WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced cuttings transport

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  8. Advanced cutting techniques: laser and fissuration cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorati, B.; Gay, P.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental tests have been performed using CO 2 laser with output power 1 to 15 kW to evaluate the effect of varying the following parameters: material (carbon steel Fe 42 C, stainless steel AISI 304, concrete), laser power, beam characteristics, work piece velocity, gas type and distribution on the laser interaction zone. In the case of concrete, drilling depths of 80 mm were obtained in a few seconds using a 10 kW laser beam. Moreover pieces of 160 mm were cut at 0.01 meters per minute. Results with carbon steel indicated maximum thicknesses of 110 mm, cut at 0.01 meters per minute with 10 kW, depths about 20% lower were obtained with the AISI 304 stainless steel. A parallel investigation was aimed at characterizing particulate emission during the laser cutting process. At the end of the research it was possible to elaborate a preliminary proposal concerning a laser based dismantling system for the application to a typical Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  9. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  10. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  11. Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities accomplishes this work through the activities of nearly 100 local coalitions. These coalitions provide resources and technical assistance in the deployment of alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge.

  12. Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities accomplishes this work through the activities of nearly 100 local coalitions. These coalitions provide resources and technical assistance in the deployment of alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge.

  13. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  14. Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-07

    This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program, which advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. At the national level, the program develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources. At the local level, nearly 100 coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

  15. Clean Cities: Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program, which advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. At the national level, the program develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources. At the local level, nearly 100 coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

  16. How do I manage and staff for intelligent transportation systems? : thinking outside the box : a cross-cutting study : maximizing project resources and advancing coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) projects often need staff with skills that are not resident in traditional transportation organizations. Therefore, project administrators must sometimes look beyond the usual staffing methods to fill these po...

  17. Underwater transporting method and device for incore structure cutting piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Koichi; Chiba, Noboru; Chiba, Isao; Takada, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Chiba, Noboru.

    1996-01-01

    Cutting pieces are handled by using a pick-up device connected with a wire ropes, a take-up drum, chains and a winch as cutting piece handling means, and moved freely on the water surface by a propulsion machine of a transporting means of the device to transfer them under water to a predetermined position. The pick-up device is lifted by taking-up the rope by the rotation of the take-up drum using chain-driving by way of the winch and the chains. The cut pieces are stored in a cask by lowering them in the cask and releasing the handling. In addition, if the weight of the cut pieces is recognized before cutting, and the load of the weight of the cut pieces is applied to the device previously, the balance of the device and the cut pieces can be kept, and cut pieces can be transported under water always stably. Further, if the cut pieces are supported upon cutting operation, the cut pieces are made stable, and cutting operation with good efficiency can be attained. (N.H.)

  18. CO2 laser cutting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamikiz, A.; Lacalle, L.N. Lopez de; Sanchez, J.A.; Pozo, D. del; Etayo, J.M.; Lopez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article demonstrates the optimum working areas and cutting conditions for the laser cutting of a series of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The parameters that most influence the cutting of sheet metal have been studied and the results have been divided into two large groups with thickness of more and less than 1 mm. The influence of the material and, more important, the effect of coating have been taken into account. The results, have demonstrate very different behaviours between the thinnest and thickest sheets, whilst the variation of the cutting parameters due to the influence of the material is less relevant. The optimum cutting areas and the quality of the cut evaluated with different criteria are presented. Finally, the best position for the laser beam has been observed to be underneath the sheet

  19. Transport of biologically active material in laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, M; Mathezloic, F; Stoffel, M H; Zweig, A D; Romano, V; Weber, H P

    1988-01-01

    The transport of biologically active material during laser cutting with CO2 and Er lasers is demonstrated. This transport mechanism removes particles from the surface of gelatin, agar, and liver samples into the depth of the laser-formed craters. The transport phenomenon is explained by a contraction and condensation of enclosed hot water vapor. We show by cultivating transported bacteria in agar that biological particles can survive the shock of the transport. Determination of the numbers of active cells evidences a more pronounced activity of the cultivated bacteria after impact with an Er laser than with a CO2 laser.

  20. Advanced public transportation systems benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Benefits and cost savings for various Advanced Public Transportation Systems are outlined here. Operational efficiencies are given for Transit Management Systems in different locales, as well as compliant resolution and safety. Electronic Fare Paymen...

  1. Advanced transport aircraft technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winblade, R L

    1980-06-01

    Various elements of the NASA aircraft energy efficiency program are described. Regarding composite structures, the development of three secondary and three medium-primary components to validate structural and fabrication technology is discussed. In laminar flow control, the design of advanced airfoils having large regions of supercritical flow with features which simplify laminarization are considered. Emphasis is placed on engine performance improvement, directed at developing advanced components to reduce fuel consumption in current production engines, and engine diagnostics aimed at identifying the sources and causes of performance deterioration in high-bypass turbofan engines. In addition, the results of propeller aerodynamic and acoustic tests have substantiated the feasibility of achieving the propeller efficiency goal of 80% and confirmed that the effect of blade sweep on reducing propeller source noise was 5-6 dB.

  2. Robotics Technology Development Program Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.; Horschel, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Need-based cross cutting technology is being developed which is broadly applicable to the clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste within the US Department of Energy's complex. Highly modular, reusable technologies which plug into integrated system architectures to meet specific robotic needs result from this research. In addition, advanced technologies which significantly extend current capabilities such as automated planning and sensor-based control in unstructured environments for remote system operation are also being developed and rapidly integrated into operating systems

  3. Advances in transport phenomena 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This new volume of the annual review “Advances in Transport Phenomena” series contains three in-depth review articles on the microfluidic fabrication of vesicles, the dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation for continuous-flow separation of particles and cells in microfluidic devices, and the thermodynamic analysis and optimization of heat exchangers, respectively.

  4. Aerated drilling cutting transport analysis in geothermal well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhyudin, Aris; Setiawan, Deni; Dwi Marjuan, Oscar

    2017-12-01

    Aeratad drilling widely used for geothermal drilling especially when drilled into predicted production zone. Aerated drilling give better performance on preventing lost circulation problem, improving rate of penetration, and avoiding drilling fluid invasion to productive zone. While well is drilled, cutting is produced and should be carried to surface by drilling fluid. Hole problem, especially pipe sticking will occur while the cutting is not lifted properly to surface. The problem will effect on drilling schedule; non-productive time finally result more cost to be spent. Geothermal formation has different characteristic comparing oil and gas formation. Geothermal mainly has igneous rock while oil and gas mostly sedimentary rock. In same depth, formation pressure in geothermal well commonly lower than oil and gas well while formation temperature geothermal well is higher. While aerated drilling is applied in geothermal well, Igneous rock density has higher density than sedimentary rock and aerated drilling fluid is lighter than water based mud hence minimum velocity requirement to transport cutting is larger than in oil/gas well drilling. Temperature and pressure also has impact on drilling fluid (aerated) density. High temperature in geothermal well decrease drilling fluid density hence the effect of pressure and temperature also considered. In this paper, Aerated drilling cutting transport performance on geothermal well will be analysed due to different rock and drilling fluid density. Additionally, temperature and pressure effect on drilling fluid density also presented to merge.

  5. Advances in Cross-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Esmond [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Evans, Katherine J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Caldwell, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Charles [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Kerstin, Van Dam [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martin, Daniel F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ostrouchov, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tuminaro, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Paul [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Wild, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report presents results from the DOE-sponsored workshop titled, ``Advancing X-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science Workshop,'' known as AXICCS, held on September 12--13, 2016 in Rockville, MD. The workshop brought together experts in climate science, computational climate science, computer science, and mathematics to discuss interesting but unsolved science questions regarding climate modeling and simulation, promoted collaboration among the diverse scientists in attendance, and brainstormed about possible tools and capabilities that could be developed to help address them. Emerged from discussions at the workshop were several research opportunities that the group felt could advance climate science significantly. These include (1) process-resolving models to provide insight into important processes and features of interest and inform the development of advanced physical parameterizations, (2) a community effort to develop and provide integrated model credibility, (3) including, organizing, and managing increasingly connected model components that increase model fidelity yet complexity, and (4) treating Earth system models as one interconnected organism without numerical or data based boundaries that limit interactions. The group also identified several cross-cutting advances in mathematics, computer science, and computational science that would be needed to enable one or more of these big ideas. It is critical to address the need for organized, verified, and optimized software, which enables the models to grow and continue to provide solutions in which the community can have confidence. Effectively utilizing the newest computer hardware enables simulation efficiency and the ability to handle output from increasingly complex and detailed models. This will be accomplished through hierarchical multiscale algorithms in tandem with new strategies for data handling, analysis, and storage. These big ideas and cross-cutting technologies for

  6. Advances in Cross-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, E.; Evans, K.; Caldwell, P.; Hoffman, F.; Jackson, C.; Van Dam, K.; Leung, R.; Martin, D.; Ostrouchov, G.; Tuminaro, R.; Ullrich, P.; Wild, S.; Williams, S.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents results from the DOE-sponsored workshop titled, Advancing X-Cutting Ideas for Computational Climate Science Workshop,'' known as AXICCS, held on September 12--13, 2016 in Rockville, MD. The workshop brought together experts in climate science, computational climate science, computer science, and mathematics to discuss interesting but unsolved science questions regarding climate modeling and simulation, promoted collaboration among the diverse scientists in attendance, and brainstormed about possible tools and capabilities that could be developed to help address them. Emerged from discussions at the workshop were several research opportunities that the group felt could advance climate science significantly. These include (1) process-resolving models to provide insight into important processes and features of interest and inform the development of advanced physical parameterizations, (2) a community effort to develop and provide integrated model credibility, (3) including, organizing, and managing increasingly connected model components that increase model fidelity yet complexity, and (4) treating Earth system models as one interconnected organism without numerical or data based boundaries that limit interactions. The group also identified several cross-cutting advances in mathematics, computer science, and computational science that would be needed to enable one or more of these big ideas. It is critical to address the need for organized, verified, and optimized software, which enables the models to grow and continue to provide solutions in which the community can have confidence. Effectively utilizing the newest computer hardware enables simulation efficiency and the ability to handle output from increasingly complex and detailed models. This will be accomplished through hierarchical multiscale algorithms in tandem with new strategies for data handling, analysis, and storage. These big ideas and cross-cutting technologies for enabling

  7. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  8. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cutting KidsHealth / For Teens / Cutting What's in this article? ... Getting Help Print en español Cortarse What Is Cutting? Emma's mom first noticed the cuts when Emma ...

  9. Identification and characterization of a novel Cut family cDNA that encodes human copper transporter protein CutC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jixi; Ji Chaoneng; Chen Jinzhong; Yang Zhenxing; Wang Yijing; Fei, Xiangwei; Zheng Mei; Gu Xing; Wen Ge; Xie Yi; Mao Yumin

    2005-01-01

    Copper is an essential heavy metal trace element that plays important roles in cell physiology. The Cut family was associated with the copper homeostasis and involved in several important metabolisms, such as uptake, storage, delivery, and efflux of copper. In this study, a novel Cut family cDNA was isolated from the human fetal brain library, which encodes a 273 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of about 29.3 kDa and a calculated pI of 8.17. It was named hCutC (human copper transporter protein CutC). The ORF of hCutC gene was cloned into pQE30 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli M15. The secreted hCutC protein was purified to a homogenicity of 95% by using the Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. RT-PCR analysis showed that the hCutC gene expressed extensively in human tissues. Subcellular location analysis of hCutC-EGFP fusion protein revealed that hCutC was distributed to cytoplasm of COS-7 cells, and both cytoplasm and nucleus of AD293 cells. The results suggest that hCutC may be one shuttle protein and play important roles in intracellular copper trafficking

  10. Transport phenomena an introduction to advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Glasgow, Larry A

    2010-01-01

    Enables readers to apply transport phenomena principles to solve advanced problems in all areas of engineering and science This book helps readers elevate their understanding of, and their ability to apply, transport phenomena by introducing a broad range of advanced topics as well as analytical and numerical solution techniques. Readers gain the ability to solve complex problems generally not addressed in undergraduate-level courses, including nonlinear, multidimensional transport, and transient molecular and convective transport scenarios. Avoiding rote memorization, the author em

  11. Functional anatomy of the water transport system in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.

    2001-01-01

    Cut flowers show a wide variance of keepability. The market demands more and more a guaranteed quality. Therefore, methods must be developed to predict vase life of cut flowers. Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema x grandiflorum Tzvelev) and some other cut flowers suffer from

  12. Counterbalance of cutting force for advanced milling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Shih, Li-Wen; Lee, Rong-Mao

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this work is to concurrently counterbalance the dynamic cutting force and regulate the spindle position deviation under various milling conditions by integrating active magnetic bearing (AMB) technique, fuzzy logic algorithm and an adaptive self-tuning feedback loop. Since the dynamics of milling system is highly determined by a few operation conditions, such as speed of spindle, cut depth and feedrate, therefore the dynamic model for cutting process is more appropriate to be constructed by experiments, instead of using theoretical approach. The experimental data, either for idle or cutting, are utilized to establish the database of milling dynamics so that the system parameters can be on-line estimated by employing the proposed fuzzy logic algorithm as the cutting mission is engaged. Based on the estimated milling system model and preset operation conditions, i.e., spindle speed, cut depth and feedrate, the current cutting force can be numerically estimated. Once the current cutting force can be real-time estimated, the corresponding compensation force can be exerted by the equipped AMB to counterbalance the cutting force, in addition to the spindle position regulation by feedback of spindle position. On the other hand, for the magnetic force is nonlinear with respect to the applied electric current and air gap, the characteristics of the employed AMB is investigated also by experiments and a nonlinear mathematic model, in terms of air gap between spindle and electromagnetic pole and coil current, is developed. At the end, the experimental simulations on realistic milling are presented to verify the efficacy of the fuzzy controller for spindle position regulation and the capability of the dynamic cutting force counterbalance.

  13. CO{sub 2} laser cutting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamikiz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: implamea@bi.ehu.es; Lacalle, L.N. Lopez de [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Sanchez, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Pozo, D. del [ROBOTIKER Technology Centre, Parque Tecnologico, Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Etayo, J.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); ROBOTIKER Technology Centre, Parque Tecnologico, Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Lopez, J.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); ROBOTIKER Technology Centre, Parque Tecnologico, Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    This article demonstrates the optimum working areas and cutting conditions for the laser cutting of a series of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The parameters that most influence the cutting of sheet metal have been studied and the results have been divided into two large groups with thickness of more and less than 1 mm. The influence of the material and, more important, the effect of coating have been taken into account. The results, have demonstrate very different behaviours between the thinnest and thickest sheets, whilst the variation of the cutting parameters due to the influence of the material is less relevant. The optimum cutting areas and the quality of the cut evaluated with different criteria are presented. Finally, the best position for the laser beam has been observed to be underneath the sheet.

  14. Recent advances on uric acid transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liuqing; Shi, Yingfeng; Zhuang, Shougang; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Uric acid is the product of purine metabolism and its increased levels result in hyperuricemia. A number of epidemiological reports link hyperuricemia with multiple disorders, such as kidney diseases, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Recent studies also showed that expression and functional changes of urate transporters are associated with hyperuricemia. Uric acid transporters are divided into two categories: urate reabsorption transporters, including urate anion transporter 1 (URAT1), organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4) and glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), and urate excretion transporetrs, including OAT1, OAT3, urate transporter (UAT), multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), ABCG-2 and sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein. In the kidney, uric acid transporters decrease the reabsorption of urate and increase its secretion. These transporters’ dysfunction would lead to hyperuricemia. As the function of urate transporters is important to control the level of serum uric acid, studies on the functional role of uric acid transporter may provide a new strategy to treat hyperuricemia associated diseases, such as gout, chronic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and other disorders. This review article summarizes the physiology of urate reabsorption and excretion transporters and highlights the recent advances on their roles in hyperuricemia and various diseases. PMID:29246027

  15. Auxin uptake, transport and accumulation in relation to rooting and ageing of mung bean cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, B.C.; Shaheed, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The rooting response of mung bean cuttings (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. cv. Berkin) to indoleacetic acid (IAA) progressively declined when they were aged in water prior to auxin treatment. With increased duration of the ageing period the uptake of basally-supplied auxin by cuttings decreased. This correlated with diminished transpiration. Notwithstanding this decline in the uptake of IAA, a decreasing proportion of the acquired auxin was transported acropetally out of the hypocotyl with increasing age of the cuttings. Recovery of 14 C from cuttings 24 h after the foliar application of 14 C-IAA declined with increasing age of the cuttings. Furthermore, the total amount of radioactivity recovered in the hypocotyl diminished as a function of the increasing age of cuttings, as did the proportion of radioactivity located in the hypocotyl. (author)

  16. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  17. Advanced transport modeling of toroidal plasmas with transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.; Murakami, S.; Honda, M.; Izumi, Y.; Yagi, M.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, Y.; Ozeki, T.

    2005-01-01

    Transport modeling of toroidal plasmas is one of the most important issue to predict time evolution of burning plasmas and to develop control schemes in reactor plasmas. In order to describe the plasma rotation and rapid transition self-consistently, we have developed an advanced scheme of transport modeling based on dynamical transport equation and applied it to the analysis of transport barrier formation. First we propose a new transport model and examine its behavior by the use of conventional diffusive transport equation. This model includes the electrostatic toroidal ITG mode and the electromagnetic ballooning mode and successfully describes the formation of internal transport barriers. Then the dynamical transport equation is introduced to describe the plasma rotation and the radial electric field self-consistently. The formation of edge transport barriers is systematically studied and compared with experimental observations. The possibility of kinetic transport modeling in velocity space is also examined. Finally the modular structure of integrated modeling code for tokamaks and helical systems is discussed. (author)

  18. Transport of hydrate slurry at high water cut

    OpenAIRE

    Melchuna , Aline; Cameirão , Ana; Herri , Jean-Michel; Ouabbas , Yamina; Glenat , Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Poster; International audience; Oil transportation in pipelines at the end of field production life implies to flow high quantities of water which represents the dominant phase. The process of crystallization of gas hydrates in this system needs to be studied and compared to the opposite one widely studied in the literature where water is the dispersed phase. The laboratory is equipped with the Archimede flow loop where the hydrate crystallization and transport are monitored. The flow loop is...

  19. Advanced public transportation systems : evaluation guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Transit Administration has developed the Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program which is an integral part of the overall U.S. DOT Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) effort. A major aim of the APTS Program is to prom...

  20. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  1. Numerical modelling of cuttings transport in horizontal wells using conventional drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Bjorndalen, E.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Some of the problems associated with poor wellbore cleaning include high drag or torque, slower rate of penetration, formation fractures and difficulty in wellbore steering. Some of the factors that affect cuttings transport include drilling fluid velocity, inclination angle, drilling fluid viscosity and drilling rate. The general practice is to stop drilling when necessary to clean boreholes with viscous pills, pipe rotation or drilling fluid circulation. It is important to predict when drilling should be stopped for remedial wellbore cleaning. This can be accomplished with a transient cuttings transport model which can improve drilling hydraulics, particularly in long horizontal well sections and extended reach (ERD) wells. This paper presents a newly developed 1-dimensional transient mechanistic model of cuttings transport with conventional (incompressible) drilling fluids in horizontal wells. The numerically solved model predicts the height of cutting beds as a function of different drilling operational parameters such as fluid flow rate and rheological characteristics, drilling rates, wellbore geometry and drillpipe eccentricity. Sensitivity analysis has demonstrated the effects of these parameters on the efficiency of solids transport. The proposed model can be used in the creation of computer programs designed to optimize drilling fluid rheology and flow rates for horizontal well drilling. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  2. Metropolitan transportation management center concepts of operation : a cross-cutting study : improving transportation network efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The implementor and operator of a regional transportation management center (TMC) face a challenging task. Operators of TMCsthe primary point of coordination for managing transportation resourcestypically control millions of dollars of intellig...

  3. Transport modeling and advanced computer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.C.; Ross, D.W.; Miner, W.H. Jr.

    1988-11-01

    A workshop was held at the University of Texas in June 1988 to consider the current state of transport codes and whether improved user interfaces would make the codes more usable and accessible to the fusion community. Also considered was the possibility that a software standard could be devised to ease the exchange of routines between groups. It was noted that two of the major obstacles to exchanging routines now are the variety of geometrical representation and choices of units. While the workshop formulated no standards, it was generally agreed that good software engineering would aid in the exchange of routines, and that a continued exchange of ideas between groups would be worthwhile. It seems that before we begin to discuss software standards we should review the current state of computer technology --- both hardware and software to see what influence recent advances might have on our software goals. This is done in this paper

  4. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  5. Advanced public transportation system deployment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report documents work performed under FTA's Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communication techn...

  6. Advanced public transportation systems : the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    This report documents one of the early initiatives of UMTA's Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communi...

  7. Benefits assessment of advanced public transportation system technologies, update 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report was performed under the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program. This program focuses on the development and demonstration of innovative advanced navigation, information and communicati...

  8. A Comprehensive Comparison Study of Empirical Cutting Transport Models in Inclined and Horizontal Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Mohamad Ishaq Shiddiq

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In deviated and horizontal drilling, hole-cleaning issues are a common and complex problem. This study explored the effect of various parameters in drilling operations and how they affect the flow rate required for effective cutting transport. Three models, developed following an empirical approach, were employed: Rudi-Shindu’s model, Hopkins’, and Tobenna’s model. Rudi-Shindu’s model needs iteration in the calculation. Firstly, the three models were compared using a sensitivity analysis of drilling parameters affecting cutting transport. The result shows that the models have similar trends but different values for minimum flow velocity. Analysis was conducted to examine the feasibility of using Rudi-Shindu’s, Hopkins’, and Tobenna’s models. The result showed that Hopkins’ model is limited by cutting size and revolution per minute (RPM. The minimum flow rate from Tobenna’s model is affected only by well inclination, drilling fluid weight and drilling fluid rheological property. Meanwhile, Rudi-Shindu’s model is limited by inclinations above 45°. The study showed that the investigated models are not suitable for horizontal wells because they do not include the effect of lateral section.

  9. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Joseph [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Porter, Jason [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Patki, Neil [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kelley, Madison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stanislowski, Josh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Makuch, David [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  10. ADVANCES IN ZERO ENERGY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Othman

    2017-01-01

    Hyperloop mass transportation systems are activelydeveloped at the moment. They represent the forefront development of the ZeroEnergy Transportation systems where air drag is minimized by travelling in avacuum and friction is reduced by non-contact bearings. Hyperloop supportersare confident that the cost of their transportation systems would be lowcompared to existing transportation systems because of the low loss andtherefore low energy consumption as well as other cost-saving techniquesdoc...

  11. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT OF DEPOSIT WELDING AND GAS LASER CUTTING TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BIMETALLIC TOOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlachenko Oleg Vasil’evich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deposit welding is the application of a layer of metal on the surface of a product using fusion welding. In this paper, we consider the method of improving the technology of gas laser cutting, which makes it possible to achieve a high productivity of manufacturing a bimetallic tool. The present paper is concerned with the advantages of gas laser cutting which allows to consider this particular process of separating materials as highly-productive, low-waste, and advanced method of removing allowances of weld-deposit high-speed steel on the working surfaces of bimetallic tool. Urgency of the use of deposit welding and gas laser cutting to improve the efficiency of production of bimetallic tool is shown. The comparative analysis of gas-laser cutting and other cutting methods is given according to the geometrical parameters of cutting and surface quality. Analysis of the results of experimental studies has confirmed the high technological attractiveness and economic efficiency of manufacturing composite structures of punches and matrices when applying deposit welding of cutting parts with high-speed steels. The cost of dimensional processing of the welded cutting part is reduced by 4 to 6 times, while the manufacturing time is reduced by 6 to 12 times.

  12. Advanced Public Transportation Systems. Technical Assistance Brief 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program requires evaluation : of pilot projects. This technical assistance brief discusses the guidelines set : for developing evaluation framework and methodology for local projects. 4p.

  13. Gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review was held June 24 to 26, 1981, at Germantown, Maryland. Forty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Advanced technologies for intelligent transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Picone, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Ferrari, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on emerging technologies in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) namely efficient information dissemination between vehicles, infrastructures, pedestrians and public transportation systems. It covers the state-of-the-art of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), with centralized and decentralized (Peer-to-Peer) communication architectures, considering several application scenarios. With a detailed treatment of emerging communication paradigms, including cross networking  and distributed algorithms. Unlike most of the existing books, this book presents a multi-layer overview of information dissemination systems, from lower layers (MAC) to high layers (applications). All those aspects are investigated considering the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones/tablets and embedded systems, i.e. technologies that during last years completely changed the current market, the user expectations, and communication networks. The presented networking paradigms are supported and validate...

  15. Recent advances in mass transport in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The present topical volume presents a representative cross-section of some recent advances made in the area of diffusion. The range of topics covered is very large, and, this reflects the enormous breadth of the topic of diffusion. The areas covered include diffusion in intermetallics, phenomenological diffusion theory, diffusional creep, kinetics of steel-making, diffusion in thin films, precipitation, diffusional phase transformations, atomistic diffusion simulations, epitaxial growth and diffusion in porous media. Review from Book News Inc.: In 13 invited and peer-reviewed papers, scientist

  16. Recent advances in precision laser cutting for the ATLAS hadron calorimeter absorbers production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikov, B.; Budagov, Yu.

    1995-01-01

    The optimised precision laser cutting technology for high tolerances ATLAS hadron calorimeter absorber plates production is described. Some recent results of laser cut absorber plates dimension measurements are presented. The plates have been manufactured by 'Universalmash' (S.-Petersburg) and RCTL RAS (Shatura). It has been shown that the proved accuracy of the laser machines is not worse than 45 microns. 9 figs

  17. Advancing Transportation through Vehicle Electrification - PHEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, Abdullah [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Barnhart, Steven [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) as an historic opportunity to learn about and develop PHEV technologies and create the FCA US LLC engineering center for Electrified Powertrains. The ARRA funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies for production on future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next-generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components and common modules. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also utilized this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original proposal of this project was submitted in May 2009 and selected in August 2009. The project ended in December 2014.

  18. Advances in the safe transport of irradiated Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the significant advances that have been made by Magnox Electric plc in ensuring that the Mk M2 Magnox flasks maintain the highest level of safety during transport and are used in the most efficient manner in meeting Company objectives. These advances have been achieved by improvement to the seal design, introduction of modern, state-of-the-art leak test equipment and optimisation of the generic Safety Case underpinning the UK Competent Authority (the Department of Transport, DoT) Approval Certificates. A step-by-step approach has been adopted in implementing these advances, consulting the DoT at each stage, to ensure that the safe transport of spent Magnox fuel, achieved over the past 35 years, with its enviable track record, continues into the next century. (Author)

  19. A health impact assessment of proposed public transportation service cuts and fare increases in Boston, Massachusetts (U.S.A.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Ito, Kate; Buonocore, Jonathan J; Levy, Jonathan I; Arcaya, Mariana C

    2014-08-07

    Transportation decisions have health consequences that are often not incorporated into policy-making processes. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a process that can be used to evaluate health effects of transportation policy. We present a rapid HIA, conducted over eight weeks, evaluating health and economic effects of proposed fare increases and service cuts to Boston, Massachusetts' public transportation system. We used transportation modeling in concert with tools allowing for quantification and monetization of multiple pathways. We estimated health and economic costs of proposed public transportation system changes to be hundreds of millions of dollars per year, exceeding the budget gap the public transportation authority was required to close. Significant health pathways included crashes, air pollution, and physical activity. The HIA enabled stakeholders to advocate for more modest fare increases and service cuts, which were eventually adopted by decision makers. This HIA was among the first to quantify and monetize multiple pathways linking transportation decisions with health and economic outcomes, using approaches that could be applied in different settings. Including health costs in transportation decisions can lead to policy choices with both economic and public health benefits.

  20. A Health Impact Assessment of Proposed Public Transportation Service Cuts and Fare Increases in Boston, Massachusetts (U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transportation decisions have health consequences that are often not incorporated into policy-making processes. Health Impact Assessment (HIA is a process that can be used to evaluate health effects of transportation policy. We present a rapid HIA, conducted over eight weeks, evaluating health and economic effects of proposed fare increases and service cuts to Boston, Massachusetts’ public transportation system. We used transportation modeling in concert with tools allowing for quantification and monetization of multiple pathways. We estimated health and economic costs of proposed public transportation system changes to be hundreds of millions of dollars per year, exceeding the budget gap the public transportation authority was required to close. Significant health pathways included crashes, air pollution, and physical activity. The HIA enabled stakeholders to advocate for more modest fare increases and service cuts, which were eventually adopted by decision makers. This HIA was among the first to quantify and monetize multiple pathways linking transportation decisions with health and economic outcomes, using approaches that could be applied in different settings. Including health costs in transportation decisions can lead to policy choices with both economic and public health benefits.

  1. Precision-cut intestinal slices: alternative model for drug transport, metabolism, and toxicology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; de Graaf, Inge A M; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2016-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-tox) processes of drugs are of importance and require preclinical investigation intestine in addition to the liver. Various models have been developed for prediction of ADME-tox in the intestine. In this review, precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) are discussed and highlighted as model for ADME-tox studies. This review provides an overview of the applications and an update of the most recent research on PCIS as an ex vivo model to study the transport, metabolism and toxicology of drugs and other xenobiotics. The unique features of PCIS and the differences with other models as well as the translational aspects are also discussed. PCIS are a simple, fast, and reliable ex vivo model for drug ADME-tox research. Therefore, PCIS are expected to become an indispensable link in the in vitro-ex vivo-in vivo extrapolation, and a bridge in translation of animal data to the human situation. In the future, this model may be helpful to study the effects of interorgan interactions, intestinal bacteria, excipients and drug formulations on the ADME-tox properties of drugs. The optimization of culture medium and the development of a (cryo)preservation technique require more research.

  2. Distribution of indole-3-acetic acid in Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings and relationship between auxin transport, carbohydrate metabolism and adventitious root formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahkami, Amir H.; Melzer, Michael; Ghaffari, Mohammad R.; Pollmann, Stephan; Ghorbani, Majid; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.; Druege, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    To determine the contribution of polar auxin transport (PAT) to auxin accumulation and to adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of Petunia hybrida shoot tip cuttings, the level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was monitored in non-treated cuttings and cuttings treated with the auxin transport blocker naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and was complemented with precise anatomical studies. The temporal course of carbohydrates, amino acids and activities of controlling enzymes was also inves...

  3. Theory of flux cutting and flux transport at the critical current of a type-II superconducting cylindrical wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, John R.

    2011-01-01

    I introduce a critical-state theory incorporating both flux cutting and flux transport to calculate the magnetic-field and current-density distributions inside a type-II superconducting cylinder at its critical current in a longitudinal applied magnetic field. The theory is an extension of the elliptic critical-state model introduced by Romero-Salazar and Perez-Rodriguez. The vortex dynamics depend in detail on two nonlinear effective resistivities for flux cutting (ρ(parallel)) and flux flow (ρ(perpendicular)), and their ratio r = ρ(parallel)/ρ(perpendicular). When r c (φ) that makes the vortex arc unstable.

  4. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  5. The Use of Advanced Transportation Monitoring Data for Official Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ma (Yinyi)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractTraffic and transportation statistics are mainly published as aggregated information, and are traditionally based on surveys or secondary data sources, like public registers and companies’ administrations. Nowadays, advanced monitoring systems are installed in the road network, offering

  6. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  7. All orders transport theory from the multiple scattering expansion of the self-energy. The central cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, J.S.; Fillion-Gourdeau, F.; Sangyong Jeong; RIKEN Research Center, Upton, NY

    2006-01-01

    We use the full multiple scattering expansion of the retarded self-energy to obtain the gain and loss rates present in the Kadanoff-Baym relativistic transport equation. The rates we obtain include processes with any number of particles. As a first approximation, we only consider central cuts in the self-energies, but otherwise our results are general. We specialize to the case of scalar field theory to compare with lowest order results. The main application of this work is relativistic transport theory of very dense systems, such as the quark-gluon plasma or the early universe, where multi-particle interactions are important. (author)

  8. Advanced cutting, welding and inspection methods for vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L. E-mail: jonesl@ipp.mgg.de; Alfile, J.-P.; Aubert, Ph.; Punshon, C.; Daenner, W.; Kujanpaeae, V.; Maisonnier, D.; Serre, M.; Schreck, G.; Wykes, M

    2000-11-01

    ITER requires a 316 l stainless steel, double-skinned vacuum vessel (VV), each shell being 60 mm thick. EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement) is investigating methods to be used for performing welding and NDT during VV assembly and also cutting and re-welding for remote sector replacement, including the development of an Intersector Welding Robot (IWR) [Jones et al. This conference]. To reduce the welding time, distortions and residual stresses of conventional welding, previous work concentrated on CO{sub 2} laser welding and cutting processes [Jones et al. Proc. Symp. Fusion Technol., Marseilles, 1998]. NdYAG laser now provides the focus for welding of the rearside root and for completing the weld for overhead positions with multipass filling. Electron beam (E-beam) welding with local vacuum offers a single-pass for most of the weld depth except for overhead positions. Plasma cutting has shown the capability to contain the backside dross and preliminary work with NdYAG laser cutting has shown good results. Automated ultrasonic inspection of assembly welds will be improved by the use of a phased array probe system that can focus the beam for accurate flaw location and sizing. This paper describes the recent results of process investigations in this R and D programme, involving five European sites and forming part of the overall VV/blanket research effort [W. Daenner et al. This conference].

  9. Intelligent transportation systems for planned special events : a cross-cutting study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This cross-cutting study examines how six agencies in five states used and continue to use ITS to reduce congestion generated by planned special events, thereby reducing crashes, increasing travel time reliability, and reducing driver frustration.

  10. Metropolitan ITS integration : a cross-cutting study : working together to improve transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform transportation managers and decision-makers of the value of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) integration. The report is intended for operations and planning departments of transportation-related agencie...

  11. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  12. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  13. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  14. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  15. Transport modelling and gyrokinetic analysis of advanced high performance discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, J.E.; Imbeaux, F.; Staebler, G.M.; Budny, R.; Bourdelle, C.; Fukuyama, A.; Garbet, X.; Tala, T.; Parail, V.

    2005-01-01

    Predictive transport modelling and gyrokinetic stability analyses of demonstration hybrid (HYBRID) and advanced tokamak (AT) discharges from the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) profile database are presented. Both regimes have exhibited enhanced core confinement (above the conventional ITER reference H-mode scenario) but differ in their current density profiles. Recent contributions to the ITPA database have facilitated an effort to study the underlying physics governing confinement in these advanced scenarios. In this paper, we assess the level of commonality of the turbulent transport physics and the relative roles of the transport suppression mechanisms (i.e. E x B shear and Shafranov shift (α) stabilization) using data for select HYBRID and AT discharges from the DIII-D, JET and AUG tokamaks. GLF23 transport modelling and gyrokinetic stability analysis indicate that E x B shear and Shafranov shift stabilization play essential roles in producing the improved core confinement in both HYBRID and AT discharges. Shafranov shift stabilization is found to be more important in AT discharges than in HYBRID discharges. We have also examined the competition between the stabilizing effects of E x B shear and Shafranov shift stabilization and the destabilizing effects of higher safety factors and parallel velocity shear. Linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of idealized low and high safety factor cases reveal some interesting consequences. A low safety factor (i.e. HYBRID relevant) is directly beneficial in reducing the transport, and E x B shear stabilization can dominate parallel velocity shear destabilization allowing the turbulence to be quenched. However, at low-q/high current, Shafranov shift stabilization plays less of a role. Higher safety factors (as found in AT discharges), on the other hand, have larger amounts of Shafranov shift stabilization, but parallel velocity shear destabilization can prevent E x B shear quenching of the turbulent

  16. Transport modeling and gyrokinetic analysis of advanced high performance discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, J.; Imbeaux, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Staebler, G.; Budny, R.; Fukuyama, A.; Tala, T.; Parail, V.

    2005-01-01

    Predictive transport modeling and gyrokinetic stability analyses of demonstration hybrid (HYBRID) and Advanced Tokamak (AT) discharges from the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) profile database are presented. Both regimes have exhibited enhanced core confinement (above the conventional ITER reference H-mode scenario) but differ in their current density profiles. Recent contributions to the ITPA database have facilitated an effort to study the underlying physics governing confinement in these advanced scenarios. In this paper, we assess the level of commonality of the turbulent transport physics and the relative roles of the transport suppression mechanisms (i.e. ExB shear and Shafranov shift (α) stabilization) using data for select HYBRID and AT discharges from the DIII-D, JET, and AUG tokamaks. GLF23 transport modeling and gyrokinetic stability analysis indicates that ExB shear and Shafranov shift stabilization play essential roles in producing the improved core confinement in both HYBRID and AT discharges. Shafranov shift stabilization is found to be more important in AT discharges than in HYBRID discharges. We have also examined the competition between the stabilizing effects of ExB shear and Shafranov shift stabilization and the destabilizing effects of higher safety factors and parallel velocity shear. Linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of idealized low and high safety factor cases reveals some interesting consequences. A low safety factor (i.e. HYBRID relevant) is directly beneficial in reducing the transport, and ExB shear stabilization can win out over parallel velocity shear destabilization allowing the turbulence to be quenched. However, at low-q/high current, Shafranov shift stabilization plays less of a role. Higher safety factors (as found in AT discharges), on the other hand, have larger amounts of Shafranov shift stabilization, but parallel velocity shear destabilization can prevent ExB shear quenching of the turbulent

  17. Recent advances in modified atmosphere packaging and edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidelli, Christian; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2018-03-04

    Processing of fruits and vegetables generates physiological stresses in the still living cut tissue, leading to quality deterioration and shorter shelf life as compared with fresh intact produces. Several strategies can be implemented with the aim to reduce the rate of deterioration of fresh-cut commodities. Such strategies include low temperature maintenance from harvest to retail and the application of physical and chemical treatments such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low O 2 and high CO 2 levels and antioxidant dips. Other technologies such as edible coatings with natural additives, new generation of coatings using nanotechnological solutions such as nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation, and multilayered systems, and nonconventional atmospheres such as the use of pressurized inert/noble gases and high levels of O 2 have gained a lot of interest as a possibility to extend the shelf life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. However, the high perishability of these products challenges in many cases their marketability by not achieving sufficient shelf life to survive the distribution system, requiring the combination of treatments to assure safety and quality. This review reports the recent advances in the use of MAP, edible coatings, and the combined effect of both technologies to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  18. Perturbative transport experiments in JET Advanced Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantica, P.; Gorini, G.; Sozzi, C. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milan (Italy); Imbeaux, F.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X. [Association Euratom-CEA, St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Kinsey, J. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (United States); Budny, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, New Jersey (United States); Coffey, I.; Parail, V.; Walden, A. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Dux, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Garzotti, L. [Istituto Gas Ionizzati, Padova (Italy); Ingesson, C. [FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kissick, M. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Perturbative transport experiments have been performed in JET Advanced Tokamak plasmas either in conditions of fully developed Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) or during a phase where an ITB was not observed. Transient peripheral cooling was induced by either Laser Ablation or Shallow Pellet Injection and the ensuing travelling cold pulse was used to probe the plasma transport in the electron and, for the first time, also in the ion channel. Cold pulses travelling through ITBs are observed to erode the ITB outer part, but, if the inner ITB portion survives, it strongly damps the propagating wave. The result is discussed in the context of proposed possible pictures for ITB formation. In the absence of an ITB, the cold pulse shows a fast propagation in the outer plasma half, which is consistent with a region of stiff transport, while in the inner half it slows down but shows the peculiar feature of amplitude growing while propagating. The data are powerful tests for the validation of theoretical transport models. (author)

  19. Advanced parking management systems : a cross-cutting study : taking the stress out of parking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This study examines advanced parking management systems (APMSs) in three venues: airports, central business districts, and transit park-and-ride locations. Specifically, the systems examined in this study provide directional and space availability in...

  20. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  1. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  2. Comparative study of the influence of the gas injection system on the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser cutting of advanced oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, F.; Pou, J.; Lusquinos, F.; Boutinguiza, M.; Soto, R.; Perez-Amor, M.

    2003-01-01

    Cutting of advanced oxide ceramics is still a difficult task. In this work, the possibility to effectively cut them using a Nd:YAG laser guided by an optical fiber is demonstrated. The key points are the aerodynamic interactions of the assist gas jet in the fusion laser cutting of ceramics. A comprehensive study of the influence of these aerodynamic interactions on the laser cutting of advanced oxide ceramics has been carried out. The characteristics of the heat affected zone (HAZ) were studied related to the efficiency of the assist gas to eject the molten material. It has been demonstrated that the HAZ can be avoided with a suitable design of the gas injection system combined with an appropriate selection of the values of the processing parameters. With the aim of improving the efficiency of the assist gas injection system, a new cutting head with an off-axis supersonic nozzle was developed. Furthermore, a comparison between the utilization of a conventional coaxial conical nozzle to inject the assist gas and the new system is presented. The results obtained give clear proof that the use of the new gas injection system leads to a great improvement on the cut quality by means of a more efficient removing of the molten material out of the cutting front. This result is of special interest in the laser fusion cutting of thick ceramic plates at high processing rates

  3. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  4. Recent advances in neutral particle transport methods and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of ORNL's three-dimensional neutral particle transport code, TORT, is presented. Special features of the code that make it invaluable for large applications are summarized for the prospective user. Advanced capabilities currently under development and installation in the production release of TORT are discussed; they include: multitasking on Cray platforms running the UNICOS operating system; Adjacent cell Preconditioning acceleration scheme; and graphics codes for displaying computed quantities such as the flux. Further developments for TORT and its companion codes to enhance its present capabilities, as well as expand its range of applications are disucssed. Speculation on the next generation of neutron particle transport codes at ORNL, especially regarding unstructured grids and high order spatial approximations, are also mentioned

  5. Advanced physical protection systems for facilities and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1976-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing advanced physical protection safeguards in order to improve the security of special nuclear materials, facilities, and transportation. Computer models are being used to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative systems for protecting facilities against external attack which may include internal assistance, and against internal theft or sabotage. Physical protection elements such as admittance controls, portals and detectors, perimeter and interior intrusion alarms, fixed and remotely activated barriers, and secure communications are being evaluated, adapted, and where required, developed. New facilities safeguards concepts which involve ''control loops'' between physical protection and materials control elements are being evolved jointly between Sandia Laboratories and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Special vehicles and digital communications equipment have been developed for the ERDA safe-secure transportation system. The current status and direction of these activities are surveyed

  6. Advanced physical protection systems for facilities and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1976-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing advanced physical protection safeguards in order to improve the security of special nuclear materials, facilities, and transportation. Computer models are being used to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative systems for protecting facilities against external attack which may include internal assistance, and against internal theft or sabotage. Physical protection elements such as admittance controls, portals and detectors, perimeter and interior intrusion alarms, fixed and remotely-activated barriers, and secure communications are being evaluated, adapted, and where required, developed. New facilities safeguards concepts which involve (control loops) between physical protection and materials control elements are being evolved jointly between Sandia Laboratories and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Special vehicles and digital communications equipment have been developed for the ERDA safe-secure transportation system. The current status and direction of these activities are surveyed

  7. JB-300: An advanced medium size transport for 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrouwer, Giles; Graham, Katherine; Ison, Jim; Juarez, Vince; Moskalik, Steve; Pankonin, Jon; Weinstein, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    In the fall of 1992, the TAC Team was presented with a Request for Proposal (PFP) for a mid-size (250-350 passenger) commercial transport. The aircraft was to be extremely competitive in the areas of passenger comfort, performance, and economic aspects. Through the use of supercritical airfoils, a technologically advanced Very High By-pass Ratio (VHBR) turbofan engine, a low overall drag configuration, a comparable interior layout, and mild use of composites, the JB-300 offers an economically viable choice to the airlines. The cents per passenger mile of the JB-300 is 1.76, which is considerably lower than current aircraft in the same range. Overall, the JB-300 is a technologically advanced aircraft, which will meet the demands of the 21st century.

  8. Intelligent transportation systems at international borders : a cross-cutting study : facilitating trade and enhancing transportation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    The International Border Clearance (IBC) program was initiated under the provisions of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. The program was originally conceived as a means to test the feasibility of utilizing Intellig...

  9. Application of advanced handling techniques to transportation cask design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories supports the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) applying technology to the safe transport of nuclear waste. Part of that development effort includes investigation of advanced handling technologies for automation of cask operations at nuclear waste receiving facilities. Although low radiation levels are expected near transport cask surfaces, cumulative occupational exposure at a receiving facility can be significant. Remote automated cask handling has the potential to reduce both the occupational exposure and the time necessary to process a cask. Thus, automated handling is consistent with DOE efforts to reduce the lifecycle costs of the waste disposal system and to maintain public and occupational radiological risks as low as reasonably achievable. This paper describes the development of advanced handling laboratory mock-ups and demonstrations for spent fuel casks. Utilizing the control enhancements described below, demonstrations have been carried out including cask location and identification, contact and non-contact surveys, impact limiter removal, tiedown release, uprighting, swing-free movement, gas sampling, and lid removal operations. Manually controlled movement around a cask under off-normal conditions has also been demonstrated

  10. Short-cut transport path for Asian dust directly to the Arctic: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Huang, Jianping; Wang, Shanshan; Zhou, Tian; Jin, Hongchun; Hayasaka, Tadahiro

    2015-01-01

    Asian dust can be transported long distances from the Taklimakan or Gobi desert to North America across the Pacific Ocean, and it has been found to have a significant impact on ecosystems, climate, and human health. Although it is well known that Asian dust is transported all over the globe, there are limited observations reporting Asian dust transported to the Arctic. We report a case study of a large-scale heavy dust storm over East Asia on 19 March 2010, as shown by ground-based and space-borne multi-sensor observations, as well as NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and HYSPLIT trajectories. Our analysis suggests that Asian dust aerosols were transported from northwest China to the Arctic within 5 days, crossing eastern China, Japan and Siberia before reaching the Arctic. The results indicate that Asian dust can be transported for long distances along a previously unreported transport path. Evidence from other dust events over the past decade (2001–2010) also supports our results, indicating that dust from 25.2% of Asian dust events has potentially been transported directly to the Arctic. The transport of Asian dust to the Arctic is due to cyclones and the enhanced East Asia Trough (EAT), which are very common synoptic systems over East Asia. This suggests that many other large dust events would have generated long-range transport of dust to the Arctic along this path in the past. Thus, Asian dust potentially affects the Arctic climate and ecosystem, making climate change in the Arctic much more complex to be fully understood. (letter)

  11. Auxin transport in leafy pea stem cuttings is partially driven by photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpula, C.L.; Potter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    When 14 C-IAA was applied to the apex of disbudded leafy pea stem cuttings (15 cm long), the movement of 14 C-IAA to the base of the cuttings after 24 h was influenced by the photosynthetic rate. In the absence of photosynthesis, light did not influence 14 C-IAA movement. Photosynthesis was altered by varying light, CO 2 concentration, or stomatal aperature (blocked with an antitranspirant). Radioactivity (identified by co-chromatography) was 25, 60, and 5% IAA, IAA-aspartate, and indolealdehyde respectively regardless of treatment. Adventitious root formation was reduced 50 to 95% and movement of IAA was inhibited 50 to 70% by decreasing gross photosynthesis 90 to 100%. Apparently, photosynthesis partially drives the movement of IAA from the apex to the base where roots arise. This gives a probably role of photosynthesis in rooting, because in this system virtually no rooting will take place without exogenous auxin and at least a low level of gross photosynthesis

  12. A multidimensonal Examination of Prefomences of the Future advanced Transport Systems: The ETT (Evacuated Tube Transport) TRM (Transrapid MAGLEV) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Multidimensional examination of performances of the future advanced ETT Evacuated Tube Transport) system operated by TRM (TransRapidMaglev); assessment of the ETT TRM system contribution to sustainability of the future transport sector through its completion with APT (Air Passenger Transport) system

  13. Advancement in tritium transport simulations for solid breeding blanket system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Alice, E-mail: ying@fusion.ucla.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Hongjie [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Merrill, Brad J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Ahn, Mu-Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, advancement on tritium transport simulations was demonstrated for a solid breeder blanket HCCR TBS, where multi-physics and detailed engineering descriptions are considered using a commercial simulation code. The physics involved includes compressible purge gas fluid flow, heat transfer, chemical reaction, isotope swamping effect, and tritium isotopes mass transport. The strategy adopted here is to develop numerical procedures and techniques that allow critical details of material, geometric and operational heterogeneity in a most complete engineering description of the TBS being incorporated into the simulation. Our application focuses on the transient assessment in view of ITER being pulsed operations. An immediate advantage is a more realistic predictive and design analysis tool accounting pulsed operations induced temperature variations which impact helium purge gas flow as well as Q{sub 2} composition concentration time and space evolutions in the breeding regions. This affords a more accurate prediction of tritium permeation into the He coolant by accounting correct temperature and partial pressure effects and realistic diffusion paths. The analysis also shows that by introducing by-pass line to accommodate ITER pulsed operations in the TES loop allows tritium extraction design being more cost effective.

  14. Cutting edge SRU control : improved environmental compliance with Jacobs advanced burner control+ (ABC+)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenaar, G. [Jacobs Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Henning, A.; Kobussen, S. [Jacobs Nederland BV, Hoogvliet (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands bitumen contains approximately 4 to 5 per cent sulphur by weight and the bitumen is upgraded to produce lighter fractions. During coking the bitumen is heated and cracked into lighter molecules and a mixture of kerosene, naphtha and gas oil is recovered via fractionation. Then, the vapors leaving the fractionator are processed through hydrodesulphurization, followed by removal by amine based sweetening units. The acid gas from the ASUs is sent to the sulphur recovery units (SRUs) where most of the sulphur is recovered as elemental sulphur. The oil sands industry faces many challenges with respect to environmental impact, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions including the recovery of sulphur and minimizing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from the oil sands production facilities. In order to improve the SRU control response to acid gas feed variations, Jacobs Comprimo Sulphur Solutions implemented advanced burner control+ (ABC+) at Suncor's Simonette Gas Plant's SRU in northern Alberta. This control system used an acid gas feed analyzer and dynamic algorithms to control the combustion air to the reaction furnace. The analyzer measures H{sub 2}S, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water (H{sub 2}O) accurately and quickly, which is important for having effective and fast air-to-acid gas ratio control. The paper provided background information on the Suncor Simonette Gas Plant and discussed ABC+ versus conventional control. An overview of the simplified ABC and ABC+ systems was then illustrated and presented. The ABB multiwave process photometer was also explained. Last, a dynamic simulation of the potential benefits of ABC+ was discussed and the ABC+ benefits for oil sands were presented. It was concluded that ABC+ provides improved SRU performance, reduced SO{sub 2} emissions and violations, and reduced flaring. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  15. Consumer Views on Transportation and Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from countries around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce gasoline and diesel consumption. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues surrounding advanced vehicle technologies and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, increase mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability. Understanding and tracking consumer sentiments can influence the prioritization of development efforts by identifying barriers to and opportunities for broad acceptance of new technologies. Predicting consumer behavior toward developing technologies and products is inherently inexact. A person's stated preference given in an interview about a hypothetical setting may not match the preference that is demonstrated in an actual situation. This difference makes tracking actual consumer actions ultimately more valuable in understanding potential behavior. However, when developing technologies are not yet available and actual behaviors cannot be tracked, stated preferences provide some insight into how consumers may react in new circumstances. In this context this report provides an additional source to validate data and a new resource when no data are available. This report covers study data captured from December 2005 through June 2015 relevant to VTO research efforts at the time of the studies. Broadly the report covers respondent sentiments about vehicle fuel economy, future vehicle technology alternatives, ethanol as a vehicle fuel, plug-in electric vehicles, and willingness to pay for vehicle efficiency. This report represents a renewed effort to publicize study findings and make consumer sentiment data available to

  16. Recent advances in the understanding of the interaction of antidepressant drugs with serotonin and norepinephrine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Bang-Andersen, Benny

    2009-01-01

    The biogenic monoamine transporters are integral membrane proteins that perform active transport of extracellular dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine into cells. These transporters are targets for therapeutic agents such as antidepressants, as well as addictive substances such as cocaine...... and amphetamine. Seminal advances in the understanding of the structure and function of this transporter family have recently been accomplished by structural studies of a bacterial transporter, as well as medicinal chemistry and pharmacological studies of mammalian transporters. This feature article focuses...

  17. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  18. Advances in methods for identification and characterization of plant transporter function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo; Xu, Deyang; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2017-01-01

    Transport proteins are crucial for cellular function at all levels. Numerous importers and exporters facilitate transport of a diverse array of metabolites and ions intra- and intercellularly. Identification of transporter function is essential for understanding biological processes at both......-based approaches. In this review, we highlight examples that illustrate how new technology and tools have advanced identification and characterization of plant transporter functions....

  19. Intelligent transportation systems field operational test cross-cutting study : advanced traveler information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Approximately 2 million roadside inspections of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) are conducted annually, primarily through the joint Federal and State Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP). Vehicles and drivers with serious safety problems ...

  20. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  1. The transport mechanism DC arcs in advanced spectroanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, H.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Nickel, H.

    1977-08-01

    This report presents some basic investigations concerning the emission spectroanalysis of powder specimens with application of a new type of advanced DC arcs which operate in horizontally arranged graphite cylinders. The extremely low detection limits found by experiment for various elements (Be, Cd, In, Pb, Sn) suggest a beneficial and reflector like effect of the graphite cylinder on the transport process in the arc plasma. Experiments in detail and by using radioactive tracers (Ag-110, Cd-115, Co-56, Fe-59, Zn-65) lead to an element specific modified model of the effective mechanism of the new arc arrangement. Elements of favourable thermochemical properties produce about three times as much of the average particle density in the arc plasma with the effect of the graphite cylinder. Besides these effects the element specific properties of the graphite cylinder are remarkably invariable towards magnetic fields (1,24 . 10 -2 T bzw. 2,6 . 10 -4 T) and various additives (Ga 2 O 3 , Li 2 Co 3 , NaCl) to the test specimens. (orig.) [de

  2. Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, C. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. Many aspects of the NGNP must be researched and developed in order to make recommendations on the final design of the plant. Parameters such as working conditions, cycle components, working fluids, and power conversion unit configurations must be understood. Three configurations of the power conversion unit were demonstrated in this study. A three-shaft design with 3 turbines and 4 compressors, a combined cycle with a Brayton top cycle and a Rankine bottoming cycle, and a reheated cycle with 3 stages of reheat were investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting process heat to a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and an 80% nitrogen, 20% helium mixture (by weight) were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms cycle efficiency and development cost. In each of these configurations the relative component size were estimated for the different working fluids. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the three-shaft and combined cycles were performed to determine the effect of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of these cycles to various

  3. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  4. Mixed-μ magnetic levitation for advanced ground transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, F.M.

    1977-12-01

    The possibility of applying the mixed-μ principle for magnetic levitation to ground transport systems is examined. The system is developed specifically for suspension and useful lift to passive weight ratios exceeding 8:1 have been calculated. Application to a hybrid system where conventional wheel drive is used in conjunction with magnetic levitation is explained for urban transport. (author)

  5. Advances in dynamic network modeling in complex transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ukkusuri, Satish V

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest in dynamic network modeling, including route guidance and traffic control in transportation systems and other complex infrastructure networks. Covers dynamic traffic assignment, flow modeling, mobile sensor deployment and more.

  6. Transportation engineering advancement and mentoring program : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The numbers of female and minority students enrolled in engineering schools are increasing slowly; however, there are still : relatively small percentages drawn to the field of transportation civil engineering. As a consequence, there is a need to ed...

  7. Making the connection: advancing traffic incident management in transportation planning : a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    "The intent of this primer is to inform and guide traffic incident management (TIM) professionals and transportation planners to initiate and develop collaborative relationships and advance TIM programs through the metropolitan planning process. The ...

  8. Advanced statistics for tokamak transport colinearity and tokamak to tokamak variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is an expository introduction to advanced statistics and scaling laws and their application to tokamak devices. Topics of discussion are as follows: implicit assumptions in the standard analysis; advanced regression techniques; specialized tools in statistics and their applications in fusion physics; and improved datasets for transport studies

  9. Citymobil, advanced transport for the urban environment : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, J.P. van; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van

    2012-01-01

    CityMobil was an integrated project in the Sixth Framework Program of the European Union. The objective of the project was to achieve more effective organization of urban transport for more rational use of motorized traffic with less congestion and pollution, safer driving, a higher quality of

  10. Advanced testing and characterization of transportation soils and bituminous sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study was intended to develop laboratory test procedures for advance testing and characterization of fine-grained cohesive soils and oil sand materials. The test procedures are based on typical field loading conditions and the loading...

  11. Evaluation Of The Advanced Operating System Of The Ann Arbor Transportation Authority : Driver And Dispatcher Perceptions Of AATA'S Advanced Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Ann Arbor (Michigan) Transportation Authority began deploying advanced public transportation systems (APTS) technologies in its fixed route and paratransit operations. The project's concept is the integration of a range of such technolog...

  12. ADVANCES IN COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN TOKAMAKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WALTZ, R. E; CANDY, J; HINTON, F. L; ESTRADA-MILA, C; KINSEY, J.E

    2004-01-01

    A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite β, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ * ) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or globally with physical profile variation. Bohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, are illustrated

  13. Manganese: Recent advances in understanding its transport and neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschner, Michael; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Schneider, Jay S.; Zheng Wei

    2007-01-01

    The present review is based on presentations from the meeting of the Society of Toxicology in San Diego, CA (March 2006). It addresses recent developments in the understanding of the transport of manganese (Mn) into the central nervous system (CNS), as well as brain imaging and neurocognitive studies in non-human primates aimed at improving our understanding of the mechanisms of Mn neurotoxicity. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic modalities for treating Mn intoxication in humans

  14. APOLLO-2: An advanced transport code for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathonniere, G.

    1995-01-01

    APOLLO-2 is a fully modular code in which each module corresponds to a specific task: access to the cross-sections libraries, creation of isotopes medium or mixtures, geometry definition, self-shielding calculations, computation of multigroup collision probabilities, flux solver, depletion calculations, transport-transport or transport-diffusion equivalence process, SN calculations, etc... Modules communicate exclusively by ''objects'' containing structured data, these objects are identified and handled by user's given names. Among the major improvements offered by APOLLO-2 the modelization of the self-shielding: it is possible now to deal with a great precision, checked versus Montecarlo calculations, a fuel rod divided into several concentric rings. So the total production of Plutonium is quite better estimated than before and its radial distribution may be predicted also with a good accuracy. Thanks to the versatility of the code some reference calculations and routine ones may be compared easily because only one parameter is changed; for example the self-shielding approximations are modified, the libraries or the flux solver being exactly the same. Other interesting features have been introduced in APOLLO-2: the new isotopes JEF.2 are available in 99 and 172 energy groups libraries, the surface leakage model improves the calculation of the control rod efficiency, the flux-current method allows faster calculations, the possibility of an automatic convergence checking during the depletion calculations coupled with fully automatic corrections, heterogeneous diffusion coefficients used for voiding analysis. 17 refs, 1 tab

  15. GREY STATISTICS METHOD OF TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Hung WEI

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is involved in intelligent transportation systems planning, and is now selecting its prior focus areas for investment and development. The high social and economic impact associated with which intelligent transportation systems technology are chosen explains the efforts of various electronics and transportation corporations for developing intelligent transportation systems technology to expand their business opportunities. However, there has been no detailed research conducted with regard to selecting technology for advanced public transportation systems in Taiwan. Thus, the present paper demonstrates a grey statistics method integrated with a scenario method for solving the problem of selecting advanced public transportation systems technology for Taiwan. A comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the grey statistics method. The proposed approach indicated that contactless smart card technology is the appropriate technology for Taiwan to develop in the near future. The significance of our research results implies that the grey statistics method is an effective method for selecting advanced public transportation systems technologies. We feel our information will be beneficial to the private sector for developing an appropriate intelligent transportation systems technology strategy.

  16. Maintenance of drug metabolism and transport functions in human precision-cut liver slices during prolonged incubation for 5 days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Vatakuti, Suresh; Schievink, Bauke; Merema, Marjolijn T.; Asplund, Annika; Synnergren, Jane; Aspegren, Anders; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    Human precision-cut liver slices (hPCLS) are a valuable ex vivo model that can be used in acute toxicity studies. However, a rapid decline in metabolic enzyme activity limits their use in studies that require a prolonged xenobiotic exposure. The aim of the study was to extend the viability and

  17. Advances in comprehensive gyrokinetic simulations of transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, R.E.; Candy, J.; Hinton, F.L.; Estrada-Mila, C.; Kinsey, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite β, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ*) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or globally with physical profile variation. Bohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, are illustrated. (author)

  18. ADVANCES IN COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN TOKAMAKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WALTZ, RE; CANDY, J; HINTON, FL; ESTRADA-MILA, C; KINSEY, JE.

    2004-01-01

    A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite β, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius (ρ * ) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or a globally with physical profile variation. Rohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, plasma pinches and impurity flow, and simulations at fixed flow rather than fixed gradient are illustrated and discussed

  19. Clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with respect to optimal cut-off value and tumor markers in advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi-Mouri, Yukako; Kousaka, Junko; Ando, Takahito; Tetsuka, Rie; Nakano, Shogo; Yoshida, Miwa; Fujii, Kimihito; Akizuki, Miwa; Imai, Tsuneo; Fukutomi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Katsumasa

    2016-01-01

    Although carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) are useful tumor markers (TMs) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also detected in patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed CTCs in MBC patients in order to establish the optimal cut-off value, to evaluate the prognostic utility of CTC count, and to clarify whether CTC count could provide information in addition to CEA and CA15-3. We studied 98 MBC patients enrolled between June 2007 and March 2013. To quantify CTCs, 7.5 ml of blood was collected and CEA and CA15-3 were measured simultaneously. CTCs were counted using the CellSearch™ System. The CTC count was dichotomized as 0 (CTC-negative) or ≥1 (CTC-positive). The clinical significance of CTCs was evaluated in terms of its relationship with levels of CEA and CA15-3. Associations between qualitative variables were evaluated using the chi-square test. In order to evaluate the predictive value of CTCs for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate hazard ratios. With a CTC cut-off value of 1, there were 53 (54.1 %) CTC-negative patients and 45 (45.9 %) CTC-positive patients. Patients in the CTC-positive group had worse survival than those in the CTC-negative group (p CEA and CA15-3.

  20. Advanced study of transport analysis in bentonite (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Katsuyuki

    2004-03-01

    Solute and radionuclide transport analysis in buffer material made of bentonite clay is essential in safety assessment of a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It is keenly required to understand the true physical and chemical process of the transport phenomena and to improve reliability of the safety assessment, since any conventional methods based on experimental models involve difficulty to estimate the robustness for a very long-term behavior. In order to solve this difficulty we start with the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method for understanding the molecular-based fundamental properties such as an ionic state and diffusion characteristics of hydrated smectite clay minerals, and we extend the microscale properties to the macroscale behaviors by applying the multiscale homogenization method. In the study of this year we improved the MD atomic model for the hydrated clay minerals, and a new adsorption-diffusion analysis scheme by the homogenization analysis (HA). In the MD simulation first we improved the interatomic potential model for the smectitic clays. Then the behaviors of hydrated Na-beidellite and its substitution products by Cs and Ca were calculated. Not only the swelling behaviors of the beidellite minerals but also the diffusion characteristics of cations in the interlayer space are calculated. A microscopic image is important to specify micro/macro behavior of bentonite. Last year we observed microstructures of bentonite by using a confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM). Based on the knowledge of the local material properties obtained by MD and the microscopic observation we simulated the micro-/macro-behavior of diffusion experiments of the bentonite which included the microscale adsorption characteristics at the edges of clay minerals. (author)

  1. Advanced study of transport analysis in bentonite (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Katsuyuki

    2005-02-01

    Solute and radionuclide transport analysis in buffer material made of bentonite clay is essential in safety assessment of a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It is keenly required to understand the true physical and chemical process of the transport phenomena and to improve reliability of the safety assessment, since any conventional methods based on experimental models involve difficulty to estimate the robustness for a very long-term behavior. In order to solve this difficulty we start with the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method for understanding the molecular-based fundamental properties such as an ionic state and diffusion characteristics of hydrated smectite clay minerals, and we extend the microscale properties to the macroscale behaviors by applying the multiscale homogenization analysis (HA) method. In the study of this year we improved the MD atomic model for the hydrated clay minerals, and a new adsorption-diffusion analysis scheme by the homogenization analysis (HA). In the MD simulation we precisely simulated the molecular behaviors of cations and H 2 O in the neighborhood of a clay mineral. In FY2002 the swelling property and diffusivity of interlayer cations, Cs and Ca, were calculated. In FY2003 the interatomic potential model was improved, and the diffusivity of several interlayer cations were calculated. In FY2004 the interatomic potential model was further improved, and the swelling and diffusive properties became more realistic. Then the coordination number of cations were calculated. A microscopic image is important to specify micro/macro behavior of bentonite. In FY2002 we observed microstructures of bentonite by using a confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM). In FY2003 based on the knowledge of the local material properties obtained by MD and the microscopic observation we simulated the micro-/macro-behavior of diffusion experiments of the bentonite which included the microscale adsorption

  2. Temperature in the Primary Heat Transport Pump Bearing of the Nuclear Power Plant 'Embalse Rio Tercero' in view of the Cutting of the Service Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffo, J.L

    2001-01-01

    This study contains the analysis of the Primary Heat Transport Pump Bearing of the Nuclear Power Plant 'Embalse Rio Tercero', Cordoba, Argentine, in view of the cutting of the Service Water refrigeration which cools the Gland Seal System.This takes two ways: One is the study of the temperature rise of the water that cools the carbon bearing and the time involved.This is supported upon manuals and drawings.The other, on the temperature distribution in different operating conditions.This has been done by the simulation of the normal and transient conditions in the software COSMOS/M

  3. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  4. Transient heat transport studies in JET conventional and advanced tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantica, P.; Coffey, I.; Dux, R.

    2003-01-01

    Transient transport studies are a valuable complement to steady-state analysis for the understanding of transport mechanisms and the validation of physics-based transport models. This paper presents results from transient heat transport experiments in JET and their modelling. Edge cold pulses and modulation of ICRH (in mode conversion scheme) have been used to provide detectable electron and ion temperature perturbations. The experiments have been performed in conventional L-mode plasmas or in Advanced Tokamak regimes, in the presence of an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB). In conventional plasmas, the issues of stiffness and non-locality have been addressed. Cold pulse propagation in ITB plasmas has provided useful insight into the physics of ITB formation. The use of edge perturbations for ITB triggering has been explored. Modelling of the experimental results has been performed using both empirical models and physics-based models. Results of cold pulse experiments in ITBs have also been compared with turbulence simulations. (author)

  5. The Need for Advanced Public Transport Information Services When Making Transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.; Chorus, C.; Van Sloten, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a stated choice experiment examining the determinants of travelers' need and willingness to pay for advanced public transport information services. Specific attention is given to the role of making transfers in the decision to acquire specific types of information. Intercity

  6. The need for advanced public transport information services when making transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.J.E.; Chorus, C.G.; Sloten, van R.; Silva, da A.N.R.; Souza, de L.C.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a stated choice experiment examining the determinants of travelers' need and willingness to pay for advanced public transport information services. Intercity train travelers are asked to choose among information services that varied in type of information provided by the

  7. Cutting cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, R.P.H. van; Smits, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a long term field test of the Cutting Cleaner, which is used for the treatment of wet oil contaminated cuttings (WOCC) produced when drilling with Oil Based Mud (OBM). It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the oil content of cuttings to an average of 1 - 2%. The recovered base oil can be reused to make new oil based mud

  8. Understanding and Control of Transport in Advanced Tokamak Regimes in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.M. Greenfield; J.C. DeBoo; T.C. Luce; B.W. Stallard; E.J. Synakowski; L.R. Baylor; K.H. Burrell; T.A. Casper; E.J. Doyle; D.R. Ernst; J.R. Ferron; P. Gohil; R.J. Groebner; L.L. Lao; M. Makowski; G.R. McKee; M. Murakami; C.C. Petty; R.I. Pinsker; P.A. Politzer; R. Prater; C.L. Rettig; T.L. Rhodes; B.W. Rice; G.L. Schmidt; G.M. Staebler; E.J. Strait; D.M. Thomas; M.R. Wade

    1999-01-01

    Transport phenomena are studied in Advanced Tokamak (AT) regimes in the DIII-D tokamak [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1986 (International Atomics Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159], with the goal of developing understanding and control during each of three phases: Formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB) with counter neutral beam injection takes place when the heating power exceeds a threshold value of about 9 MW, contrasting to CO-NBI injection, where P threshold N H 89 = 9 for 16 confinement times has been accomplished in a discharge combining an ELMing H-mode edge and an ITB, and exhibiting ion thermal transport down to 2-3 times neoclassical. The microinstabilities usually associated with ion thermal transport are predicted stable, implying that another mechanism limits performance. High frequency MHD activity is identified as the probable cause

  9. Paper Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how to create paper cuts and suggests the most appropriate materials for young children that give good quality results. Describes the methods the author, a professional artist, uses to assemble her own paper cuts and how these can be adopted by older students. (KM)

  10. Transport and stability studies in negative central shear advanced tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Achieving high performance for long duration is a key goal of Advanced Tokamak (AT) research around the world. To this end, tokamak experiments are focusing on obtaining (a) a high fraction of well-aligned non-inductive plasma current (b) wide internal transport barriers (ITBs) in the ion and electron transport channels to obtain high temperatures (c) control of resistive wall modes and neoclassical Tearing Modes which limit the achievable beta. A current profile that yields a negative central magnetic shear (NCS) in the core is consistent with the above focus; Negative central shear is conducive for obtaining internal transport barriers, for high degree of bootstrap current alignment and for reaching the second stability region for ideal ballooning modes, while being stable to ideal kink modes at high beta with wall stabilization. Much progress has been made in obtaining AT performance in several tokamaks through an increasing understanding of the stability and transport properties of tokamak plasmas. RF and neutral beam current drive scenarios are routinely developed and implemented in experiments to access new advanced regimes and control plasma profiles. Short duration and sustained Internal Transport Barriers (ITB) have been obtained in the ion and electron channels. The formation of an ITB is attributable to the stabilization of ion and electron temperature gradient (ITG and ETG) and trapped electron modes (TEM), enhancement of E x B flow shear rate and rarefaction of resonant surfaces near the rational q min values. (orig.)

  11. Transport and stability studies in negative central shear advanced tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Achieving high performance for long duration is a key goal of Advanced Tokamak (AT) research around the world. To this end, tokamak experiments are focusing on obtaining (a) a high fraction of well-aligned non-inductive plasma current (b) wide internal transport barriers (ITBs) in the ion and electron transport channels to obtain high temperatures (c) control of resistive wall modes and neoclassical Tearing Modes which limit the achievable beta. A current profile that yields a negative central magnetic shear (NCS) in the core is consistent with the above focus; Negative central shear is conducive for obtaining internal transport barriers, for high degree of bootstrap current alignment and for reaching the second stability region for ideal ballooning modes, while being stable to ideal kink modes at high beta with wall stabilization. Much progress has been made in obtaining AT performance in several tokamaks through an increasing understanding of the stability and transport properties of tokamak plasmas. RF and neutral beam current drive scenarios are routinely developed and implemented in experiments to access new advanced regimes and control plasma profiles. Short duration and sustained Internal Transport Barriers (ITB) have been obtained in the ion and electron channels. The formation of an ITB is attributable to the stabilization of ion and electron temperature gradient (ITG and ETG) and trapped electron modes (TEM), enhancement of E x B flow shear rate and rarefaction of resonant surfaces near the rational q{sub min} values. (orig.)

  12. Workshop on Critical Issues in Microgravity Fluids, Transport, and Reaction Processes in Advanced Human Support Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Joshi, Jitendra A.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was designed to bring the experts from the Advanced Human Support Technologies communities together to identify the most pressing and fruitful areas of research where success hinges on collaborative research between the two communities. Thus an effort was made to bring together experts in both advanced human support technologies and microgravity fluids, transport and reaction processes. Expertise was drawn from academia, national laboratories, and the federal government. The intent was to bring about a thorough exchange of ideas and develop recommendations to address the significant open design and operation issues for human support systems that are affected by fluid physics, transport and reaction processes. This report provides a summary of key discussions, findings, and recommendations.

  13. System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnzen, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

  14. Advanced statistics for tokamak transport colinearity and tokamak to tokamak variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, K.S.

    1989-03-01

    This is a compendium of three separate articles on the statistical analysis of tokamak transport. The first article is an expository introduction to advanced statistics and scaling laws. The second analyzes two important problems of tokamak data---colinearity and tokamak to tokamak variation in detail. The third article generalizes the Swamy random coefficient model to the case of degenerate matrices. Three papers have been processed separately

  15. Wet cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, B. [IMC Technical Services (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Continuous miners create dust and methane problems in underground coal mining. Control has usually been achieved using ventilation techniques as experiments with water based suppression have led to flooding and electrical problems. Recent experience in the US has led to renewed interest in wet head systems. This paper describes tests of the Hydraphase system by IMC Technologies. Ventilation around the cutting zone, quenching of hot ignition sources, dust suppression, the surface trial gallery tests, the performance of the cutting bed, and flow of air and methane around the cutting head are reviewed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 photos.

  16. Cutting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  17. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  18. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  19. An assessment of advanced displays and controls technology applicable to future space transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jack J.; Villarreal, Diana

    1990-01-01

    The topic of advanced display and control technology is addressed along with the major objectives of this technology, the current state of the art, major accomplishments, research programs and facilities, future trends, technology issues, space transportation systems applications and projected technology readiness for those applications. The holes that may exist between the technology needs of the transportation systems versus the research that is currently under way are addressed, and cultural changes that might facilitate the incorporation of these advanced technologies into future space transportation systems are recommended. Some of the objectives are to reduce life cycle costs, improve reliability and fault tolerance, use of standards for the incorporation of advancing technology, and reduction of weight, volume and power. Pilot workload can be reduced and the pilot's situational awareness can be improved, which would result in improved flight safety and operating efficiency. This could be accomplished through the use of integrated, electronic pictorial displays, consolidated controls, artificial intelligence, and human centered automation tools. The Orbiter Glass Cockpit Display is an example examined.

  20. Development of selected advanced aerodynamics and active control concepts for commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    Work done under the Energy Efficient Transport project in the field of advanced aerodynamics and active controls is summarized. The project task selections focused on the following: the investigation of long-duct nacelle shape variation on interference drag; the investigation of the adequacy of a simple control law for the elastic modes of a wing; the development of the aerodynamic technology at cruise and low speed of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings of high performance; and the development of winglets for a second-generation jet transport. All the tasks involved analysis and substantial wind tunnel testing. The winglet program also included flight evaluation. It is considered that the technology base has been built for the application of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings and for the use of winglets on second-generation transports.

  1. Evaluation of advanced propulsion options for the next manned transportation system: Propulsion evolution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, L. T.; Kramer, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives were to examine launch vehicle applications and propulsion requirements for potential future manned space transportation systems and to support planning toward the evolution of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) engines beyond their current or initial launch vehicle applications. As a basis for examinations of potential future manned launch vehicle applications, we used three classes of manned space transportation concepts currently under study: Space Transportation System Evolution, Personal Launch System (PLS), and Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Tasks included studies of launch vehicle applications and requirements for hydrogen-oxygen rocket engines; the development of suggestions for STME engine evolution beyond the mid-1990's; the development of suggestions for STME evolution beyond the Advanced Launch System (ALS) application; the study of booster propulsion options, including LOX-Hydrocarbon options; the analysis of the prospects and requirements for utilization of a single engine configuration over the full range of vehicle applications, including manned vehicles plus ALS and Shuttle C; and a brief review of on-going and planned LOX-Hydrogen propulsion technology activities.

  2. Effects of modified atmosphere, associated with masterpack transport packaging, and refrigerated storage time on the quality characteristics of pork loin cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of modified atmosphere, associated with masterpack transport packaging, and refrigerated storage time on the quality characteristics of pork loin cuts. Cuts of pork loin were packaged in trays, covered with poly(vinyl chloride film. The trays were placed in a masterpack (MP, containing three gas compositions:  A 75% O2 : 25% CO2, B 50% O2 : 50% CO2 or C 100% CO2, and stored at 2 °C. Samples were taken after 1, 8, 15, and 22 days of storage, and evaluated for numerous shelf life traits. The development of Psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. was found from the 15th day of storage. There was a significant treatment effect for some of the considered parameters, such as pH (P < 0.05 and color [L* (P < 0.07, a* (P < 0.07 and b* (P < 0.01]. There was a significant interaction (P < 0.01 for the TBARS values. It can be concluded, from the microbiological point of view, that the use of modified atmospheres containing 25% to 100% CO2 promotes the conservation of meat for up to 15 days of storage under refrigeration. From the point of view of color, atmospheres containing 75% O2 : 25% CO2 and 50% O2 : 50% CO2 ensure the color of packaged pork meat when stored at 2 °C for up to 15 days. From the point of view of lipid oxidation, packages with 100% CO2 are recommended for storage periods of more than 15 days, whereas those with 75% O2 : 25% CO2 are recommended for storage periods of up to 8 days.

  3. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, K; Mitrofanov, A V; Silberschmidt, V V; Baeker, M

    2009-01-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  4. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  5. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    For the first time in over 30 years, a new ethnographic study emerges on the Bugkalot tribe, more widely known as the Ilongot of the northern Philippines. Exploring the notion of masculinity among the Bugkalot, Cutting Cosmos is not only an experimental, anthropological study of the paradoxes...... around which Bugkalot society revolves, but also a reflection on anthropological theory and writing. Focusing on the transgressive acts through which masculinity is performed, this book explores the idea of the cosmic cut, the ritual act that enables the Bugkalot man to momentarily hold still the chaotic...

  6. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket

  7. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  8. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  9. Inward particle transport at high collisionality in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G. Q.; Ma, J.; Weiland, J.; Zang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    We have made the first drift wave study of particle transport in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (Wan et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104011 (2009)). The results reveal that collisions make the particle flux more inward in the high collisionality regime. This can be traced back to effects that are quadratic in the collision frequency. The particle pinch is due to electron trapping which is not very efficient in the high collisionality regime so the approach to equilibrium is slow. We have included also the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode to give the right electron temperature gradient, since the Trapped Electron Mode (TE mode) is weak in this regime. However, at the ETG mode number ions are Boltzmann distributed so the ETG mode does not give particle transport

  10. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  11. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  12. The contribution to the energy balance and transport in an advanced-fuel tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzeni, S.; Vlad, G.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of synchrotron radiation emission on the energy balance of an advanced-fuel (such as D- 3 He, or catalyzed-D) tokamak plasma is considered. It is shown that a region in the β-T space exists, where the fusion energy delivered to the plasma overcomes synchrotron and bremsstrahlung energy losses, and which could then allow for ignited operation. 1-Dimensional codes results are also presented, which illustrate the main features of radial transport in a ignited, D- 3 He tokamak plasma

  13. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  14. Technology Roadmaps: Biofuels for Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision. The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.

  15. Cutting system for burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Atsushi; Toyama, Norihide; Koshino, Yasuo; Fujii, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    Burnable poison rods attached to spent fuels are contained in a containing box and transported to a receiving pool. The burnable poison rod-containing box is provisionally situated by the operation to a handling device to a provisional setting rack in a cutting pool and attached to a cutting guide of a cutting device upon cutting. The burnable poison rod is cut only in a cutting pool water and tritium generated upon cutting is dissolved into the cutting pool water. Diffusion of tritium is thus restricted. Further, the cutting pool is isolated by a partition device from the receiving pool during cutting of the burnable poison rod. Accordingly, water in which tritium is dissolved is inhibited from moving to the receiving pool and prevail of tritium contamination can be avoided. (T.M.)

  16. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology (OAST) has established three major goals, referred to as, "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies Under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Core Technologies Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. One of the main activities over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. This year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies will be awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion.

  17. Advances in Field Deployable Instrumented Particles for the Study of Alluvial Transport Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, B.; Strom, K.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) in the past decade have lead to the development of various instrumented or "smart" particles for use in the study of alluvial transport. The goal of many of these devices is to collect data on the interaction between hydrodynamic turbulence and individual sediment particles. Studying this interaction provides a basis to better understand entrainment and deposition processes which leads to better predictive morphologic and transport models. In collecting data on these processes, researchers seek to capture the time history of the forces incident on the particle and the particle's reaction. Many methods have been employed to capture this data - miniaturized pressure traps, accelerometers, gyroscopes, MEMs pressure transducers, and cantilevered load cells. However no system to date has been able to capture the pressure forces incident on the particle and its reaction while remaining mobile and of a size and density comparable to most gravels. Advances in the development, deployment, and use of waterproofed laboratory instrumentation have led our research group to develop such a particle. This particle has been used in both laboratory settings and large-scale fluvial environments (coupled with a field-deployable PIV system) to capture data on turbulent erosion processes. This system advances the practice in several ways: 1) It is, at present, the smallest (⌀ 19mm) instrumented erodible particle reported in the literature. 2) It contains novel developments in pressure sensing technology which allow the inclusion of six pressure ports, a 3-axis accelerometer, and a 1-axis gyroscope - all of which can be recorded simultaneously. 3) It expands the researcher's abilities to gather data on phenomena that, previously, have mandated the use of a laboratory scale model. The use of this system has generated observations of the so-called very large scale motions (VLSMs) in a reach of the Virginia section of the New River. Their

  18. Cutting Itch

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Cutting Itch” is a curatorial project by artists-duo Baltensperger-Siepert. An exhibition project about the essential need of art to be an active system that reflects, investigates social, cultural and political issues. It is about an existential necessity to shape ones environment, to think about relations, regulating structures and about how we can locate ourselves in a more and more globalised world. (from press material). \\ud \\ud Baltensperger & Siepert identified seven artists from Mexi...

  19. Ripple transport in helical-axis advanced stellarators - a comparison with classical stellarator/torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beidler, C.D.; Hitchon, W.N.G.

    1993-08-01

    Calculations of the neoclassical transport rates due to particles trapped in the helical ripples of a stellarator's magnetic field are carried out, based on solutions of the bounce-averaged kinetic equation. These calculations employ a model for the magnetic field strength, B, which is an accurate approximation to the actual B for a wide variety of stellarator-type devices, among which are Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators (Helias) as well as conventional stellarators and torsatrons. Comparisons are carried out in which it is shown that the Helias concept leads to significant reductions in neoclassical transport rates throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime, with the reduction being particularly dramatic in the ν -1 regime. These findings are confirmed by numerical simulations. Further, it is shown that the behavior of deeply trapped particles in Helias can be fundamentally different from that in classical stellarator/torsatrons; as a consequence, the beneficial effects of a radial electric field on the transport make themselves felt at lower collision frequency than is usual. (orig.)

  20. Thermal hydraulic studies for passive heat transport systems relevant to advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Sharma, M.; Borgohain, A.; Srivastava, A.K.; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Maheshwari, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear is the only non-green house gas generating power source that can replace fossil fuels and can be commercially deployed in large scale. However, the enormous developmental efforts and safety upgrades during the past six decades have somewhat eroded the economic competitiveness of water-cooled reactors which form the mainstay of the current nuclear power programme. Further, the introduction of the supercritical Rankine cycle and the gas turbine based advanced fuel cycles have enhanced the efficiency of fossil fired power plants (FPP) thereby reducing its greenhouse gas emissions. The ongoing development of ultra-supercritical and advanced ultra-supercritical turbines aims to further reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and economic competitiveness of FPPs. In the backdrop of these developments, the nuclear industry also initiated development of advanced nuclear power plants (NPP) with improved efficiency, sustainability and enhanced safety as the main goals. A review of the advanced reactor concepts being investigated currently reveals that excepting the SCWR, all other concepts use coolants other than water. The coolants used are lead, lead bismuth eutectic, liquid sodium, molten salts, helium and supercritical water. Besides, some of these are employing passive systems to transport heat from the core under normal operating conditions. In view of this, a study is in progress at BARC to examine the performance of simple passive systems using SC CO 2 , SCW, LBE and molten salts as the coolant. This paper deals with some of the recent results of these studies. The study focuses on the steady state, transient and stability behaviour of the passive systems with these coolants. (author)

  1. Transportation and Aging: An Updated Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Anne E; Molnar, Lisa; Bedard, Michel; Eby, David W; Classen, Sherrilene; Polgar, Janice

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses what is currently known about three important topics related to older driver safety and mobility: screening and evaluation, education and training interventions, and in-vehicle technology. Progress is being made to improve the safe mobility of older adults in these key areas; however, significant research gaps remain. This article advances the state of knowledge by identifying these gaps, and proposing further research topics will improve the lives of older adults. In addition, we discuss several themes that emerged from the review, including the need for multidisciplinary, community-wide solutions; large-scale, longitudinal studies; improved education/training for both older adults themselves and the variety of stakeholders involved in older adult transportation; and programs and interventions that are flexible and responsive to individual needs and differences.

  2. Radiation transport calculations for the ANS [Advanced Neutron Source] beam tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W. Jr.; Lillie, R.A.; Slater, C.O.

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source facility (ANS) will incorporate a large number of both radial and no-line-of-sight (NLS) beam tubes to provide very large thermal neutron fluxes to experimental facilities. The purpose of this work was to obtain comparisons for the ANS single- and split-core designs of the thermal and damage neutron and gamma-ray scalar fluxes in these beams tubes. For experimental locations far from the reactor cores, angular flux data are required; however, for close-in experimental locations, the scalar fluxes within each beam tube provide a credible estimate of the various signal to noise ratios. In this paper, the coupled two- and three-dimensional radiation transport calculations employed to estimate the scalar neutron and gamma-ray fluxes will be described and the results from these calculations will be discussed. 6 refs., 2 figs

  3. Advances in complexity of beam halo-chaos and its control methods for beam transport networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing

    2004-11-01

    The complexity theory of beam halo-chaos in beam transport networks and its control methods for a new subject of high-tech field is discussed. It is pointed that in recent years, there has been growing interest in proton beams of high power linear accelerator due to its attractive features in possible breakthrough applications in national defense and industry. In particular, high-current accelerator driven clean activity nuclear power systems for various applications as energy resources has been one of the most focusing issues in the current research, because it provides a safer, cleaner and cheaper nuclear energy resource. However, halo-chaos in high-current beam transport networks become a key concerned issue because it can generate excessive radioactivity therefore significantly limits its applications. It is very important to study the complexity properties of beam halo-chaos and to understand the basic physical mechanisms for halo chaos formation as well as to develop effective control methods for its suppression. These are very challenging subjects for the current research. The main research advances in the subjects, including experimental investigation and the oretical research, especially some very efficient control methods developed through many years of efforts of authors are reviewed and summarized. Finally, some research outlooks are given. (author)

  4. Analysis of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. It is possible that future designs will continue this trend, leading to very-high or ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) engines. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. Regardless of the engine architecture chosen, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  5. Refined Exploration of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive exploration of the turbofan engine design space for an advanced technology single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) was conducted previously by the authors and is documented in a prior report. Through the course of that study and in a subsequent evaluation of the approach and results, a number of enhancements to the engine design ground rules and assumptions were identified. A follow-on effort was initiated to investigate the impacts of these changes on the original study results. The fundamental conclusions of the prior study were found to still be valid with the revised engine designs. The most significant impact of the design changes was a reduction in the aircraft weight and block fuel penalties incurred with low fan pressure ratio, ultra-high bypass ratio designs. This enables lower noise levels to be pursued (through lower fan pressure ratio) with minor negative impacts on aircraft weight and fuel efficiency. Regardless of the engine design selected, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  6. Advancing research on animal-transported subsidies by integrating animal movement and ecosystem modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E; Zollner, Patrick A

    2017-09-01

    Connections between ecosystems via animals (active subsidies) support ecosystem services and contribute to numerous ecological effects. Thus, the ability to predict the spatial distribution of active subsidies would be useful for ecology and conservation. Previous work modelling active subsidies focused on implicit space or static distributions, which treat passive and active subsidies similarly. Active subsidies are fundamentally different from passive subsidies, because animals can respond to the process of subsidy deposition and ecosystem changes caused by subsidy deposition. We propose addressing this disparity by integrating animal movement and ecosystem ecology to advance active subsidy investigations, make more accurate predictions of subsidy spatial distributions, and enable a mechanistic understanding of subsidy spatial distributions. We review selected quantitative techniques that could be used to accomplish integration and lead to novel insights. The ultimate objective for these types of studies is predictions of subsidy spatial distributions from characteristics of the subsidy and the movement strategy employed by animals that transport subsidies. These advances will be critical in informing the management of ecosystem services, species conservation and ecosystem degradation related to active subsidies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  7. Cuttings Transport with Foam in Highly Inclined Wells at Simulated Downhole Conditions / Transport urobku wiertniczego przy użyciu piany w silnie nachylonych otworach w symulowanych warunkach w otworze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiafu; Ozbayoglu, Evren; Miska, Stefan Z.; Yu, Mengjiao; Takach, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Along with the rapidly growing demand and development activities in unconventional resources, is the growth of environmental awareness and concerns among the public. Foam, as an alternative to traditional drilling fluid, is gaining more and more momentum in the drilling industry. Drilling with foam can minimize formation damage, water usage, and drag and torque. Foam also costs less and leaves a much smaller environmental footprint than other commonly used drilling fluids, such as synthetic oil-based fluids, when developing vulnerable formations such as shale gas. As drilling in horizontal and near horizontal sections has become very common, and the need for such sections is increasing, it is very important to understand cuttings transport and hole cleaning issues when drilling with foam in such sections. A team from University of Tulsa Drilling Research Projects (TUDRP) conducted a series of experiments focused on studying the effects of change in hole inclination angle from 90 degrees to 70 degrees on cuttings transport with foam under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) conditions. This experimental and theoretical study also includes other influential parameters such as foam quality, foam flow rate, polymer concentration and drill pipe rotary speed. We have observed that there is no significant difference in cuttings concentration and frictional pressure losses as inclination changes from 70 to 90 degrees. Also, an increase in superficial foam velocity reduces cuttings concentration within the annulus. Pipe rotation influences cuttings concentration and frictional pressure losses for low quality foams, but does not have a significant effect on high quality foams. A correlation for the cuttings bed area and a computer simulator are developed for practical design and field applications. The predicted results are compared with experimental results from this study and previous studies. The comparison shows good agreement. We believe that the findings

  8. Gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging and compartmental modelling to assess hepatocyte bidirectional transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudeau, Celine; Leporq, Benjamin; Doblas, Sabrina [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Hopital Beaujon, Laboratory of Imaging Biomarkers, UMR1149 Inserm, Clichy (France); Lagadec, Matthieu; Daire, Jean-Luc; Van Beers, Bernard E. [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Hopital Beaujon, Laboratory of Imaging Biomarkers, UMR1149 Inserm, Clichy (France); Beaujon University Hospital Paris Nord, Department of Radiology, Clichy (France); Pastor, Catherine M. [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Hopital Beaujon, Laboratory of Imaging Biomarkers, UMR1149 Inserm, Clichy (France); Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Departement d' Imagerie et des Sciences de l' Information Medicale, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-05-15

    Changes in the expression of hepatocyte membrane transporters in advanced fibrosis decrease the hepatic transport function of organic anions. The aim of our study was to assess if these changes can be evaluated with pharmacokinetic analysis of the hepatobiliary transport of the MR contrast agent gadoxetate. Dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MRI was performed in 17 rats with advanced fibrosis and 8 normal rats. After deconvolution, hepatocyte three-compartmental analysis was performed to calculate the hepatocyte influx, biliary efflux and sinusoidal backflux rates. The expression of Oatp1a1, Mrp2 and Mrp3 organic anion membrane transporters was assessed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the rats with advanced fibrosis, the influx and efflux rates of gadoxetate decreased and the backflux rate increased significantly (p = 0.003, 0.041 and 0.010, respectively). Significant correlations were found between influx and Oatp1a1 expression (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), biliary efflux and Mrp2 (r = 0.50, p = 0.016) and sinusoidal backflux and Mrp3 (r = 0.61, p = 0.002). These results show that changes in the bidirectional organic anion hepatocyte transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis can be assessed with compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. (orig.)

  9. Gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging and compartmental modelling to assess hepatocyte bidirectional transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudeau, Celine; Leporq, Benjamin; Doblas, Sabrina; Lagadec, Matthieu; Daire, Jean-Luc; Van Beers, Bernard E.; Pastor, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the expression of hepatocyte membrane transporters in advanced fibrosis decrease the hepatic transport function of organic anions. The aim of our study was to assess if these changes can be evaluated with pharmacokinetic analysis of the hepatobiliary transport of the MR contrast agent gadoxetate. Dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MRI was performed in 17 rats with advanced fibrosis and 8 normal rats. After deconvolution, hepatocyte three-compartmental analysis was performed to calculate the hepatocyte influx, biliary efflux and sinusoidal backflux rates. The expression of Oatp1a1, Mrp2 and Mrp3 organic anion membrane transporters was assessed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the rats with advanced fibrosis, the influx and efflux rates of gadoxetate decreased and the backflux rate increased significantly (p = 0.003, 0.041 and 0.010, respectively). Significant correlations were found between influx and Oatp1a1 expression (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), biliary efflux and Mrp2 (r = 0.50, p = 0.016) and sinusoidal backflux and Mrp3 (r = 0.61, p = 0.002). These results show that changes in the bidirectional organic anion hepatocyte transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis can be assessed with compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation Of The Advanced Operating System Of The Ann Arbor Transportation Authority : Cost Study : Before, During And After AOS Implementation (October 1996-May 1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Ann Arbor (Michigan) Transportation Authority (AATA) began deploying advanced public transportation systems (APTS) technologies in its fixed route and paratransit operations. The project's concept is the integration of a range of such te...

  11. Evaluation Of The Advanced Operating System Of The Ann Arbor Transportation Authority : Transfer And On-Time Performance Study : Before And After AOS Implementation, October 1996 - May 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Ann Arbor (Michigan) Transportation Authority began deploying advanced public transportation systems (APTS) technologies in its fixed route and paratransit operations. The project's concept is the integration of a range of such technolog...

  12. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  13. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  14. A Status of the Advanced Space Transportation Program from Planning to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry; Griner, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    A Technology Plan for Enabling Commercial Space Business was presented at the 48th International Astronautical Congress in Turin, Italy. This paper presents a status of the program's accomplishments. Technology demonstrations have progressed in each of the four elements of the program; (1) Low Cost Technology, (2) Advanced Reusable Technology, (3) Space Transfer Technology and (4) Space Transportation Research. The Low Cost Technology program element is primarily focused at reducing development and acquisition costs of aerospace hardware using a "design to cost" philosophy with robust margins, adapting commercial manufacturing processes and commercial off-the-shelf hardware. The attributes of this philosophy for small payload launch are being demonstrated at the component, sub-system, and system level. The X-34 "Fastrac" engine has progressed through major component and subsystem demonstrations. A propulsion system test bed has been implemented for system-level demonstration of component and subsystem technologies; including propellant tankage and feedlines, controls, pressurization, and engine systems. Low cost turbopump designs, commercial valves and a controller are demonstrating the potential for a ten-fold reduction in engine and propulsion system costs. The Advanced Reusable Technology program element is focused on increasing life through high strength-to-weight structures and propulsion components, highly integrated propellant tanks, automated checkout and health management and increased propulsion system performance. The validation of rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion is pro,-,ressing through component and subsystem testing. RBCC propulsion has the potential to provide performance margin over an all rocket system that could result in lower gross liftoff weight, a lower propellant mass fraction or a higher payload mass fraction. The Space Transfer Technology element of the program is pursuing technology that can improve performance and

  15. A Glimpse of Membrane Transport through Structures-Advances in the Structural Biology of the GLUT Glucose Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nieng

    2017-08-18

    The cellular uptake of glucose is an essential physiological process, and movement of glucose across biological membranes requires specialized transporters. The major facilitator superfamily glucose transporters GLUTs, encoded by the SLC2A genes, have been a paradigm for functional, mechanistic, and structural understanding of solute transport in the past century. This review starts with a glimpse into the structural biology of membrane proteins and particularly membrane transport proteins, enumerating the landmark structures in the past 25years. The recent breakthrough in the structural elucidation of GLUTs is then elaborated following a brief overview of the research history of these archetypal transporters, their functional specificity, and physiological and pathophysiological significances. Structures of GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT5 in distinct transport and/or ligand-binding states reveal detailed mechanisms of the alternating access transport cycle and substrate recognition, and thus illuminate a path by which structure-based drug design may be applied to help discover novel therapeutics against several debilitating human diseases associated with GLUT malfunction and/or misregulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Turbofan for an Advanced, Single-Aisle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable interest surrounds the design of the next generation of single-aisle commercial transports in the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 class. Aircraft designers will depend on advanced, next-generation turbofan engines to power these airplanes. The focus of this study is to apply single- and multi-objective optimization algorithms to the conceptual design of ultrahigh bypass turbofan engines for this class of aircraft, using NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project metrics as multidisciplinary objectives for optimization. The independent design variables investigated include three continuous variables: sea level static thrust, wing reference area, and aerodynamic design point fan pressure ratio, and four discrete variables: overall pressure ratio, fan drive system architecture (i.e., direct- or gear-driven), bypass nozzle architecture (i.e., fixed- or variable geometry), and the high- and low-pressure compressor work split. Ramp weight, fuel burn, noise, and emissions are the parameters treated as dependent objective functions. These optimized solutions provide insight to the ultrahigh bypass engine design process and provide information to NASA program management to help guide its technology development efforts.

  17. Conceptual study of advanced VTOL transport aircraft engine; Kosoku VTOL kiyo engine no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y; Endo, M; Matsuda, Y; Sugiyama, N; Watanabe, M; Sugahara, N; Yamamoto, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    This report proposes the concept of an ultra-low noise engine for advanced high subsonic VTOL transport aircraft, and discusses its technological feasibility. As one of the applications of the previously reported `separated core turbofan engine,` the conceptual engine is composed of 3 core engines, 2 cruise fan engines for high subsonic cruising and 6 lift fan engines producing thrust of 98kN (10000kgf)/engine. The core turbojet engine bleeds a large amount of air at the outlet of a compressor to supply driving high-pressure air for fans to other engines. The lift fan engine is composed of a lift fan, driving combustor, turbine and speed reduction gear, and is featured by not only high operation stability and thin fan engine like a separated core engine but also ultra-low noise operation. The cruise fan engine adopts the same configuration as the lift fan engine. Since this engine configuration has no technological problems difficult to be overcome, its high technological feasibility is expected. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Implementation of advanced technologies and other means in dangerous freight transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Batarlienė

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines types of modern technologies application possibilities in dangerous freight transportation. It is noted that the solution to transport technology problems is based on the improvement of technological supply, the rational usage of informational modeling methodology of the whole transportation process. The aspects of mobile solution of public information and transport are named in this paper. The article presents concrete vehicles and freight tracking on their trips analysis, the principles and methods of their operation. Tracking and localization systems are playing a great role in the transportation of dangerous freight. The newly developed remote identification system for transport facilities and freight are presented.

  19. Plasma arc cutting: speed and cut quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemchinsky, V A; Severance, W S

    2009-01-01

    When cutting metal with plasma arc cutting, the walls of the cut are narrower at the bottom than at the top. This lack of squareness increases as the cutting speed increases. A model of this phenomenon, affecting cut quality, is suggested. A thin liquid layer, which separates the plasma from the solid metal to be melted, plays a key role in the suggested model. This layer decreases heat transfer from the plasma to the solid metal; the decrease is more pronounced the higher the speed and the thicker the liquid metal layer. Since the layer is thicker at the bottom of the cut, the heat transfer effectiveness is lower at the bottom. The decrease in heat transfer effectiveness is compensated by the narrowness of the cut. The suggested model allows one to calculate the profile of the cut. The result of the calculations of the cutting speeds for plates of various thicknesses, at which the squareness of the cut is acceptable, agrees well with the speeds recommended by manufacturers. The second effect considered in the paper is the deflection of the plasma jet from the vertical at a high cutting speed. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given. We believe the considerations of this paper are pertinent to other types of cutting with moving heat sources.

  20. Field verification of advanced transport models of radionuclides in heterogeneous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, W.; Meurs, G.A.M.; Weststrate, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report deals with a verification study of advanced transport models of radionuclides in heterogeneous soils. The study reported here is the third phase of a research program carried out by Delft Geotechnics concerning the influence of soil heterogeneities on the migration of radionuclides in the soil and soil-water system. Phases 1 and 2 have been reported earlier in the EC Nuclear Science and technology series (EUR 12111 EN, 1989). The verification study involves the predictive modelling of a field tracer experiment carried out by the British Geological Survey (BGS) at Drigg, Cumbria (UK). Conservative (I 131 , Cl-, H 3 ) as well as non-conservative (Co-EDTA) tracers were used. The inverse modelling shows that micro dispersion may be considered as a soil constant related to grainsize. Micro dispersion shows a slow increase with distance from the source. This increase is caused by mass transfer between adjacent layers of different permeability. Macro dispersion is observed when sampling over a larger interval then permitted by the detail with which the heterogeneity is described in the model. The prediction of the migration of radionuclides through heterogeneous soils is possible. The advection dispersion equation seems to be an adequate description of the migration of conservative tracers. The models based on this equation give comparable results on a small field test scale (3.5 m). The prediction of the migration of adsorbing species is more difficult. The mathematical descriptions seem appropriate, but the heterogeneity in soils seems to create a higher order of uncertainty which can not be described as yet with calculation strategies available at this moment

  1. Advanced Monte Carlo for radiation physics, particle transport simulation and applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, A.; Barao, F.J.C.; Nakagawa, M.; Tavora, L.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Electron and photon interactions and transport mechanisms, random number generation, applications in medical physisc, microdosimetry, track structure, radiobiological modeling, Monte Carlo method in radiotherapy, dosimetry, and medical accelerator simulation, neutron transport, high-energy hadron transport. (HSI)

  2. 78 FR 35746 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Shipments of Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... within or across their reservations. Agreement State licensees will be required to provide advance...-recognized Tribal governments. Agreement State licensees will be required to provide advance notifications... Tribal official or Tribal official's designee, the NRC will add the Tribe to the list of advance...

  3. Coproduction of transportation fuels in advanced IGCCs via coal and biomass mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qin; Rao, Ashok; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Coproduction of electricity and transportation fuels with carbon capture. • Switchgrass biomass is cofed with bituminous coal or lignite. • Cost of Fischer–Tropsch liquids is comparable to longer term price projections of crude oil. • Ethanol costs more than gasoline but greenhouse gas emissions will be lower. • Cost of hydrogen is lower than the DoE announced goal of $3/kg. - Abstract: Converting abundant fossil resources of coal to alternative transportation fuels is a promising option for countries heavily dependent on petroleum imports if plants are equipped with carbon capture for sequestration and cofed with biomass (30% by weight of the total feed on a dry basis), an essentially carbon neutral fuel, without penalizing the process economics excessively. A potential exists to improve both thermal efficiency and economics of such plants by taking advantage of the synergies of coproducing electricity using advanced technologies under development. Three types of transportation fuels are considered. Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) liquids consisting predominantly of waxes could be processed in existing refineries while displacing petroleum and the refined products introduced into the market place at the present time or in the near term without requiring changes to the existing infrastructure. Ethanol could potentially serve in the not so distant future (or phased in by blending with conventional liquid fuels). Hydrogen which could play a dominant role in the more distant future being especially suitable to the fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV). Two types of coal along with biomass cofeed are evaluated; bituminous coal at $42.0/dry tonne, lignite at $12.0/dry tonne, and switchgrass at $99.0/dry tonne. The calculated cost for F–T liquids ranged from $77.8/bbl to $86.6/bbl (or $0.0177 to 0.0197/MJ LHV) depending on the feedstock, which is comparable to the projected longer term market price of crude oil at ∼$80/bbl when supply and demand reach a

  4. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  5. Status on underwater plasma arc cutting in KHI, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tadashi; Aota, Toshiichi; Nishizaki, Tadashi; Nakayama, Shigeru; Yamashita, Seiji

    1983-01-01

    In Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., the development of a remote dismantling system by underwater plasma arc cutting process has been advanced, expecting its application to the dismantling and removal of nuclear reactor facilities. In the previous two reports, the fundamental experimental results such as the comparison of the cutting capability in air and in water were shown, but this time, the remote automatic cutting of wedge-shaped specimens was carried out, using a newly installed manipulator for underwater works, therefore its outline is reported. Also the cutting experiment by overhead position and vertical position was performed by using the same equipment, and comparison was made with the cutting capability by downhand and horizontal positions. It is important to grasp the cutting characteristics in the case of upward advancing and downward advancing cuttings by overhead and vertical positions when the cutting of pressure vessels and horizontal pipes into rings is supposed. The experimental apparatus, the cutting conditions, the testing method and the test results of the cutting capability test, the test of changing direction during cutting, and the remote cutting of pipes into rings are described. The underwater plasma arc cutting can cut all metals, the cutting speed is relatively high, and the apparatus is simple and compact. (Kako, I.)

  6. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Pilot, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations; Fredrick, P.; Ramaswami, V.S.; Muys, P. [Radius Engineering, Gent (Belgium)

    1994-12-31

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO{sub 2} and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO{sub 2} laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  7. Underwater laser cutting of metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de

    1994-01-01

    Cutting tests were carried out on stainless steel (304L) in air and under 7 meters of water (application to reactor pools), using CO 2 and YAG lasers; results concerned cutting speed, quality of cut, cutting thickness. By-products of sectioning operations using a CO 2 laser were studied: dross, aerosols, suspended particles in water, gas analysis, chemical analysis of the aerosols. Same measurements are currently being taken in the case of the YAG laser with beam transported via optical fiber. (from author). 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  8. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  9. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  10. Recent Advances in Understanding of Kinetic Interplay Between Phase II Metabolism and Efflux Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Xing, Huijie; Zhao, Mengjing; Lu, Danyi; Li, Zhijie; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the metabolism-transport interplay assumes great importance in pharmaceutical fields because the knowledge can help to interpret drug/xenobiotic metabolism and disposition studies as well as the drug-drug interactions in vivo. About 10 years ago, it started to recognize that cellular phase II metabolism is strongly influenced by the excretion (efflux transport) of generated metabolites, a kinetic phenomenon termed "phase II metabolism-transport interplay". This interplay is believed to have significant effects on the pharmacokinetics (bioavailability) of drugs/chemicals undergoing phase II metabolism. In this article, we review the studies investigating the phase II metabolism-transport interplay using cell models, perfused rat intestine, and intact rats. The potential confounding factors in exploring such interplay is also summarized. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the phase II metabolism-transport interplay is discussed. Various studies with engineered cells and rodents have demonstrated that there is an interaction (interplay) between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters. This type of interplay mainly refers to the dependence of phase II (conjugative) metabolism on the activities of efflux transporters. In general, inhibiting efflux transporters or decreasing their expression causes the reductions in metabolite excretion, apparent excretion clearance (CLapp) and total metabolism (fmet), as well as an increase in the intracellular level of metabolite (Ci). The deconjugation mediated by hydrolase (acting as a "bridge") is essential for the interplay to play out based on pharmacokinetic modeling/simulations, cell and animal studies. The hydrolases bridge the two processes (i.e., metabolite formation and excretion) and enable the interplay thereof (a bridging effect). Without the bridge, metabolite formation is independent on its downstream process excretion, thus impact of metabolite excretion on its formation is impossible

  11. Technical advances and energy substitutions in the transportation sector; Progres techniques et substitutions energetiques dans le secteur des transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromenschlager-Philippe, F.

    2002-11-01

    Alternative motorization technologies have been proposed in order to achieve energy diversification and a reduction in pollutant emissions. Fuel cell vehicles are, among others, at the centre of research carried out by car manufacturers and oil companies. The use of fuel cell vehicles could contribute, first to a less stringent long-term energy dependence of oil importing countries and, second, to pollutant reduction in the transport sector. First of all, we propose the definition of 'innovation' and its treatment in the frame of mainstream economic theories. Then we proceed to a retrospective analysis of diesel motorization of the car market. In the second part of our work, we conduct a survey among French households aiming to obtain up-to-date information about their degree of acceptance of fuel cell technology. We are concerned about highlighting the determining factors of fuel cell vehicle adoption by consumers. For this, we set up a discrete choice model linking the individual decision to the whole group of technical or socio-economical factors and characteristics. Finally, we develop patterns of fuel cell equipment of passenger cars which differ according to type of vehicle and possible purchase assistance. These patterns lead us to the analysis of long-term fuel cell vehicle development on the French car market. (authors)

  12. Research showcase, winter 2014 : reducing traffic noise impacts, university transportation centers, advanced prismatic sheeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This issue of Research Showcase features articles on two successful research efforts, one on quiet : pavements and the other on the bene ts of prismatic sign sheeting, and an article on university : transportation center participation in Florida.

  13. Evaluation Of The Advanced Operating System Of The Ann Arbor Transportation Authority : AATA Web Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During 1997, visitors to the Ann Arbor (Michigan) Transportation Authority's worldwide web site were invited to complete an electronic questionnaire about their experience with the site. Eighty surveys were collected, representing a non-scientific se...

  14. Cutting state identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting

  15. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  16. Study of Advanced Propulsion Systems for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerst, C. F.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Rowse, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Definitions of takeoff gross weight, performance, and direct operating cost for both a 30 and 50 passenger airplane were established. The results indicate that a potential direct operating cost benefit, resulting from advanced technologies, of approximately 20 percent would be achieved for the 1990 engines. Of the numerous design features that were evaluated, only maintenance-related items contributed to a significant decrease in direct operating cost. Recommendations are made to continue research and technology programs for advanced component and engine development.

  17. 49 CFR 236.52 - Relayed cut-section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.52 Relayed cut-section. Where relayed cut-section is used in... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relayed cut-section. 236.52 Section 236.52...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.350 - Gas welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas welding and cutting. 1926.350 Section 1926.350 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Welding and Cutting § 1926.350 Gas welding and cutting. (a) Transporting, moving, and storing compressed gas cylinders. (1) Valve protection caps shall...

  19. Design and commissioning of the photon monitors and optical transport lines for the advanced photon source positron accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.; Yang, B.; Lumpkin, A.; Jones, J.

    1996-01-01

    Two photon monitors have been designed and installed in the positron accumulator ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. The photon monitors characterize the beam's transverse profile, bunch length, emittance, and energy spread in a nonintrusive manner. An optical transport line delivers synchrotron light from the PAR out of a high radiation environment. Both charge-coupled device and fast-gated, intensified cameras are used to measure the transverse beam profile (0.11 - 1 mm for damped beam) with a resolution of 0.06 mm. A streak camera (θ τ =I ps) is used to measure the bunch length which is in the range of 0.3-1 ns. The design of the various transport components and commissioning results of the photon monitors will be discussed

  20. Carbon materials for enhancing charge transport in the advancements of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiyuan; Chu, Liang; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xing'ao; Huang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have become a new favorite in the photovoltaic field, due to the boosted efficiency up to 22.1%. Despite a flow of achievements, there are certain challenges to simultaneously meet high efficiency, large scale, low cost and high stability. Due to the low cost, extensive sources, high electrical conductivity and chemical stability, carbon materials have made undeniable contributions to play positive roles in developing PSCs. Carbon materials not only have the favorable conductivity but also bipolar advantage, which can transfer both electrons and holes. In this review, we will discuss how the carbon materials transfer charge or accelerate charge transport by incorporation in PSCs. Carbon materials can replace transparent conductive oxide layers, and enhance electron transport in electron transport layers. Moreover, carbon materials with continuous structure, especially carbon nanotubes and graphene, can provide direct charge transport channel that make them suitable additives or even substitutes in hole transport layers. Especially, the successful application of carbon materials as counter electrodes makes the devices full-printable, low temperature and high stability. Finally, a brief outlook is provided on the future development of carbon materials for PSCs, which are expected to devote more contributions in the future photovoltaic market.

  1. Monitoring Interactions Inside Cells by Advanced Spectroscopies: Overview of Copper Transporters and Cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasorsa, Alessia; Natile, Giovanni; Rosato, Antonio; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Arnesano, Fabio

    2018-02-12

    Resistance, either at the onset of the treatment or developed after an initial positive response, is a major limitation of antitumor therapy. In the case of platinum- based drugs, copper transporters have been found to interfere with drug trafficking by facilitating the import or favoring the platinum export and inactivation. The use of powerful spectroscopic, spectrometric and computational methods has allowed a deep structural insight into the mode of interaction of platinum drugs with the metal-binding domains of the transporter proteins. This review article focuses on the mode in which platinum drugs can compete with copper ion for binding to transport proteins and consequent structural and biological effects. Three types of transporters are discussed in detail: copper transporter 1 (Ctr1), the major responsible for Cu+ uptake; antioxidant-1 copper chaperone (Atox1), responsible for copper transfer within the cytoplasm; and copper ATPases (ATP7A/B), responsible for copper export into specific subcellular compartments and outside the cell. The body of knowledge summarized in this review can help in shaping current chemotherapy to optimize the efficacy of platinum drugs (particularly in relation to resistance) and to mitigate adverse effects on copper metabolism. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Achieving deep cuts in the carbon intensity of U.S. automobile transportation by 2050: complementary roles for electricity and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Taptich, Michael; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E; Nazaroff, William W

    2013-08-20

    Passenger cars in the United States (U.S.) rely primarily on petroleum-derived fuels and contribute the majority of U.S. transportation-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Electricity and biofuels are two promising alternatives for reducing both the carbon intensity of automotive transportation and U.S. reliance on imported oil. However, as standalone solutions, the biofuels option is limited by land availability and the electricity option is limited by market adoption rates and technical challenges. This paper explores potential GHG emissions reductions attainable in the United States through 2050 with a county-level scenario analysis that combines ambitious plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption rates with scale-up of cellulosic ethanol production. With PHEVs achieving a 58% share of the passenger car fleet by 2050, phasing out most corn ethanol and limiting cellulosic ethanol feedstocks to sustainably produced crop residues and dedicated crops, we project that the United States could supply the liquid fuels needed for the automobile fleet with an average blend of 80% ethanol (by volume) and 20% gasoline. If electricity for PHEV charging could be supplied by a combination of renewables and natural-gas combined-cycle power plants, the carbon intensity of automotive transport would be 79 g CO2e per vehicle-kilometer traveled, a 71% reduction relative to 2013.

  3. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  4. 76 FR 67229 - Governors' Designees Receiving Advance Notification of Transportation of Certain Shipments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... of Transportation of Certain Shipments of Nuclear Waste and Spent Fuel On January 6, 1982 (47 FR 596 and 47 FR 600), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published in the Federal Register final... Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99709, (907) 451-2172, 24 hours: (907) 457- 1421, Cell: (907) 347-7779, (907) 451...

  5. 77 FR 38859 - Governors' Designees Receiving Advance Notification of Transportation of Certain Shipments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... of Transportation of Certain Shipments of Nuclear Waste and Spent Fuel On January 6, 1982 (47 FR 596 and 47 FR 600), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published in the Federal Register final... Conservation, State of Alaska, 555 Cordova Street, Anchorage, AK 99501, (907) 269- 1099, 24 hours: (907) 457...

  6. Modelling of shear effects on thermal and particle transport in advanced Tokamak scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Baker, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Evolution of thermal and particle internal transport barriers (ITBs) is studied by modelling the time-dependent energy and particle balance in DIII-D plasmas with reversed magnetic shear configurations and in JET discharges with monotonic or slightly reversed q-profiles and large ExB rotation shear. Simulations are performed with semi-empirical models for anomalous diffusion and particle pinch. Stabilizing effects of magnetic and ExB rotation shears are included in anomalous particle and heat diffusivity. Shear effects on particle and thermal transport are compared. Improved particle and energy confinement with the formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB) has been produced in DIII-D plasmas during current ramp-up accompanied with neutral beam injection (NBI). These plasmas are characterized by strong reversed magnetic shear and large ExB rotation shear which provide the reduction of anomalous fluxes. The formation of ITB's in the optimized shear (OS) JET scenario starts with strong NBI heating in a target plasma with a flat or slightly reversed q-profile pre-formed during current ramp-up with ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). Our paper presents the modelling of particle and thermal transport for these scenarios. (authors)

  7. Transmutation Scenarios Impacts on Advanced Nuclear Cycles. Fabrication, Reprocessing and Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturnin, A.; Sarrat, P.; Hancok, H.; Milot, J.-F.; Duret, B.; Jasserand, F.; Fillastre, E.; Giffard, F.-X.; Chabert, C.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Caron-Charles, M.; Lefevre, J.C.; Carlier, B.; Arslan, M.; Favet, D.; Garzenne, C.; Barbrault, P.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: First detailed assessment of plants and transportation in various transmutation scenarios. In case of curium transmutation: large difficulties and uncertainties requiring whole new technology development (more pronounced for ADS option). For Am transmutation: more feasible, still to be demonstrated on specific points for industrial extrapolation

  8. Welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Schulze Frielinghaus, W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a survey, with 198 literature references, of the papers published in the fields of welding and cutting within the last three years. The subjects dealt with are: weldability of the materials - Welding methods - Thermal cutting - Shaping and calculation of welded joints - Environmental protection in welding and cutting. (orig.) [de

  9. An advanced three-phase physical, experimental and numerical method for tsunami induced boulder transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Coasts around the world are affected by high-energy wave events like storm surges or tsunamis depending on their regional climatological and geological settings. By focusing on tsunami impacts, we combine the abilities and experiences of different scientific fields aiming at improved insights of near- and onshore tsunami hydrodynamics. We investigate the transport of coarse clasts - so called boulders - due to tsunami impacts by a multi-methodology approach of numerical modelling, laboratory experiments, and sedimentary field records. Coupled numerical hydrodynamic and boulder transport models (BTM) are widely applied for analysing the impact characteristics of the transport by tsunami, such as wave height and flow velocity. Numerical models able to simulate past tsunami events and the corresponding boulder transport patterns with high accuracy and acceptable computational effort can be utilized as powerful forecasting models predicting the impact of a coast approaching tsunami. We have conducted small-scale physical experiments in the tilting flume with real shaped boulder models. Utilizing the structure from motion technique (Westoby et al., 2012) we reconstructed real boulders from a field study on the Island of Bonaire (Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Engel & May, 2012). The obtained three-dimensional boulder meshes are utilized for creating downscaled replica of the real boulder for physical experiments. The results of the irregular shaped boulder are compared to experiments with regular shaped boulder models to achieve a better insight about the shape related influence on transport patterns. The numerical model is based on the general two-phase mass flow model by Pudasaini (2012) enhanced for boulder transport simulations. The boulder is implemented using the immersed boundary technique (Peskin, 2002) and the direct forcing approach. In this method Cartesian grids (fluid and particle phase) and Lagrangian meshes (boulder) are combined. By applying the

  10. Comparison of advanced imputation algorithms for detection of transportation mode and activity episode using GPS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, T.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies have been increasingly considered as an alternative to traditional travel survey methods to collect activity-travel data. Algorithms applied to extract activity-travel patterns vary from informal ad-hoc decision rules to advanced machine learning methods

  11. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  12. Inhibition of macrophage oxidative stress prevents the reduction of ABCA-1 transporter induced by advanced glycated albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pinto, Raphael; Castilho, Gabriela; Paim, Bruno Alves; Machado-Lima, Adriana; Inada, Natalia M; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Vercesi, Aníbal Eugênio; Passarelli, Marisa

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the role of aminoguanidine and benfotiamine on the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in macrophages induced by advanced glycated albumin (AGE-albumin) and its relationship with cell cholesterol homeostasis, emphasizing the expression of the ATP binding cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA-1). AGE-albumin was made by incubating fatty acid-free albumin with 10 mM glycolaldehyde. ROS production and ABCA-1 protein level were determined by flow cytometry in J774 macrophages treated along time with control (C) or AGE-albumin alone or in the presence of aminoguanidine or benfotiamine. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by oxygraphy. Compared to C-albumin, AGE-albumin increased ROS production in macrophages, which was ascribed to the activities of NADPH oxidase and of the mitochondrial system. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity was reduced in cells incubated with AGE-albumin. ROS generation along time was associated with the reduction in macrophage ABCA-1 protein level. Aminoguanidine prevented ROS elevation and restored the ABCA-1 content in macrophages; on the other hand, benfotiamine that promoted a lesser reduction in ROS generation was not able to restore ABCA-1 levels. Inhibition of oxidative stress induced by AGE-albumin prevents disturbances in reverse cholesterol transport by curbing the reduction of ABCA-1 elicited by advanced glycation in macrophages and therefore may contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.

  13. Advanced system analysis for indirect methanol fuel cell power plants for transportation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; McFarland, R.D.; Huff, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The indirect methanol cell fuel concept being actively pursued by the United States Department of Energy and General Motors Corporation is based on electrochemical engine (e.c.e.) an electrical generator capable for usually efficient and clean power production from methanol fuel for the transportation sector. This on-board generator works in consort with batteries to provide electric power to drive propulsion motors for a range of electric vehicles. Success in this technology could do much to improve impacted environmental areas and to convert part of the transportation fleet to natural gas- and coal-derived methanol as the fuel source. These developments parallel work in Europe and Japan where various fuel cell powered vehicles, often fueled with tanked or hydride hydrogen are under active development. This paper describes status of each of these components, and describe a model that predicts the steady state performance of the e.c.e

  14. The industrial resurgence of Southern California? Advanced ground transportation equipment manufacturing and local economic develoment

    OpenAIRE

    A J Scott; D Bergman

    1995-01-01

    Southern California is in a deeply rooted process of economic restructuring. Much of the region's manufacturing base is made up of two groups of industries: a declining aerospace - defense sector, and a low-wage, low-skill sweatshop sector. What are the prospects for creating a growing manufacturing base focused on high-wage, high-skill industries? In this paper we examine the opportunities presented by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority's S183 billion thirty-year ca...

  15. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Modeling Tools: Integration of Advanced Sediment Transport Tools into HEC-RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    sediment transport within the USACE HEC River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ) software package and to determine its applicability to Regional Sediment...Management (RSM) challenges. HEC - RAS SEDIMENT MODELING BACKGROUND: HEC - RAS performs (1) one- dimensional (1D) steady and unsteady hydraulic river ...Albuquerque (SPA)), and recently, the USACE RSM Program. HEC - RAS is one of several hydraulic modeling codes available for river analysis in the

  16. Monte Carlo 2000 Conference : Advanced Monte Carlo for Radiation Physics, Particle Transport Simulation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.

  17. Advanced Techniques in Crash Impact Protection and Emergency Egress from Air Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Lift Technology program for generating commercial transport innovation . However, the YC-15 military version with a high wing and Mach 0.75 cruise...survival technology is constantly changing as new materials, techniques, innovations , and requirements are developed. Nevertheless, the most valid data for...la Propriete Industrielle , No. 331 926, May 11, 1903. 784. Robbins, D.H., V.L Roberts, A.W. Henke, B.F. Raney, R.O. Bennett, and J.H. McElhaney

  18. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F-1A Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results, and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume 1 - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  19. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  20. Advances in the solution of three-dimensional nodal neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, Ruben Panta; Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the three-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of neutron transport equation in a convex domain with piecewise smooth boundaries. We use the combined collocation method of the angular variables and nodal approach for the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the iterated transverse integration of the S N equations. This procedure leads to the set of one-dimensional averages angular fluxes in each spatial variable. The resulting system of equations is solved with the LTS N method, first applying the Laplace transform to the set of the nodal S N equations and then obtaining the solution by symbolic computation. We include the LTS N method by diagonalization to solve the nodal neutron transport equation and then we outline the convergence of these nodal-LTS N approximations with the help of a norm associated to the quadrature formula used to approximate the integral term of the neutron transport equation. We give numerical results obtained with an algebraic computer system (for N up to 8) and with a code for higher values of N. We compare our results for the geometry of a box with a source in a vertex and a leakage zone in the opposite with others techniques used in this problem. (author)

  1. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  2. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  3. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  4. Advanced Intermediate Heat Transport Loop Design Configurations for Hydrogen Production Using High Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh; Cliff Davis; Rober Barner; Paul Pickard

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the high-temperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. A number of possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermal-hydraulic evaluations and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermal-hydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various

  5. Studies of plasma performance and transport in the advanced toroidal facility (ATF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carreras, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of recent ATF experimental results and program plans is presented, with emphasis on the role of magnetic configuration controls in transport studies. The ATF operating space is bounded by a density limit that effectively sets a limit on the energy confinement time τ E . Although this limit is not solely due to impurities, it has recently been raised by improved cleanliness following titanium gettering. This has led to collapse-free neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges with global τ E ∼ 16 ms. Preliminary experiments show that stored energy and bootstrap current are sensitive to details of the magnetic configuration. 13 refs., 8 figs

  6. A study on the fusion reactor - Study on the plasma transport in advanced= tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Bae; Hong, Kyu Seon; Choi, Kang Oak [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    Upper bound on the heat transport is considered with varying {eta}{sub i} and the curvature of the q profile. Nonlinear variational principle is adopted to= maximize the heat transport under the conditions of energy balance and the parallel energy balance. As a model, fluid plasma is assumed in the slab geometry. Resulting Lagrange equations are solved on the computer. Critical value of {eta}{sub i} energy stability is obtained and eigen states for higher {eta}{sub i}`s are found upon considering only the critical mode. Upper bound is found to be smaller when the curvature of q profile id of the same sign as the magnetic shear than the opposite case. As future studies, study on the bifurcation of the modes and, thus, inclusion of more modes are suggested. For more sophisticated model, there seems to be no untoward problems in applying the same method and, after such calculation is done, useful bounds with direct implications to real experiments will be predicted. Lower bound may be interesting, as well, and the work is in progress. 23 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  7. Development of an advanced atmospheric/transport model for emergency response purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, J.D.; O'Steen, B.L.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed for real-time calculations of the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These models are based Gaussian distributions and have been incorporated into an automated menu-driven program called the WIND (Weather INformation and Display) system. The WIND system atmospheric models employ certain assumptions that allow the computations of the ground-level concentration of toxic or radioactive materials to be made quickly. Gaussian models, such as PF/PL and 2DPUF, suffer from serious limitations including the inability to represent recirculation of pollutants in complex terrain, the use of one stability class at a given time to represent turbulent mixing over heterogeneous terrain, and the use of a wind field computed at only one height in the atmosphere. These limitations arise because the fundamental conservation relations of the atmosphere have been grossly simplified. Three-dimensional coupled atmospheric-dispersion models are not limited by the over-simplifications of the Gaussian assumption and have been used in the past to predict the transport of pollutants in a variety of atmospheric circulations. The disadvantage of these models is that they require large amounts of computational time; however, technology has progressed enough so that real-time simulations of dispersion may be made. These complex models can be run in an operational mode so that routine forecasts of the wind field and particulate concentration can be made

  8. Advanced quadratures and periodic boundary conditions in parallel 3D Sn transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manalo, K.; Yi, C.; Huang, M.; Sjoden, G.

    2013-01-01

    Significant updates in numerical quadratures have warranted investigation with 3D Sn discrete ordinates transport. We show new applications of quadrature departing from level symmetric ( 2 o) and Pn-Tn (>S 2 o). investigating 3 recently developed quadratures: Even-Odd (EO), Linear-Discontinuous Finite Element - Surface Area (LDFE-SA), and the non-symmetric Icosahedral Quadrature (IC). We discuss implementation changes to 3D Sn codes (applied to Hybrid MOC-Sn TITAN and 3D parallel PENTRAN) that can be performed to accommodate Icosahedral Quadrature, as this quadrature is not 90-degree rotation invariant. In particular, as demonstrated using PENTRAN, the properties of Icosahedral Quadrature are suitable for trivial application using periodic BCs versus that of reflective BCs. In addition to implementing periodic BCs for 3D Sn PENTRAN, we implemented a technique termed 'angular re-sweep' which properly conditions periodic BCs for outer eigenvalue iterative loop convergence. As demonstrated by two simple transport problems (3-group fixed source and 3-group reflected/periodic eigenvalue pin cell), we remark that all of the quadratures we investigated are generally superior to level symmetric quadrature, with Icosahedral Quadrature performing the most efficiently for problems tested. (authors)

  9. Advanced surveillance technologies for used fuel long-term storage and transportation - 59032

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hanchung; Liu, Yung Y.; Nutt, Mark; Shuler, James

    2012-01-01

    Utilities worldwide are using dry-cask storage systems to handle the ever-increasing number of discharged fuel assemblies from nuclear power plants. In the United States and possibly elsewhere, this trend will continue until an acceptable disposal path is established. The recent Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, specifically the events with the storage pools, may accelerate the drive to relocate more of the used fuel assemblies from pools into dry casks. Many of the newer cask systems incorporate dual-purpose (storage and transport) or multiple-purpose (storage, transport, and disposal) canister technologies. With the prospect looming for very long term storage - possibly over multiple decades - and deferred transport, condition- and performance-based aging management of cask structures and components is now a necessity that requires immediate attention. From the standpoint of consequences, one of the greatest concerns is the rupture of a substantial number of fuel rods that would affect fuel retrievability. Used fuel cladding may become susceptible to rupture due to radial-hydride-induced embrittlement caused by water-side corrosion during the reactor operation and subsequent drying/transfer process, through early stage of storage in a dry cask, especially for high burnup fuels. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an automated data capture and remote-sensing technology ideally suited for monitoring sensitive assets on a long-term, continuous basis. One such system, called ARG-US, has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program for tracking and monitoring drums containing sensitive nuclear and radioactive materials. The ARG-US RFID system is versatile and can be readily adapted for dry-cask monitoring applications. The current built-in sensor suite consists of seal, temperature, humidity, shock, and radiation sensors. With the universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter interface in

  10. Advances in citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger: biochemical aspects, membrane transport and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagianni, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Citric acid is regarded as a metabolite of energy metabolism, of which the concentration will rise to appreciable amounts only under conditions of substantive metabolic imbalances. Citric acid fermentation conditions were established during the 1930s and 1940s, when the effects of various medium components were evaluated. The biochemical mechanism by which Aspergillus niger accumulates citric acid has continued to attract interest even though its commercial production by fermentation has been established for decades. Although extensive basic biochemical research has been carried out with A. niger, the understanding of the events relevant for citric acid accumulation is not completely understood. This review is focused on citric acid fermentation by A. niger. Emphasis is given to aspects of fermentation biochemistry, membrane transport in A. niger and modeling of the production process.

  11. Recent advances in small molecular, non-polymeric organic hole transporting materials for solid-state DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh-Tuan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Issue from thin-film technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells have become one of the most promising technologies in the field of renewable energies. Their success is not only due to their low weight, the possibility of making large flexible surfaces, but also to their photovoltaic efficiency which are found to be more and more significant (>12% with a liquid electrolyte, >7% with a solid organic hole conductor. This short review highlights recent advances in the characteristics and use of low-molecular-weight glass-forming organic materials as hole transporters in all solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials must feature specific physical and chemical properties that will ensure both the operation of a photovoltaic cell and the easy implementation. This review is an english extended version based on our recent article published in Matériaux & Techniques 101, 102 (2013.

  12. Extension without Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Straßburger , Lutz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In proof theory one distinguishes sequent proofs with cut and cut-free sequent proofs, while for proof complexity one distinguishes Frege-systems and extended Frege-systems. In this paper we show how deep inference can provide a uniform treatment for both classifications, such that we can define cut-free systems with extension, which is neither possible with Frege-systems, nor with the sequent calculus. We show that the propositional pigeon-hole principle admits polyno...

  13. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  14. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.-W.

    1990-01-01

    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  15. The use of regional advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure impacts with sustainability; a perspective from the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, James H; Huber, Patrick R; O’Donoghue, Elizabeth; Santos, Maria J

    2014-01-01

    Globally, urban areas are expanding, and their regional, spatially cumulative, environmental impacts from transportation projects are not typically assessed. However, incorporation of a Regional Advance Mitigation Planning (RAMP) framework can promote more effective, ecologically sound, and less expensive environmental mitigation. As a demonstration of the first phase of the RAMP framework, we assessed environmental impacts from 181 planned transportation projects in the 19 368 km 2 San Francisco Bay Area. We found that 107 road and railroad projects will impact 2411–3490 ha of habitat supporting 30–43 threatened or endangered species. In addition, 1175 ha of impacts to agriculture and native vegetation are expected, as well as 125 crossings of waterways supporting anadromous fish species. The extent of these spatially cumulative impacts shows the need for a regional approach to associated environmental offsets. Many of the impacts were comprised of numerous small projects, where project-by-project mitigation would result in increased transaction costs, land costs, and lost project time. Ecological gains can be made if a regional approach is taken through the avoidance of small-sized reserves and the ability to target parcels for acquisition that fit within conservation planning designs. The methods are straightforward, and can be used in other metropolitan areas. (papers)

  16. Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, A.J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group carries out research in two broad areas: the computation of charged particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods and advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Important improvements in the state of the art are believed to be possible in both of these areas. In addition, applications of these methods are made to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. The Lie algebraic method of computing and analyzing beam transport handles both linear and nonlinear beam elements. Tests show this method to be superior to the earlier matrix or numerical integration methods. It has wide application to many areas including accelerator physics, intense particle beams, ion microprobes, high resolution electron microscopy, and light optics. With regard to the area of electromagnetic fields and beam cavity interactions, work is carried out on the theory of beam breakup in single pulses. Work is also done on the analysis of the high frequency behavior of longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances, including the examination of methods which may be used to measure these impedances. Finally, work is performed on the electromagnetic analysis of coupled cavities and on the coupling of cavities to waveguides

  17. Enhanced long-distance transport of periodic electron beams in an advanced double layer cone-channel target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanling; Duan, Tao; Zhou, Weimin; Li, Boyuan; Wu, Fengjuan; Zhang, Zhimeng; Ye, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wu, Chunrong; Tang, Yongjian

    2018-02-01

    An enhanced long-distance transport of periodic electron beams in an advanced double layer cone-channel target is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The target consists of a cone attached to a double-layer hollow channel with a near-critical-density inner layer. The periodic electron beams are generated by the combination of ponderomotive force and longitudinal laser electric field. Then a stable electron propagation is achieved in the double-layer channel over a much longer distance without evident divergency, compared with a normal cone-channel target. Detailed simulations show that the much better long-distance collimation and guidance of energetic electrons is attributed to the much stronger electromagnetic fields at the inner wall surfaces. Furthermore, a continuous electron acceleration is obtained by the more intense laser electric fields and extended electron acceleration length in the channel. Our investigation shows that by employing this advanced target, both the forward-going electron energy flux in the channel and the energy coupling efficiency from laser to electrons are about threefold increased in comparison with the normal case.

  18. Enhanced long-distance transport of periodic electron beams in an advanced double layer cone-channel target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Ji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced long-distance transport of periodic electron beams in an advanced double layer cone-channel target is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The target consists of a cone attached to a double-layer hollow channel with a near-critical-density inner layer. The periodic electron beams are generated by the combination of ponderomotive force and longitudinal laser electric field. Then a stable electron propagation is achieved in the double-layer channel over a much longer distance without evident divergency, compared with a normal cone-channel target. Detailed simulations show that the much better long-distance collimation and guidance of energetic electrons is attributed to the much stronger electromagnetic fields at the inner wall surfaces. Furthermore, a continuous electron acceleration is obtained by the more intense laser electric fields and extended electron acceleration length in the channel. Our investigation shows that by employing this advanced target, both the forward-going electron energy flux in the channel and the energy coupling efficiency from laser to electrons are about threefold increased in comparison with the normal case.

  19. Development of Integrated Real-Time Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Advanced Operation Scenarios on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Crisanti, F.; Laborde, L.

    2005-01-01

    An important experimental programme is in progress on JET to investigate plasma control schemes which, with a limited number of actuators, could eventually enable ITER to sustain steady state burning plasmas in an 'advanced tokamak' operation scenario. A multi-variable model-based technique was recently developed for the simultaneous control of several plasma parameter profiles in discharges with internal transport barriers (ITB), using lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) together with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The proposed distributed-parameter control scheme relies on the experimental identification of an integral linear response model operator and retains the intrinsic couplings between the plasma parameter profiles. A first set of experiments was performed to control the current density profile in the low-density/low-power LH-driven phase of the JET advanced scenarios, using only one actuator (LHCD) and a simplified (lumped-parameter) version of the control scheme. Several requested steady state magnetic equilibria were thus obtained and sustained for about 7s, up to full relaxation of the ohmic current throughout the plasma. A second set of experiments was dedicated to the control of the q-profile with 3 actuators (LHCD, NBI and ICRH) during the intense heating phase of advanced scenarios. The safety factor profile was also shown to approach a requested profile within about 5s. The achieved plasma equilibrium was close to steady state. Finally, during the recent high power experimental campaign, experiments have been conducted in a 3T/1.7MA plasma, achieving the simultaneous control of the current density and electron temperature profiles in ITB plasmas. Here, the distributed-parameter version of the algorithm was used for the first time, again with 3 actuators. Real-time control was applied during 7s, and allowed to reach successfully different target q-profiles (monotonic and reversed-shear ones) and different ITB

  20. Development of integrated real-time control of internal transport barriers in advanced operation scenarios on Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, D.; Laborde, L.; Litaudon, X.; Mazon, D.; Zabeo, L.; Joffrin, E.; Lennholm, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Moreau, D. [EFDA-JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Riva, M.; Tuccillo, A. [Euratom-ENEA Association, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Murari, A. [Euratom-ENEA Association, Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Tala, T. [Euratom-TEKES Association, VTT Processes (Finland); Albanese, R.; Ariola, M.; Tommasi, G. de; Pironti, A. [Euratom-ENEA Association, CREATE, Napoli (Italy); Felton, R.; Zastrow, K.D. [Euratom-UKAEA Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon(United Kingdom); Baar, M. de; Vries, P. de [Euratom-FOM Association, TEC Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); La Luna, E. de [Euratom-CIEMAT Association, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    An important experimental programme is in progress on JET to investigate plasma control schemes which, with a limited number of actuators, could eventually enable ITER to sustain steady state burning plasmas in an 'advanced tokamak' operation scenario. A multi-variable model-based technique was recently developed for the simultaneous control of several plasma parameter profiles in discharges with internal transport barriers (ITB), using lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) together with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The proposed distributed-parameter control scheme relies on the experimental identification of an integral linear response model operator and retains the intrinsic couplings between the plasma parameter profiles. A first set of experiments was performed to control the current density profile in the low-density/low-power LH-driven phase of the JET advanced scenarios, using only one actuator (LHCD) and a simplified (lumped-parameter) version of the control scheme. Several requested steady state magnetic equilibria were thus obtained and sustained for about 7 s, up to full relaxation of the ohmic current throughout the plasma. A second set of experiments was dedicated to the control of the q-profile with 3 actuators (LHCD, NBI and ICRH) during the intense heating phase of advanced scenarios. The safety factor profile was also shown to approach a requested profile within about 5 s. The achieved plasma equilibrium was close to steady state. Finally, during the recent high power experimental campaign, experiments have been conducted in a 3 T / 1.7 MA plasma, achieving the simultaneous control of the current density and electron temperature profiles in ITB plasmas. Here, the distributed-parameter version of the algorithm was used for the first time, again with 3 actuators. Real-time control was applied during 7 s, and allowed to reach successfully different target q-profiles (monotonic and reversed-shear ones

  1. Development of integrated real-time control of internal transport barriers in advanced operation scenarios on Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Laborde, L.; Litaudon, X.; Mazon, D.; Zabeo, L.; Joffrin, E.; Lennholm, M.; Crisanti, F.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Riva, M.; Tuccillo, A.; Murari, A.; Tala, T.; Albanese, R.; Ariola, M.; Tommasi, G. de; Pironti, A.; Felton, R.; Zastrow, K.D.; Baar, M. de; Vries, P. de; La Luna, E. de

    2004-01-01

    An important experimental programme is in progress on JET to investigate plasma control schemes which, with a limited number of actuators, could eventually enable ITER to sustain steady state burning plasmas in an 'advanced tokamak' operation scenario. A multi-variable model-based technique was recently developed for the simultaneous control of several plasma parameter profiles in discharges with internal transport barriers (ITB), using lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) together with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The proposed distributed-parameter control scheme relies on the experimental identification of an integral linear response model operator and retains the intrinsic couplings between the plasma parameter profiles. A first set of experiments was performed to control the current density profile in the low-density/low-power LH-driven phase of the JET advanced scenarios, using only one actuator (LHCD) and a simplified (lumped-parameter) version of the control scheme. Several requested steady state magnetic equilibria were thus obtained and sustained for about 7 s, up to full relaxation of the ohmic current throughout the plasma. A second set of experiments was dedicated to the control of the q-profile with 3 actuators (LHCD, NBI and ICRH) during the intense heating phase of advanced scenarios. The safety factor profile was also shown to approach a requested profile within about 5 s. The achieved plasma equilibrium was close to steady state. Finally, during the recent high power experimental campaign, experiments have been conducted in a 3 T / 1.7 MA plasma, achieving the simultaneous control of the current density and electron temperature profiles in ITB plasmas. Here, the distributed-parameter version of the algorithm was used for the first time, again with 3 actuators. Real-time control was applied during 7 s, and allowed to reach successfully different target q-profiles (monotonic and reversed-shear ones) and

  2. Open noise barriers based on sonic crystals. Advances in noise control in transport infraestructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiro Torres, M.P.; Redondo Pastor, J.; Bravo Plana-Sala, J.M.; Sanchez Perez, J.V.

    2016-07-01

    Noise control is an environmental problem of first magnitude nowadays. In this work, we present a new concept of acoustic screen designed to control the specific noise generated by transport infrastructures, based on new materials called sonic crystals. These materials are formed by arrangements of acoustic scatterers in air, and provide a new and different mechanism in the fight against noise from those of the classical screens. This mechanism is usually called multiple scattering and is due to their structuring in addition to their physical properties. Due to the separation between scatterers, these barriers are transparent to air and water allowing a reduction on their foundations. Tests carried out in a wind tunnel show a reduction of 42% in the overturning momentum compared to classical barriers. The acoustical performance of these barriers is shown in this work, explaining the new characteristics provided in the control of noise. Finally, an example of these barriers is presented and classified according to acoustic standardization tests. The acoustic barrier reported in this work provides a high technological solution in the field of noise control. (Author)

  3. Advances in regulation and package design for transportation or storage of radioactive materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    The design of packages for the transport or storage of radioactive materials, particularly spent nuclear fuel, has been evolving in three major areas. The most significant changes have been increases n the capacity of packages. Testing has received increasing importance to supplement analysis and to verify the accuracy of the computer models to represent the more complex designs. New materials have also been proposed that are capable of serving more than one function within a package which would reduce weight and offer the possibility of simplifying package design. It is the intent of the papers presented in this volume to address the impact of these developments by presenting papers that describe testing methods, materials development programs and recent package designs. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a field that is beginning to emerge as a major field of endeavor that spans the mechanical engineering, nuclear engineering and many other disciplines. Papers included in this publication describe efforts to understand the mechanics of decontamination of surfaces that have been exposed to radioactive materials and the application of robotics to perform tasks that would be excessively hazardous for humans. Presentation of these papers within the format of the ASME has been chosen to focus attention upon the importance of designing packages in accordance with the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Coal. The papers contained herein have been subjected to a formal review process in accordance with ASME requirements

  4. Conceptual study of an advanced VTOL transport aircraft; Kosoku VTOL ki no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y; Endo, M; Matsuda, Y; Sugiyama, N; Watanabe, M; Sugahara, N; Yamamoto, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The concept of the advanced 100-passenger class VTOL aircraft equipped with new lift fan engines was clarified as domestic passenger aircraft for the 21st century. Under the assumption of a total weight of 40 tons, a seat fuselage diameter of 3.3m as small as possible and a short seat pitch, the airframe shape satisfying a target performance was obtained without any problems about aerodynamic stability, operability and control capability, and noise lower than that of small helicopters was also estimated. In the case of 10 tons in airframe payload and 8 tons in fuel, even if light-weight composite materials were used for most of parts including fuselage structure, a total weight summed to 42.3 tons exceeding a target by 2.3 tons. As this VTOL aircraft was limited to domestic flight use only, the total weight could be reduced without any change in airframe shape and number of passengers by reducing the payload (baggage weight can be probably reduced by 2 tons/100 passengers in the future domestic flight) and fuel (cruising range around 2500km can be secured even if fuel is reduced by 0.3 tons). In conclusion, this concept was thus technologically reasonable. 6 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Managing Human Factors Related Risks. The Advanced Training Model in Dangerous Goods Transport on Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelizaveta Janno

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the methodological essence of dangerous goods (DG training courses for drivers and dangerous goods safety advisers (DGSA. The aim of the research is to advance existing teacher-centered course model in Estonia with learner-centered methods that best suit specific objectives and meet expected learning outcomes, as well as to improve DG training model with the integrated use of interactive teaching methods. The paper presents a qualitative development research strategy based on studies regarding ADR regulations training courses in Estonia as well as on the analysis of teaching methods applied in the professional training of adults. The data is collected in two steps: firstly by implementing questionnaires for consignors/ consignees, freight forwarders carrier companies and drivers, secondly during in-depth interviews/ focus group meeting with DG regulations training companies’ providers. Implementing methodology of qualitative comparison analysis (QCA combination of best suitable teaching methods is identified. After following in-depth interviews and performing a focus group, these combinations are further used as input for developing existing course model with integrated use of blended learning alternatives, where digital media meets with traditional classroom meth-ods. Results of this research contribute coming up with interactive methodological approach within ADR regulations training courses that meet the best trainees’ expectations and fulfills the risk management aim.

  6. Benefits associated with advanced technologies applied to a high-speed civil transport concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoroski, L. P.; Shields, E. W.; Fenbert, J. W.; Mcelroy, M. O.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a first-order assessment of the mission performance benefits associated with the technology improvements and goals of the Phase II High-Speed Research (HSR) Program are presented. A breakdown of the four major disciplines resulted in the following estimated TOGW savings from the 1990 vehicle: propulsion at 14.3 percent, structures at 11.7 percent, flight-deck systems at 4.0 percent, and aerodynamics at 15.0 percent. Based on 100 percent success of the HSR Phase II proposed technology advancements, the overall combined impact is estimated to result in a 45 percent reduction in TOGW from a 1990 entry-into-service (EIS) date, which could result in a viable 2005 EIS vehicle with an acceptable TOGW that meets Stage III community noise restrictions. Through supersonic laminar flow control and the possible reduction in reserve fuel requirements resulting from synthetic vision capability, the potential exists for an additional 9.6 percent reduction in TOGW.

  7. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  8. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-01-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  9. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  10. Fundamentals of cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  11. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  12. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  13. The Intelligent Transportation Systems Public Safety Program : opportunities for technological advancement in detecting, responding, and recovering from community emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2000, a group of high level public safety and transportation officials was brought together by the US Department of Transportations (USDOT) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program to consider the interaction bet...

  14. Operation of the AM-50 cutting head under different cutting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Kusz, F; Fels, M

    1988-02-01

    Presents results of investigations into operation of the AM-50 heading machine. About 50% of headings, i.e. about 800 km/a, are driven by about 400 heading machines. It has been found that energy consumption depends on compression strength of rock and is 6 times higher for sandstone than for clayey shale. Power consumed by cutting heads depends mainly on the web used (30-150 mm depending on rock strength). Wear of cutting tools is 1-30 pieces per meter of heading advance at a working cross-section area of 15 m/sup 2/. The AM-50 machine uses cutting speeds of 1.1-3.5 m/s. Higher speeds negatively affect the resistance to cutting. Nonuniform tool wear on the cutting head circumference is an indication of improper head design that requires remedying.

  15. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  16. Variable angle asymmetric cut monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1993-09-01

    A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crystals to 50 times the area of incident beam; this will reduce the slope errors by a factor of 2500. The asymmetric cut allows one to increase the acceptance angle for incident radiation and obtain a better match to the opening angle of the incident beam. This can increase intensity of the diffracted beam by a factor of 2 to 5 and can make the beam more monochromatic, as well. The monochromator consists of two matched, asymmetric cut (18 degrees), silicon crystals mounted so that they can be rotated about three independent axes. Rotation around the first axis controls the Bragg angle. The second rotation axis is perpendicular to the diffraction planes and controls the increase of the area of the footprint of the beam on the crystal surface. Rotation around the third axis controls the angle between the surface of the crystal and the wider, horizontal axis for the beam and can make the footprint a rectangle with a minimum. length for this area. The asymmetric cut is 18 degrees for the matched pair of crystals, which allows one to expand the footprint area by a factor of 50 for Bragg angles up to 19.15 degrees (6 keV for Si[111] planes). This monochromator, with proper cooling, will be useful for analyzing the high intensity x-ray beams produced by both undulators and wigglers at the APS

  17. Toward a Mechanistic Source Term in Advanced Reactors: Characterization of Radionuclide Transport and Retention in a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, Acacia J.; Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David

    2016-04-17

    A vital component of the U.S. reactor licensing process is an integrated safety analysis in which a source term representing the release of radionuclides during normal operation and accident sequences is analyzed. Historically, source term analyses have utilized bounding, deterministic assumptions regarding radionuclide release. However, advancements in technical capabilities and the knowledge state have enabled the development of more realistic and best-estimate retention and release models such that a mechanistic source term assessment can be expected to be a required component of future licensing of advanced reactors. Recently, as part of a Regulatory Technology Development Plan effort for sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs), Argonne National Laboratory has investigated the current state of knowledge of potential source terms in an SFR via an extensive review of previous domestic experiments, accidents, and operation. As part of this work, the significant sources and transport processes of radionuclides in an SFR have been identified and characterized. This effort examines all stages of release and source term evolution, beginning with release from the fuel pin and ending with retention in containment. Radionuclide sources considered in this effort include releases originating both in-vessel (e.g. in-core fuel, primary sodium, cover gas cleanup system, etc.) and ex-vessel (e.g. spent fuel storage, handling, and movement). Releases resulting from a primary sodium fire are also considered as a potential source. For each release group, dominant transport phenomena are identified and qualitatively discussed. The key product of this effort was the development of concise, inclusive diagrams that illustrate the release and retention mechanisms at a high level, where unique schematics have been developed for in-vessel, ex-vessel and sodium fire releases. This review effort has also found that despite the substantial range of phenomena affecting radionuclide release, the

  18. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  19. Evaluation of alternative snow plow cutting edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    With approximately 450 snow plow trucks, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) uses in : excess of 10,000 linear feet of plow cutting edges each winter season. Using the 2008-2009 cost per linear : foot of $48.32, the Departments total co...

  20. The size effect in metal cutting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the shear stress and strain in metal cutting is unusually high, ... thus joining the transport of dislocations in accounting for the total slip of the shear plane. ... shear plane, and the important role compressive stress plays on the shear plane.

  1. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  2. STEEP STREAMS - Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Cardoso, Antonio H.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Bellin, Alberto; Breinl, Korbinian; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Larcher, Michele; Majone, Bruno; Matos, Jorges; Meninno, Sabrina; Nucci, Elena; Rigon, Riccardo; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zardi, Dino

    2017-04-01

    The STEEP STREAMS (Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS) project consists of a collaboration among the Universities of Trento, Uppsala and Lisbon, who joined in a consortium within the ERANET Water JPI call WaterWorks2014. The aim of the project is to produce new rational criteria for the design of protection works against debris flows, a phenomenon consisting in hyper-concentrated flows of water and sediments, classified as catastrophic events typical of small mountainous basins (area triggered by intense rainstorms. Such events are non-stationary phenomena that arise in a very short time, and their recurrence is rather difficult to determine. Compared to flash floods, they are more difficult to anticipate, mostly since they are triggered by convective precipitation events, posing a higher risk of damage and even loss of human lives. These extreme events occur almost annually across Europe, though the formal return period in an exposed site is much larger. Recently, an increase in intensity and frequency of small-scale storm events, leading to extreme solid transport in steep channels, are recognized as one of the effects of climate change. In this context, one of the key challenges of this project is the use of comparatively coarse RCM projections to the small catchments examined in STEEP STREAMS. Given these changes, conventional protection works and their design criteria may not suffice to provide adequate levels of protection to human life and urban settlements. These structures create a storage area upstream the alluvial fans and the settlements, thereby reducing the need of channelization in areas often constrained by urban regulations. To optimize the lamination, and in particular to reduce the peak of solid mass flux, it is necessary that the deposition basin is controlled by a slit check dam, capable of inducing a controlled sedimentation of the solid mas flux. In

  3. Cut without Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The zero-based curriculum model can help school boards and administrators make decisions about what to keep and what to cut. All instructional programs are ranked and judged in categories ranging from required to optional. (MLF)

  4. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  5. Hybrid Threat Center of Gravity Analysis: Cutting the Gordian Knot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 04/04/2016 Master’s Thesis 22-7-2015 to 04-04-2016 HYBRID THREAT CENTER OF GRAVITY ANALYSIS: CUTTING THE...CENTER OF GRAVITY ANALYSIS: CUTTING THE GORDIAN KNOT By Michael D. Reilly LtCol, USMC Intentionally left blank...HYBRID THREAT CENTER OF GRAVITY ANALYSIS: CUTTING THE GORDIAN KNOT By Michael D. Reilly LtCol, USMC A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Joint Advanced

  6. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  7. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Can I Stop Cutting? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Stop Cutting? ... in a soft, cozy blanket Substitutes for the Cutting Sensation You'll notice that all the tips ...

  8. Cutting and Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...

  9. Flux cutting in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments and theories of flux cutting in superconductors. The use of the flux line picture in free space is discussed. In superconductors cutting can either be by means of flux at an angle to other layers of flux, as in longitudinal current experiments, or due to shearing of the vortex lattice as in grain boundaries in YBCO. Experiments on longitudinal currents can be interpreted in terms of flux rings penetrating axial lines. More physical models of flux cutting are discussed but all predict much larger flux cutting forces than are observed. Also, cutting is occurring at angles between vortices of about one millidegree which is hard to explain. The double critical state model and its developments are discussed in relation to experiments on crossed and rotating fields. A new experiment suggested by Clem gives more direct information. It shows that an elliptical yield surface of the critical state works well, but none of the theoretical proposals for determining the direction of E are universally applicable. It appears that, as soon as any flux flow takes place, cutting also occurs. The conclusion is that new theories are required. (perspective)

  10. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  11. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  12. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Shawn X., E-mail: xingshan@math.ucsb.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Freedman, Michael H., E-mail: michaelf@microsoft.com [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Microsoft Research, Station Q, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sattath, Or, E-mail: sattath@gmail.com [Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Stong, Richard, E-mail: stong@ccrwest.org; Minton, Greg, E-mail: gtminto@ccrwest.org [Center for Communications Research, La Jolla, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  13. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard; Minton, Greg

    2016-06-01

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  14. Cutting Method of the CAD model of the Nuclear facility for Dismantling Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ikjune; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Jeong, KwanSeong; Kim, GeunHo; Lee, Jonghwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Current methods for process simulation cannot simulate the cutting operation flexibly. As is, to simulate a cutting operation, user needs to prepare the result models of cutting operation based on pre-define cutting path, depth and thickness with respect to a dismantle scenario in advance. And those preparations should be built again as scenario changes. To be, user can change parameters and scenarios dynamically within a simulation configuration process so that the user saves time and efforts to simulate cutting operations. This study presents the methodology of cutting operation which can be applied to all the procedure in the simulation of dismantling of nuclear facilities. We developed the cutting simulation module for cutting operation in the dismantling of the nuclear facilities based on proposed cutting methodology. We defined the requirement of model cutting methodology based on the requirement of the dismantling of nuclear facilities. And we implemented cutting simulation module based on API of the commercial CAD system.

  15. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  16. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M; Thombansen, U

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable. (paper)

  17. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  18. Development of plasma cutting process at observation of environmental requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czech, J.; Matusiak, J.; Pasek-Siurek, H.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma cutting is one of the basic methods for thermal cutting of metals. It is characterized by high productivity and quality of the cut surface. However, the plasma cutting process is one of the most harmful processes for environment and human health. It results from many agents being a potential environmental risk The large amount of dust and gases emitted during the process as well as an intensive radiation of electric arc and excessive noise are considered as the most harmful hazards. The existing ventilation and filtration systems are not able to solve all problems resulting from the process. Plasma cutting under water is worthy of notice, especially during an advancement of plasma cutting process, because of human safety and environment protection. Such a solution allows to reduce considerably the emission of dust and gases, as well as to decrease the noise level and ultraviolet radiation. An additional advantage of underwater plasma cutting is a reduction in the width of material heating zone and a decrease in strains of elements being cut. However, the productivity of this process is a little lower what results in an increase in cutting cost. In the paper, it has been presented the results of the investigations made at the Institute of Welding in Gliwice on the area of plasma cutting equipment with energy-saving inverter power supplies used in automated processes of underwater plasma cutting as well as the results of testing of welding environment contamination and safety hazards. (author)

  19. Underwater plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leautier, R.; Pilot, G.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work done to develop underwater plasma arc cutting techniques, to characterise aerosols from cutting operations on radioactive and non-radioactive work-pieces, and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out in the framework of a contract between CEA-CEN Cadarache and the Commission of European Communities. Furthermore, this work has been carried out in close cooperation with CEA-CEN Saclay mainly for secondary emissions and radioactive analysis. The contract started in May 1986 and was completed in December 1988 by a supplementary agreement. This report has been compiled from several progress reports submitted during the work period, contains the main findings of the work and encloses the results of comparative tests on plasma arc cutting

  20. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  1. Advances in chemical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  2. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Quantum Dynamical Resonances in Ch

  3. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  4. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    of the exhibition is to create a connection between the artistic and technological development through Danish rms and researchers who represent the newest technology in concrete treatment. The rst part exhibition (skin) will focus on the surface treatment of concrete (’graphical concrete’), the second (cut...

  5. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  6. Classroom Cut Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Discovering identity can be a lifelong challenge for some people, while others seem to figure it out right away. During the middle school years, finding one's identity can be a daunting task. Most students will spend a considerable amount of time during these middle years looking for it. This lesson on cut-paper self-portraits lets students delve…

  7. Abrasive water jet cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.; Funnell, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the process of selecting a failed equipment cut-up tool for the process facility modifications (PFM) project, a system using an abrasive water jet (AWJ) was developed and tested for remote disassembly of failed equipment. It is presented in this paper

  8. After the Ribbon Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme A.; Boulot, Emille; Duffield, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Much attention has gone towards ‘up-front’ processes when delivering infrastructure public–private partnerships (PPPs), but less on how to best govern after the ribbon is cut and the infrastructure built. This paper identifies the primary contractual and institutional governance challenges arising...

  9. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  10. Calculating the Contribution Rate of Intelligent Transportation System in Improving Urban Traffic Smooth Based on Advanced DID Model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-wei; Yun, Jun; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of intelligent transportation system around the world, which helps to relieve urban traffic congestion problems. For instance, many mega-cities in China have devoted a large amount of money and resources to the development of intelligent transportation system. This poses an intriguing and important issue: how to measure and quantify the contribution of intelligent transportation system to the urban city, which is still a puzzle. This paper pro...

  11. Recent advances in hazardous materials transportation research: an international exchange. State-of-the-art Report 3, addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, P.; Geysen, W.J.; Tomachevsky, E.G.; Ringot, C.; Pages, P.

    1986-01-01

    The 4 papers in the report deal with the following areas: the transport of non-nuclear toxic and dangerous wastes in the United Kingdom; the transport system of dangerous products as a risk factor for the future: the computer-aided information program on hazardous materials; a validation study of the INTERTRAN model for assessing risks of transportation accidents: road transport of uranium hexafluoride; modifying the regulation for small radioactive package transit through the Mont Blanc tunnel-assessment of the health and economic impact

  12. Advances in the Synthesis of Small Molecules as Hole Transport Materials for Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Seco, Cristina; Cabau, Lydia; Vidal-Ferran, Anton; Palomares, Emilio

    2018-04-17

    Over hundreds of new organic semiconductor molecules have been synthesized as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. However, to date, the well-known N 2 , N 2 , N 2' , N 2' , N 7 , N 7 , N 7' , octakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi-[9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2',7,7'-tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD) is still the best choice for the best perovskite device performance. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that spiro-OMeTAD by itself is not stable enough for long-term stable devices, and its market price makes its use in large-scale production costly. Novel synthetic routes for new HTMs have to be sought that can be carried out in fewer synthetic steps and can be easily scaled up for commercial purposes. On the one hand, synthetic chemists have taken, as a first approach, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels of the spiro-OMeTAD molecule as a reference to synthesize molecules with similar energy levels, although these HOMO and LUMO energy levels often have been measured indirectly in solution using cyclic voltammetry. On the other hand, the "spiro" chemical core has also been studied as a structural motif for novel HTMs. However, only a few molecules incorporated as HTMs in complete functional perovskite solar cells have been capable of matching the performance of the best-performing perovskite solar cells made using spiro-OMeTAD. In this Account, we describe the advances in the synthesis of HTMs that have been tested in perovskite solar cells. The comparison of solar cell efficiencies is of course very challenging because the solar cell preparation conditions may differ from laboratory to laboratory. To extract valuable information about the HTM molecular structure-device function relationship, we describe those examples that always have used spiro-OMeTAD as a control device and have always used identical experimental conditions (e.g., the use of the same chemical dopant for the HTM or

  13. The advanced launch system: Application of total quality management principles to low-cost space transportation system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, M. G.; Rothwell, T. G.; Rosenberg, D. A.; Oliver, M. B.

    Recognizing that a major inhibitor of man's rapid expansion of the use of space is the high cost (direct and induced) of space transportation, the U.S. has embarked on a major national program to radically reduce the cost of placing payloads into orbit while, at the same time, making equally radical improvements inlaunch system operability. The program is entitled "The Advanced Launch System" (ALS) and is a joint Department of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (DoD/NASA) program which will provide launch capability in the post 2000 timeframe. It is currently in Phase II (System Definition), which began in January 1989, and will serve as a major source of U.S. launch system technology over the next several years. The ALS is characterized by a new approach to space system design, development, and operation. The practices that are being implemented by the ALS are expected to affect the management and technical operation of all future launch systems. In this regard, the two most significant initiatives being implemented on the ALS program are the practices of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the Unified Information System (Unis). TQM is a DoD initiative to improve the quality of the DoD acquisition system, contractor management systems, and the technical disciplines associated with the design, development, and operation of major systems. TQM has been mandated for all new programs and affects the way every group within the system currently does business. In order to implement the practices of TQM, new methods are needed. A program on the scale of the ALS generates vast amounts of information which must be used effectively to make sound decisions. Unis is an information network that will connect all ALS participants throughout all phases of the ALS development. Unis is providing support for project management and system design, and in following phases will provide decision support for launch operations, computer integrated manufacturing, automated

  14. Advanced reactors and novel reactions for the conversion of triglyceride based oils into high quality renewable transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Michael James

    Sustainable energy continues to grow more important to all societies, leading to the research and development of a variety of alternative and renewable energy technologies. Of these, renewable liquid transportation fuels may be the most visible to consumers, and this visibility is further magnified by the long-term trend of increasingly expensive petroleum fuels that the public consumes. While first-generation biofuels such as biodiesel and fuel ethanol have been integrated into the existing fuel infrastructures of several countries, the chemical differences between them and their petroleum counterparts reduce their effectiveness. This gives rise to the development and commercialization of second generation biofuels, many of which are intended to have equivalent properties to those of their petroleum counterparts. In this dissertation, the primary reactions for a second-generation biofuel process, known herein as the University of North Dakota noncatalytic cracking process (NCP), have been studied at the fundamental level and improved. The NCP is capable of producing renewable fuels and chemicals that are virtually the same as their petroleum counterparts in performance and quality (i.e., petroleum-equivalent). In addition, a novel analytical method, FIMSDIST was developed which, within certain limitations, can increase the elution capabilities of GC analysis and decrease sample processing times compared to other high resolution methods. These advances are particularly useful for studies of highly heterogeneous fuel and/or organic chemical intermediates, such as those studied for the NCP. However the data from FIMSDIST must be supplemented with data from other methods such as for certain carboxylic acid, to provide accurate, comprehensive results, From a series of TAG cracking experiments that were performed, it was found that coke formation during cracking is most likely the result of excessive temperature and/or residence time in a cracking reactor. Based on this

  15. Core Cutting Test with Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Osman Yilmaz, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Roadheaders are frequently used machines in mining and tunnelling, and performance prediction of roadheaders is important for project economics and stability. Several methods were proposed so far for this purpose and, rock cutting tests are the best choice. Rock cutting tests are generally divided into two groups which are namely, full scale rock cutting tests and small scale rock cutting tests. These two tests have some superiorities and deficiencies over themselves. However, in many cases, where rock sampling becomes problematic, small scale rock cutting test (core cutting test) is preferred for performance prediction, since small block samples and core samples can be conducted to rock cutting testing. Common problem for rock cutting tests are that they can be found in very limited research centres. In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing equipment, vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) was introduced. Standard testing procedure was conducted on seven rock samples which were the part of a former study on cutting rocks with another small scale rock cutting test. Results showed that core cutting test can be realized successfully with VRCR with the validation of paired samples t-test.

  16. Some possibilities for determining cutting data when using laser cutting:

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    The technological problems faced in the field of the application of laser-cutting machines lie in insufficient knowledge of the laser technique and the absence of both sufficiently reliable practical data and knowledge about the parameters affecting the work process itself. A significant parameter that is necessary to determine and to enter in an NC-program is the cutting speed. Various authors analyze the laser-cutting process and give mathematical models where laser cutting is modeled by us...

  17. Cutting to the chase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reports on the development of the cost effective abrasive cutting Sabre system which came as a result of UWG's work on the decommissioning of the Phillips' Maureen wells and adds to UWG's 'total severance solution' tools. The advantages of the system are highlighted and include the ability to operate from a platform or diving support vessel, to cut internal cases, and to eliminate the use of environmentally damaging explosives and the need to operate from a rig. The new Mark II version of the Sabre designed to work at greater depths of water, the range of the severance tools, UWG's well abandonment hole assembly system, and its aim to enter the Gulf of Mexico market are discussed. Details are given of the decommissioning of the Schwedeneck-See platforms in Kiel Bay off Germany and the Phillips' UK decommissioning plans for the Maureen platform

  18. Making the cut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcshannon, G. [Hydra Mining Tools International Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    The paper explains how coal mines around the world can benefit from the use of cowless, radial shearer drums. Hydra Mining has designed and manufactured a range of shearer drums to combat problems ranging from dust, frictional ignitions, geological problems or low production rates. This allows the mine operator to maximise production efficiency. The company tailor-makes shearer drums for each longwall face to optimise the cutting performance of every installation. 8 figs.

  19. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  20. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  1. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.

    2015-03-01

    Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  2. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  3. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nedic; Milan Eric; Marijana Aleksijevic

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, compar...

  4. Remote Laser Cutting of CFRP: Improvements in the Cut Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Johannes; Zaeh, Michael F.; Conrad, Markus

    In the automotive industry carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are considered as a future key material to reduce the weight of the vehicle. Therefore, capable production techniques are required to process this material in mass industry. E.g., state of the art methods for cutting are limited by the high tool wear or the feasible feed rate. Laser cutting processes are still under investigation. This paper presents detailed new studies on remote laser cutting of CFRP focusing on the influence of the material properties and the quality of the cut surface. By adding light absorbing soot particles to the resin of the matrix, the cutting process is improved and fewer defects emerge.

  5. The intelligent transportation aystems public safety program : opportunities for technological advancement in detecting, responding and recovering from community emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report is the third in a series produced for the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center). This formal, comprehensive review of the plan...

  6. Cutting agents for special metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugito, Seiji; Sakakibara, Fumi

    1979-01-01

    The quantity of use of special metals has increased year after year in the Plasma Research Institute, Nagoya University, with the development of researches on plasma and nuclear fusion. Most of these special metals are hard to cut, and in order to secure the surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy, considerable efforts are required. The method of experiment is as follows: cutting agents salt water and acetone, rape-seed oil, sulfide and chloride oil and water soluble cutting oil W grade 3; metals to be cut niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium and tungsten; cutting conditions cutting speed 4.7 to 90 m/min, feed 0.07 to 0.2 mm/rev, depth of cut 0.1 to 0.4 mm, tool cemented carbide bit. Chemicals such as tetrachloromethane and trichloroethane give excellent cutting performance, but the toxicity is intense and the stimulative odor exists, accordingly they are hard to use practically. Cutting was easier when the salt water added with acetone was used than the case of rape-seed oil, but salt water is corrosive. Recently, the machining of molybdenum has been often carried out, and the water soluble cutting oil was the best. It is also good for cutting stainless steel, and its lubricating property is improved by adding some additives such as sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus and molybdenum disulfide. However after cutting with it, washing is required. (Kako, I.)

  7. Aviation security : TSA is increasing procurement and deployment of the advanced imaging technology, but challenges to this effort and other areas of aviation security remain : testimony before the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    The attempted bombing of Northwest flight 253 highlighted the importance of detecting improvised explosive devices on passengers. This testimony focuses on (1) the Transportation Security Administrations (TSA) efforts to procure and deploy advance...

  8. Evaluation plan : national advanced rural transportation systems : field operational tests of traveler information services in tourism areas : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This evaluation addresses technical challenges of developing advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) in rural environments, institutional benefits and issues, usefulness of the information to the traveling public, effectiveness of various media ...

  9. Effect of Moisture Content of Paper Material on Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser technology has been used in industrial processes for several decades. The most advanced development and implementation took place in laser welding and cutting of metals in automotive and ship building industries. However, there is high potential to apply laser processing to other materials in various industrial fields. One of these potential fields could be paper industry to fulfill the demand for high quality, fast and reliable cutting technology. Difficulties in industrial application of laser cutting for paper industry are associated to lack of basic information, awareness of technology and its application possibilities. Nowadays possibilities of using laser cutting for paper materials are widened and high automation level of equipment has made this technology more interesting for manufacturing processes. Promising area of laser cutting application at paper making machines is longitudinal cutting of paper web (edge trimming). There are few locations at a paper making machine where edge trimming is usually done: wet press section, calender or rewinder. Paper web is characterized with different moisture content at different points of the paper making machine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content of paper material on laser cutting parameters. Effect of moisture content on cellulose fibers, laser absorption and energy needed for cutting is described as well. Laser cutting tests were carried out using CO2 laser.

  10. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; hide

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  11. Can You Cut It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Tina; Lillelund, Christoffer Bredo; Moth-Poulsen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    The advent of affordable virtual reality (VR) displays and 360◦ video cameras has sparked an interest in bringing cinematic experiences from the screen and into VR. However, it remains uncertain whether traditional approaches to filmmaking can be directly applied to cinematic VR. Historically......’ sense of disorientation and their ability to follow the story, during exposure to fictional 360◦ films experienced using a head-mounted display. The results revealed no effects of increased cut frequency which leads us to conclude that editing need not pose a problem in relation to cinematic VR, as long...

  12. Cutting the Cord-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  13. Cutting the Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  14. Proceedings of the Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium. Advances of electric drive in urban transportation systems; Actes du colloque Prop'Elec 2000. Progres de la traction electrique dans les transports urbains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium on the advances in electric power drive in urban transportation systems. The colloquium comprises 5 sessions dealing with: 1 - public collective electric-powered transportation system: synthesis of urban guided systems (C. Soulas, INRETS), the fast travelator (A. Cote, RATP), the power supply system of METEOR automatic underground railway (P. Lagrange, W. Seiler, RATP); 2 - electrical drive in urban transportation systems: start-up of a thermal engine with super-capacitors (D. Bouquain (CREEBEL), H. Gualous, A. Djerdir, A. Berthon, J.M. Kauffmann (L2ES, IGE)), The LEV (light weight electric vehicle) project in Mendrisio (U. Schwegler, LEV/Suisse), prototype of electrical bike that use a wheel-engine (C. Espanet, F. Gustin, J.M. Kauffmann (IGE), S. Robert, M. Karmous (EICN)), TWIL: a new generation of small electrical bikes (E. Escallot, T. Bontems (EPMI)), thermal and magnetic analysis of a rectilinear movement actuator (J.C. Vannier, M. Kadiri (SUPELEC)), torque undulation and vibrations in automobile electrical drives (A.L. Bui-Van (Renault), A. Fonseca (LEG)); 3 - collective electric-powered transportation systems: STARS: autonomous transportation system with flywheel charging at the station (P. Gibard (Alstom Transport), K. Abuda, J.M. Vinassa (IXL Bordeaux)), Translhor tramway: presentation of the drive system (L. Verdier, LHOR); 4 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: batteries for electric-powered vehicles (J.F. Fauvarque, CNAM), Li-ion batteries and their application in automotive industry (T. Faugeras, SAFT), optimized drive systems for electric-powered vehicles (J. Saint-Michel, Leroy Somer), the Citroen Xsara Dynactive (S. Derou, PSA), 5 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: the electrical car in tomorrows' city (M. Parent, INRIA), the market of electric-powered vehicles in France and Europe (M. Valet, PSA). (J.S.)

  15. Proceedings of the Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium. Advances of electric drive in urban transportation systems; Actes du colloque Prop'Elec 2000. Progres de la traction electrique dans les transports urbains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium on the advances in electric power drive in urban transportation systems. The colloquium comprises 5 sessions dealing with: 1 - public collective electric-powered transportation system: synthesis of urban guided systems (C. Soulas, INRETS), the fast travelator (A. Cote, RATP), the power supply system of METEOR automatic underground railway (P. Lagrange, W. Seiler, RATP); 2 - electrical drive in urban transportation systems: start-up of a thermal engine with super-capacitors (D. Bouquain (CREEBEL), H. Gualous, A. Djerdir, A. Berthon, J.M. Kauffmann (L2ES, IGE)), The LEV (light weight electric vehicle) project in Mendrisio (U. Schwegler, LEV/Suisse), prototype of electrical bike that use a wheel-engine (C. Espanet, F. Gustin, J.M. Kauffmann (IGE), S. Robert, M. Karmous (EICN)), TWIL: a new generation of small electrical bikes (E. Escallot, T. Bontems (EPMI)), thermal and magnetic analysis of a rectilinear movement actuator (J.C. Vannier, M. Kadiri (SUPELEC)), torque undulation and vibrations in automobile electrical drives (A.L. Bui-Van (Renault), A. Fonseca (LEG)); 3 - collective electric-powered transportation systems: STARS: autonomous transportation system with flywheel charging at the station (P. Gibard (Alstom Transport), K. Abuda, J.M. Vinassa (IXL Bordeaux)), Translhor tramway: presentation of the drive system (L. Verdier, LHOR); 4 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: batteries for electric-powered vehicles (J.F. Fauvarque, CNAM), Li-ion batteries and their application in automotive industry (T. Faugeras, SAFT), optimized drive systems for electric-powered vehicles (J. Saint-Michel, Leroy Somer), the Citroen Xsara Dynactive (S. Derou, PSA), 5 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: the electrical car in tomorrows' city (M. Parent, INRIA), the market of electric-powered vehicles in France and Europe (M. Valet, PSA). (J.S.)

  16. Processes and xylem anatomical properties involved in rehydration dynamics of cut flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Ieperen, van W.; Nijsse, J.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; As, van H.; Keijzer, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    In cut flowers, which are harvested in air and transported dry, all cut xylem vessels in the basal part of the stem contain air instead of water. These air-emboli initially block water transport at the start of vase life, but usually (partly) disappear during the first hours of vase life, resulting

  17. High-performance thermal cutting techniques for underwater use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.W.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years, the Institute for Materials Research of the University of Hanover developed a new product family (Contact-Arc-Metal-X) of electrothermal techniques for underwater cutting of metal structures. This CAMX technology comprises contact arc metal cutting by means of a sword-shaped electrode, contact arc metal grinding with a rotating electrode, and contact arc metal drilling with an integrated interlocking mechanism. CAMC is characterized by its capability to cut components with complex structures. Undercuts and cavities constitute no obstacles in the process. CAMG is a technique for straight cutting characterized by its high cutting speeds. CAMD is able to produce countersunk boreholes and holes of any geometry. The integrated tensioning mechanism allows parts to be gripped and transported which could not be handled by conventional gripper systems. (orig.) [de

  18. Leptogenesis: The other cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    For standard leptogenesis from the decay of singlet right-handed neutrinos, we derive source terms for the lepton asymmetry that are present in a finite density background but absent in the vacuum. These arise from cuts through the vertex correction to the decay asymmetry, where in the loop either the Higgs boson and the right-handed neutrino or the left-handed lepton and the right-handed neutrino are simultaneously on-shell. We evaluate the source terms numerically and use them to calculate the lepton asymmetry for illustrative points in parameter space, where we consider only two right-handed neutrinos for simplicity. Compared to calculations where only the standard cut through the propagators of left-handed lepton and Higgs boson is included, sizable corrections arise when the masses of the right-handed neutrinos are of the same order, but the new sources are found to be most relevant when the decaying right-handed neutrino is heavier than the one in the loop. In that situation, they can yield the dominant contribution to the lepton asymmetry.

  19. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  20. Continuity and Change: Dealing with Political Volatility to Advance Climate Change Mitigation Strategies—Examples from the Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the recent withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement has shown, political volatility directly affects climate change mitigation policies, in particular in sectors, such as transport associated with long-term investments by individuals (vehicles and by local and national governments (urban form and transport infrastructure and services. There is a large potential for cost-effective solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the sustainability of the transport sector that is yet unexploited. Considering the cost-effectiveness and the potential for co-benefits, it is hard to understand why efficiency gains and CO2 emission reductions in the transport sector are still lagging behind this potential. Particularly interesting is the fact that there is substantial difference among countries with relatively similar economic performances in the development of their transport CO2 emissions over the past thirty years despite the fact that these countries had relatively similar access to efficient technologies and vehicles. This study aims to explore some well-established political science theories on the particular example of climate change mitigation in the transport sector in order to identify some of the factors that could help explain the variations in success of policies and strategies in this sector. The analysis suggests that institutional arrangements that contribute to consensus building in the political process provide a high level of political and policy stability which is vital to long-term changes in energy end-use sectors that rely on long-term investments. However, there is no direct correlation between institutional structures, e.g., corporatism and success in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. Environmental objectives need to be built into the consensus-based policy structure before actual policy progress can be observed. This usually takes longer in consensus democracies than in

  1. Neoclassical transport in stellarators - a comparison of conventional stellarator/torsatrons with the advanced stellarator, Wendelstein 7X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1991-01-01

    A general expression for the magnitude of a stellarator's magnetic field, in terms of a Fourier decomposition, is too complicated to lend itself easily to analytic transport calculations. The great majority of stellarator-type devices, however, may be accurately described if one retains only those harmonics with m=0 and m=1. In the long-mean-free-path regime an analytical approximation to the particle's bounce-averaged kinetic equation can then be found. Using a numerical solution of this equation, it is possible to calculate the particle and heat fluxes due to helical-ripple transport in stellarators throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime. 3 figs.

  2. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  3. Assessment of abrasiveness for research of rock cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Labaš

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rock abrasiveness is ability of rock to wear down the working tool during the mutual interaction between the working indentorand the rock in the mechanical rock cutting process. The cutting indentor is worn down during the interaction, which changes itsgeometric dimensions causing the enlargement of a contact area between the tool and the rock surface. The changes in these dimensionsconsequently alter the rate of advance of the drilling machine and the specific cutting energy. We have determined the abrasivenessaccording to the norm ON 44 1121 (1982 on the testing device constructed at the Institute of Geotechnics SAS.

  4. Tool path strategy and cutting process monitoring in intelligent machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Chengdong; An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    Intelligent machining is a current focus in advanced manufacturing technology, and is characterized by high accuracy and efficiency. A central technology of intelligent machining—the cutting process online monitoring and optimization—is urgently needed for mass production. In this research, the cutting process online monitoring and optimization in jet engine impeller machining, cranio-maxillofacial surgery, and hydraulic servo valve deburring are introduced as examples of intelligent machining. Results show that intelligent tool path optimization and cutting process online monitoring are efficient techniques for improving the efficiency, quality, and reliability of machining.

  5. Calculating the Contribution Rate of Intelligent Transportation System in Improving Urban Traffic Smooth Based on Advanced DID Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of intelligent transportation system around the world, which helps to relieve urban traffic congestion problems. For instance, many mega-cities in China have devoted a large amount of money and resources to the development of intelligent transportation system. This poses an intriguing and important issue: how to measure and quantify the contribution of intelligent transportation system to the urban city, which is still a puzzle. This paper proposes a matching difference-in-difference model to calculate the contribution rate of intelligent transportation system on traffic smoothness. Within the model, the main effect indicators of traffic smoothness are first identified, and then the evaluation index system is built, and finally the ideas of the matching pool are introduced. The proposed model is illustrated in Guangzhou, China (capital city of Guangdong province. The results show that introduction of ITS contributes 9.25% to the improvement of traffic smooth in Guangzhou. Also, the research explains the working mechanism of how ITS improves urban traffic smooth. Eventually, some strategy recommendations are put forward to improve urban traffic smooth.

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on International Summer School on Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, P; Métens, S; Neishtadt, A; Zaslavsky, G; Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    2005-01-01

    This book offers a modern updated review on the most important activities in today dynamical systems and statistical mechanics by some of the best experts in the domain. It gives a contemporary and pedagogical view on theories of classical and quantum chaos and complexity in hamiltonian and ergodic systems and their applications to anomalous transport in fluids, plasmas, oceans and atom-optic devices and to control of chaotic transport. The book is issued from lecture notes of the International Summer School on "Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems" held in Cargèse (Corsica) 18th to the 30th August 2003. It reflects the spirit of the School to provide lectures at the post-doctoral level on basic concepts and tools. The first part concerns ergodicity and mixing, complexity and entropy functions, SRB measures, fractal dimensions and bifurcations in hamiltonian systems. Then, models of dynamical evolutions of transport processes in classical and quantum systems have been largely expla...

  7. 77 FR 34194 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste AGENCY: Nuclear... fuel and certain nuclear wastes for any shipment that passes within or across their reservations. The... irradiated reactor fuel and certain nuclear waste passing through or across the boundary of their States...

  8. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...... is discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  9. Aerodynamic Interactions During Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieret, J.; Terry, M. J.; Ward, B. A.

    1986-11-01

    Most laser cutting systems utilise a gas jet to remove molten or vaporised material from the kerf. The speed, economy and quality of the cut can be strongly dependent on the aerodynamic conditions created by the nozzle, workpiece proximity and kerf shape. Adverse conditions can be established that may lead to an unwelcome lack of reproducibility of cut quality. Relatively low gas nozzle pressures can result in supersonic flow in the jet with its associated shock fronts. When the nozzle is placed at conventional distances (1-2mm) above the workpiece, the force exerted by the gas on the workpiece and the cut products (the cutting pressure) can be significantly less than the nozzle pressure. Higher cutting pressures can be achieved by increasing the height of the nozzle above the workpiece, to a more damage resistant zone, provided that the shock structure of the jet is taken into account. Conventional conical nozzles with circular exits can be operated with conditions that will result in cutting pressures up to 3 Bar (g) in the more distant zone. At higher pressures in circular tipped nozzles the cutting pressure in this zone decays to inadequate levels. Investigations of a large number of non-circular nozzle tip shapes have resulted in the selection of a few specific shapes that can provide cutting pressures in excess of 6 Bar(g) at distances of 4 to 7mm from the nozzle tip. Since there is a strong correlation between cutting pressure and the speed and quality of laser cutting, the paper describes the aerodynamic requirements for achieving the above effects and reports the cutting results arising from the different nozzle designs and conditions. The results of the work of other investigators, who report anomalous laser cutting results, will be examined and reviewed in the light of the above work.

  10. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    projects - among others - from ARC are included: Soft Structures builds upon of a series of experimental use of EPS hot wire cutting, where the EPS eventually act as formwork for concrete casting. The processing of the EPS is distinct and delimited by the behaviour and form of both the robot and tool...... of steel and concrete makes it a reliable approach to many challenges in the realisation of buildings. Rebar Inside Out attempts to rethink the possibilities of the reinforced concrete composite starting from its inside. This means starting with the reinforcing steel, the production and shaping of this......, and then through that process build a workflow for the production of the concrete composite. It also means letting the steel out of the concrete, thereby positioning the two materials in a transnational relationship between steel construction and concrete composite....

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  12. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft. Phase 1: Engineering development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ary, A.; Axtell, C.; Fogg, L.; Jackson, A.; James, A. M.; Mosesian, B.; Vanderwier, J.; Vanhamersveld, J.

    1976-01-01

    The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes the front and rear spars. Various design options were evaluated to arrive at a configuration which would offer the highest potential for satisfying program objectives. The preferred configuration selected consists of a hat-stiffened cover with molded integrally stiffened spars, aluminum trussed composite ribs, and composite miniwich web ribs with integrally molded caps. Material screening tests were performed to select an advanced composite material system for the Advanced Composite Vertical Fin (ACFV) that would meet the program requirements from the standpoint of quality, reproducibility, and cost. Preliminary weight and cost analysis were made, targets established, and tracking plans developed. These include FAA certification, ancillary test program, quality control, and structural integrity control plans.

  13. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  14. Laser Cutting of Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÇAVDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting

  15. Latest development of laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzig, Andreas; Herwig, Patrick; Hauptmann, Jan; Goppold, Cindy; Baumann, Robert; Fürst, Andreas; Rose, Michael; Pinder, Thomas; Mahrle, Achim; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting was one of the first applications of laser material processing. Today, laser cutting is the most widespread application among laser material processing besides laser marking. Meanwhile, nearly each material can be cut by means of a laser, in particular since ultra short pulse lasers are available in the power range of up to 100 W. The to be cut material can come with thicknesses from a few microns till tens of millimeters as flat stock or as free form shapes. The paper will conc...

  16. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  17. The use of advanced communications and internet technology in car transportation to facilitate improvements for both driver and passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Saftah, Rehab Omar

    2015-01-01

    People love and at the same time need to travel. The society grows and develops based on a distributed environment, and the people’s ability to move freely from one place to another is fundamental to keep it functional. Along with trains and commercial trucks for moving goods and materials, the car gives individuals the virtually unlimited ability to travel anywhere in the country in just a matter of hours or days. This thesis focuses on the usage of advanced communications internet techno...

  18. Effect of ABT + S3307 on sugar metabolism and adventitious root in cuttings of Dendrocalamus spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Ling; Liang Guangjian; Li Ling

    2003-01-01

    Application of ABT + S3307 to the cuttings of Dendrocalamus spp. promoted the sucrase activity. The contents of sucrose and starch in the cuttings based and the first node were decreased. Compared with the control, the content of reducing sugar was increased obviously in the cutting based. The transportation of 3 H-glucose from labeled site to the base in treated cuttings was increased with the adventitious root formation. At the same time, the contents of structural substance in the cuttings based and the adventitious root were raised. The high content of carbohydrate and reducing activity in the adventitious root were available for growth of the roots

  19. A cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdas, C.; Dominiak, M.; Kozinski, R.; Misterkiewicz, B.; Polowniak, J.; Szczepaniak, S.

    1982-06-30

    The cutting fluid (SOZh) contains 0.5 to 10 percent vegetable or animal fats, selectively sulfurized in the presence of a catalyst (Kt): 0.1 to 10 percent chlorinated C2O to C3O paraffins, which contain 10 to 50 percent Chlorine in a molecule, and 0.001 to 0.5 percent dialkyldithiocarbamic or alkylen-bis-(dithiocarbamic) acids or their salts or derivatives of the form (R(R')NC(S)SRn'', (CH2)n(NHC(S)S)2R'' or R(R')NC(S)SnC(S)(R)R', where R and R' are alkyl or cycloalkyl of the C1 to C6 fractions, R'' is Hydrogen, a metal, or aliphatic or heterocyclic amine, n = 2 to 6 and 0.001 to 0.3 percent of heterocyclic mercaptanes or disulfides of the cited formula, where A is Nitrogen or Sulfur, and up to 100 percent petroleum oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 50 square millimeters per second at 323K.

  20. The Gesso Cut for Printmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Perry; Sarvis, Alva

    1969-01-01

    Directions are given for the preparation, cutting, and printing of a gesso board. A gesso cut is defined as a board coated with gesso into which a design has been impressed. The process is similar to the woodcut, but offers greater textural possibilities. (BF)

  1. Shearer drums - the cutting edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, M.; Wright, C.

    2004-09-15

    The paper discusses continuous miner and shearer cutters. It claims cutting drum require the same level of engineering know-how and technical expertise as do the machines driving them, and that the cutting drum, whether on a longwall shearer or continuous miner, comprises, the steel, pedestals, bit holders and the bits.

  2. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif; Arsalan, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground

  3. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  4. Cutting method and device underwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Genta; Kamei, Hiromasa; Beppu, Seiji

    1998-01-01

    A place of material to be cut is surrounded by an openable/closable box. The material to be cut is cut underwater, and materials generated in this case are removed from the cut portion by a pressurized water jet. The removed materials are sucked and recovered together with water in the box. Among the materials caused by the cutting underwater, solid materials not floating on water are caused to stay in the midway of a sucking and recovering channel. A large sucking force might be required for the entire region of the sucking and recovering channel when sucking and recovering large sized solid materials not floating on water, but even large sized materials can be recovered easily according to the present invention since they are recovered after being sucked and stayed in the midway of the sucking and recovering channel. (N.H.)

  5. Cutting concrete with abrasion jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fluidyne Corporation has developed a unique process and apparatus that allow selected abrasives to be introduced into high-speed waterjet to produce abrasive-entrained waterjet that has high material-cutting capabilities, which is termed by Fluidyne as the Abrasion Jet. Such Abrasion Jet has demonstrated capability in cutting hard rock and concrete at a modest pressure of less than 1360 bars (20,000 psi) and a power input of less than 45 kW (60 horsepower). Abrasion Jet cutting of concrete is characterized by its high rate of cutting, flexible operation, good cut quality, and relatively low costs. This paper presents a general description of this technology together with discussions of recent test results and how it could be applied to nuclear decontamination and decommissioning work. 8 references

  6. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  7. Laser cutting system in bridge fabricating line; Kyoryo seisaku line ni okeru laser no setsudan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaguchi, Y.; Yokotani, K. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes the laser cutting system established at a new advanced plant that was constructed by Hitachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd. in 1993. At the plant, the cutting line consists of four NC cutting lines: the plasma cutting machine, gas cutting machine, frame planer, and laser cutting machine. The laser cutting machine is used to cut complex shapes of relatively thin (6 - 16 mm) materials with high accuracy. The machine consists of a 3 kW CO2 laser oscillator mounted gantry type NC cutter and a slat conveyor of about 30 m long, with the maximum cutting width of 3.6 m. The NC cutting machine is provided with the automatic printing function using NC data, marking function, scheduled operation function, steel plate detector, and coordinate rotation function, etc. These functions enable unattended operation of the machine to cut multiple materials. This NC laser cutting line has the same performance data collection function for data during the operating time as other production lines. Therefore, the NC laser cutting line can be subjected to the realtime centralized control together with the other lines. All these technologies have provided high accuracy and efficiency for production as well as an environment in which many female operators can successfully work. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Ethanol as a fuel for road transportation. Main report; Contribution to IEA Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. In discussions of the advantages and drawbacks of ethanol, the type of application is important. Generalization is not possible, because ethanol can be used in many forms. Furthermore, a wide range of ethanol/gasoline blends has not yet been investigated sufficiently. The most favorable type of application is determined by infrastructural factors, especially vehicle fleet configuration. From a technical point of view, optimal usage involves a high degree of water content in the ethanol, and this excludes low-percentage-ethanol fuels. The benefits seem strongly related to the amount of ethanol in a given blend, that is, the more the better. Both engine efficiencies and emissions improve with more ethanol in the fuel. Wet ethanol constitutes an even cleaner fuel in both the production and application phases. In summary, ethanol application has many possibilities, but with each type of application comes a set of challenges. Nevertheless, technical solutions for each challenge are available. (ln)

  9. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-08-26

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3-4 compared to those with 0-2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target.

  10. Novel fungal disease in complex leaf-cutting ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Evans, Harry C.; Hywel-Jones, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    1. The leaf-cutting ants practise an advanced system of mycophagy where they grow a fungus as a food source. As a consequence of parasite threats to their crops, they have evolved a system of morphological, behavioural, and chemical defences, particularly against fungal pathogens (mycopathogens). 2....... Specific fungal diseases of the leaf-cutting ants themselves have not been described, possibly because broad spectrum anti-fungal defences against mycopathogens have reduced their susceptibility to entomopathogens. 3. Using morphological and molecular tools, the present study documents three rare infection...... events of Acromyrmex and Atta leaf-cutting ants by Ophiocordyceps fungi, agenus of entomopathogens that is normally highly specific in its host choice. 4. As leaf-cutting ants have been intensively studied, the absence of prior records of Ophiocordyceps suggests that these infections may be a novel event...

  11. Recent Advances in Understanding Flow Dynamics and Transport of Water-Quality Constituents in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Schoellhamer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art1This paper, part of the collection of research comprising the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, describes advances during the past decade in understanding flow dynamics and how water-quality constituents move within California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta (Delta. Water-quality constituents include salinity, heat, oxygen, nutrients, contaminants, organic particles, and inorganic particles. These constituents are affected by water diversions and other human manipulations of flow, and they greatly affect the quantity and quality of benthic, pelagic, and intertidal habitat in the Delta. The Pacific Ocean, the Central Valley watershed, human intervention, the atmosphere, and internal biogeochemical processes are all drivers of flow and transport in the Delta. These drivers provide a conceptual framework for presenting recent findings. The tremendous expansion of acoustic and optical instruments deployed in the Delta over the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of how tidal variability affects flow and transport. Sediment is increasingly viewed as a diminishing resource needed to sustain pelagic habitat and tidal marsh, especially as sea level rises. Connections among the watershed, Delta, and San Francisco Bay that have been quantified recently highlight that a landscape view of this system is needed, rather than consideration of each region in isolation. We discuss interactions of multiple drivers and information gaps.

  12. Leaf processing behaviour in Atta leafcutter ants: 90% of leaf cutting takes place inside the nest, and ants select pieces that require less cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Ryan W; Carlson, Katherine A; Goggans, Matthew Scott; Nesson, Michael H; Shepard, Christopher A; Schofield, Robert M S

    2016-01-01

    Leafcutter ants cut trimmings from plants, carry them to their underground nests and cut them into smaller pieces before inoculating them with a fungus that serves as a primary food source for the colony. Cutting is energetically costly, so the amount of cutting is important in understanding foraging energetics. Estimates of the cutting density, metres of cutting per square metre of leaf, were made from samples of transported leaf cuttings and of fungal substrate from field colonies of Atta cephalotes and Atta colombica. To investigate cutting inside the nest, we made leaf-processing observations of our laboratory colony, A. cephalotes. We did not observe the commonly reported reduction of the leaf fragments into a pulp, which would greatly increase the energy cost of processing. Video clips of processing behaviours, including behaviours that have not previously been described, are linked. An estimated 2.9 (±0.3) km of cutting with mandibles was required to reduce a square metre of leaf to fungal substrate. Only about 12% (±1%) of this cutting took place outside of the nest. The cutting density and energy cost is lower for leaf material with higher ratios of perimeter to area, so we tested for, and found that the laboratory ants had a preference for leaves that were pre-cut into smaller pieces. Estimates suggest that the energy required to transport and cut up the leaf material is comparable to the metabolic energy available from the fungus grown on the leaves, and so conservation of energy is likely to be a particularly strong selective pressure for leafcutter ants.

  13. Impact of Video Laryngoscopy on Advanced Airway Management by Critical Care Transport Paramedics and Nurses Using the CMAC Pocket Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Bradley; Choate, Michael; Hurwitz, Shelley; Tilney, Peter V R; Judge, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Accurate endotracheal intubation for patients in extremis or at risk of physiologic decompensation is the gold standard for emergency medicine. Field intubation is a complex process and time to intubation, number of attempts, and hypoxia have all been shown to correlate with increases in morbidity and mortality. Expanding laryngoscope technology which incorporates active video, in addition to direct laryngoscopy, offers providers improved and varied tools to employ in management of the advanced airway. Over a nine-year period a helicopter emergency medical services team, comprised of a flight paramedic and flight nurse, intended to intubate 790 patients. Comparative data analysis was performed and demonstrated that the introduction of the CMAC video laryngoscope improved nearly every measure of success in airway management. Overall intubation success increased from 94.9% to 99.0%, first pass success rates increased from 75.4% to 94.9%, combined first and second pass success rates increased from 89.2% to 97.4%, and mean number of intubation attempts decreased from 1.33 to 1.08.

  14. Regge cuts in inclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, F.E.; Trueman, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of Regge cuts to single-particle inclusive processes is analyzed using the techniques of Gribov. The dependence of these contributions on the polarization state of the target is emphasized. A general formula is obtained and certain contributions to it are calculated. It is not possible, however, to reduce this to a simple, powerful formula expressing the total cut contribution in terms of other measurable quantities, as can be done for the cut contribution to the total cross section. The reasons for this are discussed in detail. The single-particle intermediate states, analogous to the absorption model for elastic scattering, are explicitly calculated as an illustration

  15. Laser cutting of Kevlar laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanCleave, R.A.

    1977-09-01

    An investigation has been conducted of the use of laser energy for cutting contours, diameters, and holes in flat and shaped Kevlar 49 fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates as an alternate to conventional machining. The investigation has shown that flat laminates 6.35 mm thick may be cut without backup by using a high-powered (1000-watt) continuous wave CO/sub 2/ laser at high feedrates (33.87 mm per second). The cut produced was free of the burrs and delaminations resulting from conventional machining methods without intimate contact backup. In addition, the process cycle time was greatly reduced.

  16. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  17. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  18. Advances in applications of burnup credit to enhance spent fuel transportation, storage, reprocessing and disposition. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    Given a trend towards higher burnup power reactor fuel, the IAEA began an active programme in burnup credit (BUC) with major meetings in 1997 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013), 2000 (IAEA-TECDOC-1241) and 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC-1378) exploring worldwide interest in using BUC in spent fuel management systems. This publication contains the proceedings of the IAEA's 4th major BUC meeting, held in London. Sixty participants from 18 countries addressed calculation methodology, validation and criticality, safety criteria, procedural compliance with safety criteria, benefits of BUC applications, and regulatory aspects in BUC. This meeting encouraged the IAEA to continue its activities on burnup credit including dissemination of related information, given the number of Member States having to deal with increased spent fuel quantities and extended durations. A 5th major meeting on burnup credit is planned 2008. Burnup credit is a concept that takes credit for the reduced reactivity of fuel discharged from the reactor to improve loading density of irradiated fuel assemblies in storage, transportation, and disposal applications, relative to the assumption of fresh fuel nuclide inventories in loading calculations. This report has described a general four phase approach to be considered in burnup credit implementation. Much if not all of the background research and data acquisition necessary for successful burnup credit development in preparation for licensing has been completed. Many fuel types, facilities, and analysis methods are encompassed in the public knowledge base, such that in many cases this guidance will provide a means for rapid development of a burnup credit program. For newer assembly designs, higher enrichment fuels, and more extensive nuclide credit, additional research and development may be necessary, but even this work can build on the foundation that has been established to date. Those, it is hoped that this report will serve as a starting point with sufficient reference to

  19. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Physics is the only series of volumes available that explores the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics.Includes contributions from experts in this field of research.Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions.Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics.

  20. Regge cuts: A general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    We discuss an approach to the calculation of Regge-cut contributions to scattering amplitudes which relies only on the general structure of the physical Reggeon couplings. It thus allows a unified treatment of disparate models [such as the Feynman (Mandelstam) graph model and the dual model] and a general derivation of the Abramovskii--Gribov--Kancheli (AGK) rules. The structure of the Reggeon couplings is expressed through integrals over complex helicity. The Regge-cut amplitude can then be obtained, and its s-channel discontinuity, taken; there results a direct derivation of a set of ''cutting rules'' which express the total discontinuity as a sum of terms involving various discontinuities of the Reggeon couplings. The equality of these discontinuities follows directly if the singularities in complex helicity are the usual ones. Thus the AGK rules are seen to be quite model independent. Here we study in detail the simplest example: the Reggeon-particle cut in the four-particle amplitude

  1. Materials selection for cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhis, Adel M.

    2008-01-01

    The selection of proper tool steel for a given application is a difficult task. So; the most important selection factors in choosing cutting tool materials are based on their tool material requirements, cutting tool design and service conditions which is mainly considered as functional requirements. The processability requirements concerns in heat treat ability of the material tool. The classification of these tool materials were discussed with their properties requirement and percent of alloying element which is added to give best properties with a little increase in cost that highly appear in comparison of the selection. The cutting tool materials were evaluated based on two cases; The first was in case of rough surface; the high speed steels is the best material and the other was the ceramic material is the highest performance in cutting of soft or high rate of metal removal. (author)

  2. How sequestration cuts affect primary care physicians and graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Bindiya; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    On April 1, 2013, sequestration cuts went into effect impacting Medicare physician payments, graduate medical education, and many other healthcare agencies. The cuts range from 2% to 5%, affecting various departments and organizations. There is already a shortage of primary care physicians in general, not including rural or underserved areas, with limited grants for advanced training. The sequestration cuts negatively impact the future of many primary care physicians and hinder the care many Americans will receive over time.

  3. Influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainev Dmitriy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the surface layer characteristics on the regularities of the cutting process and the formation of the quality of the surface machined. This effect has been confirmed by the study results of the combined cutting method with advanced plastic deformation (APD. The work estimates the impact of the change in the surface layer properties on the forces and temperature of cutting, stability of the chip formation and quality parameters of the surface machined.

  4. Laser Cutting Tool Path Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dewil, Reginald; Cattrysse, Dirk; Vansteenwegen, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Given a set of irregular parts nested on a metal sheet, minimize the total non- cutting time for the cutter head, cutting all the required elements and returning to the starting location. The problem is modeled as a generalized traveling sales- person problem with special precedence constraints. An initial feasible solution is generated and improved by local moves embedded in a tabu search framework. The proposed algorithm shows promising results in comparison with a commercial...

  5. Economic technology of laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  6. Prediction of Cutting Force in Turning Process-an Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarasu, S. K.; Shankar, S.; Thomas, A. Tony; Sridhar, G.

    2018-02-01

    This Paper deals with a prediction of Cutting forces in a turning process. The turning process with advanced cutting tool has a several advantages over grinding such as short cycle time, process flexibility, compatible surface roughness, high material removal rate and less environment problems without the use of cutting fluid. In this a full bridge dynamometer has been used to measure the cutting forces over mild steel work piece and cemented carbide insert tool for different combination of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The experiments are planned based on taguchi design and measured cutting forces were compared with the predicted forces in order to validate the feasibility of the proposed design. The percentage contribution of each process parameter had been analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Both the experimental results taken from the lathe tool dynamometer and the designed full bridge dynamometer were analyzed using Taguchi design of experiment and Analysis of Variance.

  7. Twice cutting method reduces tibial cutting error in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Bone cutting error can be one of the causes of malalignment in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The amount of cutting error in total knee arthroplasty has been reported. However, none have investigated cutting error in UKA. The purpose of this study was to reveal the amount of cutting error in UKA when open cutting guide was used and clarify whether cutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced the cutting errors in UKA. We measured the alignment of the tibial cutting guides, the first-cut cutting surfaces and the second cut cutting surfaces using the navigation system in 50 UKAs. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between the cutting guide and cutting surface. The mean absolute first-cut cutting error was 1.9° (1.1° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.6° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane, whereas the mean absolute second-cut cutting error was 1.1° (0.6° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.4° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane. Cutting the tibia horizontally twice reduced the cutting errors in the coronal plane significantly (Pcutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced cutting error in the coronal plane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Regeneration in mixed conifer and Douglas-fir shelterwood cuttings in the Cascade Range of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1983-01-01

    A survey of shelterwood cuttings in mixed conifer and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests in the Cascade Range in Washington showed that, on the average, shelterwood units were adequately-stocked with a mixture of advance, natural postharvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Shelterwood cuttings in the...

  9. The Application of Ground-Penetrating Radar to Transportation Engineering: Recent Advances and New Perspectives (GI Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Alani, Amir M.

    2017-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the most acknowledged and established non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques within the context of the health monitoring and assessment of transportation infrastructures. GPR is being increasingly used for the effective management of infrastructural assets as it weakens the case for using other destructive monitoring methods, such as digging holes, and allows for rapid and reliable detection of many causes of the subsurface damage. Thereby, its usage favours the optimisation of the economical expenditure for the effective maintenance of great infrastructures as well as it improves the public safety by preventing or not raising the risk of accidents. GPR has been used in highway, railway and airfield engineering as well as for the monitoring of critical infrastructures, such as bridges and tunnels. It has found established use in the assessment of the geometric properties of the subsurface, such as in the case of the evaluation of the pavement layer thicknesses, or the size of the rebars in concrete-made structural components. Major physical-based investigations have been focused on the evaluation of the moisture ingress in flexible road pavements and in concrete structures, as well as on the detection of the rebars corrosion caused by the ingress of chloride. The majority of these parameters are evaluated using methods of signal analysis and data processing based on the signal in the time domain. The sophistication of the hardware and software of the GPR systems over the last few years as well as the recent advances achieved in the research have contributed to raise the high potential of this non-destructive technique and paved the way towards new application areas in transportation engineering. In particular, GPR is nowadays finding major application when used with complementary non-destructive testing techniques, although it has still proved to provide reliable results in various self-standing applications. This work

  10. Optimal cut points for quality of life questionnaire-core 30 (QLQ-C30) scales: utility for clinical trials and updates of prognostic systems in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Momar; Bonnetain, Franck; Barbare, Jean-Claude; Bouché, Olivier; Dahan, Laetitia; Paoletti, Xavier; Filleron, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (QoL) has been validated as a prognostic factor for cancer patients; however, to be used in routine practice, QoL scores must be dichotomized. Cutoff points are usually based on arbitrary percentile values. We aimed to identify optimal cutoff points for six QoL scales and to quantify their added utility in the performance of four prognostic classifications in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We reanalyzed data of 271 patients with advanced HCC recruited between July 2002 and October 2003 from 79 institutions in France in the CHOC trial, designed to assess the efficacy of long-acting octreotide. QoL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (QLQ-C30). The scores ranged from 0 to 100. Identification of optimal cutoff points was based on the method of Faraggi and Simon [Stat Med 1996;15:2203-2213]. Improvement in the performance of prognostic classifications was studied with Harrell's C-index, the net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). We found that optimal cutoff points were 50 for global health, 58.33 for physical functioning, 66.67 for role functioning, 66.67 for fatigue, 0 for dyspnea, and 33.33 for diarrhea. The addition of QoL and clinical factors improved the performance of all four prognostic classifications, with improvement in the range of 0.02-0.09 for the C-index, 0.24-0.78 for 3-month NRI, and 0.02-0.10 for IDI. These cutoff values for QoL scales can be useful to identify HCC patients with very poor prognosis and thus improve design of clinical trials and treatment adjustment for these patients. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Steep cut slope composting : field trials and evaluation : project summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This project is a continuation of earlier work performed by Montana State University (Jennings et al. 2007) evaluating compost application on, and incorporation into, soils on steep cut slopes for the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT). The e...

  12. Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hamid M

    2013-11-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes.

  13. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  14. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  15. Correlation methods in cutting arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H, E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.ar [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    The present work applies similarity theory to the plasma emanating from transferred arc, gas-vortex stabilized plasma cutting torches, to analyze the existing correlation between the arc temperature and the physical parameters of such torches. It has been found that the enthalpy number significantly influence the temperature of the electric arc. The obtained correlation shows an average deviation of 3% from the temperature data points. Such correlation can be used, for instance, to predict changes in the peak value of the arc temperature at the nozzle exit of a geometrically similar cutting torch due to changes in its operation parameters.

  16. Correlation methods in cutting arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H

    2011-01-01

    The present work applies similarity theory to the plasma emanating from transferred arc, gas-vortex stabilized plasma cutting torches, to analyze the existing correlation between the arc temperature and the physical parameters of such torches. It has been found that the enthalpy number significantly influence the temperature of the electric arc. The obtained correlation shows an average deviation of 3% from the temperature data points. Such correlation can be used, for instance, to predict changes in the peak value of the arc temperature at the nozzle exit of a geometrically similar cutting torch due to changes in its operation parameters.

  17. Advances in Computer Entertainment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Romão, T.; Reidsma, Dennis; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment ACE 2012). ACE has become the leading scientific forum for dissemination of cutting-edge research results in the area of entertainment computing. Interactive entertainment is one of the most vibrant

  18. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  19. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  20. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  1. Wedge cutting of mild steel by CO 2 laser and cut-quality assessment in relation to normal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Karatas, C.; Uslan, I.; Keles, O.; Usta, Y.; Yilbas, Z.; Ahsan, M.

    2008-10-01

    In some applications, laser cutting of wedge surfaces cannot be avoided in sheet metal processing and the quality of the end product defines the applicability of the laser-cutting process in such situations. In the present study, CO 2 laser cutting of the wedge surfaces as well as normal surfaces (normal to laser beam axis) is considered and the end product quality is assessed using the international standards for thermal cutting. The cut surfaces are examined by the optical microscopy and geometric features of the cut edges such as out of flatness and dross height are measured from the micrographs. A neural network is introduced to classify the striation patterns of the cut surfaces. It is found that the dross height and out of flatness are influenced significantly by the laser output power, particularly for wedge-cutting situation. Moreover, the cut quality improves at certain value of the laser power intensity.

  2. Chip & Cut Tests an Elastomeren

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Dieser Vortrag stellt einen neuartigen Prüfstand vor, mit welchem das Chip & Cut Verhalten von Elastomeren charakterisiert werden kann. Sowohl theoretischer Hintergrund als auch praktische Erkenntnisse werden diskutiert. Die Vorstellung der Praxisrelevanz dieser Untersuchungen steht im Fokus des Vortrags.

  3. The Cutting-Edge Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Joani

    2005-01-01

    In a time of educational budget cuts, the arts seem to take the major brunt of the financial ax. Fine arts programs are often pitted against one another for survival. The music industry and supporting corporations, such as American Express, campaign to have instruments donated or purchased to keep educational programs alive. The visual arts do not…

  4. Why I like power cuts...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Accidental power cuts - a permanent nuisance when running accelerators or computing services, since it takes a lot of time to recover from them. While I feel very sorry for those who are under pressure to get their service running again and deeply regret the loss of down-time and availability, I must admit that I like power cuts: power cuts make computers reboot! And rebooting computers at CERN means all the pending software patches are automatically applied.   But don’t think I am egotistic enough to endorse power cuts. Not necessarily! I am already happy if you regularly patch your computer(s) yourself, where regularly means at least once a month: · If you run a centrally or locally managed Windows computer, give that small orange blinking “CMF” icon in the taskbar a chance in the evening to apply all the pending patches. Also, let it initiate a reboot at the end! · If you have a personal computer with your own Windows operating system, ...

  5. Analysis of changes in paper cutting forces during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine

    OpenAIRE

    Rusin, Agnieszka; Petriaszwili, Georgij

    2013-01-01

    Paper presents the results of changes in the three components of cutting forces of paper stacks cutting during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine. The changes of the three components of cutting force at different stages of cutting cycle were analyzed.

  6. Occurrence of blockage in cut stems of Clematis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jędrzejuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During vase life of cut flowers obstructions in stem xylem vessels develop. Such obstructions may restrict water uptake in stems and its transport towards flowers, thus lowering their ornamental value and longevity. Clematis is a very attractive plant which can be used as a cut flower in floral compositions. However, nothing is known about the histochemical or cytolo- gical nature of xylem blockages occurring in cut stems of this plant. Observations carried out on Clematis cv. 'Solidarność' proved that tyloses appeared as a principal source of xylem blockage in cut stems. The preservative composed of 200 mg × dm-3 8-HQC (8-hydroxyquinolin citrate and 2% sucrose arre-sted development of xylem blockage, while the vessels in stems kept in water were filled with tyloses or an amorphic substance. PAS reaction proved that polysaccharides were present in the xylem occlusions, whereas no homogalacturonans were immunolocalized in tyloses using JIM 5 and JIM 7 antibodies. The present study provides new information on the origin of xylem occlusions in clematis and their development in two different vase solutions. Such information can be useful to develop pro- per postharvest treatments aiming to improve keeping qualities of this new cut flower.

  7. Influence of Cooling Lubricants on the Surface Roughness and Energy Efficiency of the Cutting Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jersák J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Technical University of Liberec and Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg investigated the influence of cooling lubricants on the surface roughness and energy efficiency of cutting machine tools. After summarizing the achieved experimental results, the authors conclude that cooling lubricants extensively influence the cutting temperature, cutting forces and energy consumption. Also, it is recognizable that cooling lubricants affect the cutting tools lifetime and the workpiece surface quality as well. Furthermore, costs of these cooling lubricants and the related environmental burden need to be considered. A current trend is to reduce the amount of lubricants that are used, e.g., when the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL technique is applied. The lubricant or process liquid is thereby transported by the compressed air in the form of an aerosol to the contact area between the tool and workpiece. The cutting process was monitored during testing by the three following techniques: lubricant-free cutting, cutting with the use of a lubricant with the MQL technique, and only utilizing finish-turning and finish-face milling. The research allowed the authors to monitor the cutting power and mark the achieved surface quality in relation to the electrical power consumption of the cutting machine. In conclusions, the coherence between energy efficiency of the cutting machine and the workpiece surface quality regarding the used cooling lubricant is described.

  8. Model for Reggeon-Pomeranchukon cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.

    1977-01-01

    A model is presented for calculating Reggeon-Pomeranchukon cuts, making use explicitly of the Mandelstam diagram. External spins are treated in a natural way. Calculation for the general case is outlined and it is shown that in practical application the cut can be calculated in a standard way. Cuts associated with the exchanges of π, rho, B, and A 2 are considered, and characteristics of the RP cuts, as well as the structure functions, are extracted and discussed. It is found that the model differs considerably from the absorption model. Two suppression schemes are operative which control the magnitudes of cut contributions to amplitudes with ''naturality'' opposite to the Reggeon. The πP cut is found to be a unique case because of the smallness of the pion mass. In general, the RP cuts are self-conspiratorial. At very high energies, all cuts, except πP cut, exhibit quasifactorization

  9. Development of underwater laser cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Inaba, Takanori; Inose, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Sakakibara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    In is desirable to use remote underwater device for the decommissioning work of highly radioactive components such as the nuclear internals from a view point of reducing the ranitidine exposure to the worker. Underwater laser cutting technology has advantages. First advantage in underwater laser cutting technology is that low reaction force during cutting, namely, remote operability is superior. Second point is that underwater laser cutting generates a little amount of secondary waste, because cutting kerf size is very small. Third point is that underwater laser cutting has low risk of the process delay, because device trouble is hard to happen. While underwater laser cutting has many advantages, the careful consideration in the safe treatment of the offgas which underwater laser cutting generates is necessary. This paper describes outline of underwater laser cutting technology developed by IHI Corporation (IHI) and that this technology is effective in various dismantling works in water. (author)

  10. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Cutting efficiency of diamond burs operated with electric high-speed dental handpiece on zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Katsuda, Yusuke; Ankyu, Shuhei; Harada, Akio; Tenkumo, Taichi; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Egusa, Hiroshi; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2015-10-01

    Zirconia-based dental restorations are becoming used more commonly. However, limited attention has been given to the difficulties experienced, concerning cutting, in removing the restorations when needed. The aim of the present study was to compare the cutting efficiency of diamond burs, operated using an electric high-speed dental handpiece, on zirconia (Zir) with those on lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LD) and leucite glass-ceramic (L). In addition, evaluation of the cutting efficiency of diamond burs on Zir of different thicknesses was performed. Specimens of Zir were prepared with thicknesses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mm, and specimens of LD and L were prepared with a thickness of 1.0 mm. Cutting tests were performed using diamond burs with super coarse (SC) and coarse (C) grains. The handpiece was operated at 150,000 rpm with a cutting force of 0.9 N. The results demonstrated that cutting of Zir took about 1.5- and 7-fold longer than cutting of LD and L, respectively. The SC grains showed significantly higher cutting efficiency on Zir than the C grains. However, when the thickness of Zir increased, the cutting depth was significantly decreased. As it is suggested that cutting of zirconia is time consuming, this should be taken into consideration in advance when working with zirconia restorations. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  13. Fibre laser cutting stainless steel: Fluid dynamics and cut front morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Deichsel, Eckard; Frostevarg, Jan; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the morphology of the laser cut front generated by fibre lasers was investigated by observation of the 'frozen' cut front, additionally high speed imaging (HSI) was employed to study the fluid dynamics on the cut front while cutting. During laser cutting the morphology and flow properties of the melt film on the cut front affect cut quality parameters such as cut edge roughness and dross (residual melt attached to the bottom of the cut edge). HSI observation of melt flow down a laser cutting front using standard cutting parameters is experimentally problematic because the cut front is narrow and surrounded by the kerf walls. To compensate for this, artificial parameters are usually chosen to obtain wide cut fronts which are unrepresentative of the actual industrial process. This paper presents a new experimental cutting geometry which permits HSI of the laser cut front using standard, commercial parameters. These results suggest that the cut front produced when cutting medium section (10 mm thick) stainless steel with a fibre laser and a nitrogen assist gas is covered in humps which themselves are covered by a thin layer of liquid. HSI observation and theoretical analysis reveal that under these conditions the humps move down the cut front at an average speed of approximately 0.4 m/s while the covering liquid flows at an average speed of approximately 1.1 m/s, with an average melt depth at the bottom of the cut zone of approximately 0.17 mm.

  14. Cutting edge advanced : student's book : with phrase-builder

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Sarah; Comyns Carr, Jane

    2003-01-01

    A focus on high-frequency useful vocabulary helps students say what they want to say. Regular, well-structured speaking tasks encourage students to express themselves more extensively and fluently. ‘Do You Remember’ sections in every unit and extra. Consolidation modules provide regular review and consolidation Student Books include Mini-Dictionary to help learners study independently.

  15. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  16. Intelligent transportation systems dependable vehicular communications for improved road safety

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Joaquim; Fonseca, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge work on the most challenging research issues concerning intelligent transportation systems (ITS), introducing selected, highly relevant advanced research on scheduling and real-time communication for vehicular networks, as well as fault tolerance, test beds and simulations for ITS. The authors define new architectures that support cooperative sensing in ITS and offer guidance for the development of a reference end-to-end implementation. The presented results allow advanced traffic and travel management strategies to be formulated on the basis of reliable and real-time input data. The effectiveness of these new strategies, together with the proposed systems, is assessed in field trials and via simulations. The chapters in this book detail new research findings, algorithms, protocols, and the development of an implementation platform for ITS that merges and integrates heterogeneous data sources into a common system. In addition, they provide a set of advanced tools for the contro...

  17. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile technologies and social media towards learner centered learning. This editorial note provides an overview of relevant issues discussed in this special issue.

  18. Manipulator motion planning for high-speed robotic laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgui , Alexandre; Pashkevich , Anatol

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in laser technology, and especially the essential increase of the cutting speed, motivate amending the existing robot path methods, which do not allow the complete utilisation of the actuator capabilities as well as neglect some particularities in the mechanical design of the wrist of the manipulator arm. This research addresses the optimisation of the 6-axes robot motions for continuous contour tracking while considering the redundancy caused by the tool a...

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martsenyuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For Ukraine as for a post-socialist state there is an objective need of reforming on railway transport. In order to meet the requirements of consumers both within the country and outside of it, it is necessary to solve transport problems in time and to introduce new technologies, without lagging behind the developed European states. The purpose of this article is identification of problems in the process of freight transportations and development of ways of their overcoming, formation of the principles of economic efficiency increase for the use of freight cars using the improvement of management mechanism of freight transportations in the conditions of reforming. Methodology. Methods of strategic planning, system approach for research on improvement of the management mechanism of freight transportations, as well as the organizational-administrative method for structure of management construction were used in this research. Findings. Authors have explored the problems arising in the process of transportation of goods and measures, which will increase the efficiency of goods transportation. Advanced mechanism of freight transportation management for its application in the conditions of the railway transport reforming was developed. It is based on management centralization. Originality. The major factors, which slow down process of cargo transportations, are investigated in the article. The principles of management mechanism improvement of freight transportations are stated. They are based on association of commercial and car-repair activity of depots. All this will allow reducing considerably a car turn by decrease in duration of idle times on railway transport, increasing the speed of freight delivery and cutting down a transport component in the price of delivered production. Practical value. The offered measures will improve the efficiency of rolling stock use and increase cargo volumes turnover, promote links of Ukraine with

  20. The generalized good cut equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, T M; Newman, E T

    2010-01-01

    The properties of null geodesic congruences (NGCs) in Lorentzian manifolds are a topic of considerable importance. More specifically NGCs with the special property of being shear-free or asymptotically shear-free (as either infinity or a horizon is approached) have received a great deal of recent attention for a variety of reasons. Such congruences are most easily studied via solutions to what has been referred to as the 'good cut equation' or the 'generalization good cut equation'. It is the purpose of this paper to study these equations and show their relationship to each other. In particular we show how they all have a four-complex-dimensional manifold (known as H-space, or in a special case as complex Minkowski space) as a solution space.

  1. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-11

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground conductor, and a separator at an exterior of a cylindrical pipe. The helical T-resonator including a feed line, and a helical open shunt stub conductively coupled to the feed line. The helical ground conductor including a helical ground plane opposite the helical open shunt stub and a ground ring conductively coupled to the helical ground plane. The feed line overlapping at least a portion of the ground ring, and the separator disposed between the feed line and the portion of the ground ring overlapped by the feed line to electrically isolate the helical T-resonator from the helical ground conductor.

  2. Subsonic aerodynamic characteristic of semispan commercial transport model with wing-mounted advanced ducted propeller operating in reverse thrust. [conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applin, Zachary T.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Gile, Brenda E.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1994-01-01

    A test was conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel to determine the effect of the reverse-thrust flow field of a wing-mounted advanced ducted propeller on the aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan subsonic high-lift transport model. The advanced ducted propeller (ADP) model was mounted separately in position alongside the wing so that only the aerodynamic interference of the propeller and nacelle affected the aerodynamic performance of the transport model. Mach numbers ranged from 0.14 to 0.26; corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 x 10(exp 6). The reverse-thrust flow field of the ADP shielded a portion of the wing from the free-stream airflow and reduced both lift and drag. The reduction in lift and drag was a function of ADP rotational speed and free-stream velocity. Test results included ground effects data for the transport model and ADP configuration. The ground plane caused a beneficial increase in drag and an undesirable slight increase in lift. The ADP and transport model performance in ground effect was similar to performance trends observed for out of ground effect. The test results form a comprehensive data set that supports the application of the ADP engine and airplane concept on the next generation of advanced subsonic transports. Before this investigation, the engine application was predicted to have detrimental ground effect characteristics. Ground effect test measurements indicated no critical problems and were the first step in proving the viability of this engine and airplane configuration.

  3. Critical test of isotropic periodic sum techniques with group-based cut-off schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takuma; Yasuoka, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuaki Z

    2018-03-08

    Truncation is still chosen for many long-range intermolecular interaction calculations to efficiently compute free-boundary systems, macromolecular systems and net-charge molecular systems, for example. Advanced truncation methods have been developed for long-range intermolecular interactions. Every truncation method can be implemented as one of two basic cut-off schemes, namely either an atom-based or a group-based cut-off scheme. The former computes interactions of "atoms" inside the cut-off radius, whereas the latter computes interactions of "molecules" inside the cut-off radius. In this work, the effect of group-based cut-off is investigated for isotropic periodic sum (IPS) techniques, which are promising cut-off treatments to attain advanced accuracy for many types of molecular system. The effect of group-based cut-off is clearly different from that of atom-based cut-off, and severe artefacts are observed in some cases. However, no severe discrepancy from the Ewald sum is observed with the extended IPS techniques.

  4. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  5. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth under submerged condition divided by the cutting depth in air at the same standoff distance. The relative cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  6. Method of cutting radioactivated metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, Yoshinori; Sakota, Kotaro; Hamamoto, Noboru; Harada, Keizo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the cutting performance to a level as comparable with that in air, as well as prevent the scattering of the radioactive materials upon cutting to the level as that in water cutting. Method: After igniting a gas cutting torch automatically, water spray by the local water sprayer is started by the actuation of a submerged pump, while a gas cutting manipulator is operated to cut the nuclear reactor pressure vessel. In this way, cutting exhaust gases resulted from the gas cutting torch are water-washed by the spray from the local water sprayer and falls within the nuclear rector pressure vessel in the form of water streams or droplets along the inner wall surface of the pressure vessel. Further, water is fed again to the local water sprayer by the submerged pump. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  8. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  9. Optical Cutting Interruption Sensor for Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Adelmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.

  10. Improving rooting uniformity in rose cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, van H.J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    Studies to improve rooting uniformity of single node stem cuttings for rose are reported. We found that the variation in shoot growth in a young rose crop depended on the variation in root number of the cuttings, which, in turn, was related to the auxin concentration applied to the cutting before

  11. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  12. Computer-aided analysis of cutting processes for brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikov, A. I.; Tikhonov, I. N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper is focused on 3D computer simulation of cutting processes for brittle materials and silicon wafers. Computer-aided analysis of wafer scribing and dicing is carried out with the use of the ANSYS CAE (computer-aided engineering) software, and a parametric model of the processes is created by means of the internal ANSYS APDL programming language. Different types of tool tip geometry are analyzed to obtain internal stresses, such as a four-sided pyramid with an included angle of 120° and a tool inclination angle to the normal axis of 15°. The quality of the workpieces after cutting is studied by optical microscopy to verify the FE (finite-element) model. The disruption of the material structure during scribing occurs near the scratch and propagates into the wafer or over its surface at a short range. The deformation area along the scratch looks like a ragged band, but the stress width is rather low. The theory of cutting brittle semiconductor and optical materials is developed on the basis of the advanced theory of metal turning. The fall of stress intensity along the normal on the way from the tip point to the scribe line can be predicted using the developed theory and with the verified FE model. The crystal quality and dimensions of defects are determined by the mechanics of scratching, which depends on the shape of the diamond tip, the scratching direction, the velocity of the cutting tool and applied force loads. The disunity is a rate-sensitive process, and it depends on the cutting thickness. The application of numerical techniques, such as FE analysis, to cutting problems enhances understanding and promotes the further development of existing machining technologies.

  13. Cutting costs without drawing blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, T

    2000-01-01

    When looking for ways to cut costs, most managers reach for the head-count hatchet, and the markets usually roar with approval. But a company can almost always create far more sustainable value by rigorously evaluating the small-ticket capital items that often get rubber-stamped. Drawing on his experience as a consultant and providing numerous anecdotes, the author contends that those "little" requests often prove to be gold plated or unnecessary. A disciplined evaluation involves asking only eight questions and conducting postmortems--regular audits of units' capital spending. But the payoff is enormous. Because cutting the capital budget increases cash flow, the author argues that a permanent cut of just 15% in the planned level of capital spending could boost some companies' market capitalization by as much as 30%. The first three questions--Is this your investment to make? Does it really have to be new? How are our competitors meeting compliance needs?--are asked of operating managers as they assemble capital project requests. The next three are asked by senior managers of themselves and their colleagues as they examine proposals: Is the left hand duplicating investments made by the right? Are trade-offs between profit and capital spending well understood? Are there signs of budget massage? At the end of the review process, senior managers ask: Are we fully using shared assets? How fine-grained are our capacity measures? The author's suggestions for the postmortem include searching for systematic problems with whole classes of expenditures and making sure audit teams come up with specific recommendations for change.

  14. Free-piston cutting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  15. Clinically lean; "cutting the crap".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, G

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Lean Philosophy believe that successful businesses must reduce waste in working time and resources to a minimum, and maximise their use in productive work. The productive work of the Acute Medical Unit is to provide effective clinical management to a daily cohort of acutely ill patients. Many Clinicians are cynical about Lean. In this article, Dr Caldwell discusses how many clinicians complain of too much crap in the workplace, which gets in the way of swift, safe high quality clinical care. He argues that "Cutting the Crap" in the Acute Medical Unit is entirely consistent with Lean approaches to management of complex systems.

  16. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.

  17. Automated Laser Cutting In Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa T.; Yvanovich, Mark A.; Angell, Terry R.; Bishop, Patricia J.; Dai, Weimin; Dobbs, Robert D.; He, Mingli; Minardi, Antonio; Shelton, Bret A.

    1995-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine-tool system uses laser beam assisted by directed flow of air to cut refractory materials into complex three-dimensional shapes. Velocity, position, and angle of cut varied. In original application, materials in question were thermally insulating thick blankets and tiles used on space shuttle. System shapes tile to concave or convex contours and cuts beveled edges on blanket, without cutting through outer layer of quartz fabric part of blanket. For safety, system entirely enclosed to prevent escape of laser energy. No dust generated during cutting operation - all material vaporized; larger solid chips dislodged from workpiece easily removed later.

  18. Rough-Cut Capacity Planning in Multimodal Freight Transportation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    metaheuristics. Parti- cle Swarm Optimization, Ant Colony Optimization, and Artificial Bee Colony Algo- rithms are newer examples of some biologically... nest for a food source. Each ant, as it travels leaves a pheromone trail which is detected by subsequent ants. Initially, ants randomly choose a...trail on shorter paths connecting the nest and the food source tends to be stronger. Eventually, all ants will choose to follow the path containing the

  19. Cutting performances with new industrial continuous wave ND:YAG high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagnot, C.; Dinechin, G. de; Canneau, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dismantling is a great challenge for nuclear companies which are facing with the cleaning of former nuclear sites. Among the available cutting processes is the multi-kilowatts laser whose power is transmitted through optical fibers. Unlike other cutting processes such as the plasma arc cutting process or the oxy-cutting process, the laser process can be easily implemented by robotic equipments. The mechanised robotic arm carries a laser cutting head to perform, with remote-controlled equipments, the cutting operation. The present study deals with the performances which can be reached with high power continuous wave ND:YAG lasers. The cutting tests were carried out up to 8 kW. The laser power was delivered through a specific power supply chain: a 0.4 mm fiber was transporting the power from the laser to a first interface (coupler) then a second 0.6 mm fiber was bringing the laser power to the cutting head. This solution allowed a power delivery chain whose length could be as high as 100 + 20/50 m. Another advantage of this kind of power supply is that the first fiber can be set in a non-contaminated environment whereas the second fiber lies in the contaminated area. The cutting head used for these tests was a specific tool developed for this laser dismantling work: it is a laser cutting head cooled by pressurized air. This tool was developed with the requirement to be able to sustain a laser power of 14 kW. The pressurized air used to cool the head is also used as cutting gas. The cutting capability was about 10 mm by kW. At the power of 8 kW, austenitic steel plates of thickness 100 mm were cut. These performances were reached with the cut started on the plate's edge. If the cut started in the middle of the plate, the cutting performances were not so high: 8 kW became the power to drill and to cut plates of thickness 40 mm.

  20. Rooting of stem cuttings of ixora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline De Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ixora is ornamental plant widely used in landscaping. In order to maximize the propagation of cuts, we evaluated the concentrations of auxin (indolbutiric acid and the presence of leaves on the rooting in cuts of Ixora coccinea L. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design, in factorial design 3x4, with three types of cuts (without leaf, with two or four leaves, four concentrations of indolbutiric acid (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1, with four replications and 10 cuts in each experimental unit. After 53 days of implantation the experiment, evaluated the survival(%, rooting(%, sprouting(%, formation of callus(%, number, length and biomass of roots formed. The interaction of the type of cuts with concentrations of auxin was not significant for any of the variables analyzed. The survival of cuttings was not influenced by the treatments. Cuts with two or four leaves presented rooting and length of roots above the cuttings without leaves. The application of auxin does not substitute the presence of leaf in cuts of ixora in vegetative propagation. The vegetative propagation by cut of ixora can be made without application of auxin, and the leaves must be maintained in the cuttings.

  1. Cutting method and cutting device for spent fuel rod of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Masahiko; Ose, Toshihiko.

    1996-01-01

    A control rod transferred under water in a vertically suspended state is postured horizontally at such a water depth that radiations can be shielded, and then it is cut to a dropping speed limiting portion and a cross-like main body. The separated cross-like main body portion is further cut in the longitudinal direction and separated into a pair of cut pieces each having an L-shaped cross section. A disk like metal saw is used as a cutting tool. Alternatively, a plasma jet cutter or a melting-type water jet cutter is used as a cutting tool. Then, since the spent control rod to be cut is postured horizontally under water, the water depth for the cutting position can be reduced. As a result, the cutting state using the cutting tool can be observed by naked eyes from the position above the water surface thereby enabling to perform the cutting operation reliably. (N.H.)

  2. A study on practical use of underwater abrasive water jet cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Demura, Kenji

    1993-09-01

    The practicality of underwater abrasive water jet cutting technology was studied in experiments. A study of abrasives in slurried form showed that optimum polymer concentration can be selected to suit underwater conditions. For the long-distance transport of slurry from the ocean surface to the ocean floor, a direct supply system by hose proved to be practical. This system takes advantage of the insolubility of the slurry in water due to a difference in specific gravity. For cutting thick steel plate at great ocean depths, a simulation with a pressurized container revealed the requirements for actual cutting. Confirmation of remote cutting operations will become the most important technology in field applications. Underwater sound vibration characteristics were found to change significantly in direct response to modifications in cutting conditions. This will be important basic data to develop an effective sensoring method.

  3. Chemical scissors cut phosphorene nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xihong; Wei, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene, a recently fabricated two-dimensional puckered honeycomb structure of phosphorus, showed promising properties for applications in nano-electronics. In this work, we report a chemical scissors effect on phosphorene, using first-principles method. It was found that chemical species, such as H, OH, F, and Cl, can act as scissors to cut phosphorene. Phosphorus nanochains and nanoribbons can be obtained. The scissors effect results from the strong bonding between the chemical species and phosphorus atoms. Other species such as O, S and Se fail to cut phosphorene nanostructures due to their weak bonding with phosphorus. The electronic structures of the produced P-chains reveal that the hydrogenated chain is an insulator while the pristine chain is a one-dimensional Dirac material, in which the charge carriers are massless fermions travelling at an effective speed of light ∼8 × 10 5 m s −1 . The obtained zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons show either metallic or semiconducting behaviors, depending on the treatment of the edge phosphorus atoms. (paper)

  4. The center-cut solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firnstahl, T W

    1993-01-01

    Timothy Firnstahl owns five successful restaurants in Seattle, but he recently came very close to owning none. In the early 1990s, he found himself, like so many restauranteurs, facing rising costs, inefficient management, and a recession. Confronting financial annihilation, Firnstahl had to act quickly: since he had no peripherals to trim, he cut off the head of his company. Remarkably, it worked. Firnstahl's problem was his new and innovative restaurant, Sharps Fresh Roasting. The heart of the Sharps concept was a unique long-roasting technique that made lean, inexpensive meats taste as juicy and delicious as fattier, expensive cuts. The process also lent itself to faster service and lower labor costs. But it wasn't working. Sharps wasn't breaking even, and his other restaurants couldn't make up the difference. He needed a solution fast. Firnstahl got his answer from Mikhail Gorbachev: slash the centralized command and liberate the company. In doing so, he would also transfer virtually all power and responsibility to his line managers. And after five months of intensive study and planning, he accomplished what he set out to do. He fired most of his corporate staff, empowered his restaurant managers with "100% Power and Responsibility," and, finally, undertook a massive promotion campaign. A year later, Sharps Fresh Roasting is the gold mine Firnstahl always believed it could be. He's done away with bureaucracy and turned business around in a down market. All this because his managers are managing themselves.

  5. Advances in Computer Entertainment.

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Antinus; Romão, T.; Reidsma, Dennis; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment ACE 2012). ACE has become the leading scientific forum for dissemination of cutting-edge research results in the area of entertainment computing. Interactive entertainment is one of the most vibrant areas of interest in modern society and is amongst the fastest growing industries in the world. ACE 2012 will bring together leading researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to prese...

  6. The District Capital, City of Toyota : experiments of advanced transportation information, park and ride at events, shared use of low emission vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-09

    On Thursday, November 9, 2000, the Benefits, Evaluation and Costs (BEC) Committee of ITS America hosted a workshop entitled International Workshop on ITS Benefits: How Evaluation Results Are Used in Transportation Decision-Making in Turin, Ital...

  7. Forces, surface finish and friction characteristics in surface engineered single- and multiple-point cutting edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Gillibrand, D.; Bradbury, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced surface engineering technologies (physical and chemical vapour deposition) have been successfully applied to high speed steel and carbide cutting tools, and the potential benefits in terms of both performance and longer tool life, are now well established. Although major achievements have been reported by many manufacturers and users, there are a number of applications where surface engineering has been unsuccessful. Considerable attention has been given to the film characteristics and the variables associated with its properties; however, very little attention has been directed towards the benefits to the tool user. In order to apply surface engineering technology effectively to cutting tools, the coater needs to have accurate information relating to cutting conditions, i.e. cutting forces, stress and temperature etc. The present paper describes results obtained with single- and multiple-point cutting tools with examples of failures, which should help the surface coater to appreciate the significance of the cutting conditions, and in particular the magnitude of the forces and stresses present during cutting processes. These results will assist the development of a systems approach to cutting tool technology and surface engineering with a view to developing an improved product. (orig.)

  8. New Modelling Strategies For Metal Cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Pedro A. R.; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Atkins, Anthony G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws from the 'plasticity and friction only' view of metal cutting to the presentation of new modelling strategies based on the interaction between finite elements and modern ductile fracture mechanics. The overall presentation is supported by specially designed orthogonal metal cutting experiments that were performed on Lead test specimens under laboratory-controlled conditions. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and experimental results comprise a wide range of topics such as material flow, cutting forces and specific cutting pressure. The paper demonstrates that while material flow and chip formation can be successfully modelled by traditional 'plasticity and friction only' analyses, the contribution of the fracture work involved in the formation of new surfaces is essential for obtaining good estimates of cutting forces and of the specific cutting pressure

  9. Laser cutting of sheets for Tailored Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    sound welds. Laser cutting the sheets may therefore be an alternative to shear cutting, if the cut kerf squareness can be kept below 0.05 mm.In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effects of the major process parameters in laser cutting have been investigated. Each cut was quantified...... by the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed mode laser...

  10. Method of dismantling cylindrical structure by cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Minoru; Mitsuo, Kohei; Yokota, Isoya; Nakamura, Kenjiro.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a method of cutting and removing cylindrical structures, for example, iron-reinforced concrete materials such as thermal shielding walls in BWR type power plants into block-like form. That is, in a method of cutting and removing the cylindrical structure from the side of the outer wall, the structural material is cut from above to below successively in the axial direction and the circumferential direction by means abrasive jet by remote operation and cut into blocks each of a predetermined size. The cut out blocks are successively taken out. Cutting of the material from above to below by remote operation and taking out of small blocks causes no hazards to human body. Upon practicing the present invention, it is preferred to use a processing device for slurry and exhaust gases for preventing scattering of activated dismantled pieces or powdery dusts. (K.M.)

  11. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  12. Craterlike structures on the laser cut surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulyatyev, V. B.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of the laser cut surface morphology remain topical. It is related with the fact that the surface roughness is the main index of the cut quality. The present paper deals with the experimental study of the relatively unstudied type of defects on the laser cut surface, dimples, or craters. According to the measurement results, amount of craters per unit of the laser cut surface area rises as the sheet thickness rises. The crater diameter rises together with the sheet thickness and distance from the upper sheet edge. The obtained data permit concluding that the defects like craters are observed predominantly in the case of thick sheets. The results agree with the hypothesis of crater formation as impact structures resulting from the melt drops getting on the cut channel walls upon separation from the cut front by the gas flow.

  13. Ceramic cutting tools materials, development and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Whitney, E Dow

    1994-01-01

    Interest in ceramics as a high speed cutting tool material is based primarily on favorable material properties. As a class of materials, ceramics possess high melting points, excellent hardness and good wear resistance. Unlike most metals, hardness levels in ceramics generally remain high at elevated temperatures which means that cutting tip integrity is relatively unaffected at high cutting speeds. Ceramics are also chemically inert against most workmetals.

  14. CAD for cutting head exchange of roadheader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Z.; Wu, Z.; Qian, P. [China Coal Research Institute (China). Shanghai Branch

    1999-08-01

    Improving the cutting method according to the actual operating conditions is an effective way to raise production efficiency. A cutting head designed by means of computer and CAD software is characterized by short design cycle but high design quality. Taking the AM-50 road header as an example, this paper shows that it is feasible to design an interchangeable cutting head for the machine without interfering with the main technical parameters. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Underwater laser cutting of metallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Schildknecht, J.; Ramaswami, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of an european contract, the feasibility of the underwater cutting with a CO 2 laser power is studied. The aim of this work is the dismantling metallic structures of reactors pools. The paper analyzes the general concept of the experimental device, the underwater cutting head, the experimenting vessel, examples of cuttings in dismantling situation with a 500 W CO 2 laser, and examples of cuttings with a 5 kW CO 2 laser. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  16. A cutting force model for micromilling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius.......In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius....

  17. First observation of a new zonal-flow cycle state in the H-mode transport barrier of the experimental advanced superconducting Tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wan, B. N.

    2012-01-01

    A new turbulence-flow cycle state has been discovered after the formation of a transport barrier in the H-mode plasma edge during a quiescent phase on the EAST superconducting tokamak. Zonal-flow modulation of high-frequency-broadband (0.05-1MHz) turbulence was observed in the steep-gradient region...... leading to intermittent transport events across the edge transport barrier. Good confinement (H-98y,H-2 similar to 1) has been achieved in this state, even with input heating power near the L-H transition threshold. A novel model based on predator-prey interaction between turbulence and zonal flows...... reproduced this state well. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4769852]...

  18. The need and necessity for the M/S Sigyns advanced communication and navigation systems, adapted for marine transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefson, J.; Gustafsson, B.; Dybeck, P.

    1989-01-01

    As far back as 1978, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, decided to design and develop an integrated marine transport system, ISTS, a system that would meet the transportation needs of the Swedish nuclear power plants for the present and for the future, a system that would satisfy all the requirements and expectations that the principals, public authorities and the general public could have in respect of SKB. The system as conceived was at that time, and is still today, unique. Despite the fact that the highest safety standards were applied, it was completed, though not entirely finalized, in 1982. Pending completion of the central interim storage facility for spent fuel, CLAB, some shipments were sent during the years 1983-1984 to the reprocessing plant at La Hague in France, but from the summer of 1985, when CLAB was ready for operation, the fuel shipments have mainly been to Swedish facilities. Since the final repository for low- and intermediate-level waste was commissioned in the spring of 1988, the entire transportation system has been finished and operation. The ISTS consists of a specially designed ship, M/S SIgyn, ten transport casks for spent fuel, two casks for core components and five terminal vehicles for local transport at CLAB, reactor sites and SFR. Specially designed containers are used for the transport of reactor waste from the reactor sites to SFR. The ISTS is now in routine operation with about 30 trips with M/S Sigyn every year. On the average, 15 of these are used for fuel and the rest for ILW container shipments

  19. A note on Fenchel cuts for the single-node flow problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Andreas

    The single-node flow problem, which is also known as the single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem, consists in finding a minimum cost flow from a number of nodes to a single sink. The flow cost comprise an amount proportional to the quantity shipped as well as a fixed charge. In this note......, some structural properties of Fenchel cutting planes for this problem are described. Such cuts might then be applied for solving, e.g., fixed-charge transportation problems and more general fixed-charge network flow problems....

  20. Technology development for cutting a reactor pressure vessel using a mechanical cutting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Miyasaka, Yasuhiko; Miyao, Hidehiko; Ooki, Arahiko; Ninomiya, Toshiaki; Koiwai, Masami

    2001-01-01

    On decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the thermal cutting technique such as an oxygen-acetylene gas cutting and a plasma arc cutting are generally used for cutting massive and thick steel structures in consideration with cutting speed and control performance. These techniques generate dust, smoke, aerosol and a large quantity of secondary waste. Mechanical cutting technique has an advantage of small amount of secondary waste, and the metal chips from the kerf recovered easily compared with these thermal cutting technique. The remote mechanical cutting system for highly activated RPV has been developed with the manner which achieves the safety and cost effectiveness. The development has been performed on consignment to RANDEC from the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  1. Selection of Near Optimal Laser Cutting Parameters in CO2 Laser Cutting by the Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš MADIĆ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of laser cutting conditions that are insensitive to parameter variations and noise is of great importance. This paper demonstrates the application of Taguchi method for optimization of surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel. The laser cutting experiment was planned and conducted according to the Taguchi’s experimental design using the L27 orthogonal array. Four laser cutting parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, and focus position were considered in the experiment. Using the analysis of means and analysis of variance, the significant laser cutting parameters were identified, and subsequently the optimal combination of laser cutting parameter levels was determined. The results showed that the cutting speed is the most significant parameter affecting the surface roughness whereas the influence of the assist gas pressure can be neglected. It was observed, however, that interaction effects have predominant influence over the main effects on the surface roughness.

  2. Development of Filter-Blower Unit for use in the Advanced Nuclear Biological Chemical Protection System (ANBCPS) Helicopter/Transport-aircraft version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, R.; Reffeltrath, P.A.; Jonkman, A.; Post, T.

    2006-01-01

    As a participant in the three-nation partnership for development of the ANBCP-S for use in Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Fast Jet, the Royal Netherlands Airforce (RNLAF) picked up the challenge to design a Filter- Blower-Unit (FBU). Major Command (MajCom) of the RNLAF set priority to develop a

  3. Flux-line cutting in granular high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, F.; Perez-Gonzalez, A.; Clem, J.R.; Gandolfini, G.; LeBlanc, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic response of granular high-temperature superconducting plates subjected to a dc-bias magnetic field and an increasing field perpendicular to it is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical model is based upon the double critical-state model, which considers not only flux transport but also flux-line cutting effects. Curves of magnetization for the system of grains decoupled by the applied magnetic field in sintered slabs of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and NdBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x are analyzed. Good agreement between experimental results and theory is obtained. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  5. Machining of Some Difficult-to-Cut Materials with Rotary Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernstoft, Tero

    2004-01-01

    Automobile and aero industries have an increasing interestin materials with improved mechanical properties. However, manyof these new materials are classified as difficult-to-cut withconventional tools. It is obvious that tools, cutting processesand cutting models has to be devel-oped parallel to materialsscience. In this thesis rotary cutting tools are tested as analternative toexpensive diamond or cubic bore nitridetools. Metal matrix composites mostly consist of a light metalalloy (such as...

  6. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  7. 27 CFR 6.92 - Newspaper cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or engraved blocks for use in retailers' advertisements may be given or sold by an industry member to a retailer selling the industry member's products. [T.D. ATF-364, 60 FR 20423, Apr. 26, 1995] ...

  8. Performance Enhancement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. This technology is widely used in industry for cutting difficult-to-machine-materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials etc. AWJ machining has many advantages, e.g. it can cut net-shape parts, no heat is

  9. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  10. Laser cutting - trends in the development,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2002-01-01

    Since the laser was invented in 1960, the industrial applications of this tool has grown and grown. And - since the beginning of the 1980'ies, the major industrial application of lasers in production has been laser cutting. In this paper a short review of the development of the laser cutting...

  11. Propagation by Cuttings, Layering and Division

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Ball, Elizabeth Carter

    2009-01-01

    The major methods of asexual propagation are cuttings, layering, division, and budding/grafting. Cuttings involve rooting a severed piece of the parent plant; layering involves rooting a part of the parent and then severing it; and budding and grafting are joining two plant parts from different varieties.

  12. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  13. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  14. Cutting the L3 torque tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Workers cut the torque tube, with a plasma-cutting device on the L3 experiment, which closed with the LEP accelerator in 2000. L3 was housed in a huge red solenoid, which will be taken over by the ALICE detector when the new LHC is completed.

  15. In the suppression of regge cut contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.P.

    1975-07-01

    It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed

  16. Development of micro pattern cutting simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Song, Seok Gyun; Choi, Jeong Ju; Novandy, Bondhan; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Dong Yoon; Nam, Sung Ho; Je, Tae Jin

    2008-01-01

    The micro pattern machining on the surface of wide mold is not easy to be simulated by conventional software. In this paper, a software is developed for micro pattern cutting simulation. The 3d geometry of v-groove, rectangular groove, pyramid and pillar patterns are visualized by c++ and OpenGL library. The micro cutting force is also simulated for each pattern

  17. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  18. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  19. Plasma cutting or laser cutting. Plasma setsudan ka laser setsudan ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, A. (Tanaka Engineering Works Ltd., Saitama (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    Comparisons and discussions were made on the plasma cutting and laser cutting in sheet steel cutting, referring partly to gas cutting. Historically, the cutting has been developed from gas, plasma, and laser in that order, and currently these three methods are used mixedly. Generally, the plasma cutting is superior in cutting speed, but inferior in cut face quality, and it requires measures of dust collection. Due to high accuracy and quality in cut face, the laser cutting has been practically used for quite some time in the thin sheet industry, but medium to thick sheet cutting had a problem of unavailability of high output laser suitable for these ranges. However, the recent technologies have overcome the problem as a result of development at the authors {prime} company of a 2 kW class laser cutter capable of cutting 19 mm thick sheet. The cutter has been proven being particularly excellent in controllability. Choice of whether plasma or laser would depend upon which priority is to be taken, cost or accuracy. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Electric arc, water jet cutting of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruening, D.

    1991-01-01

    For thermal dismantling and cutting of metallic components, as electric arc, water jet cutting method was developed that can be used for underwater cutting work up to a depth of 20 m. Short-circuiting of a continuously fed electrode wire in contact with the metal generates an electric arc which induces partial melting of the metal, and the water jet surrounding the wire rinses away the molten material, thus making a continuous kerf in the material. The method was also tested and modified to allow larger area, surface cutting and removal of metallic surface coatings. This is achieved by melting parts of the surface with the electric arc and subsequent rinsing by the water jet. The cutting and melting depth for surface removal can be accurately controlled by the operating parameters chosen. (orig./DG) [de

  1. High precision tungsten cutting for optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reglero, V.; Velasco, T.; Rodrigo, J.; Gasent, L.J.; Alamo, J.; Chato, R.; Ruiz Urien, I.; Santos, I.; Zarauz, J.; Clemente, G.; Sanz-Tudanca, C.; Lopez, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The results obtained during the INTEGRAL masks development program an implementing the HURA and MURA codes on tungsten plates of different thickness are presented. Hard scientific requirements on pixels size and location tolerances (tenths of microns over large areas -1 m 2 - and thickness from 0.5 mm to 60 mm) required the set up of a dedicated program for testing cutting technologies: laser, photochemical milling, spark machining and electro discharge wire cutting. After a very intensive test campaign the wire cutting process was selected as the optimum technology for code manufacturing . Accuracies achieved an the code cutting fulfill scientific requirements. In fact, they are 5 times better than required. Pixel size and centroids location accuracies of 0.01 mm over a 1 m 2 area have been obtained for the 10,000 pixels on IBIS, 100 pixels on SPI and 24000 pixels on JEM-X masks. Comparative results among different cutting technologies are also discussed. (author)

  2. Effects of Cutting Tool Parameters on Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Mehmet Alper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents of the influence on vibration of Co28Cr6Mo medical alloy machined on a CNC lathe based on cutting parameters (rotational speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius. The influences of cutting parameters have been presented in graphical form for understanding. To achieve the minimum vibration, the optimum values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 318 rpm, 0.25 mm/rev, 0.9 mm and 0.8 mm. Maximum vibration has been revealed the values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 636 rpm, 0.1 mm/rev, 0,5 mm and 0.8 mm.

  3. Thermophysical problems of laser cutting of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orishich Anatoliy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variety and complex interaction of physical processes during laser cutting is a critical characteristic of the laser cutting of metals. Small spatial and temporal scales complicate significantly the experimental investigations of the multi-phase fluid flow in the conditions of laser cutting of metals. In these conditions, the surface formed during the cutting is an indicator determining the melt flow character. The quantitative parameter reflecting the peculiarities of the multi-phase fluid flow, is normally the roughness of the forming surface, and the minimal roughness is the criterion of the qualitative flow [1 – 2]. The purpose of this work is to perform the experimental comparative investigation of the thermophysical pattern of the multi-phase melt flow in the conditions of the laser cutting of metals with the laser wavelength of 10.6 μm and 1.07 μm.

  4. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  5. Convective transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)

  6. Soil-atmosphere interaction in unsaturated cut slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiampousi Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between atmosphere and soil has only recently attracted significant interest. Soil-atmosphere interaction takes place under dynamic climatic conditions, which vary throughout the year and are expected to suffer considerable alterations due to climate change. However, Geotechnical Analysis has traditionally been limited to simplistic approaches, where winter and summer pore water pressure profiles are prescribed. Geotechnical Structures, such as cut slopes, are known to be prone to large irreversible displacements under the combined effect of water uptake by a complex vegetation root system and precipitation. If such processes take place in an unsaturated material the complexity of the problem renders the use of numerical analysis essential. In this paper soil-atmosphere interaction in cut slopes is studied using advanced, fully coupled partially saturated finite element analyses. The effect of rainfall and evapotranspiration is modelled through sophisticated boundary conditions, applying actual meteorological data on a monthly basis. Stages of low and high water demand vegetation are considered for a period of several years, before simulating the effect of vegetation removal. The analysis results are presented with regard to the serviceability and stability of the cut slope.

  7. Smart Cutting Tools and Smart Machining: Development Approaches, and Their Implementation and Application Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Robin C.; Rakowski, Richard; Bateman, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Smart machining has tremendous potential and is becoming one of new generation high value precision manufacturing technologies in line with the advance of Industry 4.0 concepts. This paper presents some innovative design concepts and, in particular, the development of four types of smart cutting tools, including a force-based smart cutting tool, a temperature-based internally-cooled cutting tool, a fast tool servo (FTS) and smart collets for ultraprecision and micro manufacturing purposes. Implementation and application perspectives of these smart cutting tools are explored and discussed particularly for smart machining against a number of industrial application requirements. They are contamination-free machining, machining of tool-wear-prone Si-based infra-red devices and medical applications, high speed micro milling and micro drilling, etc. Furthermore, implementation techniques are presented focusing on: (a) plug-and-produce design principle and the associated smart control algorithms, (b) piezoelectric film and surface acoustic wave transducers to measure cutting forces in process, (c) critical cutting temperature control in real-time machining, (d) in-process calibration through machining trials, (e) FE-based design and analysis of smart cutting tools, and (f) application exemplars on adaptive smart machining.

  8. Under Water Thermal Cutting of the Moderator Vessel and Thermal Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, A.; Sokcic-Kostic, M.; Eisenmann, B.; Prechtl, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the segmentation of the in 8 meter depth of water and for cutting through super alloyed moderator vessel and of the thermal shield of the MZFR stainless steel up to 130 mm wall thickness. Depending on the research reactor by means of under water plasma and contact arc metal cutting. The moderator vessel and the thermal shield are the most essential parts of the MZFR reactor vessel internals. These components have been segmented in 2005 by means of remotely controlled under water cutting utilizing a special manipulator system, a plasma torch and CAMC (Contact Arc Metal Cutting) as cutting tools. The engineered equipment used is a highly advanced design developed in a two years R and D program. It was qualified to cut through steel walls of more than 100 mm thickness in 8 meters water depth. Both the moderator vessel and the thermal shield had to be cut into such size that the segments could afterwards be packed into shielded waste containers each with a volume of roughly 1 m 3 . Segmentation of the moderator vessel and of the thermal shield was performed within 15 months. (author)

  9. Experimental and analytical combined thermal approach for local tribological understanding in metal cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artozoul, Julien; Lescalier, Christophe; Dudzinski, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Metal cutting is a highly complex thermo-mechanical process. The knowledge of temperature in the chip forming zone is essential to understand it. Conventional experimental methods such as thermocouples only provide global information which is incompatible with the high stress and temperature gradients met in the chip forming zone. Field measurements are essential to understand the localized thermo-mechanical problem. An experimental protocol has been developed using advanced infrared imaging in order to measure temperature distribution in both the tool and the chip during an orthogonal or oblique cutting operation. It also provides several information on the chip formation process such as some geometrical characteristics (tool-chip contact length, chip thickness, primary shear angle) and thermo-mechanical information (heat flux dissipated in deformation zone, local interface heat partition ratio). A study is carried out on the effects of cutting conditions i.e. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the temperature distribution along the contact zone for an elementary operation. An analytical thermal model has been developed to process experimental data and access more information i.e. local stress or heat flux distribution. - Highlights: • A thermal analytical model is proposed for orthogonal cutting process. • IR thermography is used during cutting tests. • Combined experimental and modeling approaches are applied. • Heat flux and stress distribution at the tool-chip interface are determined. • The decomposition into sticking and sliding zones is defined.

  10. Performance improvement studies for cutting tools with perforated surface in turning of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charitha Rao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In turning process, the cutting tool is essential for shaping materials. The cutting tools with various perforated surfaces help to increase the cutting tool life. Also, advances in CNC machining technologies have enhanced the productivity of machining process. One of the best or futuristic approaches in modern manufacturing engineering is the use of FEM Simulation for the metal cutting process. FEM simulation helps in understanding the metal deformation process and also helps in the reduction of experiments. The simulation helps the researchers to predict the major influencing cutting variable values without carrying out any experiment which is time-consuming and expensive. This research presents the simulation study of the performance of micro-hole patterned Polycrystalline Diamond cutting insert in machining Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V. Micro-holes are drilled using Electrical Discharge Wire Drilling machine on the rake face of Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD cutting inserts. FEM analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of perforations on the mechanical integrity of insert. The micro-hole patterned insert is modeled in PRO-E modeler and simulated using DEFORM-3D software. The effective stress, strain, and temperature distribution are analyzed and the results are compared with the normal insert.

  11. Development and characterization of Si3N4 coated AlCrN ceramic cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Martins, G.V.; Machado, J.P.B.; Silva, O.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, silicon nitride based cutting tools are used to machine cast iron from the automotive industry and nickel superalloys from the aero industries. Advances in manufacturing technologies (increased cutting speeds, dry machining, etc.) induced the fast commercial growth of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings for cutting tools, in order to increase their life time. In this work, a new composition of the Si 3 N 4 ceramic cutting tool was developed, characterized and subsequently coated, using a PVD process, with aluminum chromium nitride (AlCrN). The Si 3 N 4 substrate properties were analyzed by XRD, AFM, hardness and fracture toughness. The AlCrN coating was analyzed by AFM, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and hardness. The results showed that this PVD coating could be formed homogeneously, without cracks and promoted a higher surface hardness to the insert and consequently it can produce a better wear resistance during its application on high speed machining. (author)

  12. The precision cutting control research of automotive stainless steel thin wall pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel thin-walled tube are widely used in automobile industry at present, but as a result of thin wall pipe is poor strength and poor rigidity,which lead to deformation, shaped differencer and other problems in the process, it is hard to ensure the processing quality of parts. This paper proposes a method of thin stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting process in vehicle, greatly improved the problems and technical difficulties in the traditional process, the main research is about the cutting system and the hydraulic fixture design, obtained under low cost circumstances, it can realize high precision stainless steel pipes, high degree of automation to automatic cutting,simplified operation steps at the same time, increased the applicability of the system, provided a kind of advanced stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting device for the small and medium-sized enterprises.

  13. Laser cutting or water-jet cutting. Laser setsudan ka water-jet setsudan ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T. (Shibuya Kogyo Co. Ltd., Ishikawa (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    The recent spread of carbon oxide laser cutter is so startlingly fast, but at the same time, water jet cutting using ultra high pressure water stream is drawing attention as it has identical characteristics, and opens the way to cutting materials that have been hitherto difficult to cut. The authors, who are fabricators of cutters of both types, gave the comparisons and explanations on several examples referring to materials that can be cut, cutting accuracy, speed, shape and thermal effects to cut face, and running cost in detail. However, simple comparison is difficult. For instance, cutting 6 mm thick SUS sheet costs a running cost of 65 yen per meter in laser cutting, and 535 yen per meter in water jet cutting, but this situation is often reversed when other material or sheet thickness is selected. The actual situation in the sheet metal processing industry at the present time is that it uses by far more laser processing machines, and uses water jet cutters to supplement for cutting materials more difficult to cut. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Laser circular cutting of Kevlar sheets: Analysis of thermal stress filed and assessment of cutting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Karatas, C.

    2017-11-01

    A Kevlar laminate has negative thermal expansion coefficient, which makes it difficult to machine at room temperaures using the conventional cutting tools. Contararily, laser machining of a Kevlar laminate provides advantages over the conventional methods because of the non-mechanical contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. In the present study, laser circular cutting of Kevlar laminate is considered. The experiment is carried out to examine and evaluate the cutting sections. Temperature and stress fields formed in the cutting section are simulated in line with the experimental study. The influence of hole diameters on temperature and stress fields are investigated incorporating two different hole diameters. It is found that the Kevlar laminate cutting section is free from large size asperities such as large scale sideways burnings and attachemnt of charred residues. The maximum temperature along the cutting circumference remains higher for the large diameter hole than that of the small diameter hole. Temperature decay is sharp around the cutting section in the region where the cutting terminates. This, in turn, results in high temperature gradients and the thermal strain in the cutting region. von Mises stress remains high in the region where temperature gradients are high. von Mises stress follows similar to the trend of temperature decay around the cutting edges.

  15. Experimental improvement of the technology of cutting of high-pressure hoses with metal braid on hand cutting machine

    OpenAIRE

    Karpenko, Mykola; Bogdevicius, Marijonas; Prentkovskis, Olegas

    2016-01-01

    In the article the review of the problem of improvement of technology of high pressure hoses cutting on the hand cutting machines is analyzed. Different methods of cutting of high pressure hoses into the billets are overviewed and the quality of edge cuts of hoses is analyzed. The comparison of treatment on automatic cutting machines and on hand cutting machines is carried out. Different experimental techniques of improvement of the quality of edges cutting of high pressure hoses are prese...

  16. Restraining and neck cutting or stunning and neck cutting of veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooij, E; van der Werf, J T N; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V A

    2012-05-01

    Brain and heart activities were measured in 31 veal calves during restraining and rotating followed by neck cutting with or without stunning to evaluate welfare. After neck cutting correlation dimension analyses and %power of EEG beta wave fraction decreased gradually to lower values resulting in an induction of unconsciousness lasting on average 80s. Corneal reflex response ceased 135±57s after neck cutting. The CD scores and the %power of beta waves fell immediately after post-cut captive bolt and pre-cut electrical stunning to levels indicating unconsciousness. Heart rate in lairage increased upon entrance to the restrainer and again after rotation, heart rate variability decreased. Rotating the restrainer 90°, 120° or 180° compromised veal calf welfare and should be avoided. It is recommended to use post-cut captive bolt stunning or pre-cut electrical stunning inducing immediate unconsciousness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. International feedback experience on the cutting of reactor internal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucau, J.

    2014-01-01

    Westinghouse capitalizes more than 30 years of experience in the cutting of internal components of reactor and their packaging in view of their storage. Westinghouse has developed and validated different methods for cutting: plasma torch cutting, high pressure abrasive water jet cutting, electric discharge cutting and mechanical cutting. A long feedback experience has enabled Westinghouse to list the pros and cons of each cutting technology. The plasma torch cutting is fast but rises dosimetry concerns linked to the control of the cuttings and the clarity of water. Abrasive water jet cutting requires the installation of costly safety devices and of an equipment for filtering water but this technology allows accurate cuttings in hard-to-reach zones. Mechanical cutting is the most favourable technology in terms of wastes generation and of the clarity of water but the cutting speed is low. (A.C.)

  18. Development of cutting device for irradiated fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. P.; Jun, Y. B.; Hong, K. P.; Min, D. K.; Lee, H. K.; Su, H. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kwon, H. M.; Joo, Y. S.; Yoo, K. S.; Joo, J. S.; Kim, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    Post Irradiation Examination(PIE) on irradiated fuel rods is essential for the evaluation of integrity and irradiation performance of fuel rods of commercial reactor fuel. For PIE, fuel rods should be cut very precisely. The cutting positions selected from NDT data are very important for further destructive examination and analysis. A fuel rod cutting device was developed witch can cut fuel rods longitudinal very precisely and can also cut the fuels into the same length rod cuts repeatedly. It is also easy to remove the fuel cutting powder after cutting works and it can extend the life time of cutting device and lower the contamination level of hot cell

  19. Asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, R K; Graber, T J; Fernandez, P B; Mills, D M

    2012-03-01

    A novel asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator was constructed and tested in 1997 at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator was originally designed as a high heat load monochromator capable of handling 5-10 kW beams from a wiggler source. This was accomplished by spreading the x-ray beam out on the surface an asymmetric-cut crystal and by using liquid metal cooling of the first crystal. The monochromator turned out to be a highly versatile monochromator that could perform many different types of experiments. The monochromator consisted of two 18° asymmetrically cut Si crystals that could be rotated about 3 independent axes. The first stage (Φ) rotates the crystal around an axis perpendicular to the diffraction plane. This rotation changes the angle of the incident beam with the surface of the crystal without changing the Bragg angle. The second rotation (Ψ) is perpendicular to the first and is used to control the shape of the beam footprint on the crystal. The third rotation (Θ) controls the Bragg angle. Besides the high heat load application, the use of asymmetrically cut crystals allows one to increase or decrease the acceptance angle for crystal diffraction of a monochromatic x-ray beam and allows one to increase or decrease the wavelength bandwidth of the diffraction of a continuum source like a bending-magnet beam or a normal x-ray-tube source. When the monochromator is used in the doubly expanding mode, it is possible to expand the vertical size of the double-diffracted beam by a factor of 10-15. When this was combined with a bending magnet source, it was possible to generate an 8 keV area beam, 16 mm wide by 26 mm high with a uniform intensity and parallel to 1.2 arc sec that could be applied in imaging experiments.

  20. Westinghouse experience in using mechanical cutting for reactor vessel internals segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucau, Joseph; Fallstroem, Stefan; Segerud, Per; Kreitman, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Some commercial nuclear power plants have been permanently shut down to date and decommissioned using dismantling methods. Other operating plants have decided to undergo an upgrade process that includes replacement of reactor internals. In both cases, there is a need to perform a segmentation of the reactor vessel internals with proven methods for long term waste disposal. Westinghouse has developed several concepts to dismantle reactor internals based on safe and reliable techniques. Mechanical cutting has been used by Westinghouse since 1999 for both PWRs and BWRs and its process has been continuously improved over the years. Detailed planning is essential to a successful project, and typically a 'Segmentation and Packaging Plan' is prepared to document the effort. The usual method is to start at the end of the process, by evaluating the waste disposal requirements imposed by the waste disposal agency, what type and size of containers are available for the different disposal options, and working backwards to select the best cutting tools and finally the cut geometry required. These plans are made utilizing advanced 3-D CAD software to model the process. Another area where the modelling has proven invaluable is in determining the logistics of component placement and movement in the reactor cavity, which is typically very congested when all the internals are out of the reactor vessel in various stages of segmentation. The main objective of the segmentation and packaging plan is to determine the strategy for separating the highly activated components from the less activated material, so that they can be disposed of in the most cost effective manner. Usually, highly activated components cannot be shipped off-site, so they must be packaged such that they can be dry stored with the spent fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Less activated components can be shipped to an off-site disposal site depending on space availability. Several of the

  1. Reachability cuts for the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a class of cuts, called reachability cuts, for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). Reachability cuts are closely related to cuts derived from precedence constraints in the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows and to k-path cuts...

  2. Deferment cutting in Appalachian hardwoods: the what, whys, and hows

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    Deferment cutting is a regeneration practice that resembles a seed-tree or shelterwood cutting. The difference is that residual trees are not cut when the reproduction becomes established. Instead, residual trees are left until new reproduction matures to sawtimber size, and another regeneration cut is the silvicultural objective. Hence, with deferment cutting specific...

  3. An Innovative Three-Dimensional Heterogeneous Coarse-Mesh Transport Method for Advanced and Generation IV Reactor Core Analysis and Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnema, Farzad

    2009-01-01

    This project has resulted in a highly efficient method that has been shown to provide accurate solutions to a variety of 2D and 3D reactor problems. The goal of this project was to develop (1) an accurate and efficient three-dimensional whole-core neutronics method with the following features: based solely on transport theory, does not require the use of cross-section homogenization, contains a highly accurate and self-consistent global flux reconstruction procedure, and is applicable to large, heterogeneous reactor models, and to (2) create new numerical benchmark problems for code cross-comparison.

  4. Cut elimination in multifocused linear logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus

    2015-01-01

    We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....

  5. Automatic turbot fish cutting using machine vision

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rodríguez, Fernando; Barral Martínez, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the design of an automated machine to cut turbot fish specimens. Machine vision is a key part of this project as it is used to compute a cutting curve for specimen’s head. This task is impossible to be carried out by mechanical means. Machine vision is used to detect head boundary and a robot is used to cut the head. Afterwards mechanical systems are used to slice fish to get an easy presentation for end consumer (as fish fillets than can be easily marketed ...

  6. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  7. Cut Locus Construction using Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, François

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for appproximating cut loci for a given point p on Riemannian 2D manifolds, closely related to the notion of Voronoi diagrams. Our method finds the cut locus by advecting a front of points equally distant from p along the geodesics originating at p and finding...... the domain to have disk topology. We test our method for tori of revolution and compare our results to the benchmark ones from [2]. The method, however, is generic and can be easily adapted to construct cut loci for other manifolds of genera other than 1....

  8. Designing for hot-blade cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Clausen, Kenn

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for the generation of doubly-curved, architectural design surfaces using swept Euler elastica and cubic splines. The method enables a direct design to production workflow with robotic hot-blade cutting, a novel robotic fabrication method under development......-trivial constraints of blade-cutting in a bottom-up fashion, enabling an exploration of the unique architectural potential of this fabrication approach. The method is implemented as prototype design tools in MatLAB, C++, GhPython, and Python and demonstrated through cutting of expanded polystyrene foam design...

  9. THE HYDROLOGIC RESPONSE OF A SMALL CATCHMENT TO CLEAR-CUTTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    We simulated how a landscape disturbance (e.g., fire or clear-cutting) alters hillslope and catchment hydrologic processes. Specifically, we simulated how the pattern and magnitude of tree removal in a catchment increases downslope transport of water and alters catchment soil moi...

  10. Regeneration in mixed conifer shelterwood cuttings in the Cascade Range of eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1979-01-01

    A survey of shelterwood cuttings in mixed conifer forests in the eastern Oregon Cascade Range showed that, on the average, shelterwood units were well stocked with a mixture of advance, natural subsequent, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Because of slow invasion by understory vegetation, frequent heavy seed crops, and adequate density of the overstory...

  11. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants combine large-scale herbivory with fungus farming to sustain advanced societies. Their stratified colonies are major evolutionary achievements and serious agricultural pests, but the crucial adaptations that allowed this mutualism to become the prime herbivorous component of neo...

  12. ATRF Ribbon-Cutting Ceremony Coincides with Chamber of Commerce Centennial Gala | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer U.S. Rep. Roscoe Bartlett, NCI Deputy Director for Management John Czajkowski, and SAIC Corporate Chief Executive Officer (CEO) John Jumper were joined by representatives of the Frederick County Chamber of Commerce in cutting the ribbon for the National Cancer Institute’s Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF).

  13. Direct micro-CT observation confirms the induction of embolism upon xylem cutting under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used two different Synchrotron-based micro-CT facilities (SLS: Swiss Light Source, Villigen, Switzerland, and ALS: Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA USA) to test the excision artifact described by Wheeler et al. (2013). Specifically, we examined the impact of cutting xylem under tension and und...

  14. Discrete/Finite Element Modelling of Rock Cutting with a TBM Disc Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labra, Carlos; Rojek, Jerzy; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents advanced computer simulation of rock cutting process typical for excavation works in civil engineering. Theoretical formulation of the hybrid discrete/finite element model has been presented. The discrete and finite element methods have been used in different subdomains of a rock sample according to expected material behaviour, the part which is fractured and damaged during cutting is discretized with the discrete elements while the other part is treated as a continuous body and it is modelled using the finite element method. In this way, an optimum model is created, enabling a proper representation of the physical phenomena during cutting and efficient numerical computation. The model has been applied to simulation of the laboratory test of rock cutting with a single TBM (tunnel boring machine) disc cutter. The micromechanical parameters have been determined using the dimensionless relationships between micro- and macroscopic parameters. A number of numerical simulations of the LCM test in the unrelieved and relieved cutting modes have been performed. Numerical results have been compared with available data from in-situ measurements in a real TBM as well as with the theoretical predictions showing quite a good agreement. The numerical model has provided a new insight into the cutting mechanism enabling us to investigate the stress and pressure distribution at the tool-rock interaction. Sensitivity analysis of rock cutting performed for different parameters including disc geometry, cutting velocity, disc penetration and spacing has shown that the presented numerical model is a suitable tool for the design and optimization of rock cutting process.

  15. Cutting method for structural component into block like shape, and device used for cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Koichi; Ito, Akira; Tateiwa, Masaaki.

    1995-01-01

    Two grooves each of a predetermined depth are formed along a surface of a structural component, and a portion between the two grooves is cut in the direction of the depth from the surface of the structural component by using a cutting wire of a wire saw device. Then, the cutting wire is moved in the extending direction of the grooves while optionally changing the position in the direction of the depth to conduct cutting for the back face. Further, the cutting wire is moved in the direction of the depth of the groove toward the surface, to cut a portion between the two grooves. The wire saw device comprises a wire saw main body movable along the surface of the structural component, a pair of wire guide portions extending in the direction of the depth, guide pooleys capable of guiding the cutting wire guides revolvably and rotatably disposed at the top end, and an endless annular cutting wire extending between the wire guide portions. Thus, it is possible to continuously cut out blocks set to optional size and thickness. In addition, remote cutting is possible with no requirement for an operator to access to the vicinity of radioactivated portions. (N.H.)

  16. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, A; Wangsaputra, R; Halim, A H; Martawirya, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule. (paper)

  17. Magnetofluidic testing of rock cutting knives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buioca, C.D.; Iusan, Vasile; Pirlea, Remus

    2002-01-01

    The nondestructive testing of cutting knives consists in the determination of nonuniformity of a magnetic fluid layer applied on the horizontally placed surface of the magnetized cutting plate of the knife. A low constant magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the knife surface and a uniform magnetic fluid layer was applied. The defects as nonuniform brass layer, fissures or small cavities between the cutting plate and knife core determine the apparition of magnetic field gradients and therefore magnetic forces acting on the magnetic fluid which migrates to the zones with higher magnetic field intensity. After several minutes, a nonuniform layer of magnetic fluid was directly observed. Quantitative results, concerning the position and dimensions of the defect, were obtained by computer aided processing of the magnetic fluid layer image. Experimental data for several cutting knives are presented in the paper

  18. Spending and cutting are two different worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending. The research questions are where do politicians prefer to cut, where do they prefer to spend and how is this influenced by political ideology? These questions are investigated in a large-scale survey experiment fielded...... to Danish local councillors, who are randomly assigned to a decision-making situation, where the block grant provided to their municipality is either increased or reduced. The results show that the politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending are asymmetric, in the sense that the policy areas, which...... are assigned the least cuts when the grant is reduced, are rarely the ones which are assigned extra money when the grant is increased. Areas with well-organised interests and a target group which is perceived as deserving are granted more money, whereas policy areas where the target group is perceived as less...

  19. Diamond wire cutting of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, T.R.; Bjerler, J.

    1991-01-01

    With the change-out of equipment at nuclear power plants comes large quantities of low level contaminated metallic waste. Of particular concern are large heat exchangers, preheaters and steam generators. These bulky items consume huge volumes of burial space. The need for volume reduction and recycling of these metals has created new demands for 'how' to cut heat exchangers into useful sizes for decontamination, melting or compaction. This paper reviews the cutting solution provided by a diamond wire system, with particular regard for cutting of a Ringhals Preheater Bundle at Studsvik Nuclear in 1989. The background of diamond wire sawing is discussed and basic components of wire sawing are explained. Other examples of wire cutting decommissioned components are also given. (author)

  20. Assembly procedure for column cutting platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routh, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This supporting document describes the assembly procedure for the Column Cutting Platform and Elevation Support. The Column Cutting Platform is a component of the 241-SY-101 Equipment Removal System. It is set up on the deck of the Strongback Trailer to provide work access to cut off the upper portion of the Mitigation Pump Assembly (MPA). The Elevation Support provides support for the front of the Storage Container with the Strongback at an inclined position. The upper portion of the MPA must be cut off to install the Containment Caps on the Storage Container. The storage Container must be maintained in an inclined position until the Containment Caps are installed to prevent any residual liquids from migrating forward in the Storage Container