquake....

  18. Overcoming gaps to advance global health equity: a symposium on new directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Chen, Lincoln

    2011-02-22

    The 20th anniversary of the groundbreaking report of the Commission on Health Research for Development inspired a Symposium to assess progress made in strengthening essential national health research capacity in developing countries and in global research partnerships. Significant aspects of the health gains achieved in the 20th century can be attributed to the advancement and translation of knowledge, and knowledge continues to occupy center stage amidst growing complexity that characterizes the global health field. The way forward will entail a reinvigoration of research-generated knowledge as a crucial ingredient for global cooperation and global health advances. To do this we will need to overcome daunting gaps, including the divides between domestic and global health, among the disciplines of research (biomedical, clinical, epidemiological, health systems), between clinical and public health approaches, public and private investments, and between knowledge gained and action implemented. Overcoming systematically these obstacles can accelerate progress towards research for equity in health and development.

  19. Overcoming gaps to advance global health equity: a symposium on new directions for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lincoln

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 20th anniversary of the groundbreaking report of the Commission on Health Research for Development inspired a Symposium to assess progress made in strengthening essential national health research capacity in developing countries and in global research partnerships. Significant aspects of the health gains achieved in the 20th century can be attributed to the advancement and translation of knowledge, and knowledge continues to occupy center stage amidst growing complexity that characterizes the global health field. The way forward will entail a reinvigoration of research-generated knowledge as a crucial ingredient for global cooperation and global health advances. To do this we will need to overcome daunting gaps, including the divides between domestic and global health, among the disciplines of research (biomedical, clinical, epidemiological, health systems, between clinical and public health approaches, public and private investments, and between knowledge gained and action implemented. Overcoming systematically these obstacles can accelerate progress towards research for equity in health and development.

  20. Liquefaction mitigation in silty soils using composite stone columns and dynamic compaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Shenthan; R.Nashed; S.Thevanayagam; G. R. Martin

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an analytical methodology to evaluate the effectiveness ofvibro stone column (S.C.) and dynamic compaction (D.C.) techniques supplemented with wick drains to densify and mitigate liquefaction in saturated sands and non-plastic silty soils. It includes the following: (i) develop numerical models to simulate and analyze soil densification during S.C. installation and D.C. process, and (ii) identify parameters controlling post-improvement soil density in both cases, and (iii) develop design guidelines for densification of silty soils using the above techniques. An analytical procedure was developed and used to simulate soil response during S.C. and D.C. installations, and the results were compared with available case history data. Important construction design parameters and soil properties that affect the effectiveness of these techniques, and construction design choices suitable for sands and non-plastic silty soils were identified.The methodology is expected to advance the use of S.C. and D.C. in silty soils reducing the reliance on expensive field trials as a design tool. Thc ultimate outcome of this research will be design charts and design guidelines for using composite stone columns and composite dynamic compaction techniques in liquefaction mitigation of saturated silty soils.

  1. A modified criterion for wave-induced momentary liquefaction of sandy seabed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Gang Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the wave-induced soil liquefaction plays a key role in the geotechnical design for offshore foundations. The underlying shortcomings of the existing momentary liquefaction criteria are identified and clarified by mechanism analyses and the recent field observations. A modified criterion for the wave-induced momentary liquefaction of a sandy seabed is given to describe the vertical pore-pressure distributions. An improved approximation of the momentary liquefaction depth is further presented. Parametric study of the effects of the saturation degree of soils indicates that this modification is significant for the evaluation of wave-induced momentary liquefaction.

  2. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  3. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Extensive research continued on catalysts based on novel anion-treated (mainly sulfated) oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron [Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/SO{sub 4}]. In addition, sulfated oxides of tin as well as molybdenum promoted iron oxides were used. Incorporation of small amounts of sulfate, molybdate, or tungstate anions by wet precipitation/impregnation methods was found to increase the surface acidic character of iron oxides; more importantly, it reduced the grain sizes significantly with corresponding increases in specific surface areas. These anion-treated iron and tin oxides were more active for direct coal liquefaction and coal-heavy oil coprocessing than their untreated counterparts. With these catalyst systems, higher conversion levels are obtained as compared to the soluble precursors of iron and molybdenum at the same catalyst metalloading (3500 ppm iron and 50 ppm molybdenum with respect to coal). Sulfated iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were equally active as coal liquefaction catalysts. The sulfate, molybdate, and tungstate anions were found to have similar promotional effects on the properties and activities of iron oxides. One step in the synthesis of anion-treated iron and tin oxides is precipitation as hydroxides using either urea or ammonium hydroxide. The catalysts prepared using urea as a precipitation agent were more reproducible than those using ammonium, hydroxide in terms of activities and properties. These catalysts/catalyst precursors were characterized by several techniques to determine their physical (size and structure related) and chemical (acidity) properties. Sulfated and molybdated iron oxides were found to have grain sizes as small as 10-20 nm. An attempt was made to correlate the physicochemical properties of these catalysts with their activity for coal liquefaction.

  4. Liquefaction Microzonation of Babol City Using Artificial Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F.; Choobbasti, A.J.; Barari, Amin

    2012-01-01

    that will be less susceptible to damage during earthquakes. The scope of present study is to prepare the liquefaction microzonation map for the Babol city based on Seed and Idriss (1983) method using artificial neural network. Artificial neural network (ANN) is one of the artificial intelligence (AI) approaches...... is proposed in this paper. To meet this objective, an effort is made to introduce a total of 30 boreholes data in an area of 7 km2 which includes the results of field tests into the neural network model and the prediction of artificial neural network is checked in some test boreholes, finally the liquefaction...

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae's for bio oil production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang

    Hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid residue, and recycling...... and 107 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the highest bio-oil yield is 38% at 350 °C and 195 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins...

  6. Liquefaction/solubilization processes of Spanish coals by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, F.; Monistrol, I.F.; Luna, N.; Fernandez, M. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1997-12-31

    Several fundamental aspects of microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization have been studied in this work. The first one is the mechanisms implicated on coal transformation. During coal solubilization, fungal cells produced extracellular peroxidase, esterase and some times phenol oxidase enzymes which appear to be involved in solubilization. Moreover, the analysis of liquefaction/solubilization products was done. In this regard, a reduction on the average size of humic acids derived from lignite was observed, probably due to depolymerization caused by microorganisms. Finally, microorganisms showed a specific adherence to the coal surface, that seems to promote the microbial attack to coal. (orig.)

  7. Direct methods for limit and shakedown analysis of structures advanced computational algorithms and material modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, Aurora; Weichert, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Articles in this book examine various materials and how to determine directly the limit state of a structure, in the sense of limit analysis and shakedown analysis. Apart from classical applications in mechanical and civil engineering contexts, the book reports on the emerging field of material design beyond the elastic limit, which has further industrial design and technological applications. Readers will discover that “Direct Methods” and the techniques presented here can in fact be used to numerically estimate the strength of structured materials such as composites or nano-materials, which represent fruitful fields of future applications.   Leading researchers outline the latest computational tools and optimization techniques and explore the possibility of obtaining information on the limit state of a structure whose post-elastic loading path and constitutive behavior are not well defined or well known. Readers will discover how Direct Methods allow rapid and direct access to requested information in...

  8. Advances in directed protein evolution by recursive genetic recombination: applications to therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, A L; Govindarajan, S; Vahle, K; Jones, J T; Heinrichs, V; Patten, P A

    2001-08-01

    Recent developments in directed evolution technologies combined with innovations in robotics and screening methods have revolutionized protein engineering. These methods are being applied broadly to many fields of biotechnology, including chemical engineering, agriculture and human therapeutics. More specifically, DNA shuffling and other methods of genetic recombination and mutation have resulted in the improvement of proteins of therapeutic interest. Optimizing genetic diversity and fitness through iterative directed evolution will accelerate improvements in engineered protein therapeutics.

  9. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  10. Production of fuels by cellulose liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, B.K.; McAuliffe, C.A. [Univ. of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    The effect of temperature on the liquefaction of cellulose was investigated in a range 200{degrees} to 350{degrees}C in aqueous medium with 5% pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, at 35 bars of hydrogen as reducing gas and a reaction time of 2 hours. Experiments were conducted in a 1 liter batch rocker autoclave reactor. The conversion increased from 46.5% at 200{degrees}C to 92.46% at 350{degrees}C, the oil yield increased from 18% at 200{degrees} to 33% at 350{degrees}C. At the high temperature, 350{degrees}C, the water soluble fraction and char formation decreased due to the conversion of the above to various gases. Moreover, ether solubles in water soluble fractions also decreased while the production of water increased from 8% at 200{degrees}C to 29% at 350{degrees}C. It suggests the possibility of removal of oxidants from the feedstocks as water. Initial dehydration reactions were obviously responsible for the high yield of water. Water yield increased gradually with the increase in temperature which was probably due to the dehydration of the intermediary products and the concurrent removal of oxygen atom as water instead of as CO or CO{sub 2}. At high temperatures, more CO{sub 2} gas was formed due to the water gas shift reaction. The formation of CO{sub 2} is favored over the formation of CO. At high temperatures more hydrocarbon gases were formed. Solvent extraction of the oils showed that the maximum percentage of carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds formed in comparison with carbonyl and neutral compounds when temperature increased.

  11. Use of Advance Directives: A Social Work Perspective on the Myth versus the Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Molly K.

    1994-01-01

    Considers Directive to Physician, Durable Power of Attorney for Healthcare Decisions, and Medical Ethics Decision Form. Notes importance of process individuals go through in defining what quality of life means to them. Sees current struggle being individual articulation of one's wishes based on personal definition of quality of life set forth in…

  12. Recent advances on Zeolite modification for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-03-01

    The increase of energy demand and global warming issues has driven studies of alternative energy sources. The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) can be an alternative energy source by (partially) replacing the use of fossil fuel which is in line with the green technology concept. However, the usage of hydrogen as a fuel has several disadvantages mainly transportation and storage related to its safety aspects. Recently, alcohol has gained attention as an energy source for fuel cell application, namely direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC). Among alcohols, high-mass energy density methanol and ethanol are widely used as direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC), respectively. Currently, the performance of DMFC is still rudimentary. Furthermore, the use of ethanol gives some additional privileges such as non-toxic property, renewable, ease of production in great quantity by the fermentation of sugar-containing raw materials. Direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) still has weakness in the low proton conductivity and high alcohol crossover. Therefore, to increase the performance of DAFC, modification using zeolite has been performed to improve proton conductivity and decrease alcohol crossover. Zeolite also has high thermal resistance properties, thereby increasing DAFC performance. This paper will discuss briefly about modification of catalyst and membrane for DAFC using zeolite. Zeolite modification effect on fuel cell performance especially proton conductivity and alcohol crossover will be presented in detail.

  13. Polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated with an advanced electrohydrodynamic direct-printing method for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hyeong Jin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2011-12-12

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) direct writing has been used in diverse microelectromechanical systems and various supplemental methods for biotechnology and electronics. In this work, we expanded the use of EHD-induced direct writing to fabricate 3D biomedical scaffolds designed as porous structures for bone tissue engineering. To prepare the scaffolds, we modified a grounded target used in conventional EHD direct printing using a poly(ethylene oxide) solution bath, elastically cushioning the plotted struts to prevent crumbling. The fabricated scaffolds were assessed for not only physical properties including surface roughness and water uptake ability but also biological capabilities by culturing osteoblast-like cells (MG63) for the EHD-plotted polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. The EHD-scaffolds showed significantly roughened surface and enhanced water-absorption ability (400% increase) compared with the pure rapid-prototyped PCL. The results of cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization analyses showed significantly enhanced biological properties of the scaffold (20 times the cell viability and 6 times the mineralization) compared with the scaffolds fabricated using RP technology. Because of the results, the modified EHD direct-writing process can be a promising method for fabricating 3D biomedical scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  14. Advancing Scientific Reasoning in Upper Elementary Classrooms: Direct Instruction Versus Task Structuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, A.W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou

    2015-01-01

    Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children’s ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 5

  15. The Crosstalk between Tissue Engineering and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Daniela P; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vítor M; Marques, Alexandra P

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs made of biotechnology-derived materials have been preferred due to their chemical and physical composition, which offers both high versatility and a support to enclose/ incorporate relevant signaling molecules and/or genes known to therapeutically induce tissue repair. Herein, a critical overview of the impact of different biotechnology-derived materials, scaffolds, and recombinant signaling molecules over the behavior of cells, another element of tissue engineered constructs, as well its regulatory role in tissue regeneration and disease progression is given. Additionally, these tissue-engineered constructs evolved to three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like models that, as an advancement of two-dimensional standard culture methods, are expected to be a valuable tool in the field of drug discovery and pharmaceutical research. Despite the improved design and conception of current proposed 3D tissue-like models, advanced control systems to enable and accelerate streamlining and automation of the numerous labor-intensive steps intrinsic to the development of tissue-engineered constructs are still to be achieved. In this sense, this review intends to present the biotechnology- derived materials that are being explored in the field of tissue engineering to generate 3D tissue-analogues and briefly highlight their foremost breakthroughs in tissue regeneration and drug discovery. It also aims to reinforce that the crosstalk between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology has been fostering the outcomes of tissue engineering approaches through the use of biotechnology-derived signaling molecules. Gene delivery/therapy is also discussed as a forefront area that represents another cross point between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology, in which nucleic acids can be considered a "super pharmaceutical" to drive biological responses, including tissue regeneration.

  16. Determination of Liquefaction Potential using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F; Choobbasti, A.J; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose an alternative general regression model based on neural networks, which enables analysis of summary data obtained by liquefaction analysis according to usual methods. For that purpose, the data from some thirty boreholes made during field investigations in Babol, in the Iranian...

  17. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of coal liquefaction pilot plants supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, history and progress during the July-September 1979 quarter. Supporting projects such as test facilities, refining and upgrading coal liquids, catalyst development, and gasification of residues from coal gasification plants are discussed similarly. (LTN)

  18. Finite Element Modelling of Seismic Liquefaction in Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galavi, V.; Petalas, A.; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical aspects of seismic liquefaction in soils as implemented in the finite element code, PLAXIS, is described in this paper. After description of finite element equations of dynamic problems, three practical dynamic boundary conditions, namely viscous boundary tractions, tied degrees of freedom

  19. Surfactant-assisted liquefaction of particulate carbonaceous substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A slurry of carbonaceous particles such as coal containing an oil soluble polar substituted oleophilic surfactant, suitably an amine substituted long chain hydrocarbon, is liquefied at high temperature and high hydrogen presence. The pressure of surfactant results in an increase in yield and the conversion product contains a higher proportion of light and heavy oils and less asphaltene than products from other liquefaction processes.

  20. Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of microalgae in sub- and supercritical ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Qiao; Chen, Liang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Changsha (China)

    2011-01-15

    Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of Spirulina, a kind of high-protein microalgae, were investigated with the sub- and supercritical ethanol as solvent in a 1000 mL autoclave. The influences of various liquefaction parameters on the yields of products (bio-oil and residue) from the liquefaction of Spirulina were studied, such as the reaction temperature (T), the S/L ratio (R{sub 1}, solid: Spirulina, liquid: ethanol), the solvent filling ratio (R{sub 2}) and the type and dosage of catalyst. Without catalyst, the bio-oil yields were in the range of 35.4 wt.% and 45.3 wt.% depending on the changes of T, R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}. And the bio-oil yields increased generally with increasing T and R{sub 2}, while the bio-oil yields reduced with increasing R{sub 1}. The FeS catalyst was certified to be an ideal catalyst for the liquefaction of Spirulina microalgae for its advantages on promoting bio-oil production and suppressing the formation of residue. The optimal dosage of catalyst (FeS) was ranging from 5-7 wt.%. The elemental analyses and FT-IR and GC-MS measurements for the bio-oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude Spirulina sample and fatty acid ethyl ester compounds were dominant in the bio-oils, irrespective of whether catalyst was used. (author)

  1. The making of Andersen’s liquefaction chart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation stabilizing soil response.The process of obtaining the original chart has bee...

  2. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Prieto, S.; Harrison, S.B.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Preliminary chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. [Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-derived materials from experimental runs of Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated's (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. This process differs from two-stage coal liquefaction processes in that catalyst is used in both stages. Samples from both the first and second stages were class-fractionated by alumina adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; direct probe, low voltage mass spectrometry; and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Mutagenicity assays were performed with the crude and class fractions in Salmonella typhimurium, TA98. Preliminary results of chemical analyses indicate that >80% CTSL materials from both process stages were aliphatic hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Furthermore, the gross and specific chemical composition of process materials from the first stage were very similar to those of the second stage. In general, the unfractionated materials were only slightly active in the TA98 mutagenicity assay. Like other coal liquefaction materials investigated in this laboratory, the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) class fractions were responsible for the bulk of the mutagenic activity of the crudes. Finally, it was shown that this activity correlated with the presence of amino-PAH. 20 figures, 9 tables.

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Review of Recent Advancements

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gomez Palacio Schjetnan; Jamshid Faraji; Metz, Gerlinde A.; Masami Tatsuno; Artur Luczak

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technique to treat a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke. The pathological processes following stroke may provide an exemplary system to investigate how tDCS promotes neuronal plasticity and functional recovery. Changes in synaptic function after stroke, such as reduced excitability, formation of aberrant connections, and deregulated plastic modifications, have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. Howe...

  5. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu, E-mail: triace@163.com; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  6. Experimental Advances Towards Neural Regeneration from Induced Stem Cells to Direct In Vivo Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dametti, Sara; Faravelli, Irene; Ruggieri, Margherita; Ramirez, Agnese; Nizzardo, Monica; Corti, Stefania

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal loss is a common substrate of many neurological diseases that still lack effective treatments and highly burden lives of affected individuals. The discovery of self-renewing stem cells within the central nervous system (CNS) has opened the doors to the possibility of using the plasticity of CNS as a potential strategy for the development of regenerative therapies after injuries. The role of neural progenitor cells appears to be crucial, but insufficient in reparative processes after damage. In addition, the mechanisms that regulate these events are still largely unknown. Stem cell-based therapeutic approaches have primarily focused on the use of either induced pluripotent stem cells or induced neural stem cells as sources for cell transplantation. More recently, in vivo direct reprogramming of endogenous CNS cells into multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells has been proposed as an alternative strategy that could overcome the limits connected with both the invasiveness of exogenous cell transplantation and the technical issues of in vitro reprogramming (i.e., the time requested and the limited available amount of directly induced neuronal cells). In this review, we aim to highlight the recent studies on in vivo direct reprogramming, focusing on astrocytes conversion to neurons or to neural stem/precursors cells, in the perspective of future therapeutic purposes for neurological disorders.

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  8. Fairly direct hit. Advances in imaging of shotgun projectiles in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, Sebastian [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Peters, Alexander [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Klarhoefer, Markus [Siemens Healthcare, Zurich (Switzerland); Bolliger, Stephan A.; Thali, Michael J. [University of Zurich, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Anderson, Suzanne [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University of Notre Dame Australia, Radiology, Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Federal Institute of Technology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the magnetic properties of different types of projectiles and qualify the metal artefact reduction technique for diagnostic and/or forensic MRI. Ten different projectiles embedded in ordnance gelatine blocks underwent an in vitro 1.5-T MR study with seven sequences including a recently developed metal artefact reduction sequence (Advanced WARP) combining VAT (view-angle-tilting) and SEMAC (slice-encoding metal-artefact-correction). Resulting image quality (five-point scale: 1=best; 5=worst) was scored. Quantifiable magnetic characteristics were correlated with qualitative rating of the MR sequences and torque dislodgment. Metal artefact reduction sequence (median: 2.5) significantly (p < 0.001) improves depiction of projectiles in comparison to all other MR pulse sequences (median: 4.75). Images from diamagnetic composed bullets (median: 2) are much less disturbed compared to magnetic attracted ones (median: 5). Correlation (0.623) between deflection angle measurement (ferromagnetic mean 84.2 ; paramagnetic 62 ; diamagnetic mean 0 ) and median qualitative image quality was highly significant (p = 0.027). Torque dislodgement was distinct for elongated magnetic attracted projectiles. Significant improvement of MR imaging of projectiles using metal artefact reduction techniques has important implications for diagnostic/forensic work-up. The correlations between magnetic attraction force, deflection-angle results and image properties demonstrate that the MR safety of projectiles can be estimated with one of these methods. (orig.)

  9. Advances in liver-directed gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by non-viral delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Buyun; Li, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Lixia; Zhai, Guangxi

    2012-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignancy with a high mortality. Gene therapy provides a promising way for the treatment of HCC. Efficient gene delivery system, suitable gene target and appropriate way of administration together determine the effect of gene therapy for HCC. In recent years, employing non-viral gene delivery systems in gene therapy for HCC has attracted a lot of attention. Compared with viral vectors, non-viral gene delivery systems are nearly non-immunogenic, relatively safer, less expensive to produce and can carry a good many of genetic materials. But the transfection efficiency of these vectors still needs to be improved. And the liver targeting is another problem that needs to be solved. Attaching ligands to the non-viral vectors to enhance the targeting ability to the specific receptor and targeting to molecular targets of HCC are the effective strategies. Adopting suitable ways of administration is also a factor that plays an important role to achieve liver targeting. This review introduced the advances in liver-targeted gene therapy by non-viral vectors including the efforts to overcome the low transfection efficiency and enhance the liver targeting effect.

  10. Advanced oxidation processes applied to tannery wastewater containing Direct Black 38-Elimination and degradation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Ticiane Pokrywiecki [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: sauer@enq.ufsc.br; Casaril, Leonardo [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: leonardocasaril@ufsc.grad.br; Oberziner, Andre Luiz Bertoldi [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: andreoberzine@hotmail.com; Jose, Humberto Jorge [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: humberto@enq.ufsc.br; Moreira, Regina de Fatima Peralta Muniz [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario-Trindade, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)]. E-mail: regina@enq.ufsc.br

    2006-07-31

    The application of advanced oxidation processes (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/UV) to treat tannery wastewater was investigated. The experiments were performed in batch and continuous UV reactors, using TiO{sub 2} as a catalyst. The effect of the hydrogen peroxide concentration on the degradation kinetics was evaluated in the concentration range 0-1800 mg L{sup -1}. We observed that the degradation rate increased as the hydrogen peroxide increased, but excessive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration was detrimental because it acted as a hydroxyl radical scavenger since it can compete for the active sites of the TiO{sub 2}. In the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV treatment, the COD removal reached around 60% in 4 h of reaction, indicating that the principal pollutants were chemically degraded as demonstrated by the results for BOD, COD, nitrate, ammonium and analysis of the absorbance at 254 nm. Artemia salina toxicity testing performed in parallel showed an increase in toxicity after AOP treatment of the tannery wastewater.

  11. Advanced Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings: Performance and Future Directions (Invited paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and performance will be emphasized. Advanced thermal barrier coatings have been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability and lower conductivity. The coating systems have been demonstrated for high temperature combustor applications. For thermal barrier coatings designed for turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability. Erosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with a current emphasis on the toughness improvements using a combined rare earth- and transition metal-oxide doping approach. The performance of the toughened thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in burner rig and laser heat-flux rig simulated engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic durability. The erosion, impact and high heat-flux damage mechanisms of the thermal barrier coatings will also be described.

  12. [Studies on Latin American freshwater macroinvertebrates: recent advances and future directions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Latin America is an active scientific research area, in particular with respect to the study of freshwater macroinvertebrates. The present serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights recent research projects on macroinvertebrates in Latin America. As part of this introduction, we conducted a literature analysis of the last 14 years of publications from the region that highlights the steady increase in publications on macroinvertebrates. Most studies from 2000-2013 were conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, and Costa Rica, and were focused on taxonomy and different issues related to biodiversity and distribution. There was a tendency for the use of local low-impact journals, but high impact publications were also found. This special issue contributes with 18 studies conducted in eight different countries. Two major topics are covered in the special issue, the ecology and natural history of aquatic macroinvertebrates and their use in the evaluation of anthropogenic impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Based on the literature review and contributions included in the issue, we discuss research needs for the region. Identified needs include: (1) to continue emphasizing taxonomic research, (2) assess mechanisms responsible for changes in biodiversity, (3) assess the role of macroinvertebrates in ecosystem processes and function, (4) improve biomonitoring efforts beyond unimetric indices, (5) the need for an ecosystem perspective, and (6) establishing long-term studies. This special issue is an initial effort to advance our knowledge on freshwater macroinvertebrates in Latin America.

  13. Advanced design of conductive polymeric arrays with controlled electrical resistance using direct laser interference patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasagni, A.F. [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science, Chair of Functional Materials, Building C 6.3, 7. Stock, P.O. Box 15 11 50, Saarbruecken (Germany); George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Acevedo, D.F. [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science, Chair of Functional Materials, Building C 6.3, 7. Stock, P.O. Box 15 11 50, Saarbruecken (Germany); Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Departamento de Quimica, Cordoba (Argentina); Barbero, C.A. [Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Departamento de Quimica, Cordoba (Argentina); Muecklich, F. [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science, Chair of Functional Materials, Building C 6.3, 7. Stock, P.O. Box 15 11 50, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    In this work, we report a simple method for the fabrication of regular conducting polyaniline periodic arrays on large areas of glass or gold substrates using direct laser interference patterning. Additionally, by controlling the laser intensity it is possible to precisely tune the width of the periodic arrays and consequently the electrical resistance of the polyaniline strips. The periodic arrays were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, white light interferometry and cyclic voltametry. The great importance of the method reported lies both in its versatility and the ability to control the properties of the modified polymer electrodes with high precision. This is important for prospective applications such as electrochemical sensors. (orig.)

  14. 41 CFR 302-10.301 - May I receive an advance of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency? 302-10.301 Section 302-10.301... TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE Advance of Funds § 302-10.301 May I receive an advance of funds when payment is...

  15. Advances in directed self assembly integration and manufacturability at 300 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsack, Benjamen; Somervell, Mark; Muramatsu, Makato; Tanouchi, Keiji; Kitano, Takahiro; Nishimura, Eiichi; Yatsuda, Koichi; Nagahara, Seiji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Akai, Keiji; Ozawa, Mariko; Romo Negreira, Ainhoa; Tahara, Shigeru; Nafus, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) has the potential to extend scaling for both line/space and hole patterns. DSA has shown the capability for pitch reduction (multiplication), hole shrinks, CD self-healing as well as a pathway towards LWR and pattern collapse improvement [1-10]. TEL has developed a DSA development ecosystem (collaboration with customers, consortia, inspection vendors and material suppliers) to successfully demonstrate directed PS-PMMA DSA patterns using chemo-epitaxy (lift-off and etch guide) and grapho-epitaxy integrations on 300 mm wafers. New processes are being developed to simplify process integration, to reduce defects and to address design integration challenges with the long term goal of robust manufacturability. For hole DSA applications, a wet development process has been developed that enables traditional post-develop metrology through the high selectivity removal of PMMA cylindrical cores. For line/ space DSA applications, new track, cleans and etch processes have been developed to improve manufacturability. In collaboration with universities and consortia, fundamental process studies and simulations are used to drive process improvement and defect investigation. To extend DSA resolution beyond a PS-PMMA system, high chi materials and processes are also explored. In this paper, TEL's latest process solutions for both hole and line/space DSA process integrations are presented.

  16. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis - An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    Liquefaction features can be used in many field settings to estimate the recurrence interval and magnitude of strong earthquakes through much of the Holocene. These features include dikes, craters, vented sand, sills, and laterally spreading landslides. The relatively high seismic shaking level required for their formation makes them particularly valuable as records of strong paleo-earthquakes. This state-of-the-art summary for using liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic interpretation and analysis takes into account both geological and geotechnical engineering perspectives. The driving mechanism for formation of the features is primarily the increased pore-water pressure associated with liquefaction of sand-rich sediment. The role of this mechanism is often supplemented greatly by the direct action of seismic shaking at the ground surface, which strains and breaks the clay-rich cap that lies immediately above the sediment that liquefied. Discussed in the text are the processes involved in formation of the features, as well as their morphology and characteristics in field settings. Whether liquefaction occurs is controlled mainly by sediment grain size, sediment packing, depth to the water table, and strength and duration of seismic shaking. Formation of recognizable features in the field generally requires a low-permeability cap above the sediment that liquefied. Field manifestations are controlled largely by the severity of liquefaction and the thickness and properties of the low-permeability cap. Criteria are presented for determining whether observed sediment deformation in the field originated by seismically induced liquefaction. These criteria have been developed mainly by observing historic effects of liquefaction in varied field settings. The most important criterion is that a seismic liquefaction origin requires widespread, regional development of features around a core area where the effects are most severe. In addition, the features must have a

  17. A preliminary study on the rheological properties of human ejaculate and changes during liquefaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-DeShi; Lan-FengPan; Fei-KunYang; Si-QiWang

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To study the changes in rheological properties, namely the parameters of the hysteresis loops and yield stress versus time for human semen after ejaculation. Methods: Ejaculates were obtained from volunteers and immediately put into the test cup of a Brookfield Programmable DV- 11 Rheometer, by which the hysteresis loops and yield stress were determined. Results: (1) Yield stress values dropped down from more than 3000 mPa to 60 mPa inabout 5 minutes after ejaculation; (2) The shape of the hysteresis loops of shear stress versus shear rate was changed from the counter-clockwise direction, that enclosed a large area, into the clockwise direction, that enclosed a very small area. Conclusion: Human ejaculate originally possesses semi-solid or visco-elastic body behavior and in 5 minutes after liquefaction, it becomes a thixotropic fluid or shearing thinning fluid with very low viscosity. (Asian J Androl 2004 Dec; 6: 299-304)

  18. Testing the advanced oxidation processes on the degradation of Direct Blue 86 dye in wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hassaan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work tests the viability of applying ozone (O3 and O3 combined with ultraviolet (UV to degrade the content of synthetic wastewater containing Direct Blue 86 (DB-86 dye. The tested parameters, which included pH, initial concentration of DB-86 dye and time of reaction, were tested in a batch reactor to achieve optimum operating circumstances. The results obtained in this study showed that pH and initial concentration of DB-86 dye controlled the efficiency of the decolorization process. The maximum decolorization was obtained at pH 11. More than 98% of color removal was reported after 35 min of O3 treatment (for 100 ppm dye concentration. Kinetic analyses showed that color removal of DB-86 dye followed first-order kinetics. The rate of color removal was primarily relative to the initial DB-86 dye concentration. The effect of seawater on the efficiency of the process was studied. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum analysis of treated synthetic DB-86 dye solution was performed at the end of the pre-treatment time to study the final degradation products of DB-86 dye. The obtained results revealed that ozonation processes had reduced the zooplankton toxicity belonging to the raw solution and had improved the biodegradability of the DB-86 dye wastewater.

  19. Advances in Virus-Directed Therapeutics against Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sajal K.; Perrine, Susan P.; Faller, Douglas V.

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific” target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:22500168

  20. Advances in Virus-Directed Therapeutics against Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal K. Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific” target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies.

  1. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Review of Recent Advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Palacio Schjetnan, Andrea; Faraji, Jamshid; Metz, Gerlinde A.; Tatsuno, Masami; Luczak, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technique to treat a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke. The pathological processes following stroke may provide an exemplary system to investigate how tDCS promotes neuronal plasticity and functional recovery. Changes in synaptic function after stroke, such as reduced excitability, formation of aberrant connections, and deregulated plastic modifications, have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. However, if tDCS could counteract these negative changes by influencing the system's neurophysiology, it would contribute to the formation of functionally meaningful connections and the maintenance of existing pathways. This paper is aimed at providing a review of underlying mechanisms of tDCS and its application to stroke. In addition, to maximize the effectiveness of tDCS in stroke rehabilitation, future research needs to determine the optimal stimulation protocols and parameters. We discuss how stimulation parameters could be optimized based on electrophysiological activity. In particular, we propose that cortical synchrony may represent a biomarker of tDCS efficacy to indicate communication between affected areas. Understanding the mechanisms by which tDCS affects the neural substrate after stroke and finding ways to optimize tDCS for each patient are key to effective rehabilitation approaches. PMID:23533955

  2. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Review of Recent Advancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gomez Palacio Schjetnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a promising technique to treat a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke. The pathological processes following stroke may provide an exemplary system to investigate how tDCS promotes neuronal plasticity and functional recovery. Changes in synaptic function after stroke, such as reduced excitability, formation of aberrant connections, and deregulated plastic modifications, have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. However, if tDCS could counteract these negative changes by influencing the system’s neurophysiology, it would contribute to the formation of functionally meaningful connections and the maintenance of existing pathways. This paper is aimed at providing a review of underlying mechanisms of tDCS and its application to stroke. In addition, to maximize the effectiveness of tDCS in stroke rehabilitation, future research needs to determine the optimal stimulation protocols and parameters. We discuss how stimulation parameters could be optimized based on electrophysiological activity. In particular, we propose that cortical synchrony may represent a biomarker of tDCS efficacy to indicate communication between affected areas. Understanding the mechanisms by which tDCS affects the neural substrate after stroke and finding ways to optimize tDCS for each patient are key to effective rehabilitation approaches.

  3. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz

    2014-08-13

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs.

  4. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-07-14

    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society.

  5. Advanced feeder-free generation of induced pluripotent stem cells directly from blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokovic, Ras; Weltner, Jere; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Salomaa, Veikko; Jalanko, Anu; Otonkoski, Timo; Kyttälä, Aija

    2014-12-01

    Generation of validated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for biobanking is essential for exploring the full potential of iPSCs in disease modeling and drug discovery. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are attractive targets for reprogramming, because blood is collected by a routine clinical procedure and is a commonly stored material in biobanks. Generation of iPSCs from blood cells has previously been reported using integrative retroviruses, episomal Sendai viruses, and DNA plasmids. However, most of the published protocols require expansion and/or activation of a specific cell population from PBMCs. We have recently collected a PBMC cohort from the Finnish population containing more than 2,000 subjects. Here we report efficient generation of iPSCs directly from PBMCs in feeder-free conditions in approximately 2 weeks. The produced iPSC clones are pluripotent and transgene-free. Together, these properties make this novel method a powerful tool for large-scale reprogramming of PBMCs and for iPSC biobanking.

  6. Rapid and solvent-saving liquefaction of woody biomass using microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zexiang; Wu, Zhengguo; Fan, Liwei; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Yiqiang; Zheng, Deyong; Wang, Siqun

    2016-01-01

    A novel process to rapidly liquefy sawdust using reduced quantities of solvent, was successfully carried out via microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology (MUAT) in a sulphuric acid/polyethylene glycol 400-glycerol catalytic system. The influences of some key parameters on the liquefaction yield were investigated. The results showed that compared with traditional liquefaction, the introduction of MUAT allowed the solvent dosage to be halved and shortened the liquefaction time from 60 to 20 min. The liquefaction yield reached 91% under the optimal conditions. However, the influence on the yield of some parameters such as catalyst concentration, was similar to that of traditional liquefaction, indicating that the application of MUAT possibly only intensified heat and mass transfer rather than altering either the degradation mechanism or pathway. The introduction of MUAT as a process intensification technology has good industrial application potential for woody biomass liquefaction.

  7. Soil Liquefaction in Padang due to Padang Earthquake 30September 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakam A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Padang earthquake of M7.6 on 30 September 2009 (30S’09 caused damage to buildings, houses, public water facilities, and road ways. Several buildings were damaged due to liquefaction. This paper describes the liquefaction potential in Padang based on the site observation and analytical examination. The liquefaction was observed at a number of sites including roadway, river bank and play ground. The samples of sand boils were sent to the laboratory to determine the soil grain size distributions. It is found that the fine-sand (diameter less than 0.4 mm content of the liquefied soil samples is more than 65%. This type of soils satisfies the criteria of liquefaction susceptibility. Based on the field soil test data, the liquefaction potential of sites is also examined. The results show that the observed locations have liquefaction potential.

  8. Liquefaction hazard potential in north eastern united arab emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Homoud, A.

    2003-04-01

    The United Arab Emirates is adjacent to the Iranian plateau characterized by very high density of active and recent faults. The Iranian plateau is one of the seismically active areas of the world and frequently suffers destructive and catastrophic earthquakes that cause heavy loss of human life and widespread damage. Therefore seismic risk in the North Eastern UAE (Sharjah and Dubai) is due to the neighboring very active Iranian seismotectonic province. As almost all foundation soils in the UAE are cohesionless material, which is clearly identified as recent fill deposits in major industrial and residential areas, and given the rapid on-shore infrastructure developments in the North Eastern UAE, and due to the lack of geo-hazards maps, it is considered vital to develop liquefaction hazard maps for these areas. The earthquake risk was brought to the attention of the public and the government upon the recent March 11, 2002 earthquake of magnitude 5.1 on Richter Scale that struck the northern emirates and caused slight damages. Initial seismic hazard assessment studies showed that Design Horizontal Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) in Sharjah and Dubai with 90% probabilities of non-exceedence in 50 years is around 200 cm/sec^2. This study is concerned with the development of liquefaction hazard maps in North Eastern Emirates UAE Cities of Sharjah and Dubai. Liquefaction hazard potential for various soil deposits in these cities is evaluated for different Peak Ground Acceleation Values. Data from thorough geotechnical studies were evaluated. This include boreholes drilling (with SPT tests) and shear strength for representative sand samples taken from several boreholes and at different depths. Liquefaction hazard potential is evaluated at representative sites in the city of Dubai and Sharjah using the state of the art liquefaction potential evaluation methods (e.g. Seed's cyclic stress ratio approach). Results indicate clearly that the coastal areas have a high potential

  9. A genetic-algorithm approach for assessing the liquefaction potential of sandy soils

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, G.; Akyol, E.

    2010-01-01

    The determination of liquefaction potential is required to take into account a large number of parameters, which creates a complex nonlinear structure of the liquefaction phenomenon. The conventional methods rely on simple statistical and empirical relations or charts. However, they cannot characterise these complexities. Genetic algorithms are suited to solve these types of problems. A genetic algorithm-based model has been developed to determine the liquefaction potential by confirming Cone...

  10. Evaluation of Liquefaction Return Period for Bangalore Based on Standard Penetration Test Data: Performance Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Vipin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The conventional liquefaction evaluation is based on a deterministic approach. However in this method the uncertainty in the earthquake loading is not properly taken into account. However recent research in this field indicates that this uncertainty in the earthquake loading has to be considered in the liquefaction potential evaluation. Moreover the evaluation of liquefaction return period is not possible in the conventional deterministic methods. This study explained the methods for evaluating the probability of liquefaction and the return period of liquefaction based on probabilistic approach. Approach: In this study the geotechnical data was collected from 450 bore holes in Bangalore, India, covering an area of 220 km2. The seismic hazard analysis for the study area is carried out using Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA and the peak acceleration at ground surface was evaluated for site class-D after considering local site effects. For assessment of site class, shear wave velocity profiles in the city had been obtained using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW survey. Based on this data the probabilistic liquefaction analysis was done to evaluate the probability of liquefaction in the study area. Based on the performance based approach the liquefaction return period for the study area was also evaluated. Results: The results showed the variation of liquefaction susceptibility for the study area. The corrected standard penetration values required to prevent the liquefaction for return periods of 475 and 2500 years were also presented here. Conclusion/Recommendations: The spatial variation of probability of liquefaction and the factor of safety against liquefaction evaluated using the two methods match well for the study area.

  11. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA)); Goldberg, P.M. (eds.) (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  12. Advancing user experience research to facilitate and enable patient-centered research: current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction and related areas of user experience (UX) research, such as human factors, workflow evaluation, and data visualization, are thus essential to presenting data in ways that can further the analysis of complex data sets such as those used in patient-centered research. However, a review of available data on the state of UX research as it relates to patient-centered research demonstrates a significant underinvestment and consequently a large gap in knowledge generation. In response, this report explores trends in funding and research productivity focused on UX and patient-centered research and then presents a set of recommendations to advance innovation at this important intersection point. Ultimately, the aim is to catalyze a community-wide dialogue concerning future directions for research and innovation in UX as it applies to patient-centered research.

  13. Application of effect-directed analysis to identify mutagenic nitrogenous disinfection by-products of advanced oxidation drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vughs, D; Baken, K A; Kolkman, A; Martijn, A J; de Voogt, P

    2016-07-22

    Advanced oxidation processes are important barriers for organic micropollutants in (drinking) water treatment. It is however known that medium pressure UV/H2O2 treatment may lead to mutagenicity in the Ames test, which is no longer present after granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Many nitrogen-containing disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) result from the reaction of photolysis products of nitrate with (photolysis products of) natural organic material (NOM) during medium pressure UV treatment of water. Identification of the N-DBPs and the application of effect-directed analysis to combine chemical screening results with biological activity would provide more insight into the relation of specific N-DBPs with the observed mutagenicity and was the subject of this study. To this end, fractions of medium pressure UV-treated and untreated water extracts were prepared using preparative HPLC and tested using the Ames fluctuation test. In addition, high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on all fractions to assess the presence of N-DBPs. Based on toxicity data and read across analysis, we could identify five N-DBPs that are potentially genotoxic and were present in relatively high concentrations in the fractions in which mutagenicity was observed. The results of this study offer opportunities to further evaluate the identity and potential health concern of N-DBPs formed during advanced oxidation UV drinking water treatment.

  14. Liquefaction Susceptibility of Soils With Clay Particles from Earthquake-induced Landslides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-sheng; JIANG Xin; ZHANG Xu

    2007-01-01

    The main reason for earthquake-induced landslides is liquefaction of soil, a process considered to occur mostly in sandy soils. Liquefaction can occur in clayey soils has also been reported and proven in the recent literature, but liquefaction in clayey soils still remains unclear and there are many questions that need to be addressed. In order to address these questions, an depth study on the liquefaction potential of clayey soils was conducted on the basis of field investigation and a series of laboratory tests on the samples collected from the sliding surface of the landslides. The liquefaction potential of the soils was studied by means of undrained cyclic ring-shear tests. Research results show that the liquefaction potential of sandy soils is higher than that of clayey soils given the same void ratio;the soil resistance to liquefaction rises with an increase in plasticity for clayey soils; relation between plasticity index and the liquefaction potential of soil can be used in practical application to estimate the liquefaction potential of soil.

  15. Engineering of Ground for Liquefaction Mitigation Using Granular Columnar Inclusions: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Liquefaction was the most hazardous damage during an earthquake. Ground improvement techniques were employed to mitigate liquefaction hazards. Most common methods to improve engineering properties of soils are densification, reinforcement, grouting/mixing and drainage. Among various remedial measures available, installation of columnar granular inclusions is the most widely adopted method for liquefaction mitigation. Approach: Columnar granular inclusions function as drains and permit rapid dissipation of earthquake induced pore pressures by virtue of their high permeability. Results: One of the chief benefits of ground treatment with granular piles is the densification of in situ ground by which the in-situ properties of the ground get modified to mitigate liquefaction potential. Further, the very high deformation modulus and stiffness of the granular pile material provide reinforcement for the in situ soil and offer another mechanism to mitigate liquefaction. The study described briefly the phenomenon of liquefaction and the associated features. A short discussion on various ground improvement methods available for liquefaction mitigation was presented highlighting the importance of columnar inclusions. Construction methods of different granular columnar inclusions like sand compaction piles/ granular piles were discussed briefly. Recent developments in the research of columnar granular inclusions as liquefaction counter measures were presented in relation to physical, numerical and analytical model studies. Conclusion/Recommendations: Columnar granular inclusions were demonstrated to be very effective for liquefaction mitigation in different case studies and research investigations.

  16. Characteristics estimation of coal liquefaction residue; Sekitan ekika zansa seijo no suisan ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itonaga, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The paper studied a possibility of estimating characteristics of coal liquefaction residue from liquefaction conditions in the case of fixing coal kind in the NEDOL process coal liquefaction PSU. Wyoming coal was used for the study, and the already proposed simplified liquefaction reaction models were used. Among material balances explained by the models, those of asphaltene, preasphaltene, THF insoluble matters are concerned with residue composition. Ash content is separately calculated from ash balance. Reaction velocity constants of simplified liquefaction reaction models which influence the residue composition were obtained by the multiple regression method from experimental results in the past. The estimation expression of residue viscosity was introduced from residue ash/composition. When the residue composition is estimated by the model from liquefaction conditions, and the residue viscosity is obtained using it, the higher the liquefaction temperature is, the higher the residue viscosity is. The result obtained well agreed the measuring result. The simplified liquefaction model of a certain coal kind has been established, and characteristics of residue can be estimated even at liquefaction conditions which have never been experienced before if there is a certain amount of the accumulated data on residue composition/characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Coal Liquefaction by Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuying; Wu, Peng; Gu, Fan

    2013-07-01

    An innovative method for coal liquefaction by using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in a short reaction time was developed. Using tetralin as the reaction medium, DBD plasma as the energy source, and a reaction time of 10 min at 140°C, up to 10% of coal was converted to liquid material. The results showed the feasibility of coal's liquefaction by DBD plasma under relatively moderate conditions. Simultaneously, it was clarified that the effect of DBD plasma treatment was opposed to the thermal effect of heating. An acid plasma sheath could be formed on the coal powder surface in DBD conditions, liquefied reactions could be carried out in the absence of inorganic acid, and the products were nearly neutral and with low causticity.

  18. INVESTIGATION INTO NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION METHODS, LNG TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan AVCI

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG processes are very new in Turkey. The Government of Turkey, due to diversification of supply and balancing of seasonal load, decided to import LNG from Algeria. The first shipment in Marmara Ereğli import terminal has been carried out in the August the 3 rd, 1994. LNG after regasification will be injected into the main transmission pipeline. The share of LNG in the world natural gas trade was approixmately 22.1% in 1988. According to the forecast, LNG share will be rapidly spreading all over the world in near future. In this paper, treatment, liquefaction, transport, storage, regasification, distribution and utilisation of LNG are examined. Particular attention has given into liquefaction of natural gas.

  19. Colombian coal liquefaction and its coprocessing with Venezuelan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Nagaishi, H. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Ishiguro, H. [Nippon Kokan K.K. Kawasaki (JP)] (and others)

    1999-09-01

    Titiribi coal from Colombia shows an excellent reactivity to liquefaction and coprocessing. Anthracene oil was excellent as a vehicle oil to facilitate the liquefaction reaction during the initial stage at 400{sup o}C. In the case of coprocessing with Morichal crude oil and red-mud/sulfur catalyst, the maximum conversion of Titiribi coal was ca. 79 wt% daf at 400{sup o}C and ca. 93 wt% daf at 450{sup o}C. The hydrogen consumption in the presence of Morichal crude oil is lower than that in the presence of anthracene oil. It is considered to be the effect of hydrogen sulfide and the hydrogen donor ability of Morichal crude oil. (author)

  20. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  1. Development of computer simulator for coal liquefaction reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yawata, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Ohi, S.; Itho, H.; Hiraide, M. [Nippon Oil Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The computer simulator for a coal liquefaction reactor is a useful engineering tool to analyse the data of such reactors. The authors applied this technique to a reactor in the NEDOL process to predict the performance of the reactor, and to assist in the design of a reactor for demonstration plant. The development program of the simulator and its utilization plan are discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  3. Advances and future directions towards virtual maintenance technology%虚拟维修技术研究与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦玉民; 张琦; 屈宏伟

    2011-01-01

    As a keynote future direction towards virtual reality technology,the virtual maintenance technology, which possesses such advantages as high integration,strong interactivity and economical efficiency, has been broadly applied in academic researches, industrial practices and software systems. Through basic elements and vital technologies highlighted on virtual maintain, the advantages and differences among different methods are analyzed and compared in terms of research advances. By summarizing the critical features of virtual maintenance technology, the future directions in this area are pinpointed.%虚拟维修技术作为虚拟现实技术中的一个重要发展方向,以集成度高、交互性强、经济高效等优点在学术研究、工业应用、软件系统有着广泛的应用,通过归纳研究虚拟维修所包含的主要内容及其关键技术,结合目前研究现状,分析比较了其各方法的优势与区别,总结了虚拟维修技术的主要特点,并对虚拟维修技术发展进行展望.

  4. Technologies of liquefaction of bamboo and preparation of adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwen SUN; Xiaoke LI; Qian ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The technology of liquefying processed-waste bamboo with phenol is investigated by single factor trials and an orthogonal design. We studied the preparation technology and properties of adhesives from this phe-nol-liquefied bamboo with formaldehyde (BPF). The results show that temperature has a significant effect on liquefaction. The effect of the mass ratio of phenol to bamboo comes second and the catalyst dosage within the range of 2%-4% is the least effective. The optimum conditions of liquefaction are as follows: a mass ratio of phenol to bamboo 3.5, a catalyst dosage of 4%, liquefying temperature 145℃ and liquefying time 60 min. The lique-faction rate of bamboo reached 99.1%. For the prepara-tion of the adhesive, a mass ratio of liquefied bamboo products to formaldehyde (37%) is 100 to 164.8-199.5, while the ratio 100 to 108.2 is the best. This adhesive has a lower curing temperature than that of normal PF resin. At a hot-press temperature of 130 or 140℃, this new adhesive provides excellent bonding strength of plywood. The most favorable temperature for hot-pressing is 140℃.

  5. Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Northern Provinces of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supot Teachavorasinskun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are quite a few active faults recently found in the western and northern parts of Thailand, which could possibly induce earthquakes of magnitude (ML of 5.5-6.5. Although seismic design code has been enforced in the area since 1980, the fundamental knowledge on dynamic soil behavior has not been extensively attained. Approach: Collection of existing borehole information in the targeted areas to form a typical subsoil profile. This borehole information, together with analytical result obtained from logistic regression based on worldwide liquefaction database was used to conduct an effective stress analysis. Result: Literature reviews of the existing boreholes from the two largest provinces in the north, Chiang-Mai and Chiang-Rai, revealed that the areas were underlain by layers of loose to medium dense sand found at shallow depths. The corrected SPT N-value of those sand layers varies in the range of 5-20. A simple tool correlating the liquefaction probability, which correlated excess pore water pressure and peak ground acceleration, was proposed for the studied areas. Conclusion: The proposed correlation provided preliminary tool to evaluate risk of the shallow foundation from partial liquefaction in the two northern provinces of Thailand.

  6. Stabilisation of bank slopes that are prone to liquefaction in ecologically sensitive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, P; Stoll, R D

    2001-01-01

    A consequence of lignite stripping in the Lusatia mining district (East Germany) is the backfilling of dumps that mainly consist of low-compacted fine and medium-grained sands. When the ground-water table, which had been lowered while stripping the coal, is rising again, these dumps might be affected by a settlement flow due to the liquefaction of soils. Common methods for stabilisation as, for instance, blasting or vibrator-jetting deep compaction, are not very useful in ecologically sensitive areas, where dumps have been afforested and embankment areas of residual lakes have developed into highly valuable biotopes. A new so-called air-impulse method in combination with directional horizontal drilling has been developed, which does not have a considerably negative impact on the vegetation during compaction. The experience gained during the first employment of this method at the lake "Katja", a residual lake of lignite stripping, is presented in this paper.

  7. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  8. Advanced Parkinson’s disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila eHadj-Bouziane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding versus following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under sixty years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by Parkinson's disease. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced Parkinson's disease stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal-directed

  9. Technical, Energetics, and Economic Comparison of NRL Oxidative Coal Liquefaction Process with some Developed Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-05

    the synthesis step becomes two processes. synthesis CO + H2 catalyst ) methanol conversion methanol catalyst > gasoline + water Wiser states that...structure illustrates the main types of linkage between ring clusters and also some of the heteroatom forms that are found in coal. 20 APPENDIX II...used more widely as petroleum and natural gas resources are depleted and hydrogen for coal liquefaction processes will be produced predominantly from

  10. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kagawa; Furuno, K; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artifi...

  11. SURFACE-MODIFIED COALS FOR ENHANCED CATALYST DISPERSION AND LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah

    1999-09-01

    This is the final report of the Department of Energy Sponsored project DE-FGF22-95PC95229 entitled, surface modified coals for enhanced catalyst dispersion and liquefaction. The aims of the study were to enhance catalyst loading and dispersion in coal for improved liquefaction by preadsorption of surfactants and catalysts on the coal and to train and educate minority scientists in catalysts and separation science. Illinois No. 6 Coal (DEC-24) was selected for the study. The surfactants investigated included dodecyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), a cationic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, and Triton x-100, a neutral surfactant. Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate was used as the molybdenum catalyst precursor. Zeta potential, BET, FTIR, AFM, UV-Vis and luminescence intensity measurements were undertaken to assess the surface properties and the liquefaction activities of the coal. The parent coal had a net negative surface charge over the pH range 2-12. However, in the presence of DDAB the negativity of the surface charge decreased. At higher concentrations of DDAB, a positive surface charge resulted. In contrast to the effect of DDAB, the zeta potential of the coal became more negative than the parent coal in the presence of SDS. Adsorption of Triton reduced the net negative charge density of the coal samples. The measured surface area of the coal surface was about 30 m{sup 2}/g compared to 77m{sup 2}/g after being washed with deionized water. Addition of the surfactants decreased the surface area of the samples. Adsorption of the molybdenum catalyst increased the surface area of the coal sample. The adsorption of molybdenum on the coal was significantly promoted by preadsorption of DDAB and SDS. Molybdenum adsorption showed that, over a wide range of concentrations and pH values, the DDAB treated coal adsorbed a higher amount of molybdenum than the samples treated with SDS. The infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the atomic force

  12. 76 FR 9573 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 31, 2011, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... (Liquefaction Project) at the existing Sabine Pass LNG Terminal, located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana....

  13. 78 FR 1851 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Sabine Pass Liquefaction Modification Project and... impacts of the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Modification Project (Project) involving the modification...

  14. 75 FR 68347 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project and Request for... impacts of the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project (Project) involving construction and operation...

  15. Influence of alkali catalyst on product yield and properties via hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Z.; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Barley straw was successfully converted to bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction at temperature of 280 e400 C using an alkali catalyst (K2CO3) in our previous work, and the maximum bio-crude yield was obtained at 300 C. This paper extends previous work on studying liquefaction behavior of barley...

  16. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in fresh water and recycled aqueous phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the investigation of addition of aqueous phase in the production of biofuel from biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a wet thermal conversion process, which can convert all kinds of biomass to fuels. In this study, barle...

  17. A genetic-algorithm approach for assessing the liquefaction potential of sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The determination of liquefaction potential is required to take into account a large number of parameters, which creates a complex nonlinear structure of the liquefaction phenomenon. The conventional methods rely on simple statistical and empirical relations or charts. However, they cannot characterise these complexities. Genetic algorithms are suited to solve these types of problems. A genetic algorithm-based model has been developed to determine the liquefaction potential by confirming Cone Penetration Test datasets derived from case studies of sandy soils. Software has been developed that uses genetic algorithms for the parameter selection and assessment of liquefaction potential. Then several estimation functions for the assessment of a Liquefaction Index have been generated from the dataset. The generated Liquefaction Index estimation functions were evaluated by assessing the training and test data. The suggested formulation estimates the liquefaction occurrence with significant accuracy. Besides, the parametric study on the liquefaction index curves shows a good relation with the physical behaviour. The total number of misestimated cases was only 7.8% for the proposed method, which is quite low when compared to another commonly used method.

  18. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. 75 FR 62512 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... September 7, 2010, by Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC (Sabine Pass), requesting long-term, multi-contract... from the date of issuance of the requested authorization. Sabine Pass seeks authorization to export...

  20. Colombian (Titiribi) coal liquefaction and its co-processing with Venezuelan (Morichal) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Ishiguro, H.; Maekawa, Y.; Mondragon, F. (Government Industrial Development Laboratory, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    The reactivity in the liquefaction of Titiribi coal from Colombia was studied without a vehicle oil and with Morichal crude oil from Venezuela and anthracene oil derived from coal as a vehicle oil in a batch autoclave in order to obtain fundamental data on the liquefaction and co-processing characteristics. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  2. La perspectiva de las personas mayores sobre el testamento vital Elders´perspective about Advance Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Mª Barrio Cantalejo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La popularización del testamento vital (TV exige conocer la perspectiva que sobre él tienen sus potenciales usuarios. Cualquier intento de generalizar el TV sin evaluar cómo será recibido por las personas mayores está condenado al fracaso. Objetivo: Explorar la perspectiva de los mayores sobre el testamento vital. Diseño: Estudio cualitativo. 40 personas mayores, usuarios de 3 Centros de Salud y 1 Residencia Asistida de Madrid, se reunieron en 5 grupos de discusión en abril de 2004. Participantes: 14 mediadores captaron a 2-3 participantes cada uno. Se consideró que edad y residencia en medio familiar o institucional son las variables que más diferencian la elaboración de los discursos sobre el TV. Se utilizaron, pues, como criterios de segmentación, buscando heterogeneidad entre grupos y homogeneidad y heterogeneidad intragrupal. La saturación se consideró cuando las ideas expresadas resultaron recurrentes. Resultados: 4 ideas se extraen de los datos: 1 los mayores prefieren la planificación anticipada de decisiones al TV. 2 Su opinión sobre el TV se asocia a la vivencia singular de otros eventos en el final de la vida. 3 Conceden un papel relevante a la familia. 4 Desean conducir su propia vida, pero "sin papeles escritos". Conclusiones. La implementación del TV a través de una estrategia educativa e institucional se beneficiará si consideramos la perspectiva de la población mayor española sobre el TV.Background: The introduction of advance directives (AD require to examine the perspective their potential users have about. Any public policy about the implementation of ADs adressed to elders will fall if their perspective is unknown. Objective: To examine the elders' perspective about advance directives. Methods: Qualitative study. 40 elders, users of 3 Primary Health Care Center, and of 1 Nursing Home from Madrid. 5 focus groups were organized in 2004 April. Participants: 14 providers recruited 2

  3. The cultural context of patient's autonomy and doctor's duty: passive euthanasia and advance directives in Germany and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicktanz, Silke; Raz, Aviad; Shalev, Carmel

    2010-11-01

    The moral discourse surrounding end-of-life (EoL) decisions is highly complex, and a comparison of Germany and Israel can highlight the impact of cultural factors. The comparison shows interesting differences in how patient's autonomy and doctor's duties are morally and legally related to each other with respect to the withholding and withdrawing of medical treatment in EoL situations. Taking the statements of two national expert ethics committees on EoL in Israel and Germany (and their legal outcome) as an example of this discourse, we describe the similarity of their recommendations and then focus on the differences, including the balancing of ethical principles, what is identified as a problem, what social role professionals play, and the influence of history and religion. The comparison seems to show that Israel is more restrictive in relation to Germany, in contrast with previous bioethical studies in the context of the moral and legal discourse regarding the beginning of life, in which Germany was characterized as far more restrictive. We reflect on the ambivalence of the cultural reasons for this difference and its expression in various dissenting views on passive euthanasia and advance directives, and conclude with a comment on the difficulty in classifying either stance as more or less restrictive.

  4. Non-CAR resists and advanced materials for Massively Parallel E-Beam Direct Write process integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourteau, Marie-Line; Servin, Isabelle; Lepinay, Kévin; Essomba, Cyrille; Dal'Zotto, Bernard; Pradelles, Jonathan; Lattard, Ludovic; Brandt, Pieter; Wieland, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The emerging Massively Parallel-Electron Beam Direct Write (MP-EBDW) is an attractive high resolution high throughput lithography technology. As previously shown, Chemically Amplified Resists (CARs) meet process/integration specifications in terms of dose-to-size, resolution, contrast, and energy latitude. However, they are still limited by their line width roughness. To overcome this issue, we tested an alternative advanced non-CAR and showed it brings a substantial gain in sensitivity compared to CAR. We also implemented and assessed in-line post-lithographic treatments for roughness mitigation. For outgassing-reduction purpose, a top-coat layer is added to the total process stack. A new generation top-coat was tested and showed improved printing performances compared to the previous product, especially avoiding dark erosion: SEM cross-section showed a straight pattern profile. A spin-coatable charge dissipation layer based on conductive polyaniline has also been tested for conductivity and lithographic performances, and compatibility experiments revealed that the underlying resist type has to be carefully chosen when using this product. Finally, the Process Of Reference (POR) trilayer stack defined for 5 kV multi-e-beam lithography was successfully etched with well opened and straight patterns, and no lithography-etch bias.

  5. The temporary and accumulated effects of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Lei, Xiaoguang; Yan, Ting; Li, Hongwei; Huang, Baihui; Li, Ling; Xu, Liqi; Liu, Li; Chen, Nanhui; Lü, Longbao; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Lin; Li, Jiali; Wang, Zhengbo; Zhang, Baorong; Hu, Xintian

    2015-07-29

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful noninvasive technique of cortical brain stimulation for the treatment of neurological disorders. Clinical research has demonstrated tDCS with anodal stimulation of primary motor cortex (M1) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients significantly improved their motor function. However, few studies have been focused on the optimization of parameters which contributed significantly to the treatment effects of tDCS and exploration of the underline neuronal mechanisms. Here, we used different stimulation parameters of anodal tDCS on M1 for the treatment of aged advanced PD monkeys induced with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration, and then analyzed the temporary and accumulated effects of tDCS treatment. The results indicated anodal tDCS on M1 very significantly improved motor ability temporarily; importantly, the treatment effects of anodal tDCS on M1 were quantitatively correlated to the accumulated stimulation instead of the stimuli intensity or duration respectively. In addition, c-fos staining showed tDCS treatment effects activated the neurons both in M1 and substantia nigra (SN). Therefore, we propose that long time and continue anodal tDCS on M1 is a better strategy to improve the motor symptoms of PD than individual manipulation of stimuli intensity or duration.

  6. Energy-efficient methane production from macroalgal biomass through chemo disperser liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilarasan, K; Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Arulazhagan, P; Yeom, Ick Tae

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an effort has been made to reduce the energy cost of liquefaction by coupling a mechanical disperser with a chemical (sodium tripolyphosphate). In terms of the cost and specific energy demand of liquefaction, the algal biomass disintegrated at 12,000rpm for 30min, and an STPP dosage of about 0.04g/gCOD was chosen as an optimal parameter. Chemo disperser liquefaction (CDL) was found to be energetically and economically sustainable in terms of liquefaction, methane production, and net profit (15%, 0.14gCOD/gCOD, and 4 USD/Ton of algal biomass) and preferable to disperser liquefaction (DL) (10%, 0.11 gCOD/gCOD, and -475 USD/Ton of algal biomass).

  7. Predicted liquefaction of East Bay fills during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T.L.; Blair, J.L.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Predicted conditional probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco (M7.8) earthquake range from 0.54 to 0.79 in the area underlain by the sandy artificial fills along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay near Oakland, California. Despite widespread liquefaction in 1906 of sandy fills in San Francisco, most of the East Bay fills were emplaced after 1906 without soil improvement to increase their liquefaction resistance. They have yet to be shaken strongly. Probabilities are based on the liquefaction potential index computed from 82 CPT soundings using median (50th percentile) estimates of PGA based on a ground-motion prediction equation. Shaking estimates consider both distance from the San Andreas Fault and local site conditions. The high probabilities indicate extensive and damaging liquefaction will occur in East Bay fills during the next M ??? 7.8 earthquake on the northern San Andreas Fault. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  8. Reconfigured, close-coupled reconfigured, and Wyodak coal integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville facility: Chemical and toxicological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document reports the results of the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of process materials sampled during the operation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, AL) in the reconfigured, integrated (RITSL run No. 247), the close-coupled, reconfigured, integrated (CCRITSL run No. 249), and the Wyodak coal integrated (ITSL run No. 246) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Chemical methods of analysis included proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, adsorption column chromatography, high resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. Toxicological evaluation of the process materials included a histidine reversion assay for microbial mutagenicity, an initiation/promotion assay for tumorigenicity in mouse skin, and an aquatic toxicity assay using Daphnia magna. The results of these analyses and tests are compared to the previously reported results derived from the Illinois No. 6 coal ITSL and nonintegrated two-stage liquefaction (NTSL) process materials from the Wilsonville facility. 21 refs., 13 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  10. Biodiesel production from lipids in wet microalgae with microwave irradiation and bio-crude production from algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Yu, Tao; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    A cogeneration process of biodiesel and bio-crude was proposed to make full use of wet microalgae biomass. High-grade biodiesel was first produced from lipids in wet microalgae through extraction and transesterification with microwave irradiation. Then, low-grade bio-crude was produced from proteins and carbohydrates in the algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction. The total yield (40.19%) and the total energy recovery (67.73%) of the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude were almost equal to those of the bio-oil obtained from raw microalgae through direct hydrothermal liquefaction. Upon microwave irradiation, proteins were partially hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were apt for deaminization under the hydrothermal condition of the algal residue. Hence, the total remaining nitrogen (16.02%) in the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude was lower than that (27.06%) in the bio-oil. The cogeneration process prevented lipids and proteins from reacting to produce low-grade amides and other long-chain nitrogen compounds during the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae.

  11. Advance Health Care Directives and “Public Guardian”: The Italian Supreme Court Requests the Status of Current and Not Future Inability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advance health care decisions animate an intense debate in several European countries, which started more than 20 years ago in the USA and led to the adoption of different rules, based on the diverse legal, sociocultural and philosophical traditions of each society. In Italy, the controversial issue of advance directives and end of life’s rights, in the absence of a clear and comprehensive legislation, has been over time a subject of interest of the Supreme Court. Since 2004 a law introduced the “Public Guardian,” aiming to provide an instrument of assistance to the person lacking in autonomy because of an illness or incapacity. Recently, this critical issue has once again been brought to the interest of the Supreme Court, which passed a judgment trying to clarify the legislative application of the appointment of the Guardian in the field of advance directives.

  12. Rationale for continuing R&D in indirect coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G. [MITRE Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this analysis is to use the world energy demand/supply model developed at MITRE to examine future liquid fuels supply scenarios both for the world and for the United States. This analysis has determined the probable extent of future oil resource shortages and the likely time frame in which the shortages will occur. The role that coal liquefaction could play in helping to alleviate this liquid fuels shortfall is also examined. The importance of continuing R&D to improve process performance and reduce the costs of coal-derived transportation fuel is quantified in terms of reducing the time when coal liquids will become competitive with petroleum.

  13. Processes of liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, F.; Monistrol, I.F.; Luna, N.; Fernandez, M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1999-07-01

    Several fundamental aspects of microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization were studied. The liquefied/solubilized products from coal by microorganisms were analysed. The liquid products analysed by IR titration and UV/visible spectrometry showed some alterations with regard to the original coal. Humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite showed a reduction in the average molecular weight and a increase in the condensation index, probably due to depolymerization caused by microorganisms. The mechanisms implicated in coal biosolubilization by two fungal strains, M2 (Trichoderma sp.) and M4 (Penicillium sp.) were also studied. Extracellular peroxidase, esterase and phenoloxidase enzymes appear to be involved in coal solubilization. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of engineering cycles power, refrigerating and gas liquefaction plant

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R W

    1991-01-01

    Extensively revised, updated and expanded, the fourth edition of this popular text provides a rigorous analytical treatment of modern energy conversion plant. Notable for both its theoretical and practical treatment of conventional and nuclear power plant, and its studies of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth edition now includes material on topics of increasing concern in the fields of energy 'saving' and reduction of environmental pollution. This increased coverage deals specifically with the following areas: CHP (cogeneration) plant, studies of both gas and coal burning p

  15. Nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care: a cross-sectional study in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Alice; McCarthy, Geraldine; Weathers, Elizabeth; Friedman, M Isabel; Gallo, Katherine; Ehrenfeld, Mally; Chan, Sophia; Li, William H C; Poletti, Piera; Zanotti, Renzo; Molloy, D William; McGlade, Ciara; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Itzhaki, Michal

    2016-06-01

    Nurses' knowledge regarding advance directives may affect their administration and completion in end-of-life care. Confidence among nurses is a barrier to the provision of quality end-of-life care. This study investigated nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care, in Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy and the USA using a cross-sectional descriptive design (n = 1089). In all countries, older nurses and those who had more professional experience felt more confident managing patients' symptoms at end-of-life and more comfortable stopping preventive medications at end-of-life. Nurses in the USA reported that they have more knowledge and experience of advance directives compared with other countries. In addition, they reported the highest levels of confidence and comfort in dealing with end-of-life care. Although legislation for advance directives does not yet exist in Ireland, nurses reported high levels of confidence in end-of-life care.

  16. A phase I, dose-escalation study of TB-403, a monoclonal antibody directed against PlGF, in patients with advanced solid tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Nielsen, D L; Sørensen, M;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TB-403 (RO 5323441), a humanised monoclonal antibody, is a novel antiangiogenesis agent directed against placental growth factor. The safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumour activity of TB-403 were assessed in a phase I, dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid...

  17. Nurses' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care: a cross-sectional study in five countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, Alice

    2016-01-28

    Nurses\\' knowledge regarding advance directives may affect their administration and completion in end-of-life care. Confidence among nurses is a barrier to the provision of quality end-of-life care. This study investigated nurses\\' knowledge of advance directives and perceived confidence in end-of-life care, in Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy and the USA using a cross-sectional descriptive design (n = 1089). In all countries, older nurses and those who had more professional experience felt more confident managing patients\\' symptoms at end-of-life and more comfortable stopping preventive medications at end-of-life. Nurses in the USA reported that they have more knowledge and experience of advance directives compared with other countries. In addition, they reported the highest levels of confidence and comfort in dealing with end-of-life care. Although legislation for advance directives does not yet exist in Ireland, nurses reported high levels of confidence in end-of-life care.

  18. Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the SiC/SiC major environmental and environment-fatigue degradations encountered in simulated turbine combustion environments, and thus NASA environmental barrier coating system evolution for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites for meeting the engine performance requirements. The presentation will review several generations of NASA EBC materials systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. This paper will also focus on the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for next generation turbine engine applications. The current development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. The efforts have been also directed to developing prime-reliant, self-healing 2700F EBC bond coat; and high stability, lower thermal conductivity, and durable EBC top coats. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance will be described. The research and development opportunities for turbine engine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be briefly discussed.

  19. Giving up Treatment and Directives in Advance%放弃治疗与预先指示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱华; 张凤佩; 韩春玲

    2013-01-01

    一方面,放弃治疗违背了我国传统的生死观,违背了医生救死扶伤,治病救人的职业道德和职责;另一方面,在进行放弃治疗的决策中,由于各种原因,患者的知情同意权被剥夺,由其家属进行代理,导致患者的权利无法完全保障.制定预先指示,患者在还有能力自主作出医疗决策时,就可通过生前预嘱或预立医疗代理人的方式,表明其在终末期的医疗选择或由谁代理其作出医疗决策.这可更好地保障患者的权益.%On the one hand,giving up treatment against the traditional view of life and death in our country,also is contrary to the doctors'ethics and responsibilities for healing the wounded and rescue the dying; On the other hand,in the decision of giving up treatment,due to various reasons,patients'informed consent right was deprived,represented by their families,which resulted in the rights of patients cant fully guaranteed.Make directives in advance when patients have capacity to make medical decisions,could through living wills or preset medical agent,show that the agent who is in the end-stage medical choices or their medical decisions,which can better safeguard the rights and interests of the patients.

  20. Baseline design/economics for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology. Quarterly report, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to: Develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction using advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Prepare the capital and operating costs for the baseline design. Develop a process flow sheet simulation (PFS) model. This report summarizes the activities completed during the period December 23, 1992 through March 15, 1992. In Task 1, Baseline Design and Alternates, the following activities related to the tradeoff studies were completed: approach and basis; oxygen purity; F-T reactor pressure; wax yield; autothermal reformer; hydrocarbons (C{sub 3}/C{sub 4}s) recovery; and hydrogenrecovery. In Task 3, Engineering Design Criteria, activities were initiated to support the process tradeoff studies in Task I and to develop the environmental strategy for the Illinois site. The work completed to date consists of the development of the F-T reactor yield correlation from the Mobil dam and a brief review of the environmental strategy prepared for the same site in the direct liquefaction baseline study.Some work has also been done in establishing site-related criteria, in establishing the maximum vessel diameter for train sizing and in coping with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio from the Shell gasifier. In Task 7, Project Management and Administration, the following activities were completed: the subcontract agreement between Amoco and Bechtel was negotiated; a first technical progress meeting was held at the Bechtel office in February; and the final Project Management Plan was approved by PETC and issued in March 1992.

  1. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  2. Age and significance of earthquake-induced liquefaction near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In late 1994, sand dykes, large sand blows, and deformed strata were exposed in the walls of an excavation at Annacis Island on the Fraser River delta near Vancouver, British Columbia. The features record liquefaction during a large earthquake about 1700 years ago; this was perhaps the largest earthquake to affect the Vancouver area in the last 3500 years. Similar, less well-dated features have been reported from several other sites on the Fraser delta and may be products of the same earthquake. Three radiocarbon ages that closely delimit the time of liquefaction on Annacis Island are similar to the most precise radiocarbon ages on coseismically subsided marsh soils at estuaries in southern Washington and Oregon. Both the liquefaction and the subsidence may have been produced by a single great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Alternatively, liquefaction at Annacis Island may have been caused by a large crustal or subcrustal earthquake of about the same age as a plate-boundary earthquake farther west. The data from Annacis Island and other sites on the Fraser delta suggest that earthquakes capable of producing extensive liquefaction in this area are rare events. Further, liquefaction analysis using historical seismicity suggests that current assessment procedures may overestimate liquefaction risk.

  3. Examination of DMT-based methods for evaluating the liquefaction potential of soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordon Tung-Chin KUNG; Der-Her LEE; Pai-Hsiang TSAI

    2011-01-01

    The flat dilatometer test(DMT)has the potential to be a useful tool in the evaluation ofliquefaction potential of soils.In practice,it is necessary to carefully examine existing DMT-based methods for evaluating liquefaction potential.We conducted the DMT and cone penetration test(CPT)in high liquefaction potential areas to examine the existing DMT-based methods for liquefaction potential evaluation.Specifically,the DMT and CPT were conducted side-by-side at each of six in-situ sites,and thus it is feasible to utilize those test results to validate the existing DMT-based methods.The DMT parameter,horizontal stress index(KD),is used as an indicator for estimating liquefaction resistance of soils in terms of cyclic resistance ratio(CRR).The analysis results revealed that the existing KD-based liquefaction evaluation methods would overestimate the CRR of soils,which leads to overestimation of the factor of safety against liquefaction.Also,the estimations of DMT-KD values by using the CPT-qc as well as the correlation between DMT-Ko and CPT-qc proposed by the previous studies would be significantly smaller than field measurements.The results reflected that further validation of the existing DMT-based methods for liquefaction evaluation is desirable.

  4. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of aquatic plants to bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S.; Fu, H.; Chen, J. [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of producing bio-oils from aquatic plants by hydrothermal liquefaction using 2 typical aquatic plants as feedstocks, notably Enteromorpha prolifera and water hyacinth which are typical aquatic plants found in seawater and freshwater. Bio-oil production from these 2 feedstocks was studied in a batch reactor at controlled temperatures under an initial partial pressure of 2.0 MPa N2. The effects of temperature and reaction time on the liquefaction products yields were also studied. GC-MS and elemental analysis were carried out to analyze the composition of bio-oils. The bio-oil produced from Enteromorpha prolifera contained mainly fatty acids, esters and quite a few heterocyclic compounds. Phenols and their derivatives were found to be the main compounds in bio-oils produced from water hyacinth. An elemental analysis revealed that bio-oils produced from the 2 aquatic plants have higher energy density. It was concluded that the use of aquatic plants as feedstock for liquid fuel can contribute to environmental protection and sustainable energy development by reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan, Song; Kirby, S.; Schmidt, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to explore bimetallic dispersed catalysts for more efficient coal liquefaction. Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting various aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. This paper describes recent results on (1) hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors; and (2) activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. The results showed that some iron containing catalysts have higher activity in the sulfur-free form, contrary to conventional wisdom. Adding sulfur to Fe precursors with Cp-ligands decreased the activity of the resulting catalyst. This is in distinct contrast to the cases with iron pentacarbonyl and superfine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where S addition increased their catalytic activity substantially. A positive correlation between sulfur addition and increased activity can be seen, but a reversed trend between Fe cluster size and hydrocracking conversion could be observed, for carbonyl-type Fe precursors. It is apparent that the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for NMBB conversion depends strongly on both the type of ligand environment, the oxidation state and the number of intermetal bonds in the molecular precursor.

  7. Turnkey Helium Purification and Liquefaction Plant for DARWIN, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, U.; Boeck, S.; Blum, L.; Kurtcuoglu, K.

    2010-04-01

    The Linde Group, through its Australian subsidiary BOC Limited, has signed an agreement with Darwin LNG Pty Ltd for the supply of feed-gas to Linde's new helium refining and liquefaction facility in Darwin, Australia. Linde Kryotechnik AG, located in Switzerland, has carried out the engineering and fabrication of the equipment for the turn key helium plant. The raw feed gas flow of 20'730 Nm3/h contains up to of 3 mol% helium. The purification process of the feed gas consists of partial condensation of nitrogen in two stages, cryogenic adsorption and finally catalytic oxidation of hydrogen followed by a dryer system. Downstream of the purification the refined helium is liquefied using a modified Bryton process and stored in a 30'000 gal LHe tank. For further distribution and export of the liquid helium there are two stations available for filling of truck trailers and containers. The liquid nitrogen, required for refrigeration capacity to the nitrogen removal stages in the purification process as well as for the pre-cooling of the pure helium in the liquefaction process, is generated on site during the feed gas purification process. The optimized process provides low power consumption, maximum helium recovery and a minimum helium loss.

  8. Mechanism of Liquefaction-Induced Large Settlements of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ahmed Almani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, mechanism of liquefaction-related large settlements of the soil-structure system during the earthquake was studied using numerical modelling. The isolated shallow strip plane strain footing pad, supporting a typical simple frame structure, was founded on the ground at the shallow depth from the level ground surface. This system was modelled as plane-strain using the FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of continua 2D dynamic modelling and analysis code. This case focuses on the basic mechanisms of liquefaction-induced large deformations of the structure during an earthquake and will provide a benchmark model case for comparison with the model case in which jet grouted columns are provided as ground reinforcement. The results showed that large settlements of shallow foundations in punching shear are triggered during cyclic excitation. These large settlements under the structure are driven by load of structure and earthquake excitation. Monotonic shear deformation, lateral shear deformations and volume change of soil are main phenomena under the structure when the pore pressure rises and soil is liquefied in cyclic loading.

  9. The sequence of sediment behaviour during wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the complete sequence of sediment behaviour beneath progressive waves. The sediment was silty with d(50) = 0.060 mm. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore-water pressure measurements (across the sediment depth), and wa......This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the complete sequence of sediment behaviour beneath progressive waves. The sediment was silty with d(50) = 0.060 mm. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore-water pressure measurements (across the sediment depth......), and water-surface elevation measurements. The process of liquefaction/compaction was videotaped from the side simultaneously with the pressure and water-surface elevation measurements. The video records were then analysed to measure: (i) the time development of the mudline, (ii) the time development.......6 sec, water depth = 42 cm, and the Shields parameter = 0.34-0.59. The experiments reveal that, with the introduction of waves, excess pore pressure builds up, which is followed by liquefaction during which internal waves are experienced at the interface of the water body and the liquefied sediment...

  10. Low severity coal liquefaction promoted by cyclic olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Low severity coal liquefaction promoted by cyclic olefins offers a means of liquefying coal at low severity conditions. Lower temperature, 350[degrees]C, and lower hydrogen pressure, 500 psi, have been used to perform liquefaction reactions. The presence of the cyclic olefin, hexahydroanthracene, made a substantial difference in the conversion of Illinois No. 6 coal at these low severity conditions. The Researchperformed this quarter was a parametric evaluation of the effect of different parameters on the coal conversion and product distribution from coal. The effect of the parameters on product distribution from hexahydroanthracene was also determined. The work planned for next quarter includes combining the most effective parametric conditions for the low severity reactions and determining their effect. The second part ofthe research performed this quarter involved performing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy using cyclic olefins. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using FTIR and a heated cell to determine the reaction pathway that occurs in the hydrogen donation reactions from cyclic olefins. The progress made to date includes evaluating the FTIR spectra of cyclic olefins and their expected reaction products. This work is included in this progress report.

  11. Liquefaction phenomena associated with the Emilia earthquake sequence of May–June 2012 (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emergeo Working Group

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the geological effects induced by the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence in the Po Plain. Extensive liquefaction phenomena were observed over an area of ~ 1200 km2 following the 20 May, ML 5.9 and 29 May, ML 5.8 mainshocks; both occurred on about E–W trending, S dipping blind thrust faults. We collected the coseismic geological evidence through field and aerial surveys, reports from local people and Web-based survey. On the basis of their morphologic and structural characteristics, we grouped the 1362 effects surveyed into three main categories: liquefaction (485, fractures with liquefaction (768, and fractures (109. We show that the quite uneven distribution of liquefaction effects, which appear concentrated and aligned, is mostly controlled by the presence of paleo-riverbeds, out-flow channels and fans of the main rivers crossing the area; these terrains are characterised by the pervasive presence of sandy layers in the uppermost 5 m, a local feature that, along with the presence of a high water table, greatly favours liquefaction. We also find that the maximum distance of observed liquefaction from the earthquake epicentre is ~ 30 km, in agreement with the regional empirical relations available for the Italian Peninsula. Finally, we observe that the contour of the liquefaction observations has an elongated shape almost coinciding with the aftershock area, the InSAR deformation area, and the I ≥ 6 EMS area. This observation confirms the control of the earthquake source on the liquefaction distribution, and provides useful hints in the characterisation of the seismogenic source responsible for historical and pre-historical liquefactions.

  12. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for both the 2015 SOT (Hartley et al., 2015; ANL, 2016; DOE, 2016) and the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for both the 2015 SOT (Tan et al., 2015a) and the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015b). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. In the SCSA, the 2015 SOT case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015b), uses the 2015 SOT feedstock blend of pulpwood, wood residue, and construction and demolition waste (C&D). Moreover, the 2022 design case for the conversion process, as described in Tan et al. (2015a), uses the 2017 design case blend of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and C&D. The performance characteristics of this blend are consistent with those of a single woody feedstock (e.g., pine or poplar). We also examined the influence of using a single feedstock type on SCSA results for the design case. These single feedstock scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results given that the different components of the feedstock blend have varying energy and material demands for production and logistics.

  13. An improved method of evaluating liquefaction potential with the velocity of shear-waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Han; CHEN Yun-min

    2000-01-01

    According to the results of cyclic triaxial tests, a linear correlation is presented between liquefaction resistance and elastic shear modulus, which shows the relation of Gmax (kPa) with (s d/2)1/2(kPa)1/2. When applied to soils from different sites, the correlation can be normalized in reference to its minimum void ratio (emin). Accordingly, an improved method is established to evaluate the liquefaction potential with shear-wave velocity. The critical shear-wave velocity of liquefaction is in linear relation with 1/4 power of depth and the maximum acceleration during earthquakes, which can be used to explain the phenomenon that the possibility of liquefaction decreases with the increment of the depth. Compared with previous methods this method turns out simple and effective, which is also verified by the results of cyclic triaxial tests,.

  14. A General Criterion for Liquefaction in Granular Layers with Heterogeneous Pore Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Goren, Liran; Aharonov, Einat; Sparks, David; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude

    2013-01-01

    Fluid-saturated granular and porous layers can undergo liquefaction and lose their shear resistance when subjected to shear forcing. In geosystems, such a process can lead to severe natural hazards of soil liquefaction, accelerating slope failure, and large earthquakes. Terzaghi's principle of effective stress predicts that liquefaction occurs when the pore pressure within the layer becomes equal to the applied normal stress on the layer. However, under dynamic loading and when the internal permeability is relatively small the pore pressure is spatially heterogeneous and it is not clear what measurement of pore pressure should be used in Terzaghi's principle. Here, we show theoretically and demonstrate using numerical simulations a general criterion for liquefaction that applies also for the cases in which the pore pressure is spatially heterogeneous. The general criterion demands that the average pore pressure along a continuous surface within the fluid-saturated granular or porous layer is equal to the appl...

  15. Laboratory Liquefaction Test of Sand Based on Grain Size and Relative Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction due to strong earthquakes often occurs in sandy soil under low water table conditions with certain physical properties. The physical properties of sandy soil that give effect to liquefaction resistance include grain size and relative density. This paper presents the physical properties of sand soils related to their resistance to vibration. Vibration tests were conducted by using a shaking table. The acceleration and settlement of the samples were recorded during shaking. The tests were conducted with variation of soil density and mean grain size. The test results showed that average grain size and relative density of sand have a unique effect on liquefaction resistance. It can be concluded that there is a density limit with respect to the mean grain size of the sand particles associated with the liquefaction resistance for a certain acceleration.

  16. Liquefaction of Tangier soils by using physically based reliability analysis modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubujet P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approaches that are widely used to characterize propensity of soils to liquefaction are mainly of empirical type. The potential of liquefaction is assessed by using correlation formulas that are based on field tests such as the standard and the cone penetration tests. These correlations depend however on the site where they were derived. In order to adapt them to other sites where seismic case histories are not available, further investigation is required. In this work, a rigorous one-dimensional modelling of the soil dynamics yielding liquefaction phenomenon is considered. Field tests consisting of core sampling and cone penetration testing were performed. They provided the necessary data for numerical simulations performed by using DeepSoil software package. Using reliability analysis, the probability of liquefaction was estimated and the obtained results were used to adapt Juang method to the particular case of sandy soils located in Tangier.

  17. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  18. 精神障碍患者的预先指示权与自愿治疗%Mentally disordered patients' right to advance directives and voluntary treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙也龙

    2013-01-01

    《中华人民共和国精神卫生法》确立了精神障碍患者自愿治疗原则,预先指示权应是这项原则的重要内容.预先指示权不仅能够保障患者自治,而且也具有多重的现实意义.我国具有确立预先指示权的法律环境,但大众对预先指示权比较陌生,建议对其进行适当的提倡和推广.%Mental Health Law of the People's Republic of China establishes the principle of voluntary treatment for mentally disordered patients. The right to advance directives should be an important aspect of the principle of voluntary treatment because it can protect mentally disordered patients'autonomy and has multiple practical values. China has the legal environment to establish mentally disordered patients'right to advance directives. However, most Chinese people are not fairly familiar with this right Therefore it is suggested to advocate and promote the right to advance directives in China.

  19. Numerical simulation of liquefaction behaviour of granular materials using Discrete Element Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T G Sitharam; S V Dinesh

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation of 3-dimensional assemblies of 1000 polydisperse sphere particles using Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to study the liquefaction behaviour of granular materials. Numerical simulations of cyclic triaxial shear tests under undrained conditions are performed at different confining pressures under constant strain amplitude. Results obtained in these numerical simulations indicate that with increase in confining pressure there is an increase in liquefaction resistance.

  20. Efficiency and economics of large scale hydrogen liquefaction. [for future generation aircraft requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen is being considered as a substitute for conventional hydrocarbon-based fuels for future generations of commercial jet aircraft. Its acceptance will depend, in part, upon the technology and cost of liquefaction. The process and economic requirements for providing a sufficient quantity of liquid hydrogen to service a major airport are described. The design is supported by thermodynamic studies which determine the effect of process arrangement and operating parameters on the process efficiency and work of liquefaction.

  1. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: developments from batch to continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew B; Schmidt, Andrew J; Jones, Susanne B

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described; however, they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available, process models have been developed, and mass and energy balances determined. From these models, process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  2. Helium liquefaction with a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao

    2001-07-01

    Helium liquefaction with a two-stage 4 K pulse tube cryocooler is introduced in this paper. The helium liquefier has a feature of precooling helium gas to be liquefied by using inefficiency of the second stage regenerator in the pulse tube cryocooler. This process reduces enthalpy of the incoming helium gas when entering the condenser and significantly increases the condensation rate. Numerical analysis predicts the precooling heat load on the second stage regenerator, decreases the PTC second stage cooling capacity by only 11% of the heat actually absorbed into the regenerator. A prototype pulse tube helium liquefier was built, which has two precooling heat exchangers on the first stage cold head and the second stage regenerator. It continuously liquefies helium with a rate of 4.8 l/day under normal pressure while consumes 4.6 kW power input.

  3. Algal polycultures enhance coproduct recycling from hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Casey M; Hietala, David C; Lashaway, Aubrey R; Narwani, Anita; Savage, Phillip E; Cardinale, Bradley J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if polycultures of algae could enhance tolerance to aqueous-phase coproduct (ACP) from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algal biomass to produce biocrude. The growth of algal monocultures and polycultures was characterized across a range ACP concentrations and sources. All of the monocultures were either killed or inhibited by 2% ACP, but polycultures of the same species were viable at up to 10%. The addition of ACP increased the growth rate (up to 25%) and biomass production (53%) of polycultures, several of which were more productive in ACP than any monoculture was in the presence or absence of ACP. These results suggest that a cultivation process that applies biodiversity to nutrient recycling could produce more algae with less fertilizer consumption.

  4. Effect of Aqueous Phase Recycling in Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmer, Maika; Madsen, René Bjerregaard; Houlberg, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    The effect of recycling the aqueous phase in a continuous hydrothermal liquefaction process was investigated in terms of product yield distribution, carbon balance, and composition of all main fractions. Using a custom-built continuous reactor system, a long-term experiment was conducted at 350...... degrees C and 250 bar with a feedstock of dried distiller's grains with solubles. In two consecutive recycle experiments, the aqueous phase of the preceding experiment was used as dispersion medium for the feedstock preparation. In these recycle-experiments a significant increase in biocrude yields...... was observed with a maximum increase in the first recycle experiment. However, the recycling of the aqueous phase also resulted in lower heating values and higher water contents in the oil fraction. Based on these findings, recycling the aqueous phase is a trade-off between improved yields and reduced burn...

  5. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    ERDA's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and noncatalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Responsibility for the design, construction, and operation of these facilities is given and progress in the quarter is summarized. Several supporting or complementary projects are described similarly. (LTN)

  6. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  7. Experimental Study of Subcritical Water Liquefaction of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    that the addition of K2CO3 lowered the solids quality in terms of the heating values, while it did not have apparent effect on the functional groups of solid residues. SEM analysis of the raw biomass and solid residues revealed that the char formation for wood, sawdust and macroalgae had initially finished when......In this work, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wood industry residues (wood, bark, sawdust) and macroalgae for producing biofuels has been investigated under subcritical water conditions (at temperature of 300 C), with and without the presence of catalyst. The effects of catalyst and biomass type...... (woody and non-woody) on the biomass conversion, bio-crude yield, and the qualities of products were studied. The results suggested that the addition of potassium carbonate as catalyst showed a positive effect on bio-crude yield, especially for wood, where it was enhanced to 47.48 wt%. Macroalgae showed...

  8. Economics of hydrogen production and liquefaction updated to 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    Revised costs for generating and liquefying hydrogen in mid-1980 are presented. Plant investments were treated as straight-forward escalations resulting from inflation. Operating costs, however, were derived in terms of the unit cost of coal, fuel gas and electrical energy to permit the determination of the influence of these parameters on the cost of liquid hydrogen. Inflationary influence was recognized by requiring a 15% discounted rate of return on investment for Discounted Cash Flow financing analysis, up from 12% previously. Utility financing was revised to require an 11% interest rate on debt. The scope of operation of the hydrogen plant was revised from previous studies to include only the hydrogen generation and liquefaction facilities. On-site fuel gas and power generation, originally a part of the plant complex, was eliminated. Fuel gas and power are now treated as purchased utilities. Costs for on-site generation of fuel gas however, are included.

  9. Development of helium refrigeration/ liquefaction system at BARC, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, N. A.; Goyal, M.; Chakravarty, A.; Menon, Rajendran S.; Jadhav, M.; Rane Nair, T., Sr.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, N.; Bharti, SK; Chakravarty, Abhilash; Jain, A.; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    An experimental helium refrigerator/liquefier, using ultra high speed cryogenic turboexpanders, is designed and developed at Cryo-Technology Division, BARC. The developed system is based on the modified Claude cycle. The developed system is presently fully functional consisting of process compressor with gas management system, coldbox, helium receiver Dewar, tri-axial transfer line and helium recovery system. Extended trial runs are conducted to evaluate the performance of the developed system. During these trials, liquefaction rate of around 32 l/hr and refrigeration capacity of around 190W is achieved. The paper addresses design, development and commissioning aspects of the developed helium liquefier along with results of performance evaluation trial runs.

  10. Combined Reverse-Brayton Joule Thompson Hydrogen Liquefaction Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimko, Martin A. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States); Dunn, Paul M. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The following is a compilation of Annual Progress Reports submitted to the DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office by Gas Equipment Engineering Corp. for contract DE-FG36-05GO15021. The reports cover the project activities from August 2005 through June 2010. The purpose of this project is to produce a pilot-scale liquefaction plant that demonstrates GEECO’s ability to meet or exceed the efficiency targets set by the DOE. This plant will be used as a model to commercialize this technology for use in the distribution infrastructure of hydrogen fuel. It could also be applied to markets distributing hydrogen for industrial gas applications. Extensive modeling of plant performance will be used in the early part of the project to identify the liquefaction cycle architecture that optimizes the twin goals of increased efficiency and reduced cost. The major challenge of the project is to optimize/balance the performance (efficiency) of the plant against the cost of the plant so that the fully amortized cost of liquefying hydrogen meets the aggressive goals set by DOE. This project will design and build a small-scale pilot plant (several hundred kg/day) that will be both a hardware demonstration and a model for scaling to larger plant sizes (>50,000 kg/day). Though an effort will be made to use commercial or near-commercial components, key components that will need development for either a pilot- or full-scale plant will be identified. Prior to starting pilot plant fabrication, these components will be demonstrated at the appropriate scale to demonstrate sufficient performance for use in the pilot plant and the potential to achieve the performance used in modeling the full-scale plant.

  11. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  12. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  13. Evaluation of Post-liquefaction Reconsolidation Settlement based on Standard Penetration Tests (SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlketaNdoj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to deal with the evaluation of post-liquefaction reconsolidation settlement of soils using Standard Penetration Tests data. Evaluation of the settlement is conducted at Semani site in Albania, according to the SPT method presented by Idriss and Boulanger 2008, 2010. The input data for the SPT method are SPT borings with depth, moment magnitude of the earthquake, maximum surface acceleration during earthquake, depth to ground water table, and the unit weights of the soils. The calculation procedure includes estimation of the cyclic stress ratio induced in the soil by the earthquake, cyclic resistance ratio that will cause liquefaction, factor of safety against the triggering of liquefaction, post-liquefaction strain and of the post-liquefaction reconsolidation settlement. The results of the calculations utilizing this procedure are shown in graphs and are compared to those based on CPT method. It is observed that the calculated post-liquefaction reconsolidation settlements based on SPT method are less than ones calculated based on CPT method.

  14. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. The kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.; Wang, S.; Campbell, D.

    1998-03-01

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc., the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. The program at Delaware was conducted between August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivity toward hydrocracking of coal-derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An introduction and Summary of the project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here.

  15. Selection of Design Scheme on Sandy Soil Liquefaction in Subgrade%路基中砂土液化问题的设计方案选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯怀亮

    2012-01-01

    结合目前我国规范中对砂土液化的判别原则,理论上分析了影响土层液化的因素,从处理的结果上分析了按照完全消除液化和部分消除液化的两种设计思路,总结了完全消除液化和不完全消除液化的设计方法质量检测标准和设计结果的权衡方法,简述了一般填方路基的砂土液化段特殊设计的过程。提出了路基工程砂土液化可参照的规范较少,数值模拟结果直接用于设计的弊端,同时认识到目前受到经济技术的限制,关于液化土层采用完全消除液化和部分消除液化的设计方案选择还是一个长久问题。%Combined with the current principle of judge for sandy soil liquefaction in the national specification, the factors affecting solum liquefaction is analyzed theoretically. The treatment results of two design ideas that eliminate liquefaction fully or partly are analyzed; then the quality inspection standards and design result measuring methods for these two ideas are summarized; at last, the special design process for sandy soil liquefaction in general fill subgrade is briefed. Therefore, it is considered that the norms referred to sandy soil liquefaction in subgrad directly has certain defects; these two design schemes is e engineering is less and the numerical simulation result used for design at the same time, due to current economic and technical limitations, how to select a long-term trouble.

  16. Recognizing and dating prehistoric liquefaction features: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.P.; Schweig, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ), which experienced severe liquefaction during the great New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes of 1811 and 1812 as well as during several prehistoric earthquakes, is a superb laboratory for the study of world-class, arthquake-induced liquefaction features and their use in paleoseismology. In seismically active regions like the NMSZ, frequent large earthquakes can produce a complex record of liquefaction events that is difficult to interpret. Lessons learned studying liquefaction features in the NMSZ may help to unravel the paleoseismic record in other seismically active regions. Soil characteristics of liquefaction features, as well as their structural and sratigraphic relations to Native American occupation horizons and other cultural features, an help to distinguish prehistoric liquefaction features from historic features. In addition, analyses of artifact assemblages and botanical content of cultural horizons can help to narrow the age ranges of liquefaction features. Future research should focus on methods for defining source areas and estimating magnitudes of prehistoric earthquakes from liquefaction features. Also, new methods for dating liquefaction features are needed.

  17. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Stratigraphic control on earthquake-induced liquefaction: A case study from the Central Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, A.; Bruno, L.; Facciorusso, J.; Piccin, A.; Sammartino, I.

    2016-11-01

    Studies on earthquake-induced liquefaction tied to high-resolution stratigraphic analysis have been rarely undertaken. We report the results of a multidisciplinary study from the Quistello-Moglia area, in the central Po Plain (northern Italy). In this region, combined stratigraphic, sedimentological, geotechnical, and geochemical data allowed assessment of liquefaction potential and identification of the primary source for liquefaction, following the second main shock (Mw 6) of the 2012 Po Plain earthquake. Using Cone Penetration Test (CPT)-based simplified procedures for liquefaction hazard evaluation, we assessed the highest liquefaction potential of Holocene, fluvial-channel and related (crevasse/levee) fine sand-silt facies encased in thick, mud-prone floodplain and swamp successions. The liquefaction potential, and the intensity of the manifestations induced on the ground surface, decreased for the vertically-amalgamated, sheet-like Pleistocene sandy fluvial units encountered at depths greater than 13 m. Floodplain and swamp deposits were virtually non-liquefiable. In the Quistello area, the compositional characterization of sands that were liquefied and extruded during the 2012 earthquake reveals the diagnostic geochemical fingerprint of sediment carried by the Po River, as opposed to the Apennine composition of surficial sediments. These data rule out proximity of liquefied layers to the surface, and attest the buried, meandering Po River system at depths of 7-10 m most likely representing the source for the liquefied sand that vented to the surface. Similarly, at Moglia, liquefied sands were likely sourced from loose and saturated, ribbon-shaped, fluvial sand bodies encased in mud, though at shallower (4-7 m) depths. Pronounced liquefaction phenomena in alluvial plain systems are commonly believed to be associated primarily with elongate topographic ridges following paleo-river courses. Here, we document that under favorable stratigraphic conditions

  19. Advanced Manufacturing of Intermediate Temperature, Direct Methane Oxidation Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Durable Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation builds on the successes of the Phase I program by integrating our direct oxidation membrane electrode assembly (MEA) into a monolithic solid...

  20. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  1. Standard penetration test-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, K.O.; Seed, R.B.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Tokimatsu, K.; Harder, L.F.; Kayen, R.E.; Moss, R.E.S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents'new correlations for assessment of the likelihood of initiation (or triggering) of soil liquefaction. These new correlations eliminate several sources of bias intrinsic to previous, similar correlations, and provide greatly reduced overall uncertainty and variance. Key elements in the development of these new correlations are (1) accumulation of a significantly expanded database of field performance case histories; (2) use of improved knowledge and understanding of factors affecting interpretation of standard penetration test data; (3) incorporation of improved understanding of factors affecting site-specific earthquake ground motions (including directivity effects, site-specific response, etc.); (4) use of improved methods for assessment of in situ cyclic shear stress ratio; (5) screening of field data case histories on a quality/uncertainty basis; and (6) use of high-order probabilistic tools (Bayesian updating). The resulting relationships not only provide greatly reduced uncertainty, they also help to resolve a number of corollary issues that have long been difficult and controversial including: (1) magnitude-correlated duration weighting factors, (2) adjustments for fines content, and (3) corrections for overburden stress. ?? ASCE.

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of oil mill wastewater for bio-oil production in subcritical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadhoum, Loubna; Balistrou, Mourad; Burnens, Gaëtan; Loubar, Khaled; Tazerout, Mohand

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of oil mill wastewater (OMWW). Experiments were carried out at different temperatures (240-300°C), water contents (58-88wt.%) and reaction times (15-45min). Results show that the highest bio-oil yield was about 58wt.%, resulting in a higher heating value of 38MJ/kg. This was conducted at the following optimal conditions: water content 88wt.%, a temperature of 280°C, and 30min as reaction time. To put bio-oil into wide application, the various physical and chemical characteristics were determined. A detailed chemical composition analysis of bio-oil was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID). The dominant compounds were identified by using NIST library. Analyses show that the bio-oil contains mainly oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, fatty acid methyl ester, fatty acid ethyl ester, amino acid derived compounds and phenolic compounds.

  3. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL Fe CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty A. Akundi; Jian H. Zhang; A.N. Murty; S.V. Naidu

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the present study are: (1) To synthesize iron catalysts: Fe/MoO{sub 3}, and Fe/Co/MoO{sub 3} employing two distinct techniques: Pyrolysis with organic precursors and Co-precipitation of metal nitrates; (2) To investigate the magnetic character of the catalysts before and after exposure to CO and CO+H{sub 2} by (a) Mossbauer study of Iron (b) Zerofield Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study of Cobalt, and (c) Magnetic character of the catalyst composite; (3) To study the IR active surface species of the catalyst while stimulating (CO--Metal, (CO+H{sub 2})--Metal) interactions, by FTIR Spectroscopy; and (4) To analyze the catalytic character (conversion efficiency and product distribution) in both direct and indirect liquefaction Process and (5) To examine the correlations between the magnetic and chemical characteristics. This report presents the results of our investigation on (a) the effect of metal loading (b) the effect of intermetallic ratio and (c) the effect of catalyst preparation procedure on (i) the magnetic character of the catalyst composite (ii) the IR active surface species of the catalyst and (iii) the catalytic yields for three different metal loadings: 5%, 15%, and 25% (nominal) for three distinct intermetallic ratios (Fe/Co = 0.3, 1.5, 3.0).

  4. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  5. Liquefaction in western Sichuan Basin during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Zeng, Jing; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Zhigang; Cao, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Jinyu; Yuan, Xiaoming; Wang, Wei; Xing, Xiuchen

    2017-01-01

    Strong ground shaking during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, which occurred in the foothills of the Longmen Shan in southwestern China, resulted in widespread coseismic deformation features, such as liquefaction and water ejection. We present a systematic survey of the soil liquefaction and water ejection features caused by this major earthquake. The majority of liquefaction sites occurred along major alluvial fan-building rivers, where the water table was a few meters below the surface. While there is no clear correlation between water fountain height and peak ground acceleration, 58% of liquefaction sites are located 20-35 km from the Beichuan fault. Clusters of sites with anomalously high (> 2 m) water ejections are located near the surface projection of the Range Front blind thrust and its splay faults. The density of anomalously high eruptions within the window surrounding the Range Front blind thrust is 3-6 times greater than outside this region. Our results suggest that geologic structures may play a role in augmenting liquefaction intensity and shaking-related seismic hazards in sedimentary basins. We speculate that the mechanism could be the amplification of shaking by fault zone structures. Alternatively, faults may act as pathways with increased vertical permeability, allowing fluids from deeper confined aquifers to migrate to and enhance liquefaction of the upper soil, as proposed previously by Wang (2007). Liquefaction associated with the Wenchuan earthquake thus demonstrates the importance of considering geologic structures other than the primary earthquake-producing fault in seismic hazard evaluation and earthquake resistance design in areas with similar geologic and hydrological settings.

  6. Tissue Liquefaction Liposuction for Body Contouring and Autologous Fat Transfer: A Retrospective Review Over 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godek, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tissue liquefaction lipoplasty is a novel, low-energy method cleared for use in aesthetic body contouring and autologous fat transfer. This is a retrospective review of the clinical effectiveness and safety of a liquefaction lipoplasty system for liposuction and autologous fat transfer. Methods: A retrospective review was done evaluating all liquefaction lipoplasty procedures with or without autologous fat transfer performed by a single surgeon (March 2013 to June 2016). Patient demographics, operative details, and any complications were tabulated from patient charts. A typical case reported is presented with pre-/postoperative photographs. Results: Two hundred fifty-five consecutive liquefaction lipoplasty procedures were performed over 39 months. The average lipoaspirate volume was 1208 ± 991 mL and the average fat graft volume was 322 ± 277 mL. The overall complication rate was 9 of 255 (3.52%). There were 2 episodes of seroma (0.78%) that were aspirated and 2 episodes of cellulitis (0.78%) that responded to oral antibiotics. In the autologous fat transfer cohort, there were 5 of 103 (4.85%) cases of mild to moderate fat necrosis, with 1 patient requiring return to the operating room for removal of an oil cyst. No revisions of donor sites were required. Conclusions: Liquefaction lipoplasty appears safe for liposuction and autologous fat transfer, with a complication profile that is comparable with other widely used forms of suction-assisted liposuction. The liquefaction lipoplasty technology also provides potential time savings in the operating room that can minimize surgeon fatigue when harvesting large volumes of high-quality fat. Liquefaction lipoplasty appears to have advantages for both the patient and the surgeon, and further studies are underway. PMID:28077985

  7. Critical roles of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis: New advances, challenges and potential directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Cheng-Gui; Xiong, You-Yi; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Qin, Mei-Song; Song, Tong-Wen; Du, Chuan-Lai

    2015-09-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune disorders, vascular obliteration, excessive extracellular matrix deposition, skin fibrosis, and further pathological change of internal organs. To date, the exact etiology of this complicated disease remains unknown. Over the past few years, the roles of epigenetic modifications caused by environmental factors have been intensively studied in relation to the disease pathogenesis, and important advances have been made. This review focuses on the new advances of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the field of SSc research, including the upstream regulatory factors of miRNAs, the downstream targets, and the feedback mechanisms between miRNAs and their targets. We also discussed the correlation of miRNAs and DNA methylation, the miRNAs and the gene polymorphism. Overall, the findings presented in this review illustrated how miRNAs play important roles in the pathogenesis of SSc. However, several unanswered questions continue to impede our understanding of this complex disease. Future research should focus on the identification of new biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis, which will help us improve the clinical treatment of patients with SSc. In addition, we discussed the challenges of miRNA study in SSc in the future. Since the miRNA injection may be a promising therapeutic approach for SSc treatment, one of the challenges in the future is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of miRNA and anti-miRNAs using SSc model animals. In light of the fact that one miRNA can target many mRNAs, and one mRNA is targeted by many miRNAs, the effect of miRNA changes on other gene expression should be investigated to evaluate the treatment safety of miRNA injection in vivo.

  8. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic

  9. 肿瘤科医护人员对晚期肿瘤患者实施预先指示的质性研究%Attitudes of Oncology Medical Staffs on Advance Directives for Advanced Cancer Patients: a Qualitative Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽英; 胡雁; 陆箴琦; 顾文英

    2011-01-01

    The research was to explore the attitudes of oncology medical staffs on advance directives (AD) for advancedcancer patients. 8 oncology medical staffs selected by purposive sampling participated in the semi - structure interviews.Three themes were extracted from the attitudes of oncology medical staffs towards AD: accepting and demanding it; beingdifficult to carry it out j being possible to try it out with some countermeasures. Although there are still some difficulties,oncology medical staffs support AD in general. And the implementation of AD in mainland of China needs a long time oflocalization.%探讨肿瘤科医护人员对晚期肿瘤患者实施预先指示(advance directives,AD)的态度.使用目的抽样法对8位肿瘤科医护人员进行半结构式访谈.结果显示,肿瘤科医护人员对实施AD的态度可归纳为:(1)认可并有需求;(2)具体实施仍有一定困难;(3)可尝试应用但需一定对策.因此,肿瘤科医护人员总体非常支持AD的实施,但具体应用还需一定时期的本土化过程.

  10. Retesting of liquefaction and nonliquefaction case histories from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R.E.S.; Kayen, R.E.; Tong, L.-Y.; Liu, S.-Y.; Cai, G.-J.; Wu, J.

    2011-01-01

    A field investigation was performed to retest liquefaction and nonliquefaction sites from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake in China. These sites were carefully investigated in 1978 and 1979 by using standard penetration test (SPT) and cone penetration test (CPT) equipment; however, the CPT measurements are obsolete because of the now nonstandard cone that was used at the time. In 2007, a modern cone was mobilized to retest 18 selected sites that are particularly important because of the intense ground shaking they sustained despite their high fines content and/or because the site did not liquefy. Of the sites reinvestigated and carefully reprocessed, 13 were considered accurate representative case histories. Two of the sites that were originally investigated for liquefaction have been reinvestigated for cyclic failure of fine-grained soil and removed from consideration for liquefaction triggering. The most important outcome of these field investigations was the collection of more accurate data for three nonliquefaction sites that experienced intense ground shaking. Data for these three case histories is now included in an area of the liquefaction triggering database that was poorly populated and will help constrain the upper bound of future liquefaction triggering curves. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  11. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  13. The temporary and accumulated effects of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Li; Xiaoguang Lei; Ting Yan; Hongwei Li; Baihui Huang; Ling Li; Liqi Xu; Li Liu; Nanhui Chen; Longbao Lü; Yuanye Ma; Lin Xu; Jiali Li; Zhengbo Wang; Baorong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful noninvasive technique of cortical brain stimulation for the treatment of neurological disorders. Clinical research has demonstrated tDCS with anodal stimulation of primary motor cortex (M1) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients significantly improved their motor function. However, few studies have been focused on the optimization of parameters which contributed significantly to the treatment effects of tDCS and exploration of the under...

  14. 77 FR 7568 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export... December 19, 2011, by Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC (collectively, FLEX... (LNG) in an amount up to the equivalent of 511 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas per year,...

  15. 78 FR 25432 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability... Sabine Pass Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. and Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC (Sabine Pass) in the above-referenced... construction at the existing Sabine Pass LNG terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The EA assesses...

  16. 77 FR 66454 - Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC (GLLC), requesting long-term, multi... liquefied natural gas (LNG), the equivalent of approximately 547.5 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural...

  17. 77 FR 65546 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To... Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite... and operate certain related facilities (Modification Project) at the existing Sabine Pass LNG...

  18. 75 FR 67086 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Opinion and Order Denying Request for Review Under Section 3(c) of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Opinion and Order Denying Request for Review Under Section 3(c) of the... opinion and order pursuant to section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), that Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC's (Sabine Pass) pending application of September 7, 2010, in DOE/FE Docket No. 10-111 LNG for...

  19. 78 FR 66909 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application to Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application... Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street...,006 Bcf per year). Sabine Pass' requested increase in authorized capacity is an increase from...

  20. Large Coaxial Coldfinger Ptc for Process Liquefaction and Hts Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, P. S.; Corey, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    Large (>100 W cooling capacity at 80 K) `pulse-tube' coolers are ideal candidates for emerging applications such as HTS transmission lines, transformers, and motor windings, meso-scale oxygen liquefaction on-demand, cryopumping, and cryogen boiloff recovery. A number of successful large `in-line' pulse-tube coolers have been built, but these require embedded shell-and-tube process heat exchangers, hence transport of the process fluid/gas to and from the coldhead, and often a high degree of process fluid purity, to avoid clogging in the narrow inlets and outlets of these heat exchangers. It is far preferable in most circumstances to have a coldfinger design that presents a salient cold tip, with the coldhead at the end of a flexible transfer line, as is done with Gifford-McMahon or Joule-Thomson coolers. This paper presents some design details and data from the development of our first high-capacity coldfinger, as well as the results of its application to a 55 gallon/day oxygen liquefier for the Navy.

  1. Hydrocarbon liquefaction: viability as a peak oil mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höök, Mikael; Fantazzini, Dean; Angelantoni, André; Snowden, Simon

    2014-01-13

    Current world capacity of hydrocarbon liquefaction is around 400,000 barrels per day, providing a marginal share of the global liquid fuel supply. This study performs a broad review of technical, economic, environmental and supply chain issues related to coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). We find three issues predominate. First, significant amounts of coal and gas would be required to obtain anything more than a marginal production of liquids. Second, the economics of CTL plants are clearly prohibitive, but are better for GTL. Nevertheless, large-scale GTL plants still require very high upfront costs, and for three real-world GTL plants out of four, the final cost has been so far approximately three times that initially budgeted. Small-scale GTL holds potential for associated gas. Third, both CTL and GTL incur significant environmental impacts, ranging from increased greenhouse gas emissions (in the case of CTL) to water contamination. Environmental concerns may significantly affect growth of these projects until adequate solutions are found.

  2. Liquefaction and soil failure during 1994 northridge earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    The 1994 Northridge, Calif., earthquake caused widespread permanent ground deformation on the gently sloping alluvial fan surface of the San Fernando Valley. The ground cracks and distributed deformation damaged both pipelines and surface structures. To evaluate the mechanism of soil failure, detailed subsurface investigations were conducted at four sites. Three sites are underlain by saturated sandy silts with low standard penetration test and cone penetration test values. These soils are similar to those that liquefied during the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, and are shown by widely used empirical relationships to be susceptible to liquefaction. The remaining site is underlain by saturated clay whose undrained shear strength is approximately half the value of the earthquake-induced shear stress at this location. This study demonstrates that the heterogeneous nature of alluvial fan sediments in combination with variations in the ground-water table can be responsible for complex patterns of permanent ground deformation. It may also help to explain some of the spatial variability of strong ground motion observed during the 1994 earthquake. ?? ASCE,.

  3. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    DOE's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of DOE's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, in the 1930's. Current work is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, especially boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, and gasoline, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, DOE is supporting the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. DOE, together with the Electric Power Research Institue, has contracted with fourteen projects are described brieflly: funding, description, status, history, and progress in the current quarter. (LTN)

  4. Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of ammoniated corn to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Kim, Tae Hyun; Abbas, Charles A; Hicks, Kevin B

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of nonfermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the added ammonia nitrogen in ammonia treated corn (approximately 1 g per kg corn) may satisfy the yeast nutritional requirement for free amino nitrogen (FAN). In this study, procedures for ammoniation, liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation at two scales (12-L and 50-mL) were used to determine the fermentation rate, final ethanol concentration, and ethanol yield from starch in ammoniated or nonammoniated corn. The maximum achievable ethanol concentration at 50 h fermentation time was lower with ammoniated corn than with nonammoniated corn. The extra nitrogen in ammoniated corn satisfied some of the yeast requirements for FAN, thereby reducing the requirement for corn steep liquor. Based upon these results, ammoniation of corn does not appear to have a positive impact on the fermentability of corn to ethanol. Ammoniation may still be cost effective, if the advantages in terms of improved separations outweigh the disadvantages in terms of decreased fermentability.

  5. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-03-31

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the tenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period October 1 through December 31, 1996. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized two HTI coal/petroleum coprocessing samples for Ni and V concentrations, as requested by DOE. The results are reported in Appendix 1. (2) CONSOL began work to evaluate the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers, and specifically ethylphenyl ethers, from coal liquefaction phenols. The work includes a literature review and experimentation. The status of this ongoing work is described in this report. (3) A set of samples was requested from HTI Run ALC-2 (Appendix 2). (4) The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is developing a kinetic mechanistic model of resid reactivity. A summary of Delaware`s progress is appended to this report (Appendix 3). (5) A paper was submitted for presentation at the 213th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, April 13-17, 1997, in San Francisco, CA, (Appendix 4).

  6. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  7. 从临终关怀的角度看预先指示%Look at Advance Directives From the Perspective of Hospice Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤佩; 韩春玲

    2011-01-01

    预先指示是指有决定能力的患者对自身将来丧失表意能力时接受何种医疗照护而事先做出的一种安排和指示.预先指示在国外随着临终关怀的发展而出现,在当前中国的文化背景下,其应用和发展也更具有现实意义.%Advance directives is the patients, who have the ability to make resolve, to make an arrangement and instruction for them to accept what medical treatment or medical care prior to lose self ideographic ability. With development and appear of the hospice care in foreign countries, its application and the development also has more practical meaning under the current Chinese cultural background. Advance directives comply with the concept and ethical principles of hospice care.

  8. Development of advanced pump impeller fabrication technology using direct nano- ceramic dispersion casting for long time erosion durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Many components of pump impeller of nuclear power plants is generally made of stainless steel and Al-bronze with superior corrosion resistance to sea water. However, they should be replaced by one- to five-year period because of material damage by a very big cavitation impact load, even though their designed durability is twenty years. Especially, in case of Young-Gwang nuclear power plant located at the west sea, damage of components of pump impeller is so critical due to the additional damage by solid particle erosion and hence their replacement period is very short as several months compared to other nuclear power plants. In addition, it is very difficult to maintain and repair the components of pump impeller since there is no database on the exact durability and damage mechanism. Therefore, in this study, fabrication technology of new advanced materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide and -oxide ceramics into the matrix is developed first. Secondly, technology to estimate the dynamic damage by solid particle erosion is established and hence applied to the prediction of the service life of the components of pump impeller.

  9. HISTORICAL OCCURENCE OF LIQUEFACTION IN ZAGREB AREA AND ESTIMATION OF REOCCURENCE IN CASE OF ANOTHER STRONG EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želimir Veinović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Great Zagreb's earthquake in 1880 consequences of the liquefaction have been detected at six sites in the vicinity of Zagreb as the occurrence of sand boils. Liquefaction takes place when loosely packed, water-logged sediments near the ground surface lose their strength in response to strong ground shaking. During the liquefaction, due to pore pressure buildup, water may be forced to the surface carrying sand particles through volcano-like sand boils. Important factor for liquefaction occurrence is the state of soil densification which relates to geological age of deposits. Results of the absolute dating of fossilized trees found in Sava's alluvium in the vicinity of Zagreb and the results of the penetration tests show that another earthquake with magnitude ≥ 6.3 can provoke liquefaction once again (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Indirect coal liquefaction technology and its research progress%煤间接液化技术及其研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启文; 吴建民; 张宗森; 庞利峰

    2013-01-01

    The principles and typical process of synthesis of liquid fuels from indirect coal liquefaction are discussed. The development history and recent advances in indirect coal liquefaction technology are reviewed. The process routes and critical issues, including gasifier, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactor and catalyst are also discussed. The technical economics of the process is analyzed and its commercialization development prospect is presented. The analysis shows that constructing commercial scale indirect coal liquefaction plant is not only technically and economically feasible, but also promoting commercialization of indirect coal liquefaction technology and accelerating the formation of China's technology and industry of energy source conversion.%介绍了煤经合成气间接液化合成液体燃料的原理及典型工艺.综述了煤间接液化技术的发展历程及其最新进展,讨论了国内外煤间接液化技术的工艺流程,重点介绍了煤间接液化过程中的核心问题,主要包括气化炉、费托合成反应器和费托合成催化剂,分析了煤间接液化的技术经济性以及对煤间接液化的工业应用前景进行了展望.分析表明:具有我国自主知识产权的煤间接液化技术建设100万吨级以上工业化装置在技术上可靠、经济上可行,且100万吨级工业化项目的成功实施将带动我国煤间接液化技术的产业化进程,加快形成具有中国特色的能源转化技术和产业.

  11. Do the changes in muscle mass, muscle direction, and rotations of the condyles that occur after sagittal split advancement osteotomies play a role in the aetiology of progressive condylar resorption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicker, G.J.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA), volume (indicating muscle strength), and direction of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles after surgical mandibular advancement were measured, along with the rotation of the condyles after bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSOs) to advance the mandib

  12. Preoperative Direct Puncture Embolization of Advanced Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma in Combination with Transarterial Embolization: An Analysis of 22 Consecutive Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Mingming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com; Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Su Lixin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Chen Dong, E-mail: chenjsun@public8.sta.net.cn [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Ninth People' s Hospital (China)

    2013-02-15

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the clinical application of preoperative auxiliary embolization for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) by direct puncture embolization (DPE) of the tumor in combination with transarterial embolization (TAE). The study included 22 patients. An 18-gauge needle was used to puncture directly into the tumor, and 20-25 % N-butyl cyanoacrylate was injected under the guidance of fluoroscopy after confirming the placement of the needle into the JNA and no leaking into the surrounding tissue. Tumors were obstructed later via TAE. The supplying arteries of JNA were from branches of the internal carotid and external carotid arteries. Control angiography showed the obliteration of contrast stain in the entire tumor mass and the distal supplying arteries disappeared after DPE in combination with TAE. Surgical resection was performed within 4 days after embolization and none of the patients required blood transfusion. The use of DPE in combination with TAE was a safe, feasible, and efficacious method. It can devascularize effectively the JNAs and reduce intraoperative bleeding when JNAs are extirpated.

  13. Advances in Methane Isotope Measurements via Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications to Oil and Gas Source Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Petron, G.; Shorter, J. H.; Jervis, D.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental developments in the measurement of multiple isotopes of methane (12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D) are presented. A first generation 8-micron instrument quantifies 12CH4 and 13CH4 at a 1-second rate via tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). A second generation instrument uses two 3-micron intraband cascade lasers in an Aerodyne dual laser chassis for simultaneous measurement of 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D. Sensitivity and noise performance improvements are examined. The isotopic signature of methane provides valuable information for emission source identification of this greenhouse gas. A first generation spectrometer has been deployed in the field on a mobile laboratory along with a sophisticated 4-tank calibration system. Calibrations are done on an agressive schedule, allowing for the correction of measured isotope ratios to an absolute isotope scale. Distinct isotopic signatures are found for a number of emission sources in the Denver-Julesburg Basin: oil and gas gathering stations, compressor stations and processing plants; a municipal landfill, and dairy/cattle operations. The isotopic signatures are compared with measured ethane/methane ratios. These direct absorption measurements have larger uncertainties than samples measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but have several advantages over canister sampling methods: individual sources of short duration are easier to isolate; calibrated isotope ratio results are available immediately; replicate measurements on a single source are easily performed; and the number of sources sampled is not limited by canister availability and processing time.

  14. Directed assembly of nanoparticles monitored by liquid crystal topological defects for advanced optical properties of the composites (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Directed assembly of nanoparticles is a promising alternative for original nanoparticle organizations. New kinds of optical properties are expected when semi-conductive or metallic nanoparticles are concerned. Using liquid crystal matrices oriented by their interfaces, it is possible to induce anisotropic nanoparticle organizations. We can then investigate the influence of these matrices on the optical properties of the nanoparticles. I will show how to create hierarchical arrays of oriented topological defects in thin smectic films that act as efficient traps for a specific localization and orientation of nanoparticles [1]. I will show how specific nanoparticle assemblies can be obtained, depending on the nanoparticle size and shape. Fluorescent nanorods trapped in smectic dislocations become strictly oriented along a single direction, providing, a fine control of the polarization of the emmitted single photons [2]. Similarly the orientation of gold nanorods leads to the control of their luminescence as well as of their plasmon resonance by light polarization. I will show that, when the nanoparticle concentration is increased, single chains are formed, and can lead to a strong anisotropic electromagnetic coupling between the particles [3]. We are not only capable of linearly confining the particles, but also of varying the inter-particle interactions and thus modifing their optical properties which are sensitive to the inter-particle distance [4]. [1] D. Coursault, Soft Matter 12 (2016) 629. [2] L. Pelliser et al, Adv. Funct. Mat. 25 (2015) 1719. [3] D. Coursault et al., Adv. Mat. 24 (2012) 1461. [4] D. Coursault et al., ACSNano 9 (2015) 11678.

  15. Continuous hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood and glycerol with water phase recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas H.; Grigoras, Ionela F.; Hoffmann, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction is a promising technology for the conversion of a wide range of bio-feedstock into a biocrude; a mixture of chemical compounds that holds the potential for a renewable production of chemicals and fuels. Most research in hydrothermal liquefaction is performed in batch type...... reactors, although a continuous and energy-efficient operation is paramount for such process to be feasible. In this work an experimental campaign in a continuous bench scale unit is presented. The campaign is based on glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of aspen wood carried out with the presence...... successfully at steady state conditions without any observation of system malfunctioning. The biocrude obtained was characterized using several analytical methods to evaluate the feasibility of the process and the quality of the product. Results showed that a high quality biocrude was obtained having a higher...

  16. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Scenarios Susceptible to Induced Liquefaction Caused by High Magnitude Earthquakes in Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuska Fernández-Diéguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to define the zoning of soil liquefaction potential for the Guillermón Moncada Popular Council in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba. The engineering and geological conditions and seismic peculiarities favoring a seism to take place were assessed. The safety factor was re-calculated after determining possible maximum intensity values based on seismic magnitudes that can trigger the soil of the investigated area to liquefy. A scheme of the area´s soil susceptibility to liquefaction was obtained. Based on this result, it was concluded that the sectors that are most likely to experience soil liquefaction if an earthquake of magnitudes ranging between 7,75 and 8 occurs are located towards the center-east of the Popular Council with sandy-clayey soils being predominant. This information is very useful for the location and planning of engineering construction works in the area.

  18. A unified classification model for modeling of seismic liquefaction potential of soil based on CPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, Pijush; Hariharan, R

    2015-07-01

    The evaluation of liquefaction potential of soil due to an earthquake is an important step in geosciences. This article examines the capability of Minimax Probability Machine (MPM) for the prediction of seismic liquefaction potential of soil based on the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) data. The dataset has been taken from Chi-Chi earthquake. MPM is developed based on the use of hyperplanes. It has been adopted as a classification tool. This article uses two models (MODEL I and MODEL II). MODEL I employs Cone Resistance (q c) and Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR) as input variables. q c and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) have been taken as inputs for MODEL II. The developed MPM gives 100% accuracy. The results show that the developed MPM can predict liquefaction potential of soil based on q c and PGA.

  19. Changes of carbohydrates and molecular structure of dextrins during enzymatic liquefaction of starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebesny, E. (Dept. of Food Technology, Technical Univ. Lodz (Poland))

    1992-10-01

    Investigations of potato starch hydrolysis during bacterial [alpha]-amylase 'Amylogal CS' liquefaction to a different dextrose equivalent were carried out at 85deg C and pH 6,5. DE-values, carbohydrate compositions and molecular structure of dextrins were investigated in starch hydrolyzate samples taken at DE-values from 3,4 to 20,6. In the progress of liquefaction, that is at increasing DE-values, changes in carbohydrate compositions, and there the decrease only of maltoheptaose and dextrins content in hydrolyzate were observed. Simultaneously, it was found that molecular weight and number of dextrin branchings decreased particularly rapidly to a significant degree of nearly 3,4 DE. At further increase of DE-value during starch liquefaction the decrease of dextrins molecular weight and the number of branchings was lower and not that significant. (orig.).

  20. Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps at the Lausitz; Bodenverfluessigungsprobleme bei Bergbaukippen in der Lausitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Weissbach, Joerg; Szczyrba, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    For more than 100 years in the Lausitz brown coal is dismantled in open-cast mining. During this time, land with an ara of several 100 km{sup 2} was left as a dump or open-cast mining lakes. These areas are redeveloped by the Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (Senftenberg, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on soil liquefaction issues in mining dumps in the Lausitz. This contribution focuses on a renovation to prevent the sudden transitions from a solid to a liquefied state since 1990 as well as on soil liquefaction on interior dumps at Lausitz. Furthermore, the reasons of the increase in soil pore water pressure and the boundary conditions for liquefaction are described.

  1. Physical modeling and visualization of soil liquefaction under high confining stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lenart González; Tarek Abdoun; Mourad Zeghal; Vivian Kallou; Michael K. Sharp

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of seismically-induced liquefaction of granular soils under high confining stresses are still not fully understood. Evaluation of these mechanisms is generally based on extrapolation of observed behavior at shallow depths.Three centrifuge model tests were conducted at RPI's experimental facility to investigate the effects of confining stresses on the dynamic response ora deep horizontal deposit of saturated sand. Liquefaction was observed at high confining stresses in each of the tests. A system identification procedure was used to estimate the associated shear strain and stress time histories.These histories revealed a response marked by shear strength degradation and dilative patterns. The recorded accelerations and pore pressures were employed to generate visual animations of the models. These visualizations revealed a liquefaction front traveling downward and leading to large shear strains and isolation of upper soil layers.

  2. Effects of pretreatment by organic reduction on coal liquefaction (3). [Partial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuzu, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Tatsuya; Miyake, Mikio; Nomura, Masakatsu

    1986-10-23

    In this experiment, Akabira coal pretreated by the reductive hydrogenation was liquefied using the red mud-sulfur (ratio by weight: 9/1) catalyst to determine the effect of the partial reductive hydrogenation as the pretreatment on the coal liquefaction. The reduced coal was prepared by the reductive hydrogenation using sodium in liquid ammonia or by the pretreatment using molten potassium under reflux of tetra-hydrofuran. A 50 ml-autoclave was used for the liquefaction. The result indicates that hydrogen is introduced into the aromatic nucleus in the molecule of coal by the partial hydrogenation and the partial cleavages of C-C and C-O bonds in the structure of coal take place. Since the liquefaction of partially hydrogenated coal is accelerated by introducing hydrogen, the consumption of hydrogen is reduced and the efficiency of reaction is enhanced. (4 figs, 2 tabs, 3 refs)

  3. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  4. Recent approaches for the direct use of elemental sulfur in the synthesis and processing of advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeewoo; Pyun, Jeffrey; Char, Kookheon

    2015-03-09

    Elemental sulfur is an abundant and inexpensive material obtained as a by-product of natural-gas and petroleum refining operations. Recently, the need for the development of new energy-storage systems brought into light the potential of sulfur as a high-capacity cathode material in secondary batteries. Sulfur-containing materials were also shown to have useful IR optical properties. These developments coupled with growing environmental concerns related to the global production of excess elemental sulfur have led to a keen interest in its utilization as a feedstock in materials applications. This Minireview focuses on the recent developments on physical and chemical methods for directly processing elemental sulfur to produce functional composites and polymers.

  5. Strong ground motion inferred from liquefaction caused by the 1811-1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Peak ground accelerations (PGAs) in the epicentral region of the 1811–1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes are inferred from liquefaction to have been no greater than ∼0.35g. PGA is inferred in an 11,380  km2 area in the Lower Mississippi Valley in Arkansas and Missouri where liquefaction was extensive in 1811–1812. PGA was inferred by applying liquefaction probability curves, which were originally developed for liquefaction hazard mapping, to detailed maps of liquefaction by Obermeier (1989). The low PGA is inferred because both a shallow (1.5 m deep) water table and a large moment magnitude (M 7.7) earthquake were assumed in the analysis. If a deep (5.0 m) water table and a small magnitude (M 6.8) earthquake are assumed, the maximum inferred PGA is 1.10g. Both inferred PGA values are based on an assumed and poorly constrained correction for sand aging. If an aging correction is not assumed, then the inferred PGA is no greater than 0.22g. A low PGA value may be explained by nonlinear site response. Soils in the study area have an averageVS30 of 220±15  m/s. A low inferred PGA is consistent with PGA values estimated from ground‐motion prediction equations that have been proposed for the New Madrid seismic zone when these estimates are corrected for nonlinear soil site effects. This application of liquefaction probability curves demonstrates their potential usefulness in paleoseismology.

  6. Quaternary Geology and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Napa, California 1:100,000 Quadrangle: A Digital Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Janet M.; Noller, Jay S.; Lettis, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Earthquake-induced ground failures such as liquefaction have historically brought loss of life and damage to property and infrastructure. Observations of the effects of historical large-magnitude earthquakes show that the distribution of liquefaction phenomena is not random. Liquefaction is restricted to areas underlain by loose, cohesionless sands and silts that are saturated with water. These areas can be delineated on the basis of thorough geologic, geomorphic, and hydrologic mapping and map analysis (Tinsley and Holzer, 1990; Youd and Perkins, 1987). Once potential liquefaction zones are delineated, appropriate public and private agencies can prepare for and mitigate seismic hazard in these zones. In this study, we create a liquefaction susceptibility map of the Napa 1:100,000 quadrangle using Quaternary geologic mapping, analysis of historical liquefaction information, groundwater data, and data from other studies. The study is atterned after state-of-the-art studies by Youd (1973) Dupre and Tinsley (1980) and Dupre (1990) in the Monterey-Santa Cruz area, Tinsley and others (1985) in the Los Angeles area, and Youd and Perkins (1987) in San Mateo County, California. The study area comprises the northern San Francisco Metropolitan Area, including the cities of Santa Rosa, Vallejo, Napa, Novato, Martinez, and Fairfield (Figure 1). Holocene estuarine deposits, Holocene stream deposits, eolian sands, and artificial fill are widely present in the region (Helley and Lajoie, 1979) and are the geologic materials of greatest concern. Six major faults capable of producing large earthquakes cross the study area, including the San Andreas, Rodgers Creek, Hayward, West Napa, Concord, and Green Valley faults (Figure 1).

  7. Advanced methodology for measuring the extensive elastic compliance and mechanical loss directly in k31 mode piezoelectric ceramic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoubi, Maryam; Shekhani, Husain N.; Bansal, Anushka; Hennig, Eberhard; Scholehwar, Timo; Uchino, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants, and their corresponding losses are defined under constant conditions of two categories; namely, intensive (i.e., E, electric field or T, stress), and extensive (i.e., D, dielectric displacement or x, strain) ones. So far, only the intensive parameters and losses could be measured directly in a k31 mode sample. Their corresponding extensive parameters could be calculated indirectly using the coupling factor and "K" matrix. However, the extensive loss parameters, calculated through this indirect method, could have large uncertainty, due to the error propagation in calculation. In order to overcome this issue, extensive losses should be measured separately from the measurable intensive ones in lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) k31 mode rectangular plate ceramics. We propose a new mechanical-excitation methodology, using a non-destructive testing approach by means of a partial electrode configuration, instead of the conventional full electrode configuration. For this purpose, a non-electrode sample was prepared, where the electrode covered only 10% of the top and bottom surfaces at the center to actuate the whole sample, and also monitor the responding vibration. The admittance spectrum of this sample, corresponds to PZT properties under dielectric displacement D constant condition. Furthermore, ceramics with partial-electrodes were also prepared to create short and open circuit boundary conditions, attributing to resonance and anti-resonance modes. In the proposed way, we were able to measure both intensive and extensive elastic compliances and mechanical losses directly for the first time. The accuracy of this new method is compared with the conventional measurements by use of indirect calculations. The preliminary results (by neglecting the 10% actuator part difference at this point) were obtained, which were in good agreements (less than 3% difference) with the previous indirect method.

  8. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.G.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N. [and others

    1997-08-01

    Traditional Single-Sensor-Single Indicator (SSSI) displays are poorly matched to the cognitive abilities of operators, especially for large and complex systems. It is difficult for operators to monitor very large arrays of displays and controls, and to integrate the information displayed therein. In addition, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are bulky (running to many hundreds of pages) and difficult to use, and operators may become lost. For these reasons, and also because it is becoming increasingly difficult to find replacements for aging hardware components, there is a trend towards computerized graphical interfaces for nuclear power plants (NPPs). There is, however, little rational theory for display design in this domain. This report describes some recent theoretical developments and shows how to develop displays which will greatly reduce the cognitive load on the operator and allow the use of perceptual rather than cognitive mechanisms while using SON and to support state diagnosis and fault management. The report outlines the conceptual framework within which such a new approach could be developed, and provides an example of how the operating procedures for the start-up sequence of a NPP could be realized. A detailed description of a set of displays for a graphical interface for the SON of the feedwater system is provided as an example of how the proposed approach could be realized, and a general account of how it would fit into the overall start-up sequence is given. Examples of {open_quotes}direct perception{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}ecological{close_quotes} configural state space displays to support the use of the proposed direct manipulation SOP interface are provided, and also a critical discussion which identifies some difficulties which may be anticipated should the general approach herein advocated be adopted.

  9. Development of coal liquefaction technologies (Part 3); Development of common base techniques (Part 4). Development and employment of evaluating approach to liquefied process. Development of data collecting and processing system for coal liquefaction process and etc. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu (3); Kyotsu kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu nado (4). Ekika process no hyoka shuho no kaihatsu, unyo. Sekitan ekika process nado no data no shushu, Shori system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This research aims to develop the management system of informations concerning coal liquefaction process and etc., to develop data collecting and processing system on pilot plant and supporting researches and to effectively use data to advance to following step such as conceptural design for the demonstration plant. In addition, this research aims to collect many kinds of techniques obtained by the research and development and to arrange and promote the licensing system to practically use this system. Practical results in 1988 were as follows: Conceptural design on basic data base and retrieval or look up system on general technical informations were carried out to develop the data base system for coal liquefaction and to develop the data collecting and processing system for the coal liquefaction process and etc. Data locative leveling was carried out as the conceptural design for basic data base and the basic structures of hardware and software were made up as the basic design for the retrieval system of general technical informations. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Characterization of coal-derived materials by field desorption mass spectrometry, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL`s contract.

  11. Liquefaction of Lignocellulose in Fluid Catalytic Cracker Feed: A Process Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shushil; Lange, Jean-Paul; Van Rossum, Guus; Kersten, Sascha R A

    2015-12-07

    We report a process concept for lignocellulose liquefaction in a refinery stream that will be coprocessed with the resulting biocrude and that, therefore, does not require the recovery and recycling of the liquefaction solvent. Light cycle oil and vacuum gas oil were found to be the two most promising solvents. Both refinery streams could provide a liquid yield of 58 C % (64 % energy yield). A techno-economic assessment indicates that the biocrude could be produced at an energy-equivalent crude oil price of 51-64 $ per barrel at a wood cost of 85 $ per dry ton.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Seabed Response and Liquefaction due to Non-linear Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-feng; ZHANG Qing-he; HAN Tao; QIN Chong-ren

    2005-01-01

    Based on Biot's consolidation theory, a two-dimensional model for computation of the seabed response to waves is presented with the finite element method. Numerical results for different wave conditions are obtained, and the effects of wave non-linearity on the wave-induced seabed response are examined. Moreover, the wave-induced momentary liquefaction in uniform and inhomogeneous seabeds is investigated. It is shown that the wave non-linearity affects the distribution of the wave-induced pore pressure and effective stresses, while the influence of wave non-linearity on the seabed liquefaction potential is not so significant.

  13. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  14. Assessment of thermodynamic models for the design, analysis and optimisation of gas liquefaction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas liquefaction systems are based on refrigeration cycles – they consist of the same operations such as heat exchange, compression and expansion, but they have different layouts, components and working fluids. The design of these systems requires a preliminary simulation and evaluation......, and (iii) optimise liquefaction systems. Three case studies are considered: a cascade layout with three pure refrigerants, a single mixed-refrigerant unit, and an expander-based configuration. Significant deviations are found between all property models, and in all case studies. The main discrepancies...

  15. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis Salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, H.; Deng, S.

    2013-01-01

    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220-375 °C, 20-255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid...... on Nannochloropsis salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for Nannochloropsis salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae...

  16. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  17. 3rd international conference on coal gasification and liquefaction, University of Pittsburgh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    The third annual international conference on ''Coal Gasification and Liquefaction: What Needs to be Done Now'' was held at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA on August 3-5, 1976. The majority of the papers dealt with coal gasification and liquefaction (often on the basis of process pilot plant experience) and on flue gas desulfurization by a variety of processes; fewer papers involved fluidized bed combustion, combined cycle power plants, coal desulfurization, government policy on environmental effects and on synthetic fuels, etc. Twenty-eight papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  18. Simulation of coal liquefaction process by developing user models on Aspen Plus platform%Aspen Plus用户模型技术的煤直接液化全流程模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单贤根; 常小瑞; 任琼; 江洪波; 翁惠新

    2014-01-01

    Based on six lumped kinetic model, this paper used the BFGS optimization algorithm to obtain kinetic constant of heating-up and isothermal stage of direct coal liquefaction process, and through regression of experimental data to get specific product composition for separation unit of direct coal liquefaction. Then the Aspen Plus user model of direct coal liquefaction was developed and integrated with the Aspen Plus software to achieve an entire process simulation of direct coal liquefaction process in Aspen Plus platform which can make the best use of its powerful databases and simulation calculation ability of separation processes. The calculation value of gas liquid equilibrium in high temperature and low temperature separators for reaction products agreed well with the experiment data. The entire process simulation in Aspen Plus platform can provide technical support for the optimization of direct coal liquefaction reaction and separation conditions.%基于六集总动力学模型,采用BFGS优化算法获得煤直接液化升温阶段和恒温阶段的反应动力学常数,同时通过试验数据回归得到用于煤直接液化分离单元的具体产品组成,并以此为基础开发了煤直接液化反应的Aspen Plus用户模型。在此基础上,将上述煤直接液化用户模型与Aspen Plus流程模拟软件集成在一起,充分利用Aspen Plus软件强大的性质数据库和分离过程模拟计算能力,最终实现了基于Aspen Plus平台的煤直接液化全流程模拟,模拟计算得到的煤直接液化反应产物在高温和低温分离器的气液相平衡数据与实验值较吻合。基于Aspen Plus的全流程模拟可以为煤直接液化反应和分离条件的优化选择提供技术参考。

  19. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  20. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  1. Advancing Solar Irradiance Measurement for Climate-Related Studies: Accurate Constraint on Direct Aerosol Radiative Effect (DARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Ji, Q. Jack

    2011-01-01

    Earth's climate is driven primarily by solar radiation. As summarized in various IPCC reports, the global average of radiative forcing for different agents and mechanisms, such as aerosols or CO2 doubling, is in the range of a few W/sq m. However, when solar irradiance is measured by broadband radiometers, such as the fleet of Eppley Precision Solar Pyranometers (PSP) and equivalent instrumentation employed worldwide, the measurement uncertainty is larger than 2% (e.g., WMO specification of pyranometer, 2008). Thus, out of the approx. 184 W/sq m (approx.263 W/sq m if cloud-free) surface solar insolation (Trenberth et al. 2009), the measurement uncertainty is greater than +/-3.6 W/sq m, overwhelming the climate change signals. To discern these signals, less than a 1 % measurement uncertainty is required and is currently achievable only by means of a newly developed methodology employing a modified PSP-like pyranometer and an updated calibration equation to account for its thermal effects (li and Tsay, 2010). In this talk, we will show that some auxiliary measurements, such as those from a collocated pyrgeometer or air temperature sensors, can help correct historical datasets. Additionally, we will also demonstrate that a pyrheliometer is not free of the thermal effect; therefore, comparing to a high cost yet still not thermal-effect-free "direct + diffuse" approach in measuring surface solar irradiance, our new method is more economical, and more likely to be suitable for correcting a wide variety of historical datasets. Modeling simulations will be presented that a corrected solar irradiance measurement has a significant impact on aerosol forcing, and thus plays an important role in climate studies.

  2. Implementation of an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control system using PAT tools into a direct compaction continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Sahay, Abhishek; Karry, Krizia M; Muzzio, Fernando; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2014-10-01

    It is desirable for a pharmaceutical final dosage form to be manufactured through a quality by design (QbD)-based approach rather than a quality by testing (QbT) approach. An automatic feedback control system coupled with PAT tools that is part of the QbD paradigm shift, has the potential to ensure that the pre-defined end product quality attributes are met in a time and cost efficient manner. In this work, an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control architecture coupled with real time inline/online monitoring tools and principal components analysis (PCA) based additional supervisory control layer has been proposed for a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. The advantages of both MPC and PID have been utilized in a hybrid scheme. The control hardware and software integration and implementation of the control system has been demonstrated using feeders and blending unit operation of a continuous tablet manufacturing pilot plant and an NIR based PAT tool. The advanced hybrid MPC-PID control scheme leads to enhanced control loop performance of the critical quality attributes in comparison to a regulatory (e.g. PID) control scheme indicating its potential to improve pharmaceutical product quality.

  3. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008; La liquefaction du charbon: ou en est-on aujourd'hui? - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel.

  4. Influence of the void ratio and the confining on the static liquefaction in slopes in shangi sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mariano Ramos Cañón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study on the onset of static liquefaction in slopes under undrained conditions of loading was developed based on a general liquefaction flow instability criterion for elastoplastic soils based on the concept of loss of controllability. The criterion is applied to the case of axisymmetric loading to detect the onset of static liquefaction. The criterion is used in conjunction with an elastoplastic model for sands and is tested by means of numerical simulations of element tests. The numerical results are compared with experimental evidence obtaining good agreement. A quantitative study of the influence of the mean pressure, void ratio and the anisotropy of stress on the onset of static liquefaction is presented for the Changi sand. From the analysis of the numerical results, it can be concluded that: a. the mobilized friction angle at the onset of liquefaction is not an intrinsic property of the material, but is a state variable b. Despite of the multiple variables involved in the process of generation of undrained instability, the state of stresses at the onset of static liquefaction can be conveniently represented by a linear relation between Dq/po and no . This graphical representation can be used in the practice of geotechnical engineering to quantify the margin of security against the static liquefaction of a sandy slope.

  5. Two-step sequential liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass by crude glycerol for the production of polyols and polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengjun; Li, Yebo

    2014-06-01

    A two-step sequential biomass liquefaction process was developed to produce bio-based polyols and polyurethane (PU) foams using crude glycerol as a liquefaction solvent. The first step, acid-catalyzed liquefaction, was highly effective in liquefying biomass, while the second step, base-catalyzed liquefaction, featured extensive condensation reactions. By using the developed two-step liquefaction process, the polyols produced from lignocellulosic biomass and crude glycerol containing 26-40% organic impurities showed hydroxyl numbers ranging from 536 to 936mgKOH/g, viscosities from 20.6 to 28.0Pas, and molecular weights (Mw) from 444 to 769g/mol. The PU foams produced had densities ranging from 0.04 to 0.05g/cm(3), compressive strengths from 223 to 420kPa, and thermal conductivities from 32.2 to 38.9mW/mK. Polyols and PU foams produced from the two-step liquefaction process had improved properties over their analogs derived from a one-step biomass liquefaction by crude glycerol process catalyzed by acid or base.

  6. Microalgae growth on the aqueous phase from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of the same microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk W.F. (Wim)

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. microalgae in the recycled aqueous phase (AP) recovered after Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of the same microalgae was studied to evaluate the potential of nutrients recycling. AP dilution ratio was systematically varied, using either water or water enriched with sta

  7. Quantitative characterization of the aqueous fraction from hydrothermal liquefaction of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Panisko, Ellen; Wietsma, Thomas; Lemmon, Teresa; Swita, Marie; Albrecht, Karl; Howe, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Aqueous streams generated from hydrothermal liquefaction contain approximately 30% of the total carbon present from the algal feed. Hence, this aqueous carbon must be utilized to produce liquid fuels and/or specialty chemicals for economic sustainability of hydrothermal liquefaction on industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from the hydrothermal liquefaction of fresh water and saline water algal cultures were analyzed using a wide variety of analytical instruments to determine their compositional characteristics. This study will also inform researchers designing catalysts for down-stream processing such as high-pressure catalytic conversion of organics in aqueous phase, catalytic hydrothermal gasification, and biological conversions. Organic chemical compounds present in all eight aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds and aldehydes/ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were utilized to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of algae were identified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported. The amount quantified carbon ranged from 45 to 72 % of total carbon in the aqueous fractions.

  8. Helium liquefaction with a commercial 4 K Gifford-McMahon cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zimmer, O.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes helium liquefaction using a commercial cryocooler with 1.5 W cooling power at 4.2 K (Sumitomo model RDK415D with compressor CSW-71D, consuming 6.5 kW electrical power), equipped with heat exchangers for precooling the incoming gas. No additional cooling power of cryoliquids or additional Joule-Thomson stages were utilized. Measurements of the pressure dependence of the liquefaction rate were performed. A maximum value of 83.9 g/h was obtained for 2.25 bar stabilized input pressure. Including the time needed to cool the liquefied helium to 4.2 K at 1 bar after filling the bottle connected to the cold head, and correcting for heat screen influences, this results in a net liquefaction rate of 67.7 g/h. Maintaining a pressure close to 1 bar above the bath during liquefaction, a rate of 55.7 g/h was obtained. The simple design enables many applications of the apparatus.

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Saqib S; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang; Hoffmann, Jessica; Spangsmark, Dorte; Madsen, Linda B; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rosendahl, Lasse A

    2013-03-01

    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220–375 °C, 20–255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC–MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained on N. salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For S. platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for N. salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins.

  10. Sinking of irregular shape blocks into marine seabed under wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    The sinking of initially buried irregular blocks into the seabed under wave-induced liquefaction was investigated by experimental methods. Pore-water pressure in the soil, water surface elevation time series and block displacements were measured. Results indicated that initiation of sinking...

  11. Shear-wave velocity-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Moss, R.E.S.; Thompson, E.M.; Seed, R.B.; Cetin, K.O.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2013-01-01

    Shear-wave velocity (Vs) offers a means to determine the seismic resistance of soil to liquefaction by a fundamental soil property. This paper presents the results of an 11-year international project to gather new Vs site data and develop probabilistic correlations for seismic soil liquefaction occurrence. Toward that objective, shear-wave velocity test sites were identified, and measurements made for 301 new liquefaction field case histories in China, Japan, Taiwan, Greece, and the United States over a decade. The majority of these new case histories reoccupy those previously investigated by penetration testing. These new data are combined with previously published case histories to build a global catalog of 422 case histories of Vs liquefaction performance. Bayesian regression and structural reliability methods facilitate a probabilistic treatment of the Vs catalog for performance-based engineering applications. Where possible, uncertainties of the variables comprising both the seismic demand and the soil capacity were estimated and included in the analysis, resulting in greatly reduced overall model uncertainty relative to previous studies. The presented data set and probabilistic analysis also help resolve the ancillary issues of adjustment for soil fines content and magnitude scaling factors.

  12. Liquefaction, ground oscillation, and soil deformation at the Wildlife Array, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T.L.; Youd, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Excess pore-water pressure and liquefaction at the Wildlife Liquefaction Array in 1987 were caused by deformation associated with both high-frequency strong ground motion and 5.5-second-period Love waves. The Love waves produced large (???1.5%) cyclic shear strains well after the stronger high-frequency ground motion abated. These cyclic strains generated approximately from 13 to 35% of the excess pore-water pressure in the liquefied layer and caused excess pore-water pressures ultimately to reach effective overburden stress. The deformation associated with the Love waves explains the "postearthquake" increase of pore-water pressure that was recorded at the array. This explanation suggests that conventional methods for predicting liquefaction based on peak ground acceleration are incomplete and may need to consider cyclic strains associated with long-period surface waves. A post-earthquake survey of an inclinometer casing indicated permanent shear strain associated with lateral spreading primarily occurred in the upper part of the liquefied layer. Comparison of cone penetration test soundings conducted after the earthquake with pre-earthquake soundings suggests sleeve friction increased. Natural lateral variability of the liquefied layer obscured changes in tip resistance despite a ???1% reduction in volume. The large oscillatory motion associated with surface waves explains ground oscillation that has been reported at some liquefaction sites during earthquakes.

  13. Influence of saturation degree and role of suction in unsaturated soils behaviour: application to liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernay Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the pore fluid compressibility on liquefaction has been studied by various authors. But few papers have been published about the role of suction in cyclic behavior of unsaturated soils. Most of these works use Skempton coefficient B as a reference in terms of saturation degree to analyze their results. The use of B in experimental conditions is convenient, but is not accurate when studying liquefaction behavior, since effects of suction are neglected. In this paper, the influence of saturation degree on mechanical behavior of a soil under dynamic loads is studied. Cyclic undrained triaxial tests were performed on sand samples, under various levels of saturation. Soil-water characteristic curve was used, in order to study influence of suction. The first results confirm that when the degree of saturation decreases, the resistance increases. Initial positive suction tends to stiffen the soil. It also appears that the presence of air delays the occurrence of liquefaction, but doesn’t prevent it. Indeed, liquefaction is observed, whether the soil is saturated or not.

  14. Alkaline pretreatment and the synergic effect of water and tetralin enhances the liquefaction efficiency of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixia; Cao, Jiangfei; Huang, Kai; Hong, Yaming; Li, Cunlong; Zhou, Xinxin; Xie, Ning; Lai, Fang; Shen, Fang; Chen, Congjin

    2015-02-01

    Bagasse liquefaction (BL) in water, tetralin, and water/tetralin mixed solvents (WTMS) was investigated, and effects of tetralin content in WTMS, temperature, and alkaline pretreatment of bagasse on liquefaction efficiency were studied. At 300°C, bagasse conversion in WTMS with tetralin content higher than 50 wt% was 86-87 wt%, whereas bagasse conversion in water or tetralin was 67 wt% or 84 wt%, respectively. Because the solid conversion from liquefaction in WTMS with tetralin content higher than 50 wt% was always higher than that in water or tetralin at temperatures between 250 and 300°C, a synergic effect between water and tetralin is suggested. Alkaline pretreatment of bagasse resulted in significantly higher conversion and heavy oil yield from BL in water or WTMS. The effect of deoxygenation by the present liquefaction method is demonstrated by lower oxygen contents (16.01-19.59 wt%) and higher heating values (31.9-34.8 MJ/kg) in the produced oils.

  15. Correlation of liquefaction resistance with shear wave velocity based on laboratory study using bender element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-guo; CHEN Yun-min; KE Han

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies using field case history data yielded new criteria for evaluating liquefaction potential in saturated granular deposits based on in situ, stress-corrected shear wave velocity. However, the conditions of relatively insufficient case histories and limited site conditions in this approach call for additional data to more reliably define liquefaction resistance as a function of shear wave velocity. In this study, a series of undrained cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on saturated sand with shear wave velocity Vs measured by bender element. By normalizing the data with respect to minimum void ratio, the test results, incorporated with previously published laboratory data, statistically revealed good correlation of cyclic shear strength with small-strain shear modulus for sandy soils, which is almost irrespective of soil types and confining pressures. The consequently determined cyclic resistance ratio, CRR, was found to be approximately proportional to Vs4. Liquefaction resistance boundary curves were established by applying this relationship and compared to liquefaction criteria derived from seismic field measurements. Although in the range of Vs1>200 m/s the presented curves are moderately conservative, they are remarkably consistent with the published field performance criteria on the whole.

  16. 78 FR 44934 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... export liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced from domestic sources in an amount up to 91,250,000 million.... 3307, Order Granting Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel Pursuant to the...

  17. 78 FR 44937 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... export liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced from domestic sources in an amount up to 104,250,000 million... Granting Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel Pursuant to the Long-Term Contract...

  18. Bio-char derived from sewage sludge by liquefaction: Characterization and application for dye adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Lijian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yuan, Xingzhong, E-mail: yxz@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Huang, Huajun [School of Land Resources and Environment, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 (China); Shao, Jianguang; Wang, Hou [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Xiaohong [School of Business, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SS liquefaction bio-chars were effective on MG and MB removal from aqueous. • MG adsorption capacity depended strongly on carboxylic and phenolic groups. • Metal release accounted for nearly 30% of the total MG adsorbed on bio-chars. • Acetone and low temperature favor effective adsorbent production by liquefaction. - Abstract: Bio-chars produced by liquefaction of sewage sludge with methanol, ethanol, or acetone as the solvent at 260–380 °C were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, thermogravimetric characteristics, surface area and pore size distribution, and oxygen-containing functional groups composition. The surface area and total volume of the bio-chars were low, but the contents of oxygen-containing functional groups were high. The bio-chars were effective on Malachite green (MG) and Methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The MG adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data fitted well to the Pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic investigations indicated that MG adsorption on bio-char was spontaneous and endothermic. The MG adsorption mechanism appears to be associated with cation release and functional group participation. Additionally, liquefaction of SS with acetone as the solvent at low temperature (280 °C) would favor the production of bio-char adsorbent in terms of bio-char yield and MG and MB adsorption capacity.

  19. Process Water Recycle in Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Microalgae To Enhance Bio-oil Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Tercero, E.A.; Bertucco, A.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effect of recycling the process water (PW) of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) to the HTL reactor was investigated, with the objective being to recover carbon from the organic content of the PW and to develop a solvent-free process. When recycling twice the PW at 220, 240, and 265 °

  20. Research on co-liquefaction of highly volatile coal and waste polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋书宇; 赵鸣

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, the reaction pattern and technological requirement of the co-processing of coal with waste polymer are studied in a 50 ml reactor. The results showed that adding waste polymers during the liquefaction of coal could effectively improve coal conversion, increase oil yield, reduce the cost of hydrogen, and require less strict reaction conditions.