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Sample records for advanced continuous mild

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  2. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization. This program consists of four tasks. Task 1 is a literature survey of mild gasification processes and product upgrading methods and also a market assessment for mild gasification products. Based on the literature survey, a mild gasification process and char upgrading method will be identified for further development. Task 2 is a bench-scale investigation of mild gasification to generate data for a larger scale reactor. Task 3 is a bench-scale study of char upgrading to value added products. Task 4 is being implemented by building and operating a 1000-pound per hour demonstration facility. Task 4 also includes a technical and economic evaluation based on the performance of the mild gasification demonstration facility.

  3. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  4. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  5. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  6. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  8. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4. 7), Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  9. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  10. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4. 1 to 4. 6), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  11. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4.7), Volume 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  12. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4.1 to 4.6), Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  13. Existence of piecewise continuous mild solutions for impulsive functional differential equations with iterated deviating arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to prove the existence of piecewise continuous mild solutions to impulsive functional differential equation with iterated deviating arguments in a Banach space. The results are obtained by using the theory of analytic semigroups and fixed point theorems.

  14. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  15. Study on deformation and microstructure characterizations of mild steel joints by continuous drive friction welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenya; Yu Min; Li Jinglong; Gao Dalu

    2009-01-01

    Macro-deformation characteristics of continuous drive friction welded mild steel joints were examined by using one deformable workpiece (objective) and the other undeformable one (rigid). The microstructure evolution and hardness change across the joint were studied. The results show that the axial shortening and radial increment of joints increase with increasing the friction time at 1 200rpm. The cementite particles of pearlites in the weld center are uniformly distributed on the ferrite matrix, while the cementites of the pearlite in the thermal-mechanically affected zone are broken and discontinuously dispersed in the pearlite. The hardness decreases rapidly from the weld center to the parent metal under the coupled effects of heat and deformation during the rapid heating and cooling processes.

  16. Integration of advanced oxidation processes at mild conditions in wet scrubbers for odourous sulphur compounds treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Esther; Martin, Maria J; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of different advanced oxidation processes on the treatment of a multicomponent aqueous solution containing ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide (0.5 mg L(-1) of each sulphur compound) was investigated with the objective to assess which one is the most suitable treatment to be coupled in wet scrubbers used in odour treatment facilities. UV/H2O2, Fenton, photo-Fenton and ozone treatments were tested at mild conditions and the oxidation efficiency obtained was compared. The oxidation tests were carried out in magnetically stirred cylindrical quartz reactors using the same molar concentration of oxidants (hydrogen peroxide or ozone). The results show that ozone and photo-Fenton are the most efficient treatments, achieving up to 95% of sulphur compounds oxidation and a mineralisation degree around 70% in 10 min. Furthermore, the total costs of the treatments taking into account the capital and operational costs were also estimated for a comparative purpose. The economic analysis revealed that the Fenton treatment is the most economical option to be integrated in a wet scrubber to remove volatile organic sulphur compounds, as long as there are no space constraints to install the required reactor volume. In the case of reactor volume limitation or retrofitting complexities, the ozone and photo-Fenton treatments should be considered as viable alternatives.

  17. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, L.R. (Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States)); Hogsett, R.F. (AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)); Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  18. Separation of advanced from mild fibrosis in diffuse liver disease using {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, Bengt [Department of Radiology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Dahlqvist, Olof [Department of Radiation Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Lundberg, Peter [Department of Radiology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail: Peter.Lundberg@imv.liu.se; Almer, Sven [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Kechagias, Stergios [Department of Internal Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Ekstedt, Mattias [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Franzen, Lennart [Medilab, SE-183 53 Taeby Sweden (Sweden); Wirell, Staffan [Department of Radiology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Smedby, Orjan [Department of Radiology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2008-05-15

    {sup 31}P-MRS using DRESS was used to compare absolute liver metabolite concentrations (PME, Pi, PDE, {gamma}ATP, {alpha}ATP, {beta}ATP) in two distinct groups of patients with chronic diffuse liver disorders, one group with steatosis (NAFLD) and none to moderate inflammation (n = 13), and one group with severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (n = 16). All patients underwent liver biopsy and extensive biochemical evaluation. A control group (n = 13) was also included. Absolute concentrations and the anabolic charge, AC = {l_brace}PME{r_brace}/({l_brace}PME{r_brace} + {l_brace}PDE{r_brace}), were calculated. Comparing the control and cirrhosis groups, lower concentrations of PDE (p = 0.025) and a higher AC (p < 0.001) were found in the cirrhosis group. Also compared to the NAFLD group, the cirrhosis group had lower concentrations of PDE (p = 0.01) and a higher AC (p = 0.009). No significant differences were found between the control and NAFLD group. When the MRS findings were related to the fibrosis stage obtained at biopsy, there were significant differences in PDE between stage F0-1 and stage F4 and in AC between stage F0-1 and stage F2-3. Using a PDE concentration of 10.5 mM as a cut-off value to discriminate between mild, F0-2, and advanced, F3-4, fibrosis the sensitivity and specificity were 81% and 69%, respectively. An AC cut-off value of 0.27 showed a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 54%. In conclusion, the results suggest that PDE is a marker of liver fibrosis, and that AC is a potentially clinically useful parameter in discriminating mild fibrosis from advanced.

  19. Advanced design cultures long-term perspective and continuous innovation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book describes new thinking and practice in Advanced Design (ADD) – design that is not merely highly developed but anticipates the future by envisioning novel products and processes. The focus is especially on the front end of innovation and the search for solutions in complex pioneering processes using design-related tools and practices. The book opens by describing these tools, the approaches that characterize ADD, and its historical dimension. Specific fields in which ADD has flourished are then examined, exploring the dynamics between research and design. The coverage ranges from transportation, lighting, and electrical appliances through to business networks, technology parks, and the development of ground-breaking materials. AdvanceDesign is the name of the research group at the Politecnico di Milano (Italy’s largest technical university) of which the authors are members. It was chosen to reflect both the “advanced”, tangible dimension of design in terms of modern product development, mater...

  20. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  1. Advanced Age and Mild Thyrotoxicosis are Associated with Nodular Goiter in Graves Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Yener

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary goal of this study is to evaluate predictors of nodular goiter in Graves Disease (GD.Materials and Methods: A total of 202 consecutive patients (mean age: 45; 145 female, 57 male were enrolled. All patients were treated with antithyroid drugs as initial therapy. TSH, FT3, FT4, TRAb, ATPO, and ATG were measured. Radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid ultrasonography were performed, and thyroid volume and nodule diameter were assessed. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed on thyroid nodules ≥8mm. Results: Diffuse goiter was detected in 51% of patients. Solitary nodules were detected in 16%, and multi-nodular disease in 33%. Mean nodule diameter was 8.82 mm. Nodular disease was slightly more common in women (p=0.063. Patients with nodular GD were older (p=0.004, had lower levels of FT3 (p=0.016 and TRAB (p=0.002 when compared with subjects with diffuse GD. Age (OR:6.867 was the independent variable predicting nodular GD. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of nodules was associated with advanced age and milder thyrotoxicosis. Apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells due to excess iodine might interfere with nodule formation, and lead to diffuse goiter in severe thyrotoxicosis. Because of increased rate if malignancy in GD, comprehensive evaluation of thyroid nodules of any size is mandatory. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 1-4

  2. Critical Steps for the Continuing Advancement of Hydrogeophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Ty; Bentley, Laurence; Binley, Andrew; Linde, Niklas; Kemna, Andreas; Singha, Kamini; Holliger, Klaus; Huisman, Johan A.; Minsley, Burke

    2009-06-01

    Special hydrogeophysics issues published by hydrology and geophysics journals, special sessions and workshops at conferences, and an increasing number of short courses demonstrate the growing interest in the use of geophysics for hydrologic investigations. The formation of the hydrogeophysics technical subcommittee of AGU's Hydrology section adds further evidence of the recognized significance of this growing interdisciplinary field. Given the clear value of nondestructive and nonintrusive imaging for subsurface investigations, we believe the advances in the adoption of existing geophysical methods, the development of novel methods, and the merging of geophysical and other data made in hydrogeophysics could be applied to a wide range of geological, environmental, and engineering applications. During the past year, a group of hydrologists, geophysicists, and applied mathematicians has been discussing how geophysics can be used more quantitatively for hydrologic studies. To promote further discussion of this idea, we propose a set of working definitions and a framework for the integration of geophysics in hydrogeologic investigations.

  3. Entanglement in continuous variable systems: Recent advances and current perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures, and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization, and the scaling o...

  4. Continued advancement of laser damage resistant optically functional microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Douglas S.; MacLeod, Bruce D.; Sabatino, Ernest

    2012-11-01

    Micro- and nano-structured optically functional surface textures continue to exhibit higher performance and longer term survivability than thin-film coatings for an increasing number of materials used within high energy laser (HEL) systems. Anti-reflection (AR) microstructures (ARMs) produce a graded refractive index yielding high transmission over wide spectral ranges along with a chemical, mechanical and laser damage resistance inherited from the bulk optic material. In this study, ARMs were fabricated in the relevant HEL materials sapphire, neodymium-doped YAG, fused silica, BK7 glass, and the magnesium aluminate known as SPINEL. Standardized pulsed laser induced damage threshold (LiDT) measurements were made using commercial testing services to directly compare the damage resistance of ARMs-treated optics to uncoated and thin-film-AR-coated (TFARC) optics at wavelengths of 532nm, 694nm, 800nm, 1064nm, and 1538nm. As found with prior work, the LiDT of ARMs etched in fused silica was typically in the range of 35 J/cm2 at a wavelength of 1064nm and a pulse width of 10ns, a level that is comparable to uncoated samples and 3.5 times greater than the level specified by six prominent TFARC providers. The Army Research Laboratory measured the pulsed LiDT at 532nm (10ns) of ARMs in fused silica to be up to 5 times the level of the ion beam sputtered TFARC previously employed in their HEL system, and 2 times higher than a low performance single layer MgF2 TFARC. This result was repeated and expanded using a commercial LiDT testing service for ARMs in two types of fused silica and for Schott N-BK7 glass. An average damage threshold of 26.5 J/cm2 was recorded for the ARMs-treated glass materials, a level 4 times higher than the commercial IBS TFARCs tested.

  5. C-reactive protein, advanced glycation end products and their receptor in type 2 diabetic, elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of AGEs (advanced glycation end products), RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) and CRP (C-reactive protein) in elderly patients with T2DM with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to determine the predictors (including AGEs, RAGE and CRP levels) of having MCI in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: 276 diabetics elders were screened for MCI (using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: MoCA score). D...

  6. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy as a selection tool for mandibular advancement therapy by oral device in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corso, E; Bastanza, G; Della Marca, G; Grippaudo, C; Rizzotto, G; Marchese, M R; Fiorita, A; Sergi, B; Meucci, D; Di Nardo, W; Paludetti, G; Scarano, E

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays oral appliance therapy is recognised as an effective therapy for many patients with primary snoring and mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), as well as those with more severe OSA who cannot tolerate positive airway pressure (PAP) therapies. For this reason, it is important to focus on objective criteria to indicate which subjects may benefit from treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD). Various anthropometric and polysomnographic predictors have been described in the literature, whereas there are still controversies about the role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) and advancement bimanual manoeuvre as predictor factors of treatment outcome by oral device. Herein, we report our experience in treatment of mild moderate OSA by oral appliance selected by DISE. We performed a single institution, longitudinal prospective evaluation of a consecutive group of mild moderate patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome who underwent DISE. During sleep endoscopy, gentle manoeuvre of mandibular advancement less than 5 mm was performed. In 30 of 65 patients (46.2%) we obtained an unsuccessful improvement of airway patency whereas in 35 of 65 patients (53.8%) the improvement was successful and patients were considered suitable for oral device application. Because 7 of 35 patients were excluded due to conditions interfering with oral appliance therapy, we finally treated 28 patients. After 3 months of treatment, we observed a significant improvement in the Epworth medium index [(7.35 ± 2.8 versus 4.1 ± 2.2 (p DISE for MAD therapy. In the current study, mandibular advancement splint therapy was successfully prescribed on the basis not only of severity of disease, as determined by the subject's initial AHI, but also by DISE findings combined with results of gentle mandibular advancement manoeuvre allowing direct view of the effects of mandibular protrusion on breathing spaces in obstruction sites, and showing good optimisation of

  7. 27th Annual APRN legislative update: advancements continue for APRN practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susanne J

    2015-01-16

    As the tides of healthcare in the United States continue to change, advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) are at the forefront of legislative history. This overview provides a snapshot of legislative and regulatory activity in 2014 as reported by state Boards of Nursing and nursing organizations representing APRNs.

  8. Formacion, Perfeccionamiento y Actualizacion Docente (Training and Advanced and Continuing Education for Teachers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This document describes the teacher education reform implemented in Argentina beginning in 1968. Details of the changes are provided for: types of schools and degrees, new programs, admission criteria, career training opportunities, special fields, advanced and continuing education, and opportunities for educational research and experiments. (VM)

  9. Deep brain stimulation targeting the fornix for mild Alzheimer dementia: design of the ADvance randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holroyd KB

    2015-07-01

    stimulation (DBS of memory circuits may improve symptoms and possibly slow disease progression. The ADvance trial was designed to examine DBS of the fornix as a treatment for mild AD. Methods: ADvance is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, delayed-start, multicenter clinical trial conducted at six sites in the US and one site in Canada. Eighty-five subjects initially consented to be screened for the trial. Of these, 42 subjects who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were implanted with DBS leads anterior to the columns of the fornix bilaterally. They were randomized 1:1 to DBS “off” or DBS “on” groups for the initial 12 months of follow-up. After 1 year, all subjects will have their devices turned “on” for the remainder of the study. Postimplantation, subjects will return for 13 follow-up visits over 48 months for cognitive and psychiatric assessments, brain imaging (up to 12 months, and safety monitoring. The primary outcome measures include Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – cognitive component (ADAS-cog-13, Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes (CDR-SB, and cerebral glucose metabolism measured with positron emission tomography. This report details the study methods, baseline subject characteristics of screened and implanted participants, and screen-to-baseline test–retest reliability of the cognitive outcomes. Results: Implanted subjects had a mean age of 68.2 years, were mostly male (55%, and had baseline mean ADAS-cog-13 and CDR-SB scores of 28.9 (SD, 5.2 and 3.9 (SD, 1.6, respectively. There were no significant differences between screened and implanted or nonimplanted subjects on most demographic or clinical assessments. Implanted subjects had significantly lower (better ADAS-cog-11 (17.5 vs 21.1 scores, but did not differ on CDR-SB. Scores on the major outcome measures for the trial were consistent at screening and baseline. Conclusion: ADvance was successful in enrolling a substantial group of patients for this novel application of

  10. Maxillomandibular Advancement Surgery as Alternative to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Morbidly Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea : A Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, Michiel H. J.; Jansma, Johan; Schepers, Rutger H.; Hoekema, Aamoud

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep-related breathing disorder, characterized by disrupted snoring and repetitive upper airway obstructions. Oral appliance therapy is an effective alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and is especially effective in mild and moderat

  11. Continued rise of the cloud advances and trends in cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is no-longer a novel paradigm, but instead an increasingly robust and established technology, yet new developments continue to emerge in this area. Continued Rise of the Cloud: Advances and Trends in Cloud Computing captures the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models. The book provides guidance and case studies on the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures from an international selection of expert researchers and practitioners. A careful analysis is provided of relevant theoretical frameworks, prac

  12. 轻度胃肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥研究进展%Research advances in benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丙松; 方续兰; 王佐

    2015-01-01

    Benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE),known as convulsions with mild gastroenteritis,is a kind of non-febrile convulsions disease associated with acute infantile gastroenteritis.Patients with BICE often have mild gastroenteritis and tonic-clonic seizure manifestation,but no apparent disturbance of water,electrolyte and acid base was observed.BICE,the main etiological agent of which is Rotavirus,is a kind of self-limited disease with favorable prognosis,and no requiring of continuous anticonvulsant treatment.%轻度胃肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥又称轻度胃肠炎伴惊厥,是婴幼儿急性胃肠炎相关的一种无热惊厥.患儿表现为轻度胃肠炎,无明显水、电解质、酸碱平衡紊乱,惊厥多以强直-阵挛形式发作.本病多与轮状病毒感染有关,为自限性疾病,预后良好,无需持续抗惊厥治疗.

  13. Lineage analysis of early and advanced tubular adenocarcinomas of the stomach: continuous or discontinuous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaisho Ken-ichi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eradication of early gastric carcinoma (GC is thought to contribute to reduction in the mortality of GC, given that most of the early GCs progress to the advanced GCs. However, early GC is alternatively considered a dormant variant of GC, and it infrequently progresses to advanced GC. The aim of this study was to clarify the extent of overlap of genetic lineages between early and advanced tubular adenocarcinomas (TUBs of the stomach. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for p53 was performed using 28 surgically resected stomachs with 13 intramucosal and 15 invasive TUBs. By chromosome- and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, genomic copy number constitution was compared between the mucosal and invasive parts of the invasive TUBs and between the mucosal parts of the invasive and intramucosal TUBs, using 25 and 22 TUBs, respectively. TP53 mutation in exons 5-8 was examined in 20 TUBs. Results Chromosomal CGH revealed that 4q+ and 11q+ were more common in advanced and early TUBs, respectively, whereas copy number changes in 8q and 17p showed no significant differences between early and advanced TUBs. However, array CGH revealed that, of the 13 intramucosal TUBs examined, loss of MYC (MYC- and gain of TP53 (TP53+ was detected in 9 TUBs and MYC+ and/or TP53- was detected in 3 TUBs. Of the mucosal samples of 9 invasive TUBs, 7 showed MYC-/TP53+ and none showed MYC+ and/or TP53-. Of the 9 samples from the invasive parts, 1 (from submucosal cancers showed MYC-/TP53+ and 6 (1 from submucosal and 5 from advanced cancers showed MYC+ and/or TP53-. The latter 6 tumours commonly showed a mutant pattern (diffuse or null in p53 immunohistochemistry, and 4 of the 6 tumours assessable for TP53 sequence analysis revealed mutations. The overall array CGH pattern indicated that, between the mucosal and invasive parts, genetic lineage was found discontinuous in 5 advanced cancers and continuous in 3 submucosal cancers. Conclusions

  14. A review on continuous-flow microfluidic PCR in droplets: Advances, challenges and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghao; Jiang, Hui-Rong

    2016-03-31

    Significant advances have been made in developing microfluidic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) devices in the last two decades. More recently, microfluidic microdroplet technology has been exploited to perform PCR in droplets because of its unique features. For example, it can prevent crossover contamination and PCR inhibition, is suitable for single-cell and single-molecule analyses, and has the potential for system integration and automation. This review will therefore focus on recent developments on droplet-based continuous-flow microfluidic PCR, and the major research challenges. This paper will also discuss a new way of on-chip flow control and a rational design simulation tool, which are required to underpin fully integrated and automated droplet-based microfluidic systems. We will conclude with a scientific speculation of future autonomous scientific discoveries enabled by microfluidic microdroplet technologies.

  15. DYNAMIC MODELLING AND ADVANCED PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A CONTINUOUS PROCESS OF ENZYME PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechechi E.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic mathematical model, simulation and computer control of a Continuous Affinity Recycle Extraction (CARE process, a protein purification technique based on protein adsorption on solid-phase adsorbents is described in this work. This process, consisting of three reactors, is a multivariable process with considerable time delay in the on-line analyses of the controlled variable. An advanced predictive control configuration, specifically the Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC, was applied. The DMC algorithm was applied in process schemes where the aim was to maintain constant the enzyme concentration in the outlet of the third reactor. The performance of the DMC controller was analyzed in the feed-flow disturbances and the results are presented.

  16. Treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process under a continuous mode operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Lo, Ing W; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2010-11-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat dairy manure for solubilization of nutrients and organic matters. This study investigated the effectiveness of the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP under a continuous mode of operation, and compared the results to those of batch operations. The main factors affecting solubilization by the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP were heating temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased with an increase of microwave (MW) heating temperature; very high concentrations were obtained at 90°C. Insignificant amounts of ammonia and reducing sugars were released in all runs. An acidic pH condition was required for phosphorus solubilisation from dairy manure. The best yield was obtained at 90°C with an acid dosage of 1.0 %; about 92 % of total phosphorus and 90 % of total chemical oxygen demand were in the soluble forms. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP operated in a continuous operation mode showed pronounced synergistic effects between hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation when compared to a batch system under similar operating conditions, resulting in much better yields.

  17. C-reactive protein, advanced glycation end products and their receptor in type 2 diabetic, elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata eGorska-Ciebiada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of AGEs (advanced glycation end products, RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products and CRP (C-reactive protein in elderly patients with T2DM with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI and to determine the predictors (including AGEs, RAGE and CRP levels of having MCI in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: 276 diabetics elders were screened for MCI (using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: MoCA score. Data of biochemical parameters and biomarkers were collected. Results: Serum AGEs, RAGE and CRP levels were significantly increased in MCI patients compared to controls. In group of patients with MCI serum RAGE level was positively correlated with AGEs level and with CRP level. RAGE, AGEs and CRP concentrations were positively correlated with HbA1c levels and negatively correlated with MoCA score. The univariate logistic regression models revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of diagnosis of MCI in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes were: higher levels of HbA1c, RAGE, AGEs, CRP, TG, lower level of HDL cholesterol, previous CVD, HA or use of HA drugs, hiperlipidaemia, retinopathy, nephropathy, increased number of co-morbidities, older age and less years of formal education. HA or use of HA drugs, previous CVD, higher level of RAGE and CRP, older age and less years of formal education are the factors increasing the likelihood of having MCI in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes in multivariable model. Conclusions: In summary, serum AGEs, RAGE and CRP are increased in the circulation of MCI elderly diabetic patients compared to controls. A larger population-based prospective study needs to be performed to further confirm the relationship between AGEs, RAGE and the cognitive decline or progress to dementia.

  18. Entanglement in continuous-variable systems: recent advances and current perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesso, Gerardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2007-07-13

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization and the scaling of bipartite entanglement in multimode Gaussian states. We then discuss recent advances in the understanding of entanglement sharing in multimode Gaussian states, including the proof of the monogamy inequality of distributed entanglement for all Gaussian states. Multipartite entanglement of Gaussian states is reviewed by discussing its qualification by different classes of separability, and the main consequences of the monogamy inequality, such as the quantification of genuine tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states, the promiscuous nature of entanglement sharing in symmetric Gaussian states and the possible coexistence of unlimited bipartite and multipartite entanglement. We finally review recent advances and discuss possible perspectives on the qualification and quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states, a field of research that is to a large extent yet to be explored.

  19. Application of advanced machine learning methods on resting-state fMRI network for identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Ata; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2016-09-01

    The study of brain networks by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a promising method for identifying patients with dementia from healthy controls (HC). Using graph theory, different aspects of the brain network can be efficiently characterized by calculating measures of integration and segregation. In this study, we combined a graph theoretical approach with advanced machine learning methods to study the brain network in 89 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 34 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 45 age-matched HC. The rs-fMRI connectivity matrix was constructed using a brain parcellation based on a 264 putative functional areas. Using the optimal features extracted from the graph measures, we were able to accurately classify three groups (i.e., HC, MCI, and AD) with accuracy of 88.4 %. We also investigated performance of our proposed method for a binary classification of a group (e.g., MCI) from two other groups (e.g., HC and AD). The classification accuracies for identifying HC from AD and MCI, AD from HC and MCI, and MCI from HC and AD, were 87.3, 97.5, and 72.0 %, respectively. In addition, results based on the parcellation of 264 regions were compared to that of the automated anatomical labeling atlas (AAL), consisted of 90 regions. The accuracy of classification of three groups using AAL was degraded to 83.2 %. Our results show that combining the graph measures with the machine learning approach, on the basis of the rs-fMRI connectivity analysis, may assist in diagnosis of AD and MCI.

  20. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  1. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  2. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America airborne investigation are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are being investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the mission science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of intervening optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the Earth's surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture to support the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) and ACT-America programs.

  3. A phase II study using vinorelbine and continuous 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Susanne; Serup-Hansen, Eva; Andersen, Lisbeth J

    2007-01-01

    Seventy patients with advanced head and neck cancer were treated with vinorelbine and continuous 5-FU administered in a central venous catheter. Over all response was 36% with 9% complete responses. The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities were stomatitis (13), infection (5), pain related...

  4. Coalition for the advancement of prosthetic urology: history, accomplishments, and continuing mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubert, Gail

    2006-11-01

    The Coalition for the Advancement of Prosthetic Urology (CAPU) is the leading policy advocacy group representing the prosthetic urology community and has been very effective in educating federal health care policy-makers.

  5. 轻度创伤性脑损伤评估及管理的研究进展%Advances in research of the evaluation and management of mild traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何磊磊; 丁礼; 陆士奇; 李军根; 王亮; 郭艳霞; 肖接承

    2016-01-01

    依据 GCS (Glasgow coma scale)评分,创伤性脑损伤(traumatic brain injury,TBI)可分三度,即轻度、中度、重度,其中轻度创伤性脑损伤(mild traumatic brain injury,mTBI)约占总TBI 的90%,且其发病率有逐年升高趋势,已成为一个严重的社会公共卫生问题。目前对 mTBI 缺乏统一的定义,临床上认为 mTBI 和脑震荡是可以互换的术语。近年来,随着脑成像、生物标志物和神经病理学的研究不断进展,mTBI 相关的知识不断修改、更新。鉴于 mTBI 在急诊和社区发病率高,而关于 mTBI 长期影响的研究数据又相对缺乏,因此如何减少 mTBI 的发病率和成本、减轻延迟性损伤,以及采取怎样的干预措施可减轻长期后遗症,仍需进一步研究。%Traumatic brain injury (TBI)has been classified as mild,moderate,or severe,on the basis of the Glasgow coma scale (GCS)score.Mild TBI is estimated to account for 90% of all cases of TBI, and it has become a serious public health problem,with morbidity increasing year by year.At present,there is a lack of accepted uniform definition of mild TBI.Clinically,mild TBI and concussion are interchangeable terms.In recent years,advances in brain imaging,biomarkers determination,and neuropathology have encouraged people to revise and update their knowledge about mild TBI.In view of the high prevalence of mild TBI in the emergency and community,and the absence of the data concerning the long-term effects of mild TBI, further research is needed about how to reduce morbidity and costs, alleviate delayed consequences,and develop evidence-based interventions to improve outcomes.

  6. A computer program for estimating the power-density spectrum of advanced continuous simulation language generated time histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program for performing frequency analysis of time history data is presented. The program uses circular convolution and the fast Fourier transform to calculate power density spectrum (PDS) of time history data. The program interfaces with the advanced continuous simulation language (ACSL) so that a frequency analysis may be performed on ACSL generated simulation variables. An example of the calculation of the PDS of a Van de Pol oscillator is presented.

  7. A précis of recent advances in the neuropsychology of mild cognitive impairment(s) in Parkinson's disease and a proposal of preliminary research criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröster, Alexander I

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive changes of Parkinson's disease (PD) manifest earlier and are more heterogeneous than previously appreciated. Approximately one-third of patients have at least mild cognitive changes at PD diagnosis, and subtle changes might be appreciable among those at risk for PD. Executive dysfunction is the most common cognitive change, but other phenotypes exist. Pathobiologic and potential prognostic differences among cognitive phenotypes remain poorly understood. Progress in the neuropsychology, epidemiology and pathobiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in PD is hampered by lack of diagnostic criteria. This study proposes preliminary research criteria for two categories of PD non-dementia cognitive impairment.

  8. Observations on the 2016 World Congress on Continuing Professional Development: Advancing Learning and Care in the Health Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Mary G; Baron, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 World Congress on Continuing Professional Development: Advancing Learning and Care in the Health Professions took place in San Diego, California, March 17-19, 2016. Hosts were the Association for Hospital Medical Education (AHME), Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professionals (ACEhp), and Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education (SACME). The target audience was the international community working to improve medical (CME), nursing (CNE), pharmacy (CPE), and interprofessional (CIPE) continuing education (CE) and continuing professional development (CPD). Goals included: addressing patients' concerns and needs; advancing global medical and interprofessional health sciences education; utilizing learning to address health disparities; and promoting international cooperation. The five keynote speakers were: patient advocate Alicia Cole ("Why What We Do Matters: The Patients Voice"); linguist Lorelei Lingard ("Myths about Healthcare Teamwork and Their Implications for How We Understand Competence"); futurist and philosopher Alex Jadad ("What Do We Need to Protect at All Costs in the 21st Century?"); ethicist and change agent Zeke Emanuel ("Learn to Change: Teaching Toward a Shifting Healthcare Horizon"); and technology innovator Stephen Downes ("From Individual to Community: The Learning Is in the Doing"). Organizers announced the new Dave Davis Distinguished Award for Excellence in Mentorship in Continuing Professional Development to honor the career of David Davis, MD, in CME/CPD scholarship in Canada, the United States, and beyond. Participants valued the emphasis on interprofessional education and practice, the importance of integrating the patient voice, the effectiveness of flipped classroom methods, and the power of collective competency theories. Attendee-respondents encouraged Congress planners to continue to strive for a broad global audience and themes of international interest.

  9. Advanced surface chemical analysis of continuously manufactured drug loaded composite pellets

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterise polymeric composite pellets by means of continuous melt extrusion techniques. Powder blends of a steroid hormone (SH) as a model drug and either ethyl cellulose (EC N10 and EC P7 grades) or hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC AS grade) as polymeric carrier were extruded using a Pharma 11 mm twin screw extruder in a continuous mode of operation to manufacture extruded composite pellets of 1 mm length. Molecular modelling study using...

  10. Profile control of advanced tokamak plasmas in view of continuous operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, D.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of the tokamak is a very good candidate to lead to a fusion reactor. In fact, certain regimes of functioning allow today the tokamaks to attain performances close to those requested by a reactor. Among the various scenarios of functioning nowadays considered for the reactor option, certain named 'advanced scenarios' are characterized by an improvement of the stability and confinement in the plasma core, as well as by a modification of the current profile, notably thank to an auto-generated 'bootstrap' current. The general frame of this paper treats the perspective of a real-time control of advanced regimes. Concrete examples will underline the impact of diagnostics on the identification of plasma models, from which the control algorithms are constructed. Several preliminary attempts will be described.

  11. The Efficacy of Continued Sorafenib Treatment after Radiologic Confirmation of Progressive Disease in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Wada

    Full Text Available Whether radiologically detected progressive disease (PD is an accurate metric for discontinuing sorafenib treatment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is unclear. We investigated the efficacy of sorafenib treatment after radiologic confirmation of PD in patients with advanced HCC.We retrospectively analyzed HCC patients treated with sorafenib at Kyushu Medical Center. Six of the 92 patients with radiologically confirmed PD were excluded because they were classified as Child-Pugh C or had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG performance status (PS ≥3; 86 patients were ultimately enrolled.Among the 86 patients, 47 continued sorafenib treatment after radiologic confirmation of PD (the continuous group, whereas 39 did not (the discontinuous group. The median survival time (MST in the continuous group after confirmation was 12.9 months compared with 4.5 months in the discontinuous group (p <0.01. The time to progression in the continuous group after confirmation was 2.6 months compared with 1.4 months in the discontinuous group (p <0.01; it was 4.2 months and 2.1 months in patients who had received sorafenib ≥4 months and <4 months, respectively, before confirmation (p = 0.03. In these subgroups, the post-PD MST was 16.7 months and 9.6 months, respectively (p < 0.01. Independent predictors of overall survival after radiologic detection of PD were (hazard ratio, confidence interval: ECOG PS <2 (0.290, 0.107-0.880, Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer stage B (0.146, 0.047-0.457, serum α-fetoprotein level ≥400 ng/mL (2.801, 1.355-5.691, and post-PD sorafenib administration (0.279, 0.150-0.510.Continuing sorafenib treatment after radiologic confirmation of PD increased survival in patients with advanced HCC. Therefore, radiologically detected PD is not a metric for discontinuation of sorafenib treatment in such patients.

  12. Continuous 5-fluorouracil infusion plus long acting octreotide in advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. A phase II trial of the Piemonte Oncology Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciuffreda Libero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly vascularized and may be sensitive to drugs administered on a metronomic schedule that has shown antiangiogenic properties. A phase II study was designed to test the activity of protracted 5-fluorouracil (5FU infusion plus long-acting release (LAR octreotide in patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Methods Twenty-nine patients with metastatic or locally advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma were treated with protracted 5FU intravenous infusion (200 mg/m2 daily plus LAR octreotide (20 mg monthly. Patients were followed for toxicity, objective response, symptomatic and biochemical response, time to progression and survival. Results Assessment by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST criteria showed partial response in 7 (24.1%, stable disease in 20 (69.0%, and disease progression in 2 patients. Response did not significantly differ when patients were stratified by primary tumor site and proliferative activity. A biochemical (chromogranin A response was observed in 12/25 assessable patients (48.0%; symptom relief was obtained in 9/15 symptomatic patients (60.0%. There was non significant decrease in circulating vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF over time. Median time to progression was 22.6 months (range, 2.7-68.5; median overall survival was not reached yet. Toxicity was mild and manageable. Conclusion Continuous/metronomic 5FU infusion plus LAR octreotide is well tolerated and shows activity in patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. The potential synergism between metronomic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic drugs provides a rationale for exploring this association in the future. Trial registration NCT00953394

  13. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  14. Continuous distributed phase-plate advances for high-energy laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Zuegel, J. D.; McKenty, P. W.; Cao, D.; Fochs, S.; Radha, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    The distributed phase plate (DPP) design code Zhizhoo’ has been used to design full- aperture, continuous near-field transmission optics for a wide variety of high-fidelity focal-spot shapes for high-energy laser systems: OMEGA EP, Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS), and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The envelope shape, or profile, of the focal spot affects the hydrodynamics of directly driven targets in these laser systems. Controlling the envelope shape to a high degree of fidelity impacts the quality of the ablatively driven implosions. The code Zhizhoo’ not only produces DPP's with great control of the envelope shape, but also spectral and gradient control as well as robustness from near-field phase aberrations. The focal-spot shapes can take on almost any profile from symmetric to irregular patterns and with high fidelity relative to the objective function over many decades of intensity. The control over the near-field phase spectrum and phase gradients offer greater manufacturability of the full- aperture continuous surface-relief pattern. The flexibility and speed of the DPP design code Zhizhoo’ will be demonstrated by showing the wide variety of successful designs that have been made and those that are in progress.

  15. The Continued Need for Modeling and Scaled Testing to Advance the Hanford Tank Waste Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, Loni M.; Fort, James A.; Rector, David R.

    2013-09-03

    Hanford tank wastes are chemically complex slurries of liquids and solids that can exhibit changes in rheological behavior during retrieval and processing. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) recently abandoned its planned approach to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) supported by testing at less than full scale to verify the design of vessels that process these wastes within the plant. The commercial CFD tool selected was deemed too difficult to validate to the degree necessary for use in the design of a nuclear facility. Alternative, but somewhat immature, CFD tools are available that can simulate multiphase flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Yet both CFD and scaled testing can play an important role in advancing the Hanford tank waste mission—in supporting the new verification approach, which is to conduct testing in actual plant vessels; in supporting waste feed delivery, where scaled testing is ongoing; as a fallback approach to design verification if the Full Scale Vessel Testing Program is deemed too costly and time-consuming; to troubleshoot problems during commissioning and operation of the plant; and to evaluate the effects of any proposed changes in operating conditions in the future to optimize plant performance.

  16. Continued application of Endostar combined with chemotherapy in advanced hemangioendothelioma of bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ningrong Yang; Lin Wang; Xun Chen; Shukui Qin

    2011-01-01

    By one case of hemangioendothelioma of bone accompanying pulmonary metastasis was treated with rh-enostatin injection (Endostar) combined with chemotherapy. The patient got partial response (PR) for 3 years after the plication of Endostar maintenance therapy and Endostar combined with taxane-based chemotherapy. During the periousing Endostar as monotherapy, the patient got long-term disease control and good quality of life. There was no drug relaadverse event during the therapy of Endostar. Suggested continued using of Endostar combined with chemotherapy coachieve an convinced therapeutic effect. Then using Endostar as maintenance treatment after patient got the optimal efficwas feasible and profitable. This treatment strategy of long-term administration of Endostar was worthy of further observato explore the feasibility for long-term administration of combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of hemangioendoioma of bone accompanying pulmonary metastasis.

  17. Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution with advanced reconciliation of a Gaussian modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, L.; Imre, S.

    2014-02-01

    The two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) systems allow higher key rates and improved transmission distances over standard telecommunication networks in comparison to the one-way CVQKD protocols. To exploit the real potential of two-way CVQKD systems a robust reconciliation technique is needed. It is currently unavailable, which makes it impossible to reach the real performance of a two-way CVQKD system. The reconciliation process of correlated Gaussian variables is a complex problem that requires either tomography in the physical layer that is intractable in a practical scenario, or high-cost calculations in the multidimensional spherical space with strict dimensional limitations. To avoid these issues, we propose an efficient logical layer-based reconciliation method for two-way CVQKD to extract binary information from correlated Gaussian variables. We demonstrate that by operating on the raw-data level, the noise of the quantum channel can be corrected in the scalar space and the reconciliation can be extended to arbitrary high dimensions. We prove that the error probability of scalar reconciliation is zero in any practical CVQKD scenario, and provides unconditional security. The results allow to significantly improve the currently available key rates and transmission distances of two-way CVQKD. The proposed scalar reconciliation can also be applied in oneway systems as well, to replace the existing reconciliation schemes.

  18. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  19. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, L.R. [Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States); Hogsett, R.F. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States); Sinor, J.E. [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  20. Advanced glycation end-products in the peritoneal fluid and in the peritoneal membrane of continuous ambulant peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Ehlerding, G; Brunkhorst, R

    1996-01-01

    In patients on continuous ambulant peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment, the peritoneal membrane is continuously exposed to the high glucose concentration contained in the dialysate. This may lead to the local generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). To test this hypothesis we evaluated the plasma and dialysate AGE concentrations in five CAPD patients. The dialysate was measured after a 1 h and after a 12 h dwell time. Additionally, in two patients an immunohistochemical investigation of the peritoneal membrane for AGE was performed. For the determination of AGE an ELISA using a polyclonal antibody against AGE bovine serum albumin was used; the immunohistochemical staining was performed using the streptavidin-biotin complex method. We found only low concentrations of AGE in the dialysate after a 1 h dwell time; after 12 h, however, the dialysate AGE was even greater than the plasma concentration. In both peritoneal specimens we found positive staining for AGE in the interstitium of the mesothelial layer. The dialysate AGE contained a high proportion of high-molecular-weight AGE proteins and low-molecular-weight AGE was found to be in the same concentration range as the total serum AGE. We conclude that there is local generation of AGE in the peritoneal membrane and a 'washing out' of AGE from the peritoneal membrane during longer dwell times. We speculate that the accumulation of AGE might lead to some of the functional and morphological alterations observed after long-term CAPD.

  1. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  2. Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent with peracetic acid and ultraviolet combined treatment: a continuous-flow pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Abelardo; Gehr, Ronald; Vaca, Mabel; López, Raymundo

    2012-03-01

    Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent using a continuous-flow combined peracetic acid/ultraviolet (PAA/UV) radiation system was evaluated. The purpose was to determine whether the maximum microbial content, established under Mexican standards for treated wastewaters meant for reuse--less than 240 most probable number fecal coliforms (FC)/100 mL--could be feasibly accomplished using either disinfectant individually, or the combined PAA/UV system. This meant achieving reduction of up to 5 logs, considering initial concentrations of 6.4 x 10(+6) to 5.8 x 10(+7) colony forming units/100 mL. During the tests performed under these experiments, total coliforms (TC) were counted because FC, at the most, will be equal to TC. Peracetic acid disinfection achieved less than 1.5 logs TC reduction when the C(t) x t product was less than 2.26 mg x minimum (min)/L; 3.8 logs for C(t) x t 4.40 mg x min/L; and 5.9 logs for C(t) x t 24.2 mg x min/L. In continuous-flow UV irradiation tests, at a low-operating flow (21 L/min; conditions which produced an average UV fluence of 13.0 mJ/cm2), the highest TC reduction was close to 2.5 logs. The only condition that produced a disinfection efficiency of approximately 5 logs, when both disinfection agents were used together, was the combined process dosing 30 mg PAA/L at a pilot plant flow of 21 L/min and contact time of 10 minutes to attain an average C(t) x t product of 24.2 mg x min/L and an average UV fluence of 13 mJ/cm2. There was no conclusive evidence of a synergistic effect when both disinfectants were employed in combination as compared to the individual effects achieved when used separately, but this does not take into account the nonlinearity (tailing-off) of the dose-response curve.

  3. 颏前徙成形术矫正轻中度小颌畸形1O例体会%Experiences in Correction of 10 Cases of Mild and Moderate Micrognathia by Advancement Genioplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽璇; 武剑云

    2011-01-01

    Objective To correct mild and moderate micrognathia by surgical treatment, and improve the basifacial appearance of patients. Methods Advancement genioplasty was performed in 10 patients with insufficient development of mentum or asymmetric mentum, including 2 patients with insufficient vertical development of mentum, 3 patients with insufficient anterior-posterior development of mentum, 3 patients with insufficient vertical and anterior-posterior development of mentum, and 2 patients with mentum deflection. All patients had no obvious symptoms of occlusion disorder and disorders of temporomandibular joint. 2 patients with anterior-posterior development of mentum once received genioplasty using silicome prosthesis before advancement genioplasty, but they were not satisfied with the basifacial appearance. The advancement genioplasty corrected the vertical and anterior-posterior appearance of mentum and improved the basifacial frontal and lateral appearance.Fosults All patients were followed up for 3 ~ 6 months, and had good recovery. The comprehensive basifacial appoearance of patients was satisfactory and no adverse reactions were found. conclusion Advancement genioplasty can improve significantly the basifacial appearance of patients with mild and moderate insufficient development of mentum and mentum deflection, avoid the disadvantages such as local bone absorption and prosthesis displacement caused by genioplasty using silieome prosthesis, and the basifacial appearance after genioplasty is satisfactory%目的 通过手术改善轻中度颏部发育不足及矫治颏偏斜不对称畸形,改善面下部鼻唇颏正侧面的综合形态.方法 对颏部发育不足或颏部偏斜不对称患者共10例进行颏前徙成形术,患者均不伴有明显咬合紊乱及颞下颌关节紊乱症状,其中颏部垂直向发育不足者2例,前后向发育不足者3例,前后及垂直向兼有者3例,颏部偏斜者2例,其中2例为硅胶假体隆颏术后外形不满

  4. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos mild Traumatic Brain Injury 94447 reads Please Log in You must be logged in to access ... Brain Injury (DCoE) to promote the processes of building resilience, facilitating recovery and supporting reintegration of returning ...

  5. Comparison of an advanced minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring with a continuous invasive cardiac output monitoring during lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Roland; Prueckner, Stephan; Czerner, Stephan; Schramm, Renè; Preissler, Gerhard; Zwißler, Bernhard; von Dossow-Hanfstingl, Vera

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a continuous non-calibrated left heart cardiac index (CI) measurement by arterial waveform analysis (FloTrac(®)/Vigileo(®)) with a continuous calibrated right heart CI measurement by pulmonary artery thermodilution (CCOmbo-PAC(®)/Vigilance II(®)) for hemodynamic monitoring during lung transplantation. CI was measured simultaneously by both techniques in 13 consecutive lung transplants (n = 4 single-lung transplants, n = 9 sequential double-lung transplants) at distinct time points perioperatively. Linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis with percentage error calculation were used for statistical comparison of CI measurements by both techniques. In this study the FloTrac(®) system underestimated the CI in comparison with the continuous pulmonary arterial thermodilution (p waveform and continuous pulmonary artery thermodilution are, therefore, not interchangeable during these complex operations.

  6. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes. If you have mild cognitive impairment, you may ...

  7. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria E; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Bestle, Morten H

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coagulopathy associates with poor outcome in sepsis. Mild induced hypothermia has been proposed as treatment in sepsis but it is not known whether this intervention worsens functional coagulopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interim analysis data from an ongoing randomized controlled tr...

  8. Advancing Assessment Practice in Continuing Professional Learning: Toward a Richer Understanding of Teaching Portfolios for Learning and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevitt, Chris; Stocks, Claire; Quinlan, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of challenges and tensions experienced when using portfolios for learning as well as for summative assessment in the context of continuing professional learning in academic development programmes. While portfolios are becoming increasingly prominent, the details of how they are used are under-examined; they are often…

  9. Comparing Cognitive Profiles of Licensed Drivers with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Yamin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Alzheimer’s disease (AD and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB.

  10. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkies, Krystyna, E-mail: kserkies@wp.pl [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland); Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  11. The mixture of dicyclohexilamine and oleylamine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in NaCl solution saturated with CO2 under both continual immersion and top of the line corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive method to evaluate the mixture of dicyclohexilamine and oleylamine (DCHA+OA as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in CO2 environment in liquid and vapor phase. Corrosion inhibitor volatile properties were investigated in order to determine if DCHA+OA can be used to control the severity of the top of the line (TLC corrosion attack. Corrosion measurements were performed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear polarization resistance, potentiodynamic sweep measurements, as well as the electrical resistance measurements and weight loss measurements, in order to determine the inhibitive performances of dicyclohexilamine and oleylamine. In order to define surface morphological characteristics scanning electron microscopy technique was applied. The electrochemical study and weight loss measurements indicated that DCHA+OA significantly decreased the corrosion rate in liquid phase when 50 ppm of DCHA+OA was added. Scanning electron microphotographs indicated protective inhibitor film has formed on the steel surface and revealed that good protection was achieved, along with the decrease in the corrosion rate determined by weight loss and electrochemical techniques. Using electrical resistance measurements in vapor phase it was shown that concentration of 1000 ppm DCHA+OA significantly decreased the corrosion rate at the top of the line, only when it was carried there within its own foam and not due its volatility.

  12. Designing and simulation smart multifunctional continuous logic device as a basic cell of advanced high-performance sensor systems with MIMO-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolskyy, Aleksandr I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a design and simulation of hardware realizations of smart multifunctional continuous logic devices (SMCLD) as advanced basic cells of the sensor systems with MIMO- structure for images processing and interconnection. The SMCLD realize function of two-valued, multi-valued and continuous logics with current inputs and current outputs. Such advanced basic cells realize function nonlinear time-pulse transformation, analog-to-digital converters and neural logic. We showed advantages of such elements. It's have a number of advantages: high speed and reliability, simplicity, small power consumption, high integration level. The conception of construction of SMCLD consists in the use of a current mirrors realized on 1.5μm technology CMOS transistors. Presence of 50÷70 transistors, 1 PD and 1 LED makes the offered circuits quite compact. The simulation results of NOT, MIN, MAX, equivalence (EQ), normalize summation, averaging and other functions, that implemented SMCLD, showed that the level of logical variables can change from 0.1μA to 10μA for low-power consumption variants. The SMCLD have low power consumption <1mW and processing time about 1÷11μS at supply voltage 2.4÷3.3V.

  13. Implementation of an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control system using PAT tools into a direct compaction continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Sahay, Abhishek; Karry, Krizia M; Muzzio, Fernando; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2014-10-01

    It is desirable for a pharmaceutical final dosage form to be manufactured through a quality by design (QbD)-based approach rather than a quality by testing (QbT) approach. An automatic feedback control system coupled with PAT tools that is part of the QbD paradigm shift, has the potential to ensure that the pre-defined end product quality attributes are met in a time and cost efficient manner. In this work, an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control architecture coupled with real time inline/online monitoring tools and principal components analysis (PCA) based additional supervisory control layer has been proposed for a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. The advantages of both MPC and PID have been utilized in a hybrid scheme. The control hardware and software integration and implementation of the control system has been demonstrated using feeders and blending unit operation of a continuous tablet manufacturing pilot plant and an NIR based PAT tool. The advanced hybrid MPC-PID control scheme leads to enhanced control loop performance of the critical quality attributes in comparison to a regulatory (e.g. PID) control scheme indicating its potential to improve pharmaceutical product quality.

  14. Advance in research on leishmaniasis vaccines (continued)%利什曼病疫苗研究进展(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙柯; 陈建平

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by different species of the genus Leishmania,and is endemic in 88 countries on a global scale,threatening approximately 350 million people.Chemotherapy is a main mean to treat leishmaniasis at present,but the toxicity and drug resistance hamper its application.Therefore,it is urgent to develop safe and effective leishmaniasis vaccines.In the past decades,numerous antigen candidates of Leishmania have been found,but the research progress in clinical trial has been made only in a few vaccines.The advance in research on leishmaniasis vaccines is reviewed.%利什曼病是一种媒介传播的寄生虫病,由不同种属的利什曼原虫感染引起.利什曼病流行于全球88个国家,约3.5亿人受到威胁.目前治疗利什曼病的主要方法是化学疗法,但毒性和耐药性阻碍了其应用,因此急需开发出一种安全有效的利什曼病疫苗.尽管在过去的几十年,发现了许多利什曼原虫抗原,但仅少部分疫苗在临床试验阶段取得进展.此文就利什曼病疫苗的研究进展进行综述.

  15. Design of a prototype device for remote patient care with mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ocampo, M.; Segura-Giraldo, B.; Floréz-Hurtado, R.; Cortés-Aguirre, C.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a prototype telecare system, which allows to provide home care to patients with mild cognitive impairment and thus ensures their permanence in their usual environment. Telecare is oriented towards people who require constant attention due to conditions of advanced age, illness, physical risk or limited capabilities. Telecare offers these people a greater degree of independence. QFD methodology is used to develop electronic devices intended to monitor the environment and physiological state of the user continuously, providing communication between the telecare system and a monitoring center in order to take the most appropriate actions in any abnormal event.

  16. In-Situ Crafting of ZnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles Impregnated within Continuous Carbon Network as Advanced Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Beibei; Han, Cuiping; Li, Bo; He, Yanjie; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-02-23

    The ability to create a synergistic effect of nanostructure engineering and its hybridization with conductive carbonaceous material is highly desirable for attaining high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we judiciously crafted ZnFe2O4/carbon nanocomposites composed of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles with an average size of 16 ± 5 nm encapsulated within the continuous carbon network as anode materials for LIBs. Such intriguing nanocomposites were yielded in situ via the pyrolysis-induced carbonization of polystyrene@poly(acrylic acid) (PS@PAA) core@shell nanospheres in conjunction with the formation of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles through the thermal decomposition of ZnFe2O4 precursors incorporated within the PS@PAA nanospheres. By systematically varying the ZnFe2O4 content in the ZnFe2O4/carbon nanocomposites, the nanocomposite containing 79.3 wt % ZnFe2O4 was found to exhibit an excellent rate performance with high capacities of 1238, 1198, 1136, 1052, 926, and 521 mAh g(-1) at specific currents of 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mA g(-1), respectively. Moreover, cycling performance of the ZnFe2O4/carbon nanocomposite with 79.3 wt % ZnFe2O4 at specific currents of 200 mA g(-1) delivered an outstanding prolonged cycling stability for several hundred cycles.

  17. EXTENDED MILD-SLOPE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄虎; 丁平兴; 吕秀红

    2001-01-01

    The Hamiltonian formalism for surface waves and the mild-slope approximation were empolyed in handling the case of slowly varying three-dimensional currents and an uneven bottom, thus leading to an extended mild-slope equation. The bottom topography consists of two components: the slowly varying component whose horizontal length scale is longer than the surface wave length, and the fast varying component with the amplitude being smaller than that of the surface wave. The frequency of the fast varying depth component is, however, comparable to that of the surface waves. The extended mild- slope equation is more widely applicable and contains as special cases famous mild-slope equations below: the classical mild-slope equation of Berkhoff , Kirby' s mild-slope equation with current, and Dingemans' s mild-slope equation for rippled bed. The extended shallow water equations for ambient currents and rapidly varying topography are also obtained.

  18. Early supported discharge following mild stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Stina; Carstensen, Kathrine; Møldrup, Marie;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early supported discharge (ESD) allows mild-to-moderate stroke patients to return home as soon as possible and continue rehabilitation at their own pace in familiar surroundings. Thus, the main responsibility for continued rehabilitation is in the hands of patients and their partners......, who must collaborate to adjust to poststroke everyday life. However, couples' joint experiences of stroke, early discharge and rehabilitation at home remain minimally investigated. AIM: To investigate how mild stroke patients' and their partners' experience and manage everyday life in a context of ESD....... METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 22 ESD patients and 18 partners. Interviews were conducted 3-6 weeks after stroke, and we used thematic analysis to analyse the data. FINDINGS: The analysis identified three themes. First, 'Home as a healing place' involved...

  19. Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Diao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with no previous cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease represent a primary prevention population. The benefits and harms of treating mild hypertension in primary prevention patients are not known at present. This review examines the existing randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence. OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on mortality and morbidity in adults with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg and without cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Search: We searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1, MEDLINE (1948 to May 2011, EMBASE (1980 to May 2011 and reference lists of articles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE were searched for previous reviews and meta-analyses of anti-hypertensive drug treatment compared to placebo or no treatment trials up until the end of 2011. Selection criteria: RCTs of at least 1 year duration. Data collection and analysis: The outcomes assessed were mortality, stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD, total cardiovascular events (CVS, and withdrawals due to adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Of 11 RCTs identified 4 were included in this review, with 8,912 participants. Treatment for 4 to 5 years with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce total mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63, 1.15. In 7,080 participants treatment with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce coronary heart disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80, 1.57, stroke (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.24, 1.08, or total cardiovascular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72, 1.32. Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased by drug therapy (RR 4.80, 95% CI 4.14, 5.57, ARR 9%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment of adults (primary prevention with mild hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg have not been

  20. A phase II study of LFP therapy (5-FU (5-fluorourasil continuous infusion (CVI and Low-dose consecutive (Cisplatin CDDP in advanced biliary tract carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horimi Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unresectable biliary tract carcinoma is known to demonstrate a poor prognosis. We conducted a single arm phase II study of LFP therapy (5-FU (5-fluorourasil continuous infusion (CVI and Low-dose consecutive (Cisplatin CDDP for advanced biliary tract malignancies basically on an outpatient basis. Methods Between February 1996 and September 2003, 42 patients were enrolled in this trial. LFP therapy By using a total implanted CV-catheter system, 5-FU (160 mg/m2/day was continuously infused over 24 hours for 7 consecutive days and CDDP (6 mg/m2/day was infused for 30 minutes twice a week as one cycle. The administration schedule consisted of 4 cycles as one course. RESIST criteria (Response evaluation criteria for solid tumors and NCI-CTC (National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (ver.3.0 were used for evaluation of this therapy. The median survival time (MST and median time to treatment failure (TTF were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Patients characteristics were: mean age 66.5(47–79: male 24 (54%: BDca (bile duct carcinoma 27 GBca (Gallbladder carcinoma 15: locally advanced 26, postoperative recurrence 16. The most common toxicity was anemia (26.2%. Neither any treatment related death nor grade 4 toxicity occurred. The median number of courses of LFP Therapy which patients could receive was two (1–14. All the patients are evaluable for effects with an over all response rates of 42.9% (95% confidence interval C.I.: 27.7–59.0 (0 CR, 18 PR, 13 NC, 11 PD. There was no significant difference regarding the anti tumor effects against both malignant neoplasms. Figure 2 Shows the BDca a longer MST and TTF than did GBca (234 vs 150, 117 vs 85, respectively, but neither difference was statistically significant. The estimated MST and median TTF were 225 and 107 days, respectively. The BDca had a longer MST and TTF than GBca (234 vs 150, 117 vs 85, respectively, but neither difference was statistically

  1. The Influence of a Mandibular Advancement Plate on Polysomnography in Different Grades of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Raunio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a mandibular advancement device on different grades of obstructive sleep apnea using a relatively simple test for the apnea-hypopnea index to determine if a mandibular device will be effective. Material and Methods: A total of 68 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS including, 31 with mild, 23 with moderate and 14 with severe OSAS were treated with a mandibular advancement device (MAD and monitored with polysomnography. Results: 25 of the 31 mild, 15 of the 23 moderate and 2 of the 14 severe OSAS patients were cured of their OSAS if a post treatment apnea-hypopnea index of less than 5 is regarded as cured. The odds ratios for success with MAD therapy are 3 for women over men, 14.9 for mild obstructive sleep apnea, 5.42 for moderate obstructive sleep apnea if severe obstructive sleep apnea is assigned an odds ratio of 1. Conclusions: The use of the apnea-hypopnea index alone is useful in mild and moderate disease to predict the effectiveness of mandibular advancement device. Treatment with a mandibular advancement device is very effective in treating mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Conservative treatment with a mandibular advancement device can be successful in less severe grades of sleep apnea and may be an alternative for non-surgical patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea intolerant of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure management.

  2. Mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.

  3. Cognitive Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Poteet, James A.

    Research regarding the cognitive processing of students with learning disabilities, mild mental handicap, and emotional handicap is reviewed. In considering cognitive processing for students with mild mental handicap, research attention has been directed to the issues of memory and learning, acquisition and retrieval deficits, inefficient…

  4. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Harvey S.; Robertson, Claudia S.

    2013-01-01

    This Introduction to a Special Issue on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) highlights the methodological challenges in outcome studies and clinical trials involving patients who sustain mTBI. Recent advances in brain imaging and portable, computerized cognitive tasks have contributed to protocols that are sensitive to the effects of mTBI and efficient in time for completion. Investigation of civilian mTBI has been extended to single and repeated injuries in athletes and blast-related mTBI in ...

  5. Task 2: Mild gasification technology development process research unit tests using slipstream sampling, February 1988--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

    1990-07-01

    Under USDOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Peabody Holding Company, Inc., and Bechtel Group is developing a process for the mild gasification of coal in a 100-pound/hour capacity isothermal process research unit (PRU) at IGT in Chicago. The IGT process is capable of converting bituminous coals to value-added co-products that can open new markets for the US coal industry. The conceptual IGT mild gasification process incorporates an integrated fluidized-/entrained-bed reactor supplying heat indirectly by a combination of char and gas recycle. The use of mild operating conditions (1000{degree} to 1300{degree}F), low pressures (<50 psig), and continuous operation in closed reactors, combined with the sale of value-added co-products, offer an environmentally sound and economical approach to advanced coal utilization. The PRU consists of an 8-inch-ID {times} 8-foot-long fluidized-bed reactor closely coupled to a 4-inch-ID {times} 13-foot-long entrained-bed reactor. The PRU test results have demonstrated process performance, including the effect of coal type and temperature on mild gasification co-product yields and their properties. The fates of the heteroatoms have also been analyzed. 9 refs., 16 figs., 41 tabs.

  6. Mild obstructive sleep apnea: beyond the AHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Iannotti J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A common conundrum faced by sleep medicine practitioners is how to manage the large group of patients with mild sleep apnea. Many patients are referred for sleep evaluation, with symptoms thought to be due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Often polysomnography demonstrates only mild sleep apnea, and the clinician and patient are faced with the dilemma of whether to use continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy or an oral appliance. In making this important decision the clinician incorporates the commonly used definition of mild sleep apnea as an apnea-hypopnea index of between 5 and 14 apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep. Moderate sleep apnea is defined as 15-29 events per hour, and severe is 30 and above events per hour. These arbitrary thresholds originated in the early 1980s when knowledge of this condition was in its infancy and little was known about the long term health effects. The definition ...

  7. Support of NASA ADR/ Cross-Enterprise NRA Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators for Continuous Cooling from 10K to 50mK, Development of a Heat Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical heat switches are used in conjunction with sorption refrigerators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators and for other cryogenic tasks including the pre-cooling cryogenic systems. They use a mechanical actuator which closes Au plated Cu jaws on an Au plated Cu bar. The thermal conductance in the closed position is essentially independent of the area of the jaws and proportional to the force applied. It varies linearly with T. It is approximately 10mW/K for 200 N at 1.5K. In some applications, the heat switch can be driven from outside the cryostat by a rotating rod and a screw. Such heat switches are available commercially from several sources. In other applications, including systems for space, it is desirable to drive the switch using a cold linear motor, or solenoid. Superconducting windings are used at temperatures s 4.2K to minimize power dissipation, but are not appropriate for pre-cooling a system at higher temperatures. This project was intended to improve the design of solenoid activated mechanical heat switches and to provide such switches as required to support the development of Advanced Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators for Continuous Cooling from 10 K to 50 mK at GSFC. By the time funding began in 5/1/01, the immediate need for mechanical heat switches at GSFC had subsided but, at the same time, the opportunity had arisen to improve the design of mechanical heat switching by incorporating a "latching solenoid". In this device, the solenoid current is required only for changing the state of the switch and not during the whole time that the switch is closed.

  8. The use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for patients with end-stage renal disease and pre-existing advanced liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupma Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease (ESRD associated with pre-existing advanced liver disease (ALD has increased the risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome following the use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD in ESRD patients with ALD. A retrospective case-controlled study was performed on 16 patients with ALD and ESRD (ESRD-ALD and 27 control patients with ESRD but without liver disease (ESRD; both groups were started on CAPD during the same period. No major complications were observed in either group in the immediate post-surgical period and, after an average break in period of 11.3 days, the cases and controls were started on regular CAPD. The average duration of follow-up was 8 ± 2.3 months in the ESRD-ALD group compared with 20 ± 1.3 months in the ESRD group. The overall peritonitis rates were 1.26/treatment year in the ESRD-ALD group and 0.63 in the ESRD group. The 6- and 12-month survivals among ESRD-ALD patients were 63.75% and 38.75%, respectively. Patients with ESRD-ALD had significantly lower baseline serum protein and albumin levels at the time of initiation of CAPD. On follow-up, the hemoglobin levels improved in both the groups along with an improvement in the serum protein and albumin levels. Fourteen of the 16 ESRD-ALD patients died at the end of the 3-year follow-up period; deaths were due to terminal liver failure in nine patients and peritonitis in five patients. Patients who died in the ESRD-ALD group had lower serum albumin, lower body mass index (BMI (median BMI 18.2 vs. 25.6 and higher grades of liver disease [child Pugh grade B (8, grade C (6 vs. grade B (2] at initiation of CAPD. Our study suggests that CAPD is a safe modality in patients with ESRD-ALD and that it does not carry any major risk for bleeding tendencies, technique failure or worsening of nutritional status. Low serum albumin, lower BMI and higher grade of liver disease at initiation are associated with higher

  9. Mild mental stress in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L;

    1985-01-01

    A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements......--increase in blood-pressure was observed in both groups. In conclusion, we found that even mild mental strain influences SBF in both normal subjects and in diabetics. The induced alterations in the two groups are different, probably because of a slight parasympathetic dysfunction in the diabetics....

  10. Preliminary clinical evaluation of continuous infusion of 5-FU and low dose cisplatin (LFP) combined with radiation therapy for the treatment of advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Morita, Soujiro; Hisa, Nobuaki; Tsuji, Akihito; Takamatsu, Masahiro; Takasaki, Motohiro; Horimi, Tadashi [Kochi Municipal Central Hospital (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    We evaluated the LFP combined with radiation therapy for the treatment of advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer. The patients consisted of 4 inoperable cases, 4 cases in combination with operation, and 5 cases with recurrent tumor. The response rate was 80% (CR2, PR6, NC1 and PD1). We conclude that the LFP combined with radiation therapy was effective and useful for the treatment of advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer. (author)

  11. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-hua LI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is common non-motor symptom (NMS in Parkinson's disease (PD, which affects the patients' quality of life and increases the burden of caregivers. Cognitive dysfunction in PD can be mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia. MCI presents in the early stage of PD and the incidence rate is increasing with the disease progression. In some cases it can advance to dementia. The diagnosis of MCI in PD includes inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and damage level evaluation. Non-pharmacological therapy, such as exercise and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT can improve the symptoms of MCI in PD, while the pharmacological treatment remains to be further studied. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.06.002

  12. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with mandibular advancement appliance over prostheses: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Thais Moura; Colen, Sâmia; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Rossi, Rowdley; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Ferraz, Otávio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) is recommended for mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), primary snoring and as a secondary option for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, because it has better adherence and acceptance. However, edentulous patients do not have supports to hold the MAD. This study aimed to present a possible to OSA treatment with MAD in over complete upper and partial lower dentures. The patient, a 38-year-old female with mild OSA, was treated with a MAD. The respiratory parameter, such as apnea–hypopnea index, arousal index and oxyhemoglobin saturation was improved after treatment. PMID:26483952

  13. Continuing Education for Teacher Educators; Advanced-Level Workshops. Report of a Task Force Meeting (Tokyo, March 13-25, 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The Task Force Meeting on Advanced-Level Workshops for Teacher-Educators, held in Tokyo, examined the preparation of teachers for innovative education in the developing Asian region. Asian educators reported innovative practices and experiences in their own countries. Some major concerns: democratization of education; providing access to…

  14. Continuous versus intermittent tamoxifen versus intermittent/alternated tamoxifen and medroxyprogesterone acetate as first line endocrine treatment in advanced breast cancer : An EORTC phase III study (10863)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beex, L.; Rose, C.; Mouridsen, H.; Jassem, J.; Nooij, M.; Estape, J.; Paridaens, R.; Piccart, M.; Gorlia, T.; Lardenoije, S.; Baila, L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Continuous ligand depletion of endocrine responsive tumours may enhance resistance to therapy. Intermittent treatment with tamoxifen (T) was considered to mimic (incomplete) ligand depletion and reintroduction. Furthermore it was postulated that alternating tamoxifen with a non-cross res

  15. Continuous versus intermittent tamoxifen versus intermittent/alternated tamoxifen and medroxyprogesterone acetate as first line endocrine treatment in advanced breast cancer: an EORTC phase III study (10863).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beex, L.V.A.M.; Rose, C.; Mouridsen, H.; Jassem, J.; Nooij, M.; Estape, J.; Paridaens, R.; Piccart, M.; Gorlia, T.; Lardenoije, S.; Baila, L.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous ligand depletion of endocrine responsive tumours may enhance resistance to therapy. Intermittent treatment with tamoxifen (T) was considered to mimic (incomplete) ligand depletion and reintroduction. Furthermore it was postulated that alternating tamoxifen with a non-cross res

  16. MILD BLEEDERS: DIAGNOSIS IS ELUSIVE IN LARGE NUMBER OF PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinalini kotru

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Background: Bleeding is a common clinical presentation. Even patients with mild bleeding disorders are extensively investigated for ascertaining the cause. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the extent of the possibility of diagnosis in mild bleeding disorders. Material and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients referred for work up of mild bleeding for a period of 13 months. A complete blood count, peripheral smear examination, Prothrombin time, Partial Thromboplastin time and Thrombin Time, Platelet Aggregometry test, tests for von Willebrand’s disease and Platelet function 3 availability were measured. Results: 164 patients presented with mild bleeding, in 114 of the  patients a single site of bleeding was present. Epistaxis was the most common presentation (39%. Cutaneous bleeding (petechiae and purpura was the next common site. History of a major bleeding tendency in the family was present only in 11 patients. The investigations showed that VWD (17/164, followed by clotting disorders (CD mainly mild hemophilia (15/164 were the most common diagnosable cause. There were also 4 cases of hypofibrinogenemia. The disorders of platelets (Platelet function defects/PFD were the least common (9/164. Rest 123 (75% patients could not be diagnosed on the basis of these investigations and were labeled as  Bleeding disorders – Unclassified (BDC. Conclusion: n our study, 75% of the patients with mild bleeding remained undiagnosed even after extensive laboratory workup, thus raising a very pertinent question that is it necessary that all mild bleeders submit to a broad battery of investigations, as the diagnosis continues to be elusive despite extensive workup.

  17. Development of advanced methods for continuous Czochralski growth. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, R. G.; Sibley, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    The three components required to modify the furnace for batch and continuous recharging with granular silicon were designed. The feasibility of extended growth cycles up to 40 hours long was demonstrated by a recharge simulation experiment; a 6 inch diameter crystal was pulled from a 20 kg charge, remelted, and pulled again for a total of four growth cycles, 59-1/8 inch of body length, and approximately 65 kg of calculated mass.

  18. 植物病原性连作障碍研究进展%Advances in Pathogenic Obstacles for Continuous Cropping of Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志怀; 魏林; 李世东; 李基光

    2012-01-01

    作物连作障碍日趋成为影响我国农业可持续发展的重要因素.简要介绍病原性连作障碍的概念,概述了连作栽培条件下根际微生物种群结构变化和根分泌物中碳水化合物及其诱导病原菌种群数量增殖的功能,总结了根分泌物中某些化感物质在增强病原物种群数量中的作用和土壤微生物间的化学通讯分子,展望了今后研究的方向与重点.%The obstacles for continuous cropping of crops had been an important factors which affecting sustainable development of agriculture and forestry in China. The concept of pathogenic obstacles for continuous cropping was briefly introduced at first. Then, the changes in structure of rhizosphere microorganism population, the carbohydrate in root exudates and the function of carbohydrate in root exudates that inducing proliferation of pathogen population under the conditions of continuous cropping were summarized. And then, the effect of soine allelochemicals in root exudates in proliferation of pathogen population and the chemical communication molecular among soil microorganisms were also summarized. In the end, the direction and emphases of the research in the future were prospected.

  19. Effectiveness of Oral Appliance versus Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Treating Patients with Mild to Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis%口腔矫正器和持续正压气道通气治疗轻中度OSAHS疗效比较的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王念; 涂学平; 胡克; 肖锦秀; 郭毅

    2013-01-01

    目的 系统评价口腔矫正器和持续正压气道通气比较治疗轻中度睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)的疗效.方法 计算机检索PubMed、EMbase、The Cochrane Library、CBM、VIP、WanFang Data及CNKI,查找公开发表及未发表的有关口腔矫正器(OA)和持续正压气道通气(CPAP)比较治疗OSAHS疗效的随机对照试验(RCT),检索时限均为建库至2012年11月30日,并查找相关会议论文文献,文种和发表时间不限.由2位评价者根据纳入与排除标准独立筛选文献,提取资料并评价质量后,采用RevMan 5.1软件进行Meta分析,并采用GRADEpr0 3.6软件评价证据质量.结果 最终纳入7个RCT.Meta分析结果显示:①CPAP在改善轻中度OSAHS患者睡眠呼吸暂停低通气指数的作用更显著,其差异具有统计学意义[WMD=9.13,95%CI(8.77,9.50),P<0.000 01];②OA和CPAP在改善轻中度OSAHS患者主观白天嗜睡方面,差异无统计学意义[WMD=0.00,95%CI(-0.12,0.12),P=0.97].结论 与OA相比,CPAP在改善轻中度OSAHS患者睡眠呼吸暂停低通气指数的作用更显著,但在改善患者主观白天嗜睡方面无显著差异.受纳入研究质量与数量所限,上述结论尚需开展更多高质量RCT加以验证.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of oral appliance (OA) vs. continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods The following databases including PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, VIP, WanFang data and CNKI were searched from inception to November 30, 2012 to collect the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on OA vs. CPAP in treating OSAHS. The relevant conference proceedings were also retrieved without limitation of type and publication time. In accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently screened studies, extracted data, and evaluated quality. And then meta-analysis was performed using Rev

  20. 强直性脊柱炎患者延续性护理的研究进展%Advances on continuing care in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳艳; 孔瑞娜

    2016-01-01

    It reviewed the necessity and the present situation of ankylosing spondylitis continuity of care and countermeasure research progress, and explore suitable continuity care model for China′s current system of medical treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. In order to facilitate the development of targeted services, so as to improve the compliance of treatment of ankylosing spondylitis patients, and improve the patients′quality of life.%本文从强直性脊柱炎延续性护理的必要性及现状与对策研究进展进行综述,探讨适合我国当前医疗体制下强直性脊柱炎患者的延续性护理模式。以利于针对性的开展服务,从而提高强直性脊柱炎患者治疗的依从性、改善患者的生命质量。

  1. Investigation of Ischemic Stroke Patients with Mild or Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea-hypopnea Syndrome Treated by Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure%nCPAP治疗伴轻中度OSAHS缺血性卒中患者的随访研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓梅; 于逢春; 孟晓梅; 陈新平; 刘伟; 冯浩; 朱健

    2013-01-01

    月无明显变化(nCPAP组14.3%、14.3%、14.3%、14.3%)(非nCPAP组18.8%、18.8%、18.8%、18.8%),差异无显著性(P值均>0.05)。在第6、12、18、24个月BMI nCPAP组(22.8±1.4、23.1±1.4、22.7±1.4、22.6±1.4)与非nCPAP组(23.3±1.4、23.7±1.6、23.5±1.6、23.0±1.3)差异无显著性(P值均>0.05)。  结论 nCPAP治疗可降低合并轻中度OSAHS缺血性卒中患者的AHI,降低患者ESS评分及改善焦虑状态。%Objective To observe the clinical results of ischemic stroke patients with mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome treated by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Methods Sixty-two cases were selected from March 2008 to March 2010 who suffered acute ischemic stroke. After 90 days, thirty patients with mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome were enrolled into the study by using polysomnography. Then they were divided into two groups by whether using nCPAP or not:one group (14 cases) accepted treatment with nCPAP, while the other group (16 cases) rejected it. The recurrence rate of stroke, apnea hypopnea index (AHI), blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) at the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th month were measured. Results There were no significant differences between two groups in age, sex, diabetes mellitus,hypertension disease, AHI, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, BMI, modiifed Rankin Scale score, ESS, HAD (P value>0.05). There are no recurrent ischemic strokes through two years of observation. The nCPAP group performs better than non-nCPAP group in reducing AHI (nCPAP group AHI:3.9±0.6, 3.8±0.5, 3.9±0.5, 3.8±0.5, non-CPAP group AHI:20.8±4.1, 21.7±4.5, 22.6±4.2, 26.8±6.1, t value 16.2, 15.9, 17.8, 15.0, P value0.05). Conclusion It proves that treatment with nCPAP can reduce AHI, decrease ESS scores, and improve the level of anxiety.

  2. Study on continuous electromagnetic surveys precisely controlled of frequency. Annual report on the field of advancing basic technology in 1996 fiscal year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Toshiki; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Satoshi

    1997-08-01

    This study aims at research and development of a system to control on high precision frequency of electromagnetic energy changing in tangential wave and to send it to underground continuously for long time, on geophysical investigation to analyze underground structure due to observation of underground response to it. By adopting this system, expansion of investigation depth, upgrading of analytical accuracy and miniaturization of investigation appliance were aimed. In 1996 fiscal year, in order to understand features of electromagnetic phenomenon over a wide range, a method to measure underground response to analyze its structure due to electromagnetic induction phenomenon by using comparative low frequency range of some tens Hz to some KHz at transmission frequency and a method to detect micro structure (for example crack, and so on) from transmittance and reflection phenomena by using comparatively high frequency range of some tens MHz to some GHz were investigated by using computer simulation. (G.K.)

  3. Continuous-flow left ventricular assist device support in patients with advanced heart failure: points of interest for the daily management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, S E A; Martina, J R; Kirkels, J H; Klöpping, C; Nathoe, H; Sukkel, E; Hulstein, N; Ramjankhan, F Z; Doevendans, P A F M; Lahpor, J R; de Jonge, Nicholaas

    2012-04-01

    Today, continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs) are implanted more often in patients with end-stage heart failure. Because of greater durability they can be implanted for an extended period of time. As a result of increased numbers of patients on cf-LVAD support, healthcare professionals should be aware of the potential complications inherent to this therapy. Both bleeding and thrombosis may occur, and also complications related either to the device itself or to the ensuing altered haemodynamics, valvular pathology, and rhythm disturbances such as ventricular tachycardias and fibrillation. Accurate clinical evaluation, together with an electrocardiogram and, if necessary, combined with an echocardiogram, is obligatory in these situations. This review summarizes common complications complemented by a few clinical cases.

  4. Withdrawal of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy after Malar Advancement and Le Fort II Distraction in a Case of Apert Syndrome with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuto Onda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apert syndrome is a congenital syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis and craniofacial dysostosis, among other features, and is reported to cause obstructive sleep apnea (OSA because of upper airway narrowing associated with midfacial dysplasia. We recently encountered a case involving a patient with Apert syndrome complicated by OSA who began to receive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy at the age of 4. OSA resolved after maxillofacial surgery performed at the age of 11, and CPAP was eventually withdrawn. In pediatric patients with maxillofacial dysplasia complicated by OSA, a long-term treatment plan including CPAP in addition to maxillofacial plastic and reconstructive surgery should be considered in view of the effects of OSA on growth.

  5. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  6. Langvarigt forbrug af milde analgetika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Nielsen, Ann; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk;

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the negative health effects associated with the use of analgesics, little is known about the prevalence of continuous regular use of analgesics or about the factors associated with their use. The objective of this article is to describe continuous regular use of acetaminophen, ibuprof...

  7. Advance in research on leishmaniasis vaccines (to be continued)%利什曼病疫苗研究进展(待续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙柯; 陈建平

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by different species of the genus Leishmania,and is endemic in 88 countries on a global scale,threatening approximately 350 million people.Chemotherapy is a main mean to treat leishmaniasis at present,but the toxicity and drug resistance hamper its application.Therefore,it is urgent to develop safe and effective leishmaniasis vaccines.In the past decades,numerous antigen candidates of Leishmania have been found,but the research progress in clinical trial has been made only in a few vaccines.The advance in research on leishmaniasis vaccines is reviewed.%利什曼病是一种媒介传播的寄生虫病,由不同种属的利什曼原虫感染引起.利什曼病流行于全球88个国家,约3.5亿人受到威胁.目前治疗利什曼病的主要方法是化学疗法,但毒性和耐药性阻碍了其应用,因此急需开发出一种安全有效的利什曼病疫苗.尽管在过去的几十年,发现了许多利什曼原虫抗原,但仅少部分疫苗在临床试验阶段取得进展.此文就利什曼病疫苗的研究进展进行综述.

  8. Advanced Fabrication of Chemically Bonded Graphene/TiO2 Continuous Fibers with Enhanced Broadband Photocatalytic Properties and Involved Mechanisms Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhe; Bao, Nan; Wang, Xinqiang; Hu, Xinde; Miao, Xinhan; Chaker, Mohamed; Ma, Dongling

    2016-12-01

    In this article, a novel route for the synthesis of graphene/TiO2 continuous fibers (GTF) using force-spinning combined with water vapor annealing method is reported for the first time. The morphology, structure and optical properties of the composite were fully characterized. With a single step of heat treatment process using steam at ambient conditions, we were able to initiate a series of chemical reactions, such as reduction of graphene oxide (GO), crystallization of TiO2, formation of C-Ti bond, and introduction of oxygen vacancies into TiO2. The incorporation of graphene in TiO2 fibers facilitated bandgap narrowing and improved photo-induced charge separation in the photocatalyst. As a result of synergistic effects, TiO2 fibers-2 wt% graphene (2%GTF) showed the highest photocatalytic activities in the degradation of X-3B under UV irradiation, superior to the benchmark photocatalyst P25. Under visible light irradiation, the same catalyst was about 4 times more efficient compared to pure TiO2 fibers (PTF). A detailed study of involved active species (in particular, ·, h+ and ·OH) unraveled the mechanism regarding photocatalysis.

  9. Continuous cofinal maps on ultrafilters

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinen, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    An ultrafilter $\\mathcal{U}$ on a countable base {\\em has continuous Tukey reductions} if whenever an ultrafilter $\\mathcal{V}$ is Tukey reducible to $\\mathcal{U}$, then every monotone cofinal map $f:\\mathcal{U}\\ra\\mathcal{V}$ is continuous when restricted to some cofinal subset of $\\mathcal{U}$. In the first part of the paper, we give mild conditions under which the property of having continuous Tukey reductions is inherited under Tukey reducibility. In particular, if $\\mathcal{U}$ is Tukey ...

  10. Nanobiotechnology advanced antifouling surfaces for the continuous electrochemical monitoring of glucose in whole blood using a lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picher, Maria M; Küpcü, Seta; Huang, Chun-Jen; Dostalek, Jakub; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B; Ertl, Peter

    2013-05-07

    In the current work we have developed a lab-on-a-chip containing embedded amperometric sensors in four microreactors that can be addressed individually and that are coated with crystalline surface protein monolayers to provide a continuous, stable, reliable and accurate detection of blood glucose. It is envisioned that the microfluidic device will be used in a feedback loop mechanism to assess natural variations in blood glucose levels during hemodialysis to allow the individual adjustment of glucose. Reliable and accurate detection of blood glucose is accomplished by simultaneously performing (a) blood glucose measurements, (b) autocalibration routines, (c) mediator-interferences detection, and (d) background subtractions. The electrochemical detection of blood glucose variations in the absence of electrode fouling events is performed by integrating crystalline surface layer proteins (S-layer) that function as an efficient antifouling coating, a highly-oriented immobilization matrix for biomolecules and an effective molecular sieve with pore sizes of 4 to 5 nm. We demonstrate that the S-layer protein SbpA (from Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177) readily forms monomolecular lattice structures at the various microchip surfaces (e.g. glass, PDMS, platinum and gold) within 60 min, eliminating unspecific adsorption events in the presence of human serum albumin, human plasma and freshly-drawn blood samples. The highly isoporous SbpA-coating allows undisturbed diffusion of the mediator between the electrode surface, thus enabling bioelectrochemical measurements of glucose concentrations between 500 μM to 50 mM (calibration slope δI/δc of 8.7 nA mM(-1)). Final proof-of-concept implementing the four microfluidic microreactor design is demonstrated using freshly drawn blood. Accurate and drift-free assessment of blood glucose concentrations (6. 4 mM) is accomplished over 130 min at 37 °C using immobilized enzyme glucose oxidase by calculating the difference between

  11. Should we treat mild subclinical/mild hyperthyroidism? No.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpump, Mark P J

    2011-08-01

    The management of a patient with subclinical hyperthyroidism or mild thyroid over-activity is controversial. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as a serum thyrotrophin (TSH) below the reference range but a normal thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) level in a patient who is either asymptomatic or has only non-specific symptoms. Epidemiological studies report an overall prevalence of approximately 3%, with men and women over 65 years and those in iodine deficient regions having the highest prevalence. Approximately 50% of subjects are taking levothyroxine. The aetiology for those with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease, toxic nodular goitre or rarely a solitary toxic adenoma or thyroiditis. Non-thyroidal illness is an important cause of false positive low serum TSH test results. Subjects with low but detectable serum TSH values (0.1-0.4 mU/L) usually recover spontaneously when re-tested. It has been estimated that in those with an undetectable serum TSH (hyperthyroidism occurs at a rate up to 5% per year. Advocates of intervening for subclinical hyperthyroidism argue that early treatment might reduce mortality, prevent the later development of atrial fibrillation, osteoporotic fractures, and overt hyperthyroidism but data supporting improvement in outcomes are sparse. No appropriately powered prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of intervention for subclinical hyperthyroidism exists. For the vast majority of patients adopting a "wait and see" policy rather than intervention may avoid unnecessary treatment or the potential for harm. Any potential benefits of therapy in subclinical hyperthyroidism must be weighed against the significant morbidity associated with the treatment of hyperthyroidism.

  12. Continuous cofinal maps on ultrafilters

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrinen, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    An ultrafilter $\\mathcal{U}$ on a countable base {\\em has continuous Tukey reductions} if whenever an ultrafilter $\\mathcal{V}$ is Tukey reducible to $\\mathcal{U}$, then every monotone cofinal map $f:\\mathcal{U}\\ra\\mathcal{V}$ is continuous when restricted to some cofinal subset of $\\mathcal{U}$. In the first part of the paper, we give mild conditions under which the property of having continuous Tukey reductions is inherited under Tukey reducibility. In particular, if $\\mathcal{U}$ is Tukey reducible to a p-point then $\\mathcal{U}$ has continuous Tukey reductions. In the second part, we show that any countable iteration of Fubini products of p-points has Tukey reductions which are continuous with respect to its topological Ramsey space of $\\vec{\\mathcal{U}}$-trees.

  13. [Mild brain injuries in emergency medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Niskakangas, Tero; Ohman, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostics and correct classification of mild brain injuries is challenging. Problems caused by insufficient documentation at the acute phase become more obvious in situations in which legal insurance issues are to be considered. A small proportion of patients with mild brain injury suffer from prolonged symptoms. Medical recording and classification of the brain injury at the initial phase should therefore be carried out in a structured manner. The review deals with the diagnostic problems of mild brain injuries and presents a treatment protocol for adult patients at the acute phase, aiming at avoiding prolonged problems.

  14. Selecting Instructional Interventions for Students with Mild Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Marie C.; Dangel, Harry L.; Owens, Sherie H.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses factors involved in selecting appropriate inclusion intervention strategies for students with mild disabilities. Teacher-directed and student-directed interventions include direct instruction, precision teaching, time delay, story maps, advance organizers, student-directed task engagement, student-directed instruction,…

  15. Nonsurgical interventions after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygren-de Boussard, Catharina; Holm, Lena W; Cancelliere, Carol;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the impact of nonsurgical interventions on persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) with terms including "rehabilitation." Inclusion criteria wer...

  16. Kinetics of Atmospheric Corrosion of Mild Steel in Marine and Rural Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Palraj; M.Selvaraj; K.Maruthan; M.Natesan

    2015-01-01

    In continuation of the extensive studies carried out to update the corrosion map of India, in this study, the degradation of mild steel by air pollutants was studied at 16 different locations from Nagore to Ammanichatram along the east coast of Tamilnadu, India over a period of two years. The weight loss study showed that the mild steel corrosion was more at Nagapattinam site, when compared to Ammanichatram and Maravakadu sites. A linear regression analysis of the experimental data was attempted to predict the mechanism of the corrosion. The composition of the corrosion products formed on the mild steel surfaces was identified by XRD technique. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in the light of the weathering parameters, atmospheric pollutants such as salt content & SO2 levels in the atmosphere, corrosion products formed on the mild steel surfaces.

  17. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  18. [Preliminary clinical evaluation of continuous infusion of 5-FU and low-dose Cisplatin (LFP) therapy alone and combined with radiation therapy for treatment of advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Morita, Sojiro; Ohnishi, Takenao; Tsuji, Akihito; Takamatsu, Masahiro; Horimi, Tadashi

    2002-02-01

    We evaluated the clinical effect of 5-FU and low-dose Cisplatin (LFP) therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy in patients with advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer. From March 1995 to September 2000, 11 patients with inoperable esophageal cancer, 8 patients with adjuvant chemotherapy post operation, and 14 patients with recurrent esophageal cancer were treated with LFP therapy. 5-FU (160 mg/m2/day) was continuously infused over 24 hours, and CDDP (3-7 mg/m2/day) was infused for 30 minutes. The administration schedule consisted of 5-FU for 7 consecutive days and CDDP for 5 days followed by a 2-day rest, each for four weeks. We combined radiation therapy for the patients with all lesions that could be included in the radiation field. Of 30 patients with measurable lesions the response rates of LFP therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy were 33% and 60%, respectively. Toxicity over grade 3 appeared in 3 of 15 patients with LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy. There was no significant difference between LFP therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy with regard to survival rate of inoperable and recurrent esophageal cancer. In conclusion, LFP therapy alone may be effective for esophageal cancer.

  19. Preliminary clinical evaluation of continuous infusion of 5-FU and low-dose cisplatin (LFP) therapy alone and combined with radiation therapy for treatment of advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Morita, Sojiro; Ohnishi, Takenao; Tsuji, Akihito; Takamatsu, Masahiro; Horimi, Tadashi [Kochi Municipal Central Hospital, Nankoku (Japan). Cancer Research Center

    2002-02-01

    We evaluated the clinical effect of 5-FU and low-dose Cisplatin (LFP) therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy in patients with advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer. From March 1995 to September 2000, 11 patients with inoperable esophageal cancer, 8 patients with adjuvant chemotherapy post operation, and 14 patients with recurrent esophageal cancer were treated with LFP therapy. 5-FU (160 mg/m{sup 2}/day) was continuously infused over 24 hours, and CDDP (3-7 mg/m{sup 2}/day) was infused for 30 minutes. The administration schedule consisted of 5-FU for 7 consecutive days and CDDP for 5 days followed by a 2-day rest, each for four weeks. We combined radiation therapy for the patients with all lesions that could be included in the radiation field. Of 30 patients with measurable lesions the response rates of LFP therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy were 33% and 60%, respectively. Toxicity over grade 3 appeared in 3 of 15 patients with LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy. There was no significant difference between LFP therapy alone and LFP therapy combined with radiation therapy with regard to survival rate of inoperable and recurrent esophageal cancer. In conclusion, LFP therapy alone may be effective for esophageal cancer. (author)

  20. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  1. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities.

  2. On Some Qualitative Properties of Mild Solutions of Nonlocal Semilinear Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Rupali S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we investigate the qualitative properties such as existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial data of mild solutions of first and second order nonlocal semilinear functional differential equations with delay in Banach spaces. Our analysis is based on semigroup theory and modified version of Banach contraction theorem.

  3. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2007-01-01

    This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several

  4. Neuroimaging biomarkers in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2013-09-01

    Reviewed herein are contemporary neuroimaging methods that detect abnormalities associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Despite advances in demonstrating underlying neuropathology in a subset of individuals who sustain mTBI, considerable disagreement persists in neuropsychology about mTBI outcome and metrics for evaluation. This review outlines a thesis for the select use of sensitive neuroimaging methods as potential biomarkers of brain injury recognizing that the majority of individuals who sustain an mTBI recover without neuroimaging signs or neuropsychological sequelae detected with methods currently applied. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides several measures that could serve as mTBI biomarkers including the detection of hemosiderin and white matter abnormalities, assessment of white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative measures that directly assess neuroanatomy. Improved prediction of neuropsychological outcomes in mTBI may be achieved with the use of targeted neuroimaging markers.

  5. Structural Neuroimaging Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy J; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; Black, Garrett; Christensen, Zachary P; Huff, Trevor; Wood, Dawn-Marie G; Hesselink, John R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Max, Jeffrey E

    2016-09-01

    Common neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC), are reviewed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common abnormalities radiologically identified on the day of injury, typically a computed tomographic scan, are in the form of contusions, small subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhages as well as subdural and epidural collections, edema, and skull fractures. Common follow-up neuroimaging findings with MRI include white matter hyperintensities, hypointense signal abnormalities that reflect prior hemorrhage, focal encephalomalacia, presence of atrophy and/or dilated Virchow-Robins perivascular space. The MRI findings from a large pediatric mTBI study show low frequency of positive MRI findings at 6 months postinjury. The review concludes with an examination of some of the advanced MRI-based image analysis methods that can be performed in the patient who has sustained an mTBI.

  6. Mild disintegration of green microalgae and macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Richard

    2016-01-01

    An increased worldwide protein demand for food and feed and the necessity to release the water soluble proteins in the first stage of the cascade biorefinery require the development of mild protein extraction technologies. Cell disintegration is the first hurdle and is considered as one of the most

  7. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  8. Mild hyperthermia influence on Herceptin (R) properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escoffre, JM; Deckers, RHR; Sasaki, Noboru; Bos, Clemens; Moonen, Chrit

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mild hyperthermia (mHT) increases the tumor perfusion and vascular permeability, and reduces the interstitial fluid pressure, resulting in better intra-tumoral bioavailability of low molecular weight drugs. This approach is potentially also attractive for delivery of therapeutic macromol

  9. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury – Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A mild traumatic brain injury or a concussion represents the majority of all traumatic brain injuries. The consequences show on physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning and even though the injury classifies as mild, it can have a significant effect on a patient, patient’s family and their quality of life. Defects are often overlooked as objective clinical methods are lacking. Neuropsychological evaluation can aid in appraisal of the defect magnitude and determine factors that influence the outcome of the injured. The following case report addresses the importance of neuropsychological evaluation in treating cognitive defects along with the Cognitive Behavioral therapy approach toward emotional and behavioral disorders treatment in mild traumatic brain injury. It has been shown how important it is to find possible causes for slow recovery. The annuity tendencies have been noted as an important factor for prolongation of the post-concussion syndrome. We can detect the symptom simulation with appropriate psychological instruments. Described is a case of 38-year-old man who suffered a mild traumatic brain injury.

  10. Surgical strategy for mild ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cheng-xiong; WEI Hua; YU Yang

    2010-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: We read with the interest the article by FAN Hong-guang and colleagues~1 having obtained outstanding early and long-term clinical outcomes of left ventricular restoration for the patients with postinfarction ventricular aneurysm and low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of mean 37.7%. We would like to comment on surgical strategy for mild ischemic mitral insufficiency.

  11. Ultrastructural changes of reconstructed mandibular condylar cartilage under continuous mandibular advancement%下颌持续前导作用下髁状突软骨改建的超微结构变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 王明国; 杨帅; 高洁; 范园园; 宋岩

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous animal experiments have demonstrated that mandibular advancement can cause the remodeling of temporomandibular joint tissue of young SD rats. This is mainly characterized by accelerated growth rate of the condyle tissue and secondary growth of mandible. But the ultrastructural remodeling of condylar chondrocytes remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE:To observe the histological and ultrastructural variations of reconstructed condylar cartilage of young rats under the effect of continuous mandibular advancement. METHODS:SD rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Rats in the experimental group were subjected to mandibular advancement for 24 hours and sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days of intervention. Condylar cartilage samples were harvested and their histological and ultrastructural changes were observed under optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After 14 days of intervention, the thickness of condylar cartilage in the experimental group increased first and then became thin in the period of observation. The cartilage thickness variations in the postmedian condylar were significant (P < 0.01). After 7 days of intervention, the ultrastructure of condylar chondrocytes was reconstructed, including intracelular karyopyknosis, rough endoplasmic reticulum compartment sweling, smaler even absent lipid droplets, less and irregular microfilaments around the nucleus, broadened and increased extracelular matrix and the emergence of large gaps. These results demonstrate that under continuous mandibular advancement, the rat condylar cartilage wil become thick or thin with the endurance time, and chondrocyte matrix synthesis ability wil be significantly enhanced.%背景:以往的动物实验证明,前导下颌可以导致年轻 SD 大鼠的颞下颌关节组织发生改建,主要表现为髁状突组织的生长速度加快,下颌骨发生继发性生长。但其髁突

  12. Sexsomnia and REM- predominant obstructive sleep apnea effectively treated with a mandibular advancement device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Meira e Cruz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasomnias with sexual behavior or sexsomnias are considered a subtype of NREM parasomnias. Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSAH has been described as a known triggering factor for parasomnias including sexsomnia. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been the standard of treatment for OSAH but mandibular advancement devices (MAD are becoming an important treatment alternative. We present the case of a patient with mild OSAH and sexsomnia who had resolution of both conditions with a MAD. This patient had the added uniqueness of having REM-predominant OSAH

  13. 动脉持续灌注化疗与静脉全身化疗治疗中晚期胰腺癌的疗效分析%A clinical study on continuous transarterial infusion chemotherapy and systemic venous chemotherapy with gemcitabine and 5-fiuorouracil in treating patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the curative effectiveness of continuous transarterial infusion chemotherapy and systemic venous chemotherapy in treating patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, and to evaluate the value of selective continuous transarterial infusion chemotherapy in treating advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods: Of the 51 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemotherapy with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, 25 patients were treated with selective continuous transarterial infusion chemotherapy, 26 were treated with systemic venous chemotherapy, and curative effectiveness was analyzed retrospectively. Curative effectiveness included tumor volume, clinical benefit response (CBR), acute and subacute toxic reactions of antitumor drugs, survival rate and median survival time. Results: The objective effective rate in transarterial group was 32.0% versus 23.1% in systemic group without any significant difference (P = 0.475). Clinical benefit rates in transarterial group and systemic group were 80.0% and 50.0% respectively (P = 0.025). The 6-, 9- and 12-month accumulated survival rates and median survival time in transarterial group were higher than those of the systemic group (P = 0.002), the differences were statistically significant. However, the adverse reactions between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Compared with systemic chemotherapy, continuous transarterial infusion chemotherapy with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil could improve clinical benefit rate and survival time of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, it is safe and reliable, and the adverse reactions is less.

  14. Continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-08-01

    Continuous manufacturing has been applied in many different industries but has been pursued reluctantly in biotechnology where the batchwise process is still the standard. A shift to continuous operation can improve productivity of a process and substantially reduce the footprint. Continuous operation also allows robust purification of labile biomolecules. A full set of unit operations is available to design continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals. Chromatography, the central unit operation, is most advanced in respect to continuous operation. Here, the problem of 'batch' definition has been solved. This has also paved the way for implementation of continuous downstream processing from a regulatory viewpoint. Economic pressure, flexibility, and parametric release considerations will be the driving force to implement continuous manufacturing strategies in future.

  15. 连续护理干预对老年轻度认知障碍病人MMSE、ADL评分的影响%Influence of continuing nursing intervention on MMSE and ADL score of the aged with mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 王玲; 沈曼璇; 文月珍

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探讨连续护理干预对老年轻度认知障碍(MCI)病人简易精神状态评价量表(MMSE)、日常生活能力量表(ADL)评分的影响。[方法]选择老年 MCI 病人40例并随机分为研究组和对照组各20例,在给予两组病人常规药物治疗和护理指导的情况下,研究组实施连续护理干预,并在入院时、住院第4周末对两组病人进行认知功能评价,评价采用 MMSE 量表、ADL 量表。[结果]入院当天,两组病人 MMSE、ADL 评分差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);住院第4周末,研究组 MMSE、ADL 评分明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P 0.05);the total MMSE score and ADL score in study group were higher than that in control group after 4 weeks of intervention (P <0.001).There was statistically significant difference in MMSE score and ADL score between after continuous nursing intervention and on their own admission (P <0.001 ). Conclusion:Continuing nursing intervention is a effective plan for old patients with MCI,which can improve the cognitive abilities and activities of daily life of them.

  16. An Extended Mild-Slope Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Junning; HONG Guangwen; ZUO Qihua

    2000-01-01

    On the assumption that the vortex and the vertical velocity component of the current are small, a mild-slope equation for wave propagation on non-uniform flows is deduced from the basic hydrodynamic equations, with the terms of ( h h)2 and /2h h included in the equation. The terms of bottom friction, wind energy input and wave nonlinearity are also introduced into the equation. The wind energy input functions for wind waves and swells are separately considered by adopting Wen′s (1989) empirical formula for wind waves and Snyder′s observation results for swells. Thus, an extended mild-slope equation is obtained, in which the effects of refraction, diffraction, reflection, current, bottom friction, wind energy input and wave nonlinearity are considered synthetically.

  17. A mild form of Proteus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, M.P.; Allmann, K.H.; Langer, M. [Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Uhl, M. [Sektion Kinderradiologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet (Germany); Darge, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung Kinderradiologie, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome. We report on the clinical and radiological appearances of a boy in order to illustrate the typical signs which include subcutaneous masses, in mild forms partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, and bony abnormalities. We discuss how to make the definitive diagnosis on the basis of using a known rating scale, important aspects of differential diagnosis and clinical features, and diagnostic management. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  18. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  19. Randomized Phase II trial of paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by gemcitabine switch-maintenance therapy versus gemcitabine and carboplatin followed by gemcitabine continuation-maintenance therapy in previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Seigo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, maintenance chemotherapy is increasingly being recognized as a new treatment strategy to improve the outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, the optimal maintenance strategy is still controversial. Gemcitabine is a promising candidate for single-agent maintenance therapy because of little toxicity and good tolerability. We have conducted a randomized phase II study to evaluate the validity of single-agent maintenance chemotherapy of gemcitabine and to compare continuation- and switch-maintenance. Methods Chemonaïve patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to either arm A or B. Patients received paclitaxel (200 mg/m2, day 1 plus carboplatin (AUC 6 mg/mL/min, day 1 every 3 weeks in arm A, or gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin (AUC 5 mg/mL/min, day1 every 3 weeks in arm B. Non-progressive patients following 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy received maintenance gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. (Trial registration: UMIN000008252 Results The study was stopped because of delayed accrual at interim analysis. Of the randomly assigned 50 patients, 49 except for one in arm B were evaluable. Median progression-free survival (PFS was 4.6 months for arm A vs. 3.5 months for arm B (HR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.45–2.27; p = 0.95 and median overall survival (OS was 15.0 months for arm A vs. 14.8 months for arm B (HR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.40–1.51; p = 0.60, showing no difference between the two arms. The response rate, disease control rate, and the transit rate to maintenance phase were 36.0% (9/25, 64.0% (16/25, and 48% (12/25 for arm A vs. 16.7% (4/24, 50.0% (12/24, and 33% (8/24 for arm B, which were also statistically similar between the two arms (p = 0.13, p = 0.32, and p = 0.30, respectively. Both induction regimens were tolerable, except that more patients experienced peripheral neuropathy in arm A. Toxicities during

  20. Brain dysfunction in mild to moderate hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, G E; Pulsinelli, W; Blass, J P; Duffy, T E

    1981-06-01

    Hypoxia is commonly invoked to explain alterations in mental function, particularly in patients with cardiac pulmonary failure. The effects of acute graded hypoxia or higher integrative functions are well documented experimentally in man. Hypoxia in experimental animal models demonstrates that the pathophysiology is complex. In mild to moderate hypoxia, in contrast to severe hypoxia and to ischemia, the supply of energy for the brain is not impaired; cerebral levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenylate energy charge are normal. In contrast, the turnover of several neurotransmitters is altered by mild hypoxia. For example, acetylcholine synthesis is reduced proportionally to the reduction in carbohydrate oxidation. This relationship holds in vitro and with several in vivo models of hypoxia. Pharmacologic and physiologic studies in man and experimental animals are consistent with acetylcholine having an important role in mediating the cerebral effects of mild hypoxia. These observations raise the possibility that treatments directed to cholinergic or other central neurotransmitter systems may benefit patients with cerebral syndromes secondary to chronic hypoxia.

  1. Connecting the Dots: Rediscovering Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Kristin A.; Yates, Rebekah B. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The topic of continuity is typically not introduced until calculus and then reexamined in real analysis. Recognizing the connections between secondary school mathematics and the advanced mathematics studied at the college level allows teachers to better identify mathematical concepts in student ideas, motivate students by piquing their curiosity,…

  2. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  3. Transcranial Doppler Blood Flow Assessment in Patients With Mild Heart Failure: Correlates With Neuroimaging and Cognitive Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, R.L.C.; Oosterman, J.M.; Laman, D.M.; Gouw, A.A.; Schroeder-Tanka, J.M.; Scheltens, P.; Flier, W.M. van der; Weinstein, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac output and cerebral perfusion are reduced in patients with advanced stages of heart failure. Our aim was to determine whether cerebral blood flow velocity measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was reduced in outpatients with mild heart failure in comparison to controls and, if so,

  4. FDG-PET imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R Byrnes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States and is a contributing factor to one third of all injury related deaths annually. According to the CDC, approximately 75% of all reported TBIs are concussions or considered mild in form, although the number of unreported mild TBIs and patients not seeking medical attention is unknown. Currently, classification of mild TBI (mTBI or concussion is a clinical assessment since diagnostic imaging is typically inconclusive due to subtle, obscure, or absent changes in anatomical or physiological parameters measured using standard magnetic resonance (MR or computed tomography (CT imaging protocols. Molecular imaging techniques that examine functional processes within the brain, such as measurement of glucose uptake and metabolism using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET, have the ability to detect changes after mild TBI. Recent technological improvements in the resolution of PET systems, the integration of PET with MRI, and the availability of normal healthy human databases and commercial image analysis software contribute to the growing use of molecular imaging in basic science research and advances in clinical imaging. This review will discuss the technological considerations and limitations of FDG-PET, including differentiation between glucose uptake and glucose metabolism and the significance of these measurements. In addition, the current state of FDG-PET imaging in assessing mild TBI in clinical and preclinical research will be considered. Finally, this review will provide insight into potential critical data elements and recommended standardization to improve the application of FDG-PET to mild TBI research and clinical practice.

  5. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...... in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...

  6. Mild cognitive impairment: safe to drive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirsty; Taylor, John-Paul; Thomas, Alan

    2014-06-01

    Driving is an important aspect of daily living and for many older people provides autonomy and psycho-social benefits. Cognitive impairment has been found to impact driving skills at the level of dementia, however, uncertainty remains around the impact of a diagnosis of the pre-dementia condition mild cognitive impairment. Current official guidelines are unclear, and assessment of fitness to drive can be problematical. This editorial examines current official guidance available to the clinician and problems with existing assessment as well as the current position of research specifically into MCI and driving, and considers future direction for research in this field.

  7. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Xiao-guang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD and a major influencing factor on patients' daily living ability. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a cognitive state between normal aging and dementia, and the living capability of MCI patients relatively remains. MCI often occurs in PD, with its clinical features presenting as the impairment in working memory and (or attention, executive function, language ability, memory and visuospatial function. Here we try to depict the general picture of PD-MCI from the view of epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, imaging and diagnostic criteria.

  8. Semiautomatic MDF deburring tool. [Mild detonating fuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonton, W.L.

    1976-03-31

    A device for semiautomatically deburring the ends of lengths of MDF (mild detonating fuse) was developed by the Automation Development group at Mound Laboratory. The device performs the deburring function by cutting a 0.002 in. x 0.002 in. chamfer on the MDF with small rotating blades. This air-operated, semiautomatic device provides improvement over the manual method of removing burrs by reduction in time and operator strain. A time study is underway to determine the time saved which is expected to be about 75 percent.

  9. Mild behavioral impairment and risk of dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taragano, FE; Allegri, RF; Krupitzki, H; Sarasola, D; Serrano, CM; Loñ, L; Lyketsos, CG

    2009-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia, at least for some patients. Behavioral symptoms in MCI are associated with a higher risk of dementia, but their association with dementia risk in patients without MCI is unknown. Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI) refers to a late life syndrome with prominent psychiatric and related behavioral symptoms in the absence of prominent cognitive symptoms, which may also be a dementia prodrome. Objective To compare MCI and MBI patients and to estimate the risk of dementia development in these two groups. Method A consecutive series of 358 patients (239 with MCI; and 119 with MBI) presenting to an outpatient general hospital specialty clinic were followed for up to 5 years until conversion to dementia or censoring. Results 34% of MCI patients and over 70% of patients with MBI developed dementia (Logrank p=0.011). MBI patients without cognitive symptoms were more likely to develop dementia (Logrank p<0.001). MBI patients were more likely to develop dementia due to frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) as opposed to Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). Conclusion MBI appears to be a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. MBI (specifically those without cognitive symptoms) may confer a higher risk for dementia than MCI and is likely an FTD prodrome in many cases. These findings have implications for the early detection, prevention, and treatment of patients with dementia in late life, by focusing on the emergence of new behavioral symptoms. PMID:19323967

  10. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILD COMBUSTION BURNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the design and development of the Moderate and Intense Low oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion burner using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. The CFD commercial package was used to simulate preliminary designs for the burner before the final design was sent to the workshop for fabrication. The burner is required to be a non-premixed and open burner. To capture and use the exhaust gas, the burner was enclosed within a large circular shaped wall with an opening at the top. An external EGR pipe was used to transport the exhaust gas which was mixed with the fresh oxidant. To control the EGR and exhaust flow, butterfly valves were installed at the top opening as a damper to close the exhaust gas flow at a certain ratio for EGR and exhaust out to the atmosphere. High temperature fused silica glass windows were installed to view and capture images of the flame and analyze the flame propagation. The burner simulation shows that MILD combustion was achieved for the oxygen mole fraction of 3-13%. The final design of the burner was fabricated and ready for the experimental validation.

  11. Management of advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bakel, Adrian B; Chidsey, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) due to progressive systolic dysfunction has become a modern-day epidemic. Despite the increased incidence and prevalence, significant progress has been made in the past 10 to 15 years in the treatment of CHF at all stages. The current outlook for patients with newly diagnosed, mild heart failure is encouraging. It should be noted, however, that most of the morbidity and health care expenditure is incurred by a minority of patients diagnosed with CHF who are in the advanced stages of their disease. The thrust of this article will be to provide practical advice beyond current guidelines on the management of advanced CHF.

  12. 固定化连续发酵研究及应用进展%Advance in the Research on and the Application of the Continuous Fermentation with Immobilized Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾淑丽; 侯红萍

    2012-01-01

    Immobilized continuous fermentation refers to the placement of immobilized cells or immobilized enzyme in certain bioreactor for continuous fermentation.In this paper,the research progress in bioreactor,fermenting technology,and dynamics for immobilized continuous fermentation were elaborated,and the application of immobilized continuous fermentation in different fields was also introduced.%固定化连续发酵是将固定化细胞或固定化酶置于某一生物反应器内进行连续发酵的技术。阐述了固定化连续发酵生物反应器、发酵工艺及动力学的研究,并介绍了该技术在各个领域的应用进展。

  13. Continuing Education for Women: Gaining Institutional Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Alice Elrod

    1975-01-01

    This article advances an array of hypotheses which are suggested as influential in the establishment and development of programs concerned with continuing education for women on a university campus. The hypotheses are examined and critiqued. (Author/EJT)

  14. Existence of mild solutions to partial differential equations with non-instantaneous impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the existence of piecewise-continuous mild solutions for the initial value problems for a class of semilinear evolution equations. These equations have non-instantaneous impulses in Banach spaces and the corresponding solution semigroup is noncompact. We assume that the nonlinear term satisfies certain local growth condition and a noncompactness measure condition. Also we assume the non-instantaneous impulsive functions satisfy some Lipschitz conditions. An example is given to illustrate our results.

  15. Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Arandelovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45 and control group B (n = 20. Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short-acting β2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming (twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months. At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (3.55 vs. 3.65 (p < 0.01, FVC (forced vital capacity (4.27 vs. 4.37 (p < 0.05, PEF (peak expiratory flow (7.08 vs. 7.46 (p < 0.01, and statistically significant decrease of BHR (PD20 0.58 vs. 2.01 (p < 0.001. In Group B, there was a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 3.29 vs. 3.33 (p < 0.05 and although FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were improved, it was not significant. When Groups A and B were compared at the end of the study, there was a statistically significant difference of FVC (4.01 vs. 4.37, FEV1 (3.33 vs. 3.55, PEF (6.79 vs.7.46, and variability (p <0.001, and statistically significantly decreased BHR in Group A (2.01 vs. 1.75 (p < 0.001. Engagement of patients with mild persistent asthma in recreational swimming in nonchlorinated pools, combined with regular medical treatment and education, leads to better improvement of their parameters of lung function and also to more significant decrease of their airway hyperresponsiveness compared to patients treated with traditional medicine

  16. Continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, D

    1987-04-01

    With the rapid advances in medical science and increasing complexities of patient care, the need for continuing medical education (CME) is widely accepted by the profession. CME follows general and higher professional training, and should be a life long process. Teaching hospitals and postgraduate professional institutions play vital roles in organising, promoting, and monitoring this activity. CME directorates should be established. University authorities must recognise the important role of medical teachers in postgraduate and continuing medical education, and the staff establishment and terms of service should be held regularly. Medical libraries should have easy borrowing facilities. Self-assessment and audio-visual material are particularly helpful to the busy practitioner and inexpensive local or regional journals of quality can provide pertinent and up-to-date information. All charges for attending scientific meetings and educational material should be tax deductible or subsidized. The effectiveness of CME is difficult to assess and participation is almost impossible to enforce. Much depends on the standard of medical practice wanted by society. Recertification of general practitioners or specialists poses many problems. On the other hand, completion of self-assessment programmes, active participation at medical meetings, contributions to scientific literature, and membership of medical societies with built-in peer review could be monitored and regularly used to evaluate professional status.

  17. The Characterization of Biological Rhythms in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Ortiz-Tudela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease, present several circadian impairments related to an accelerated perturbation of their biological clock that is caused by the illness itself and not merely age-related. Thus, the objective of this work was to elucidate whether these circadian system alterations were already present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as compared to healthy age-matched subjects. Methods. 40 subjects (21 patients diagnosed with MCI, 74.1 ± 1.5 y.o., and 19 healthy subjects, 71.7 ± 1.4 y.o. were subjected to ambulatory monitoring, recording wrist skin temperature, motor activity, body position, and the integrated variable TAP (including temperature, activity, and position for one week. Nonparametrical analyses were then applied. Results. MCI patients exhibited a significant phase advance with respect to the healthy group for the following phase markers: temperature M5 (mean ± SEM: 04:20 ± 00:21 versus 02:52 ± 00:21 and L10 (14:35 ± 00:27 versus 13:24 ± 00:16 and TAP L5 (04:18 ± 00:14 versus 02:55 ± 00:30 and M10 (14:30 ± 00:18 versus 13:28 ± 00:23. Conclusions. These results suggest that significant advances in the biological clock begin to occur in MCI patients, evidenced by an accelerated aging of the circadian clock, as compared to a healthy population of the same age.

  18. Borderlines between sarcopenia and mild late-onset muscle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna ePalmio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous natural or disease-related alterations occur in different tissues of the body with advancing age. Sarcopenia is defined as age-related decrease of muscle mass and strength beginning in mid-adulthood and accelerating in people older than 60 years. Pathophysiology of sarcopenia involves both neural and muscle dependent mechanisms and is enhanced by multiple factors. Aged muscles show loss in fiber number, fiber atrophy and gradual increase in the number of ragged red fibers and cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers. Generalized loss of muscle tissue and increased amount of intramuscular fat is seen on muscle imaging. However, the degree of these changes vary greatly between individuals and the distinction between normal age-related weakening of muscle strength and clinically significant muscle disease is not always obvious. Because some of the genetic myopathies can present at a very late age and be mild in severity, the correct diagnosis is easily missed. We highlight this difficult borderline zone between sarcopenia and muscle disease by two examples: LGMD1D and myotonic dystrophy type 2. Muscle MRI is a useful tool to help differentiate myopathies from sarcopenia and to reach the correct diagnosis also in the elderly.

  19. Mild desalination of various raw water streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, C K; van den Broek, W B P; Loewenberg, J; Koeman-Stein, N; Heidekamp, M; de Schepper, W

    2015-01-01

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4 Water project (www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is designed to develop commercial applications for mild desalination of brackish raw water streams from various origins to enable reuse in industry or agriculture. This study describes an effective two-stage work process, which was used to narrow down a broad spectrum of desalination technologies to a selection of the most promising techniques for a demonstration pilot at 2-4 m³/hour. Through literature study, laboratory experiments and multi-criteria analysis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis reversal were selected, both having the potential to attain the objectives of E4Water at full scale.

  20. Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEH can be defined as insignificant or not seen on the initial CT scan performed after a trauma but seen on the subsequent CT scan as a “massive” epidural bleeding. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Conclusion. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome.

  1. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS......MCI), nonmemory domains (naMCI), and multiple domains (mdMCI). Linear regression models were used to assess the association between MCI status and mobility performance in the Habitual Gait Speed, Figure of 8 Walk, Short Physical Performance Battery, and self-reported Late Life Function and Disability Instrument......). All MCI subtypes performed significantly worse than No-MCI on all mobility measures (p Figure of 8 Walk (p = .054) and Basic Lower Extremity (p = .11). Moreover, compared with aMCI, mdMCI manifested worse performance on the Figure of 8 Walk and Short...

  2. Existence of mild solutions of second-order neutral functional differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marshal Anthoni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of mild solutions of the nonlinear second-order neutral functional differential and integrodifferential inclusions with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces. The results are obtained by using the theory of strongly continuous cosine families of bounded linear operators and a fixed point theorem for condensing maps due to Martelli.

  3. Memory complaints in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-12-01

    Memory complaints are a frequent phenomenon in elderly individuals and can lead to opportunistic help-seeking behavior. The aim of this study was to compare different aspects of memory complaints (i.e., prospective versus retrospective complaints) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included a total of 115 participants (mean age: 68.82 ± 8.83 years) with SCI (n = 34), aMCI (n = 46), and mild AD (n = 35). Memory complaints were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which consists of 16 items that describe everyday memory failure of both prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory (RM). For aMCI and AD subjects, informants also completed an informant-rating of the PRMQ. All participants completed detailed neuropsychological tests. Results show that PM complaints were equivalent among the three groups. However, RM complaints differed. Specifically, RM complaints in aMCI were higher than SCI, but similar to AD. Informant-reported memory complaints were higher for AD than aMCI. Our study suggests that RM complaints of memory complaints may be helpful in discriminating between SCI and aMCI, but both PM and RM complaints are of limited value in differentiating aMCI from AD.

  4. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

  5. Recent Advances in Chemoenzymatic Peptide Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Yazawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemoenzymatic peptide synthesis is the hydrolase-catalyzed stereoselective formation of peptide bonds. It is a clean and mild procedure, unlike conventional chemical synthesis, which involves complicated and laborious protection-deprotection procedures and harsh reaction conditions. The chemoenzymatic approach has been utilized for several decades because determining the optimal conditions for conventional synthesis is often time-consuming. The synthesis of poly- and oligopeptides comprising various amino acids longer than a dipeptide continues to pose a challenge owing to the lack of knowledge about enzymatic mechanisms and owing to difficulty in optimizing the pH, temperature, and other reaction conditions. These drawbacks limit the applications of the chemoenzymatic approach. Recently, a variety of enzymes and substrates produced using recombinant techniques, substrate mimetics, and optimal reaction conditions (e.g., frozen aqueous media and ionic liquids have broadened the scope of chemoenzymatic peptide syntheses. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in the chemoenzymatic syntheses of various peptides and their use in developing new materials and biomedical applications.

  6. [Efficacy and safety of azithromycin infusion in patients with mild or moderate community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Shingo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yamasaki, Kei; Uchimura, Keigo; Hata, Ryosuke; Tachiwada, Takashi; Oda, Keishi; Hara, Kanako; Suzuki, Yu; Akata, Kentarou; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Tokuyama, Susumu; Inoue, Naoyuki; Nishida, Chinatsu; Orihashi, Takeshi; Yoshida, Yugo; Kawanami, Yukiko; Taura, Yusuke; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Obata, Hideto; Tsuda, Toru; Yoshii, Chiharu; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is one of 15-membered rings macrolide antibiotics with wide spectrum of antimicrobial efficacy for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and also atypical bacteria. So far, there had been no reports of the prospective studies evaluating efficacy and safety of AZM infusion in patients with mild or moderate community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate prospectively the efficacy and safety of AZM in patients with mild or moderate CAP. AZM 500 mg was intravenously administered once daily, and the clinical efficacy were evaluated by clinical symptoms, peripheral blood laboratory findings and chest X-rays. Sixty-four patients were firstly registered, and eventually 61 and 62 patients were enrolled for the evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of AZM, respectively. The efficacy of AZM in 61 patients evaluated was 88.5%. In addition, the efficacies of AZM in each pneumonia severity index by A-DROP system by the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) guideline in CAP were 85.2% in mild and 91.2% in moderate. Furthermore, the efficacy of AZM in each differentiation between suspicion of bacterial pneumonia and that of atypical pneumonia by JRS guideline in CAP were 91.7% in suspicion of atypical pneumonia, and its efficacy was high than that of bacterial pneumonia. Nineteen patients (20 cases; 15 with liver dysfunction, 4 with diarrhea, 1 with vascular pain) out of 62 patients were reported to have possible adverse effects of AZM. All of the patients with these adverse effects demonstrated mild dysfunction and continued AZM treatment, and these dysfunctions normalized soon after cessation of AZM. In conclusion, AZM is effective drug for patients with mild or moderate CAP, and we believe that it may be one of effective choice in the treatment of CAP patients who need hospitalization.

  7. Probabilistic Sequence Learning in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezso eNemeth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI causes slight but noticeable disruption in cognitive systems, primarily executive and memory functions. However, it is not clear if the development of sequence learning is affected by an impaired cognitive system and, if so, how. The goal of our study was to investigate the development of probabilistic sequence learning, from the initial acquisition to consolidation, in MCI and healthy elderly control groups. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task (ASRT to measure probabilistic sequence learning. Individuals with MCI showed weaker learning performance than the healthy elderly group. However, using the reaction times only from the second half of each learning block – after the reactivation phase - we found intact learning in MCI. Based on the assumption that the first part of each learning block is related to reactivation/recall processes, we suggest that these processes are affected in MCI. The 24-hour offline period showed no effect on sequence-specific learning in either group but did on general skill learning: the healthy elderly group showed offline improvement in general reaction times while individuals with MCI did not. Our findings deepen our understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms and time course of sequence acquisition and consolidation.

  8. Mild-split SUSY with flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Latif; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Tsuk, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of a gauge mediated quiver-like model, the standard model flavor texture can be naturally generated. The model - like the MSSM - has furthermore a region in parameter space where the lightest Higgs mass is fed by heavy stop loops, which in turn sets the average squark mass scale near 10-20 TeV. We perform a careful flavor analysis to check whether this type of mild-split SUSY passes all flavor constraints as easily as envisioned in the original type of split SUSY. Interestingly, it turns out to be on the border of several constraints, in particular, the branching ratio of mu -> e gamma and, if order one complex phases are assumed, also epsilon_K neutron and electron EDM. Furthermore, we consider unification as well as dark matter candidates, especially the gravitino. Finally, we provide a closed-form formula for the soft masses of matter in arbitrary representations of any of the gauge groups in a generic quiver-like model with a general messenger sector.

  9. Heterogeneity in executive impairment in patients with very mild Alzheimer's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Gade, Anders; Vogel, A.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of executive impairment in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) has primarily been demonstrated by means of group comparison. Whether executive dysfunction is a common feature of mild AD or only present in a subgroup of patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe...

  10. The transition of mild to severe wear of ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasaribu, H.R.; Sloetjes, J.W.; Schipper, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The transition of mild to severe wear of ceramics depends on the operating conditions (normal load, velocity and temperature) and material properties (like grain size, mechanical and thermal material properties). Adachi et al. [Wear 203¿204 (1997) 291] introduced the transition of mild to severe wea

  11. New corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether for mild steel in 1 M HCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xia, Shuwei; Shan, Mingli; Li, Xia; Yu, Liangmin; Tang, Qunwei

    2016-05-01

    Pursuit of good inhibition performance has been a persistent objective for advanced inhibitor industry. Here we demonstrate the experimental realization of a new corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether (AAME) from N-Methylol acrylamide (N-MAM) for mild steel in 1 M HCl. The resultant adsorption films have inhibition efficiency as high as 96.2%. Moreover, a theoretical investigation is also launched to demonstrate the potential mechanism behind the promising corrosion behaviors. This work represents a significant step forward, as it demonstrates how to make scalable AAME inhibitors as well as to enhance inhibition performances for high-efficiency and cost-effective corrosion inhibition platforms.

  12. Continuous biodisel productions: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Ivica S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous biodiesel production on laboratory and industrial scale was analyzed, with focus on their advantages and disadvantages. Attention was paid to specific characteristics of industrial processes in order to point out the advanced technologies. The well-known base-catalyzed continuous biodiesel production processes are related to problems caused by the immiscibility of the reactants (alcohol and oil, application of relatively high operating temperature (usually the boiling temperature of alcohol or one near it and obtained yield of methyl ester yields lower than desired. One way to overcome these problems is to employ special reactor design favoring the emulsion process and increasing the overall rate of biodiesel production process, even at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The second way is to apply heterogeneous catalysts in continuous processes, which will probably be the optimal approach to economically justified and environmentally friendly biodiesel production.

  13. Default mode, executive function, and language functional connectivity networks are compromised in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Marina; Fukuda, Aya; Massabki, Lilian H P; Lopes, Tatila M; Franco, Alexandre R; Damasceno, Benito P; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio L F

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by mental and cognitive problems, particularly with memory, language, visuospatial skills (VS), and executive functions (EF). Advances in the neuroimaging of AD have highlighted dysfunctions in functional connectivity networks (FCNs), especially in the memory related default mode network (DMN). However, little is known about the integrity and clinical significance of FNCs that process other cognitive functions than memory. We evaluated 22 patients with mild AD and 26 healthy controls through a resting state functional MRI scan. We aimed to identify different FCNs: the DMN, language, EF, and VS. Seed-based functional connectivity was calculated by placing a seed in the DMN (posterior cingulate cortex), language (Broca's and Wernicke's areas), EF (right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and VS networks (right and left associative visual cortex). We also performed regression analyses between individual connectivity maps for the different FCNs and the scores on cognitive tests. We found areas with significant decreases in functional connectivity in patients with mild AD in the DMN and Wernicke's area compared with controls. Increased connectivity in patients was observed in the EF network. Regarding multiple linear regression analyses, a significant correlation was only observed between the connectivity of the DMN and episodic memory (delayed recall) scores. In conclusion, functional connectivity alterations in mild AD are not restricted to the DMN. Other FCNs related to language and EF may be altered. However, we only found significant correlations between cognition and functional connectivity in the DMN and episodic memory performance.

  14. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  15. Time estimation in mild Alzheimer's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelli Paolo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time information processing relies on memory, which greatly supports the operations of hypothetical internal timekeepers. Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET postulates the existence of a memory component that is functionally separated from an internal clock and other processing stages. SET has devised several experimental procedures to map these cognitive stages onto cerebral regions and neurotransmitter systems. One of these, the time bisection procedure, has provided support for a dissociation between the clock stage, controlled by dopaminergic systems, and the memory stage, mainly supported by cholinergic neuronal networks. This study aimed at linking the specific memory processes predicted by SET to brain mechanisms, by submitting time bisection tasks to patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD, that are known to present substantial degeneration of the fronto-temporal regions underpinning memory. Methods Twelve mild AD patients were required to make temporal judgments about intervals either ranging from 100 to 600 ms (short time bisection task or from 1000 to 3000 ms (long time bisection task. Their performance was compared with that of a group of aged-matched control participants and a group of young control subjects. Results Long time bisection scores of AD patients were not significantly different from those of the two control groups. In contrast, AD patients showed increased variability (as indexed by increased WR values in timing millisecond durations and a generalized inconsistency of responses over the same interval in both the short and long bisection tasks. A similar, though milder, decreased millisecond interval sensitivity was found for elderly subjects. Conclusion The present results, that are consistent with those of previous timing studies in AD, are interpreted within the SET framework as not selectively dependent on working or reference memory disruptions but as possibly due to distortions in different

  16. The STAR trial protocol: a randomised multi-stage phase II/III study of Sunitinib comparing temporary cessation with allowing continuation, at the time of maximal radiological response, in the first-line treatment of locally advanced/metastatic Renal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collinson Fiona J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over recent years a number of novel therapies have shown promise in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Internationally the standard of care of first-line therapy is sunitinib™, after a clear survival benefit was demonstrated over interferon-α. Convention dictates that sunitinib is continued until evidence of disease progression, assuming tolerability, although there is no evidence that this approach is superior to intermittent periods of treatment. The purpose of the STAR trial is to compare the standard treatment strategy (conventional continuation strategy, CCS with a novel drug free interval strategy (DFIS which includes planned treatment breaks. Methods/Design The STAR trial is an NIHR HTA-funded UK pragmatic randomised phase II/III clinical trial in the first-line treatment of advanced RCC. Participants will be randomised (1:1 to either a sunitinib CCS or a DFIS. The overall aim of the trial is to determine whether a DFIS is non-inferior, in terms of 2-year overall survival (OS and quality adjusted life years (QALY (averaged over treatment and follow up, compared to a CCS. The QALY primary endpoint was selected to assess whether any detriment in terms of OS could be balanced with improvements in quality of life (QoL. This is a complex trial with a number of design challenges, and to address these issues a feasibility stage is incorporated into the trial design. Predetermined recruitment (stage A and efficacy (stage B intermediary endpoints must be met to allow continuation to the overall phase III trial (stage C. An integral qualitative patient preference and understanding study will occur alongside the feasibility stage to investigate patients’ feelings regarding participation or non-participation in the trial. Discussion The optimal duration of continuing sunitinib in advanced RCC is unknown. Novel targeted therapies do not always have the same constraints to treatment duration as standard chemotherapeutic agents

  17. 我国制浆造纸污染治理科学技术的现状与发展(续)%Advances in Pollution Control Science and Technology of China's Paper Industry ( Continuous )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 曹春昱; 冯文英; 林乔元

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍了我国制浆造纸污染治理科学技术的发展现状,包括近两年我国制浆造纸污染治理科学技术的研发与应用,及其在生产发展中所起的作用和取得的成果;同时从制浆造纸原料结构、污染治理技术研发体系、污染治理装备水平和造纸废水排放标准等几个方面就国内外发展现状进行了分析比较;最后,对我国制浆造纸污染治理科学技术的未来发展趋势,从新型混凝沉淀技术、膜分离技术、高级氧化法和人工湿地技术等新技术方面进行了前景展望,并针对碱法制浆过程、废纸制浆过程以及造纸过程提出了应对当前污染治理科学技术快速发展的相应对策.%This paper mainly introduced the current situation and development of pollution control science and technology in China's paper industry including its research and development, applications and achieved results in recent two years, the differences between China and foreign countries are compared in terms of fiber material structure, pollution control technology research and development, applied equipment and effluent discharge standard. Finally the development trend of China's paper industry pollution control technology is discussed, novel coagulation sedimentation technology, membrane separation technology, advanced oxidation technology, constructed wetland technology and laccase treatment technology in particular. Solutions for pollution control in alkaline pulping process, recycled paper making process and paper making process are put forward.

  18. Evaluation Models for Continuing Education Program Efficacy: How Does Athletic Training Continuing Education Measure up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Restrepo, Jennifer L.; Hughes, Brian J.; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Pitney, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although continuing education is required for athletic trainers (AT) to maintain their Board of Certification credential, little is known regarding its efficacy for advancing knowledge and improving patient care. Continuing professional education (CPE) is designed to provide professionals with important practical learning opportunities.…

  19. Inferential reading abilities of mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, C S; Tierney, R J

    1984-07-01

    The inferential operations of mildly mentally retarded students reading at the intermediate level were investigated using methods based on discourse comprehension theory. We hypothesized that problems encountered in reading by these students are related to difficulties in generating logical inferences. Mildly retarded junior-high students and nonretarded third-grade students of the same reading comprehension level read and recalled a descriptive expository and a narrative passage. On the expository passage mildly retarded students generated the same quantity of inferences as did nonretarded students, but the inferences were qualitatively inferior. On the narrative passage the differences between the two groups were not significant. These findings were discussed in relation to the cognitive functioning of mildly retarded students.

  20. Timing of cholecystectomy after mild biliary pancreatitis: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baal, M.C.P.M. van; Besselink, M.G.; Bakker, O.J.; Santvoort, H.C. van; Schaapherder, A.F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Gooszen, H.G.; Ramshorst, B. van; Boerma, D.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of recurrent biliary events in the period after mild biliary pancreatitis but before interval cholecystectomy and to determine the safety of cholecystectomy during the index admission. BACKGROUND: Although current guidelines recommend performing cholecystectomy earl

  1. Skip the Antibiotics for Mild Eczema in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164083.html Skip the Antibiotics for Mild Eczema in Kids Skin condition cleared ... March 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Despite widespread use, antibiotics are not an effective treatment for milder cases ...

  2. Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects Early head trauma linked to psychiatric, financial issues as adults, study ... HealthDay News) -- Young people who suffer even mild head trauma are more likely to have serious issues later ...

  3. Eplerenone in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure and Mild Symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannad, Faiez; McMurray, John J. V.; Krum, Henry; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Swedberg, Karl; Shi, Harry; Vincent, John; Pocock, Stuart J.; Pitt, Bertram

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mineralocorticoid antagonists improve survival among patients with chronic, severe systolic heart failure and heart failure after myocardial infarction. We evaluated the effects of eplerenone in patients with chronic systolic heart failure and mild symptoms. Methods: In this randomized,

  4. High Tap Density Spherical Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 Cathode Material Synthesized via Continuous Hydroxide Coprecipitation Method for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunyi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherical [Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2](OH2 precursor with narrow size distribution and high tap density has been successfully synthesized by a continuous hydroxide coprecipitation, and Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 is then prepared by mixing the precursor with 6% excess Li2CO3 followed by calcinations. The tap density of the obtained Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 powder is as high as 2.61 g cm−3. The powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscope (SEM, particle size distribution (PSD, and charge/discharge cycling. The XRD studies show that the prepared Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 has a well-ordered layered structure without any impurity phases. Good packing properties of spherical secondary particles (about 12 μm consisted of a large number of tiny-thin plate-shape primary particles (less than 1 μm, which can be identified from the SEM observations. In the voltage range of 3.0–4.3 V and 2.5–4.6 V, Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 delivers the initial discharge capacity of approximately 175 and 214 mAh g−1 at a current density of 32 mA g−1, and the capacity retention after 50 cycles reaches 98.8% and 90.2%, respectively. Besides, it displays good high-temperature characteristics and excellent rate capability.

  5. PSYCHOSENSORIMOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOLERS WITH MILD CASE OF PSEUDOBULBAR DYSARTHRIA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The article covers the research of connection between mental, sensor and motor development, sensorimotor, ideomotor and emotional-motor reactions and also their variations by preschoolers with mild case of pseudobulbar dysarthria. The aim of the research is in theoretical study of specification of psychosensorimotor development of preschoolers with mild case of pseudobulbar dysarthria. Novelty of the research is in substantiation of the theoretical importance of studying psychosensorimotor de...

  6. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress in Adolescence Increases Resilience in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in a...

  7. Mild desalination demo pilot: New normalization approach to effectively evaluate electrodialysis reversal technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel Bisselink

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Key performance indicators for characterization of nanofiltration performance are well developed, similar key performance indicators for electrodialysis reversal are however underdeveloped. Under the E4Water project Dow Benelux BV and Evides Industriewater BV operate a pilot facility to compare both technologies for their application to mildly desalinate a variety of brackish water streams. Normalized pressure drop, normalized current efficiency and normalized membrane resistance proved to be a useful tool to interpret process performance and to initiate a cleaning procedure if required. The availability of these normalized key performance indicators enables optimization and process monitoring and control of electrodialysis reversal independent of the continuously changing conditions of the feed water.

  8. Development of Zn50 Brazing Alloy for Joining Mild Steel to Mild Steel (SAE1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has developed new brazing alloys for joining mild steel to mild steel (SAE1018 at a lower temperature. The alloys blends and error analysis were done by experimental design software (Design Expert 8.0.7.1. Design of experiments was done by Scheffe quadratic mixture method. The liquidus temperatures were predicted by calculation of phase diagrams of the alloying metals. The brazing alloys were produced by gravity technique and melted using silicon carbide graphite crucible. The quality of the brazing alloys was analyzed by optical microscopy (OM, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Brazed joints were produced by torch method with a commercial flux. Brazing temperatures (liquidus were tracked by a digital infrared/laser pyrometer. Some mechanical properties studied were tensile strength and hardness. Finally, brazed joints produced from the developed brazing alloys were compared to that produced from muntz brass. Six (6 brazing alloys were successfully developed. Zinc and manganese were the main components, to which were added; 3 to 4 %wt silver and 11 to15 %wt modifying element. The microstructure showed a typical eutectic structure with zinc-rich phase distributed uniformly in the matrix with a combination of different sizes of dendrite, rounded blocks of compounds and hypoeutectic structures. AAS results indicated minimal out-gassing of zinc and FT-IR results indicated very low presence of atmospheric gas. The range of brazing temperature for best results was recorded from 690.90 to 735.10 0C. The joints produced from the developed brazing alloys had acceptable strengths with improved stress-strain behaviour compared to muntz brass.

  9. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  10. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  11. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  12. Diagnosis advances in vascular cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhou; Zhong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment(VCI) encompasses the entire range of cognitive deficits associated with cerebrovascular disease(CVD), from mild deficits with little or no functional impairment, such as vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia(VCIND), to full-blown vascular dementia(VaD). Accurate diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment is important but may be difficult. In this review we report advances in VCI in the following areas: etiology, subtypes, neuropsychology, biomarkers, neuroimaging, and diagnostic criteria.

  13. Business Continuity Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    global philosophy which includes terminology from ISO 22301:2012, the International Standard for business continuity management systems (BCI, 2014b...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLAN December 2014...

  14. Chronic mild stress impact: are females more vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, C; Antoniou, K; Drossopoulou, G; Xagoraris, M; Kokras, N; Sfikakis, A; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z

    2005-01-01

    Despite the knowledge that women are more susceptible than men to stress-related mental illness, such as major depression, there is no comprehensive estimation of the role of gender in the detrimental effects of chronic stress that might cause depression. Sex differences regarding the association of behavioral parameters with serotonergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activities were investigated in the chronic mild stress model of depression. Additionally, the impact of chronic mild stress exposure on an additional/novel short-term stressful procedure, such as the forced swim test was examined in male and female rats. Female rats were found to be more vulnerable to chronic mild stress and that was depicted with disruption of sucrose intake, decreases in open field activity, increased corticosterone levels, alteration in estrous cycle and decreased serotonergic activity in hippocampus and hypothalamus. On the contrary, in males the current chronic mild stress protocol elicited only behavioral changes, such as disruption in sucrose intake and decreased open field activity. Interestingly, in response to forced swim test, females previously subjected to chronic mild stress, were found to cope better by exhibiting increased active behavior in the second forced swim test session and higher hypothalamic serotonergic activity in comparison with corresponding males. On the other hand, males were more affected by previous chronic mild stress exposure and that was manifested by decreased active behavior in the first forced swim test session and increased corticosterone levels following second forced swim test session. These data indicate that although females are more vulnerable in the application of chronic mild stress than males, in response to an additional-novel stressor (forced swim test) they show better response. Therefore, both sex/gender and combination of stressful procedures should be carefully considered in the study of the pathophysiology of stress

  15. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-10-29

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  16. Discretization of Continuous Frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Fattahi; H Javanshiri

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we consider the notion of continuous frame of subspaces and define a new concept of continuous frame, entitled continuous atomic resolution of identity, for arbitrary Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$ which has a countable reconstruction formula. Among the other results, we characterize the relationship between this new concept and other known continuous frames. Finally, we state and prove the assertions of the stability of perturbation in this concept.

  17. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  18. Plants under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments wer

  19. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  20. Continuing Higher Education: Reflections on Leadership and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1991-01-01

    The fragmented field of continuing education may lack leaders because of the lack of a single model of practice. Preserving the diversity of the field may require spokespersons rather than leaders. Career success in continuing higher education may depend on commitment to continuing education itself, to administrative advancement, or to a vision of…

  1. Should mild COPD be treated? Evidence for early pharmacological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbehairy, Amany F; Webb, Katherine A; Neder, J Alberto; Alberto Neder, J; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2013-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and often progressive inflammatory disease of the airways that is both preventable and treatable. It is well established that those with mild-to-moderate disease severity represent the majority of patients with COPD, yet this subpopulation is relatively under-studied. Because of an insidious pre-clinical phase, COPD is both under-diagnosed and under-treated. Recent studies have confirmed that even patients with mild, grade 1 COPD [i.e. those with a reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio but normal FEV1], have measurable physiological impairment with increased morbidity and a higher risk of mortality compared with non-smoking healthy controls. Beyond the imperative of smoking cessation-the pivotal intervention in all COPD stages-the role of pharmacotherapy for prevention of disease progression has yet to be established. The main objective of this review is to provide a concise overview of the heterogeneous pathophysiology of COPD with only mild airway obstruction on spirometry and obstacles for early diagnosis. We emphasize that the absence of sufficiently powered trials involving a large number of patients precludes definitive recommendations in support of (or against) long-term pharmacological treatment in mild COPD. Despite these limitations, we present a rationale for earlier pharmacological intervention derived from recent physiological studies performed in symptomatic patients with mild COPD.

  2. Biomarkers for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Gago, Belén; Navalpotro-Gomez, Irene; Jiménez-Urbieta, Haritz; Rodriguez-Oroz, María C

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive decline is one of the most frequent and disabling nonmotor features of Parkinson's disease. Around 30% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience mild cognitive impairment, a well-established risk factor for the development of dementia. However, mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is a heterogeneous entity that involves different types and extents of cognitive deficits. Because it is not currently known which type of mild cognitive impairment confers a higher risk of progression to dementia, it would be useful to define biomarkers that could identify these patients to better study disease progression and possible interventions. In this sense, the identification among patients with Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment of biomarkers associated with dementia would allow the early detection of this process. This review summarizes studies from the past 25 years that have assessed the potential biomarkers of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease patients. Despite the potential importance, no biomarker has as yet been validated. However, features such as low levels of epidermal and insulin-like growth factors or uric acid in plasma/serum and of Aß in CSF, reduction of cerebral cholinergic innervation and metabolism measured by PET mainly in posterior areas, and hippocampal atrophy in MRI might be indicative of distinct deficits with a distinct risk of dementia in subgroups of patients. Longitudinal studies combining the existing techniques and new approaches are needed to identify patients at higher risk of dementia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Mesostructured sillicate-based materials : studies on mild detemplation methods and advanced characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    De focus van dit proefschrift ligt in het ontwikkelen van een betere detemplatie methode om geordende mesoporeuze materialen (OMM) te verkrijgen met een verbeterde porositeit en stabiliteit. Er is begonnen met een systematische onderzoek naar een twee staps detemplatie methode voor SBA-15 (Hoofdstuk

  4. LANL continuity of operations plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senutovitch, Diane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-22

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier national security research institution, delivering scientific and engineering solutions for the nation's most crucial and complex problems. Our primary responsibility is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. LANL emphasizes worker safety, effective operational safeguards and security, and environmental stewardship, outstanding science remains the foundation of work at the Laboratory. In addition to supporting the Laboratory's core national security mission, our work advances bioscience, chemistry, computer science, earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. To accomplish LANL's mission, we must ensure that the Laboratory EFs continue to be performed during a continuity event, including localized acts of nature, accidents, technological or attack-related emergencies, and pandemic or epidemic events. The LANL Continuity of Operations (COOP) Plan documents the overall LANL COOP Program and provides the operational framework to implement continuity policies, requirements, and responsibilities at LANL, as required by DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, May 2008. LANL must maintain its ability to perform the nation's PMEFs, which are: (1) maintain the safety and security of nuclear materials in the DOE Complex at fixed sites and in transit; (2) respond to a nuclear incident, both domestically and internationally, caused by terrorist activity, natural disaster, or accident, including mobilizing the resources to support these efforts; and (3) support the nation's energy infrastructure. This plan supports Continuity of Operations for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This plan issues LANL policy as directed by the DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, and provides direction for the orderly continuation of LANL EFs for 30 days of closure or 60 days for a pandemic/epidemic event. Initiation of COOP operations may

  5. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised, controlled, rater blinded trial. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics in five...... Danish districts. PARTICIPANTS: 330 outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their 330 primary care givers. INTERVENTIONS: Participating dyads (patient and primary care giver) were randomised to control support during follow-up or to control support plus DAISY intervention (multifaceted and semi...... for attrition (P = 0.0146 and P = 0.0103 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The multifaceted, semi-tailored intervention with counselling, education, and support for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their care givers did not have any significant effect beyond that with well structured follow-up support at 12...

  6. Simulation of MILD combustion using Perfectly Stirred Reactor model

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Z.

    2016-07-06

    A simple model based on a Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) is proposed for moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion. The PSR calculation is performed covering the entire flammability range and the tabulated chemistry approach is used with a presumed joint probability density function (PDF). The jet, in hot and diluted coflow experimental set-up under MILD conditions, is simulated using this reactor model for two oxygen dilution levels. The computed results for mean temperature, major and minor species mass fractions are compared with the experimental data and simulation results obtained recently using a multi-environment transported PDF approach. Overall, a good agreement is observed at three different axial locations for these comparisons despite the over-predicted peak value of CO formation. This suggests that MILD combustion can be effectively modelled by the proposed PSR model with lower computational cost.

  7. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K

    2000-07-01

    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  8. Do epigenetic events take place in the vastus lateralis of patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Puig-Vilanova

    Full Text Available Muscle dysfunction is a major comorbidity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. Several biological mechanisms including epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function in models of muscle atrophy. Investigations conducted so far have focused on the elucidation of biological mechanisms involved in muscle dysfunction in advanced COPD. We assessed whether the epigenetic profile may be altered in the vastus lateralis of patients with mild COPD, normal body composition, and mildly impaired muscle function and exercise capacity. In vastus lateralis (VL of mild COPD patients with well-preserved body composition and in healthy age-matched controls, expression of DNA methylation, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone acetyltransferases (HTAs and deacetylases (HDACs, protein acetylation, small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO ligases, and muscle structure were explored. All subjects were clinically evaluated. Compared to healthy controls, in the VL of mild COPD patients, muscle function and exercise capacity were moderately reduced, DNA methylation levels did not differ, miR-1 expression levels were increased and positively correlated with both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and quadriceps force, HDAC4 protein levels were increased, and muscle fiber types and sizes were not different. Moderate skeletal muscle dysfunction is a relevant feature in patients with mild COPD and preserved body composition. Several epigenetic events are differentially expressed in the limb muscles of these patients, probably as an attempt to counterbalance the underlying mechanisms that alter muscle function and mass. The study of patients at early stages of their disease is of interest as they are a target for timely therapeutic interventions that may slow down the course of the disease and prevent the deleterious effects of major comorbidities.

  9. Comparison between characteristics of mild slope equations and Boussinesq equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Boussinesq-type equations and mild-slope equations are compared in terms of their basic forms and characteristics. It is concluded that linear mild-slope equations on dispersion relation are better than non-linear Boussinesq equations. In addition, Berkhoff experiments are computed and compared by the two models, and agreement between model results and available experimental data is found to be quite reasonable, which demonstrates the two models' capacity to simulate wave transformation. However they can deal with different physical processes respectively, and they have their own characteristics.

  10. Farmakologisk behandling af mild ukompliceret hypertension i almen praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Maja Skov; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Denmark, patients with hypertension are primarily managed in primary care. A recent Cochrane review concluded that pharmacotherapy of patients with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-159 mmHg; diastolic blood...... pressure 90-99 mmHg; no diabetes or cardiovascular disease) did not reduce mortality or morbidity. The evidence for pharmacotherapy in patients having mild/uncomplicated hypertension is weak. However, current Danish guidelines have taken this into consideration in their recommendations of pharmacotherapy...

  11. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Michael J; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an imp...

  12. Prognosis in patients with cirrhosis and mild portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2006-01-01

    HVPG has been sparse. In this study, long-term survival and the risk of complications in mild portal hypertension were analysed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-one patients with cirrhosis and HVPG below 10 mmHg were included in the study. Data were collected from medical files and National Patient...... with that in the background population. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of complications in patients with mild portal hypertension is considerable, and guidelines for follow-up or medical prophylaxis are warranted. The risk of bleeding from oesophageal varices is low and bleeding-related deaths rare....

  13. Finding even more anthropogenic indicators in mildly prepared sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Renée; Odgaard, Bent Vad

    2016-01-01

    NPPs in anthropogenic soils and archaeological samples are often numerous in types as well as in abundance. Preparing these soil samples with methods based on acid digestion holds the potential of severe bias leaving the NPP assemblages devoid of acid vulnerable NPPs. In many cases it might...... be worth the effort to prepare the NPP samples with as mild a preparation method as possible. We have mildly prepared NPP samples from a small forest hollow, Tårup Lund, Denmark. From the recovered NPP assemblages we attempt identifying anthropogenic indicators by comparing to the environmental information...... indicators, pastoral/agricultural activity...

  14. Perforated Hepatic Hydatid Cyst into the Peritoneum with Mild Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dirican

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rupture into the abdominal cavity is a rare but serious complication of hydatid disease that necessitates emergency surgical intervention. We present herein a case with mild abdominal symptoms due to hydatid cyst rupture into the peritoneum after trauma. A 24-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with mild abdominal pain. His symptoms had started after a fall four days earlier. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed cystic lesions in the liver and peritoneum with intraabdominal free fluid. He was treated surgically with partial cystectomy and falciformoplasty. Postoperative albendazole therapy was given for two months. There was not recurrence four months postoperatively at control computed tomography.

  15. [Adults with mild mental retardation and intelligence tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2015-01-01

    One of the criteria for mild mental retardation is a total level of less than 70 IQ points measured by an intelligence test. The results of intelligence tests are approximate. There are differences in the norms of test versions, and measurement error must be taken into account in individual testing. A total level of 80 measured by adult tests utilized in Finland does not exclude the possibility of mild mental retardation, and a total level of 60 does not confirm it. The test performance should be compared with other measures, such as school and work history, practical functional capacity and previous test results.

  16. Advances in Modern Capacitive ECG Systems for Continuous Cardiovascular Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schommartz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of capacitive electrocardiography (cECG is very promising in a flexible manner. Already integrated into several everyday objects, the single lead cECG system has shown that easy-to-use measurements of electrocardiograms are possible without difficult preparation of the patients. Multi-channel cECG systems enable the extraction of ECG signals even in the presence of coupled interferences, due to the additional redundant information. Thus, this paper presents challenges for electronic hardware design to build on developments in recent years, going from the one-lead cECG system to multi-channel systems in order to provide robust measurements - e.g. even while driving an automobile.

  17. Addressing Continuing Mathematical Deficiencies with Advanced Mathematical Diagnostic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael; Murphy, Eoin; Bowe, Brian; Ni Fhloinn, Eabhnat

    2013-01-01

    Dublin Institute of Technology offers students a number of different routes into engineering, allowing many non-standard entrants the opportunity to study the discipline provided they fulfil certain criteria. The final aim of many of these students is to achieve an Honours Degree in Engineering, which takes a minimum of 4 years. Apart from the…

  18. Continuity in Discrete Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Continuous models used in physics and other areas of mathematics applications become discrete when they are computerized, e.g., utilized for computations. Besides, computers are controlling processes in discrete spaces, such as films and television programs. At the same time, continuous models that are in the background of discrete representations use mathematical technology developed for continuous media. The most important example of such a technology is calculus, which is so useful in physics and other sciences. The main goal of this paper is to synthesize continuous features and powerful technology of the classical calculus with the discrete approach of numerical mathematics and computational physics. To do this, we further develop the theory of fuzzy continuous functions and apply this theory to functions defined on discrete sets. The main interest is the classical Intermediate Value theorem. Although the result of this theorem is completely based on continuity, utilization of a relaxed version of contin...

  19. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  20. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  1. Training for advanced endoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, Matthew E; Draganov, Peter V

    2016-06-01

    Advanced endoscopy has evolved from diagnostic ERCP to an ever-increasing array of therapeutic procedures including EUS with FNA, ablative therapies, deep enteroscopy, luminal stenting, endoscopic suturing and endoscopic mucosal resection among others. As these procedures have become increasingly more complex, the risk of potential complications has also risen. Training in advanced endoscopy involves more than obtaining a minimum number of therapeutic procedures. The means of assessing a trainee's competence level and ability to practice independently continues to be a matter of debate. The use of quality indicators to measure performance levels may be beneficial as more advanced techniques and procedures become available.

  2. Advanced ferroelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Blinc, R

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the field of ferroelectricity have implications both for basic physics and for technological applications such as memory devices, spintronic applications and electro-optic devices, as well as in acoustics, robotics, telecommunications and medicine. This book provides an account of recent developments in the field.

  3. Let Continuous Outcome Variables Remain Continuous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complementary log-log is an alternative to logistic model. In many areas of research, the outcome data are continuous. We aim to provide a procedure that allows the researcher to estimate the coefficients of the complementary log-log model without dichotomizing and without loss of information. We show that the sample size required for a specific power of the proposed approach is substantially smaller than the dichotomizing method. We find that estimators derived from proposed method are consistently more efficient than dichotomizing method. To illustrate the use of proposed method, we employ the data arising from the NHSI.

  4. ISOMAP induced manifold embedding and its application to Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin

    2012-04-04

    Neuroimaging data are high dimensional and thus cumbersome to analyze. Manifold learning is a technique to find a low dimensional representation for high dimensional data. With manifold learning, data analysis becomes more tractable in the low dimensional space. We propose a novel shape quantification method based on a manifold learning method, ISOMAP, for brain MRI. Existing work applied another manifold learning method, multidimensional scaling (MDS), to quantify shape information for distinguishing Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal. We enhance the existing methodology by (1) applying it to distinguish mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal, (2) adopting a more advanced manifold learning technique, ISOMAP, and (3) showing the effectiveness of the induced low dimensional embedding space to predict key clinical variables such as mini mental state exam scores and clinical diagnosis using the standard multiple linear regression. Our methodology was tested using 25 normal, 25 AD, and 25 MCI patients.

  5. Implementation of Segmentation Methods for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoug, S.; Abdel-Dayem, A.

    2012-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting seniors age 65 and over. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with behavioural assessments and cognitive tests, often followed by a brain scan. Advanced medical imaging is a good tool to predict conversion from prodromal stages (mild cognitive impairment) to Alzheimer's disease. Since volumetric MRI can detect changes in the size of brain regions, measuring those regions that atrophy during the progress of Alzheimer's disease can help the neurologist in his diagnostic. In the present investigation, we present an automatic tool that reads volumetric MRI and performs 2-dimensional (volume slices) and volumetric segmentation methods in order to segment gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used the MRI data sets database from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS).

  6. Residential Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    The theme of this discursive essay is residential continuing education: its definition, its development along somewhat different lines in Europe and in America, and its practice in university centers in the United States. Continuing education includes any learning or teaching program that is based on the assumptions that the learners have studied…

  7. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

  8. Alcohol consumption and mortality in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Sine; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and mortality in patients recently diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: A post hoc analysis study based on a clinical trial population. SETTING: The data reported were collected as part of the Danish Alzheimer...

  9. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...

  10. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  11. Human Capability, Mild Perfectionism and Thickened Educational Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for a mild perfectionism in applying Amartya Sen's capability approach for an education transformative of student agency and well-being. Key to the paper is the significance of education as a process of being and becoming in the future, and education's fundamental objective of a positively changed human being. The capability…

  12. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  13. Numerical Magnitude Processing in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquiere, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children…

  14. FAST Science: Teaching Science to Adolescents with Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Joyce; Serna, Loretta A.

    1995-01-01

    FAST I (Foundational Approach to Science Teaching I) is an inquiry and inductive-reasoning approach to learning physical science, ecology, and relational study. The program was successfully adapted for middle school students with mild disabilities. Teacher preparation, classroom groupings, behavior management procedures, evaluation, and…

  15. Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

  16. Consumer attitudes towards hypoallergenic apples that alleviate mild apple allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana a

  17. Bias-corrected estimation in potentially mildly explosive autoregressive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haufmann, Hendrik; Kruse, Robinson

    that the indirect inference approach oers a valuable alternative to other existing techniques. Its performance (measured by its bias and root mean squared error) is balanced and highly competitive across many different settings. A clear advantage is its applicability for mildly explosive processes. In an empirical...

  18. A Selective and Mild Synthetic Route to Dialkyl Phosphates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Johanna M.; Hulst, Ron; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    2003-01-01

    A very mild synthetic route to dialkyl phosphates is described. Reaction of the appropriate alcohol with PCl3 followed by treatment with pyridine and CCl4 afforded the corresponding trichloromethyl ester. Subsequent reaction with the triethylamine salt of acetic acid followed by hydrolysis of the fo

  19. Mild Solutions of Neutral Stochastic Partial Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Govindan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the existence and uniqueness of a mild solution for a neutral stochastic partial functional differential equation using a local Lipschitz condition. When the neutral term is zero and even in the deterministic special case, the result obtained here appears to be new. An example is included to illustrate the theory.

  20. Predictors of functional disability in mild cognitive impairment and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, M. E.; Koek, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Knowledge about factors predicting functional disability in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia would help health care providers to identify those patients who are at high risk of functional disability. Previous research is scarce and focused on only a small number of possible pre

  1. ADHD Symptoms in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Wood, Nicky; Gringras, Paul; Chadwick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability. Method: From a general population sample of 2,726 12- to 15-year-olds, a stratified subsample was selected to enrich for…

  2. Selenium and the Course of Mild Graves' Orbitopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Marcocci; G.J. Kahaly; G.E. Krassas; L. Bartalena; M. Prummel; M. Stahl; M.A. Altea; M. Nardi; S. Pitz; K. Boboridis; P. Sivelli; G. von Arx; M.P. Mourits; L. Baldeschi; W. Bencivelli; W. Wiersinga

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxygen free radicals and cytokines play a pathogenic role in Graves' orbitopathy. Methods We carried out a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of selenium (an antioxidant agent) or pentoxifylline (an antiinflammatory agent) in 159 patients with mild

  3. Learning capacity in adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiekstra, Marlous; Hessels, Marco G P; Minnaert, Alexander E M G

    2009-01-01

    Scores on a learning potential test (the Hessels Analogical Reasoning Test) were examined to assess how to provide a better estimate of the learning capacity of students with mild intellectual disabilities compared to IQ scores. As a criterion, a dynamic test of chemistry learning was used. 46 adole

  4. An update on topical therapies for mild-moderate psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapies are the mainstream treatment of psoriasis because most patients have mild disease. First-line treatments are vitamin D derivatives and corticosteroids. These treatments are usually given in combination schedules. For topical treatments the selection of the most appropriate vehicle

  5. Heterogenous mechanisms of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD-MCI) shows heterogeneity in the clinical presentation, neuropsychology, neuroimaging, and neuropathology, suggesting abnormal metabolic network activities involving several cortical and subcortical systems. Prospective studies using specific biomarkers, including amyloid imaging and CSF biomarkers are important for the diagnosis and prognostic assessment of early cognitive deficits in PD patients.

  6. Existence and Uniqueness of Mild Solution for Fractional Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guérékata GastonM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of a class of nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations , , , in a Banach space , where . New results are obtained by fixed point theorem. An application of the abstract results is also given.

  7. Meeting the Needs of a Child with Mild Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhool, Nancy; Ginn, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    The article describes the diagnostic prescriptive teacher program, an organizational model designed to provide help within the regular classroom for children with mild learning problems. The key to the program is the diagnostic prescriptive teacher, a school-based specialist who combines diagnostic and consultative work in assisting the regular…

  8. 双膜法在防伪纸生产废水深度处理与回用中的应用%Application of Continuous Membrane Filtration and Reverse Osmosis to Advanced Treatment and Reuse of Anti-counterfeit Paper Mill Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建立; 戴海平; 董廷尉; 柯永文

    2011-01-01

    针对防伪纸厂废水处理站的二沉池出水,采用中试规模的连续膜过滤(CMF)/反渗透(RO)集成工艺进行深度处理,以期能够满足回用的要求.结果表明,超滤膜有较强的抗污染能力,其过滤出水浊度<0.5 NTU,SS值基本为零,SDI值<3,完全能够满足RO的进水要求;RO产水COD平均为1.7 mg/L,电导率为10 μS/cm,满足防伪纸生产工艺回用水质的要求.采用双膜法深度处理防伪纸生产废水并回用具有工程可行性.%A pilot-scale combined process of continuous membrane filtration (CMF) and reverse osmosis was used for advanced treatment of secondary sedimentation tank effluent in an anti-counterfeit paper mill to meet the wastewater reuse requirement. The results show that the CMF permeate satisfies all requirements of RO influent due to its high anti-pollution capacity, turbidity of less than 0.5 NTU, SS of about zero and SDI of less than 3. RO permeate meets the requirements of water quality for paper manufacturing because its permeate COD is 1.7 mg/L, and the conductivity is less than 10 μS/cm. The combined process for advanced treatment and reuse of anti-counterfeit paper mill wastewater is feasible in engineering application.

  9. Activity restriction in mild COPD: a challenging clinical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnell DE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Denis E O'Donnell,1 Kevin B Gebke2 1Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Respiratory Investigation Unit, Queen's University and Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care Sports Medicine Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and activity restriction are already apparent in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, patients may not seek medical help until their symptoms become troublesome and persistent and significant respiratory impairment is already present; as a consequence, further sustained physical inactivity may contribute to disease progression. Ventilatory and gas exchange impairment, cardiac dysfunction, and skeletal muscle dysfunction are present to a variable degree in patients with mild COPD, and collectively may contribute to exercise intolerance. As such, there is increasing interest in evaluating exercise tolerance and physical activity in symptomatic patients with COPD who have mild airway obstruction, as defined by spirometry. Simple questionnaires, eg, the modified British Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and the COPD Assessment Test, or exercise tests, eg, the 6-minute or incremental and endurance exercise tests can be used to assess exercise performance and functional status. Pedometers and accelerometers are used to evaluate physical activity, and endurance tests (cycle or treadmill using constant work rate protocols are used to assess the effects of interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. In addition, alternative outcome measurements, such as tests of small airway dysfunction and laboratory-based exercise tests, are used to measure the extent of physiological impairment in individuals with persistent dyspnea. This review describes the mechanisms of exercise limitation in patients with mild COPD and the interventions that can potentially improve exercise tolerance. Also discussed are the

  10. Learning and using technology in intertwined processes: a study of people with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lena; Nygård, Louise

    2014-09-01

    People with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are likely to be challenged by the multitude of everyday technology in today's society. The aim of this study was to explore how they try to prohibit, avoid or solve problems in everyday technology use, maintain skills, and learn to use new technology. To explore how the participants applied and reasoned about using everyday technology in real-life situations interviews were conducted while the participants used their own technology in their homes. Interviews were conducted with 20 participants with mild cognitive impairment (n = 10) or Alzheimer's disease (n = 10). The analyses were inspired from grounded theory and resulted in one core category and three sub-categories that represent sub-processes in the core. The core finding presents a continuous, intertwined process of learning and using everyday technology, highlighting how the context was interwoven in the processes. The participants used a rich variety of management strategies when approaching technology, including communication with the everyday technologies on different levels. The findings underscore that it is important to support continued use of everyday technology as long as it is valued and relevant to the person with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. The intertwined process of learning and using everyday technology suggests how support could target different sub-processes.

  11. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1998-01-01

    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  12. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  13. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  14. Intralimb Coordination Patterns in Absent, Mild, and Severe Stages of Diabetic Neuropathy: Looking Beyond Kinematic Analysis of Gait Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chiao Yi

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus progressively leads to impairments in stability and joint motion and might affect coordination patterns, mainly due to neuropathy. This study aims to describe changes in intralimb joint coordination in healthy individuals and patients with absent, mild and, severe stages of neuropathy.Forty-seven diabetic patients were classified into three groups of neuropathic severity by a fuzzy model: 18 without neuropathy (DIAB, 7 with mild neuropathy (MILD, and 22 with moderate to severe neuropathy (SVRE. Thirteen healthy subjects were included as controls (CTRL. Continuous relative phase (CRP was calculated at each instant of the gait cycle for each pair of lower limb joints. Analysis of Variance compared each frame of the CRP time series and its standard deviation among groups (α = 5%.For the ankle-hip CRP, the SVRE group presented increased variability at the propulsion phase and a distinct pattern at the propulsion and initial swing phases compared to the DIAB and CTRL groups. For the ankle-knee CRP, the 3 diabetic groups presented more anti-phase ratios than the CTRL group at the midstance, propulsion, and terminal swing phases, with decreased variability at the early stance phase. For the knee-hip CRP, the MILD group showed more in-phase ratio at the early stance and terminal swing phases and lower variability compared to all other groups. All diabetic groups were more in-phase at early the midstance phase (with lower variability than the control group.The low variability and coordination differences of the MILD group showed that gait coordination might be altered not only when frank evidence of neuropathy is present, but also when neuropathy is still incipient. The ankle-knee CRP at the initial swing phase showed distinct patterns for groups from all degrees of neuropathic severity and CTRLs. The ankle-hip CRP pattern distinguished the SVRE patients from other diabetic groups, particularly in the transitional phase from stance to

  15. Advancing Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny L. Tenuto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparing students to become active citizens and contributors to a democratic society is premised on teaching democratic principles and modeling standards of democratic practice at all levels of education. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to establish a conceptual framework grounded in literature and a model for cultivating democratic professional practice in education (DPPE to advance leadership for school improvement. This work is presented in three parts: (a a review of historical references, reports, and legislation that culminated in increased accountability and standards in P-12 public education; (b a discussion of social patterns in education generally associated with bureaucracy versus democracy; and (c a new contribution to the literature, a model for cultivating DPPE is conceptualized to encourage leading and teaching professionals to reflect on beliefs and evaluate practices in advancing leadership for school improvement. Recommendations are included for further research.

  16. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  17. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...

  18. Progress of continuously rotating detonation engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Rui; Wu Dan; Wang Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Continuously rotating detonation engine (CRDE) is a focus for concern in the field of aerospace propulsion. It has several advantages, including one-initiation, high thermal efficiency and simple structure. Due to these characteristics, it is expected to bring revolutionary advance-ments to aviation and aerospace propulsion systems and now has drawn much attention throughout the world. In this paper, an overview of the development of CRDE is given from several aspects:basic concepts, applications, experimental studies, numerical simulations, and so on. Representative results and outstanding contributions are summarized and the unresolved issues for further engi-neering applications of CRDE are provided.

  19. Which part of the Quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci) discriminates between normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment and dementia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2013-05-01

    the Qmci is a sensitive and specific test to differentiate between normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the subtests of the Qmci to determine which best discriminated NC, MCI and dementia.

  20. Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.; Ain, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recyc...

  1. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  2. Amyloid-β deposition in mild cognitive impairment is associated with increased hippocampal activity, atrophy and clinical progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbers, Willem; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Schultz, Aaron P; Wigman, Sarah; Ward, Andrew M; Larvie, Mykol; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Marshall, Gad A; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A

    2015-04-01

    Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using a memory task in patients with mild cognitive impairment have produced discordant results, with some studies reporting increased hippocampal activity--consistent with findings in genetic at-risk populations--and other studies reporting decreased hippocampal activity, relative to normal controls. However, previous studies in mild cognitive impairment have not included markers of amyloid-β, which may be particularly important in prediction of progression along the Alzheimer's disease continuum. Here, we examine the contribution of amyloid-β deposition to cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity, hippocampal volume, global cognition and clinical progression over 36 months in 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment. Amyloid-β status was examined with positron emission tomography imaging using Pittsburg compound-B, hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was assessed using an associative face-name memory encoding task, and hippocampal volume was quantified with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Finally global cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and clinical progression was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (Sum of Boxes). At baseline, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment showed increased hippocampal activation, smaller hippocampal volumes, and a trend towards lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher Clinical Dementia Ratings compared to amyloid-β negative patients with mild cognitive impairment. Longitudinally, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment continued to show high levels of hippocampal activity, despite increasing rates of hippocampal atrophy, decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination and faster progression on the Clinical Dementia Ratings. When entered simultaneously into the same linear mixed model

  3. Amyloid-β deposition in mild cognitive impairment is associated with increased hippocampal activity, atrophy and clinical progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Wigman, Sarah; Ward, Andrew M.; Larvie, Mykol; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Marshall, Gad A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using a memory task in patients with mild cognitive impairment have produced discordant results, with some studies reporting increased hippocampal activity—consistent with findings in genetic at-risk populations—and other studies reporting decreased hippocampal activity, relative to normal controls. However, previous studies in mild cognitive impairment have not included markers of amyloid-β, which may be particularly important in prediction of progression along the Alzheimer’s disease continuum. Here, we examine the contribution of amyloid-β deposition to cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity, hippocampal volume, global cognition and clinical progression over 36 months in 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment. Amyloid-β status was examined with positron emission tomography imaging using Pittsburg compound-B, hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was assessed using an associative face-name memory encoding task, and hippocampal volume was quantified with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Finally global cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and clinical progression was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (Sum of Boxes). At baseline, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment showed increased hippocampal activation, smaller hippocampal volumes, and a trend towards lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher Clinical Dementia Ratings compared to amyloid-β negative patients with mild cognitive impairment. Longitudinally, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment continued to show high levels of hippocampal activity, despite increasing rates of hippocampal atrophy, decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination and faster progression on the Clinical Dementia Ratings. When entered simultaneously into the same linear mixed model

  4. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  5. Advances in Computers

    CERN Document Server

    Zelkowitz, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    This is volume 79 of Advances in Computers. This series, which began publication in 1960, is the oldest continuously published anthology that chronicles the ever- changing information technology field. In these volumes we publish from 5 to 7 chapters, three times per year, that cover the latest changes to the design, development, use and implications of computer technology on society today. Covers the full breadth of innovations in hardware, software, theory, design, and applications.Many of the in-depth reviews have become standard references that co

  6. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  7. Advances in computers

    CERN Document Server

    Memon, Atif

    2012-01-01

    Since its first volume in 1960, Advances in Computers has presented detailed coverage of innovations in computer hardware, software, theory, design, and applications. It has also provided contributors with a medium in which they can explore their subjects in greater depth and breadth than journal articles usually allow. As a result, many articles have become standard references that continue to be of sugnificant, lasting value in this rapidly expanding field. In-depth surveys and tutorials on new computer technologyWell-known authors and researchers in the fieldExtensive bibliographies with m

  8. Advanced Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    1999-01-01

    This book is developed as a textbook for the course Advanced Control Engineering. The book is intended for students in mechanical engineering and its aim is to provide an understanding of modern control theory as well as methodologies and applications for state space modeling and design....... For this reason, the book puts emphasis on the state-space approach. The main contents of the book includes state-space representation of dynamic systems, analysis of linear control systems, feedback control and observer design. Both continuous-time and discrete-time systems have been addressed in this book....

  9. Advances in imaging and electron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    1995-01-01

    Academic Press is pleased to announce the creation of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics. This serial publication results from the merger of two long running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics will feature extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies,microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Continuation order customers for either of the original Advances will receiveVolume 90, the first combined volume.

  10. Low-heat, mild alkaline pretreatment of switchgrass for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Bierma, Tom; Walker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of alkaline pretreatment under mild heat conditions (100°C or 212°F) on the anaerobic co-digestion of switchgrass. The effects of alkaline concentration, types of alkaline, heating time and rinsing were evaluated. In addition to batch studies, continuous-feed studies were performed in triplicate to identify potential digester operational problems caused by switchgrass co-digestion while accounting for uncertainty due to digester variability. Few studies have examined anaerobic digestion of switchgrass or the effects of mild heating to enhance alkaline pretreatment prior to biomass digestion. Results indicate that pretreatment can significantly enhance digestion of coarse-ground (≤ 0.78 cm particle size) switchgrass. Energy conversion efficiency as high as 63% was observed, and was comparable or superior to fine-grinding as a pretreatment method. The optimal NaOH concentration was found to be 5.5% (wt/wt alkaline/biomass) with a 91.7% moisture level. No evidence of operational problems such as solids build-up, poor mixing, or floating materials were observed. These results suggest the use of waste heat from a generator could reduce the concentration of alkaline required to adequately pretreat lignocellulosic feedstock prior to anaerobic digestion.

  11. Continuous ethanol fermentors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-03

    A continuous EtOH fermentor was developed. In the 1st stage of the fermentor, EtOH fermentation medium is contacted with an EtOH-producing bacterium (e.g. Zymomonas mobilis) attached to a carrier material (e.g., vermiculite powder) and with brewers' bottom yeast in the 2nd stage. This system does not require any special cell separator for continuous operation.

  12. Continuous Time Model Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Shenhuai Gao

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an easy to follow method for continuous time model estimation. It serves as an introduction on how to convert a state space model from continuous time to discrete time, how to decompose a hybrid stochastic model into a trend model plus a noise model, how to estimate the trend model by simulation, and how to calculate standard errors from estimation of the noise model. It also discusses the numerical difficulties involved in discrete time models that bring about the unit ...

  13. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data.

  14. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    With the continued advances in wireless communications, geo-location technologies, and consumer electronics, it is becoming possible to accurately track the time-varying location of each vehicle in a population of vehicles. This paper reports on ongoing research that has as it objective to develop...... efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...... and server-side updates. This is achieved by designing, prototyping, and testing novel tracking techniques that exploit knowledge of the road network and past movement. These resulting tracking techniques are to support mobile services that rely on the existence of a central server that continuously tracks...

  15. Mild and moderate pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease is associated with increased coronary artery calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budoff M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sion K Roy, Albert Cespedes, Dong Li, Tae-Young Choi, Matthew J BudoffDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Center at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, USABackground: It is increasingly evident that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are more likely to die from heart disease than kidney failure. This study evaluated whether pre-dialysis CKD is an independent risk factor for coronary artery calcium (CAC.Methods: A total of 544 consecutive patients who underwent CAC scoring were analyzed. Eleven patients requiring hemodialysis were excluded. Patients were divided into three groups: normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR (GFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, mild CKD (90 ≥ GFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and moderate CKD (60 ≥ GFR > 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Continuous and categorical variables were compared using analysis of variance and the χ2 statistic. A multiple logistic regression model was used for detecting the association between total CAC score and GFR. An unadjusted model was used, followed by a second model adjusted for covariates known to be related to CAC. Another multivariable binary logistic model predicting the presence of CAC (>10 was performed and odds of incidence of CAC (>10 were calculated among the three GFR subgroups.Results: After adjustment for covariates, patients with mild CKD had mean CAC scores 175 points higher than those with the referent normal GFR (P = 0.048, while those with moderate CKD had mean CAC scores 693 points higher than the referent (P < 0.001. After adjustment for covariates, patients with mild CKD were found to be 2.2 times more likely (95% confidence interval 1.3–3.7, P = 0.004 and patients with moderate CKD were 6.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval 2.9–14.3, P < 0.001 to have incident CAC compared with the group with normal GFR.Conclusion: Mild and moderate pre-dialysis CKD are independent risk factors for increased mean and incident CAC

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of a hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of obstructive sleep apnea assessed with acoustic reflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most common forms of sleep-disordered breathing. Various treatment modalities include behavior modification therapy, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, oral appliance therapy, and various surgical modalities. Oral appliances are noninvasive and recommended treatment modality for snoring, mild to moderate OSA cases and severe OSA cases when patient is not compliant to CPAP therapy and unwilling for surgery. Acoustic reflection technique (ART is a relatively new modality for three-dimensional assessment of airway caliber in various clinical situations. The accuracy and reproducibility of acoustic rhinometry and acoustic pharyngometry assessment are comparable to computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This case report highlights the therapeutic efficacy of an innovative customized acrylic hybrid mandibular advancement device in the management of polysomnography diagnosed OSA cases, and the treatment results were assessed by ART.

  17. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capellos, Christos

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the formal lectures and contributed papers presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on. the Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics. The meeting convened at the city of Iraklion, Crete, Greece on 25 August 1985 and continued to 7 September 1985. The material presented describes the fundamental and recent advances in experimental and theoretical aspects of, reaction dynamics. A large section is devoted to electronically excited states, ionic species, and free radicals, relevant to chemical sys­ tems. In addition recent advances in gas phase polymerization, formation of clusters, and energy release processes in energetic materials were presented. Selected papers deal with topics such as the dynamics of electric field effects in low polar solutions, high electric field perturbations and relaxation of dipole equilibria, correlation in picosecond/laser pulse scattering, and applications to fast reaction dynamics. Picosecond transient Raman spectroscopy which has been used for the elucidati...

  18. Advanced trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, C V

    2003-01-01

    This volume will provide a welcome resource for teachers seeking an undergraduate text on advanced trigonometry, when few are readily available. Ideal for self-study, this text offers a clear, logical presentation of topics and an extensive selection of problems with answers. Contents include the properties of the triangle and the quadrilateral; equations, sub-multiple angles, and inverse functions; hyperbolic, logarithmic, and exponential functions; and expansions in power-series. Further topics encompass the special hyperbolic functions; projection and finite series; complex numbers; de Moiv

  19. Flotation advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, D.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes recent advances in flotation cell and mechanism design. OutoKumpu have designed larger cells, suitable for the flotation of smaller particles, with differing mechanisms for particles of different types. Froth handling is also closely controlled. Flotation cells from BQR are also described. Flotation columns are also increasingly being adopted, complementing the use of conventional flotation cells. Designs by Wemco, Multotec, VERTI-MIX, Jameson, Suedala, Quinn and Cytec are detailed, giving improvements in fine coal separation coarse particle separation, and other innovations. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Widder, David V

    2012-01-01

    This classic text by a distinguished mathematician and former Professor of Mathematics at Harvard University, leads students familiar with elementary calculus into confronting and solving more theoretical problems of advanced calculus. In his preface to the first edition, Professor Widder also recommends various ways the book may be used as a text in both applied mathematics and engineering.Believing that clarity of exposition depends largely on precision of statement, the author has taken pains to state exactly what is to be proved in every case. Each section consists of definitions, theorem

  1. COMPARISON BETWEEN BOUSSINESQ EQUATIONS AND MILD-SLOPE EQUATIONS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Boussinesq equations and mild-slope equation of wave transformation in near-shore shallow water were introduced and the characteristics of the two forms of equations were compared and analyzed. Meanwhile, a Boussinesq wave model which includes effects of bottom friction, wave breaking and subgrid turbulent mixing is established, slot technique dealing with moving boundary and damping layer dealing with absorbing boundary were established. By adopting empirical nonlinear dispersion relation and including nonlinear term, the mild-slope equation model was modified to take nonlinear effects into account. The two types of models were validated with the experiment results given by Berkhoff and their accuracy was analysed and compared with that of correlated methods.

  2. Mild ovarian stimulation for IVF: 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Bart C J M; Nargund, Geeta; Andersen, Anders Nyboe;

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian stimulation to achieve multiple follicle development has been an integral part of IVF treatment. In the context of improved laboratory performance, the need for a large number of oocytes as an integral part of a successful IVF programme may be questioned. The aim of the current debate...... protocols aimed at retrieving fewer oocytes. We intend to analyse why progress has been rather slow and why there is much resistance to mild stimulation. Finally, presumed useful directions for future research will be discussed....... is to summarize the studies performed during the last decade to develop the concept of mild stimulation aiming to obtain fewer than eight oocytes. Here we examine the balance between IVF success and patient discomfort, and complications and cost, and how these might improve by simpler ovarian stimulation...

  3. Alexander disease with mild dorsal brainstem atrophy and infantile spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torisu, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yamaguchi-Takada, Yui; Yano, Tamami; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sawaishi, Yukio; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8 months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4 months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8 months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease.

  4. Estimates for mild solutions to semilinear Cauchy problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresimir Burazin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence (and uniqueness results on mild solutions of the abstract semilinear Cauchy problems in Banach spaces are well known. Following the results of Tartar (2008 and Burazin (2008 in the case of decoupled hyperbolic systems, we give an alternative proof, which enables us to derive an estimate on the mild solution and its time of existence. The nonlinear term in the equation is allowed to be time-dependent. We discuss the optimality of the derived estimate by testing it on three examples: the linear heat equation, the semilinear heat equation that models dynamic deflection of an elastic membrane, and the semilinear Schrodinger equation with time-dependent nonlinearity, that appear in the modelling of numerous physical phenomena.

  5. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette Merete;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING...... mobility, and the presence of both comorbidities was associated with the poorest status. Primary care practitioners who encounter older adults in need of mobility rehabilitation should consider screening them for pain and MCI to better inform subsequent therapeutic interventions.......: Academic community outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older in primary care enrolled in the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly who were at risk of mobility decline (N = 430). MEASUREMENTS: Participants with an average score greater than three on the Brief Pain...

  6. Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Dementia with Insufficient Neuropathological Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Qian, Jing; Monsell, Sarah E.; Blacker, Deborah; Gómez-lsla, Teresa; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Growdon, John H.; Johnson, Keith; Frosch, Matthew P.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, ∼16% of participants in an anti-Aβ passive immunotherapy trial for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) had a negative baseline amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Whether they have AD or are AD clinical phenocopies remains unknown. We examined the 2005-2013 National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center autopsy database and found that ∼14% of autopsied subjects clinically diagnosed with mild-to-moderate probable AD have no or sparse neuritic plaques, which would expectedly yield a negative amyloid PET scan. More than half of these “Aβ-negative” subjects have low neurofibrillary tangle Braak stages. These findings support the implementation of a positive amyloid biomarker as an inclusion criterion in future anti-Aβ drug trials. PMID:24585367

  7. Recent Natural Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Chigondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, reduction of corrosion has been managed by various methods including cathodic protection, process control, reduction of the metal impurity content, and application of surface treatment techniques, as well as incorporation of suitable alloys. However, the use of corrosion inhibitors has proven to be the easiest and cheapest method for corrosion protection and prevention in acidic media. These inhibitors slow down the corrosion rate and thus prevent monetary losses due to metallic corrosion on industrial vessels, equipment, or surfaces. Inorganic and organic inhibitors are toxic and costly and thus recent focus has been turned to develop environmentally benign methods for corrosion retardation. Many researchers have recently focused on corrosion prevention methods using green inhibitors for mild steel in acidic solutions to mimic industrial processes. This paper provides an overview of types of corrosion, corrosion process, and mainly recent work done on the application of natural plant extracts as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel.

  8. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by aerobic biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chongdar, Shobhana [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India); Gunasekaran, G. [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India)]. E-mail: gunanmrl@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Pradeep [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India)

    2005-08-30

    Mild steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered basal salt solution (BSS) having two different aerobic bacteria, viz. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas cichorii. In the medium containing P. cichorii, significant reduction in the corrosion rate was observed due to the surface reaction leading to the formation of corrosion inhibiting bacterial biofilm. With a view to understand the mechanism of microbially influenced corrosion/corrosion inhibition, electrochemical and biological experiments such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and biochemical analysis were made. The exposed surfaces were examined using scanning electron micrographs (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The scraped surface film was also examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results suggested that mild steel surface contained iron oxide-phosphate layer covered with bacteria and exo polymeric substance (EPS)/iron-EPS complex for P. cichorii and iron oxides and iron phosphate for P. alcaligenes.

  9. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Vashist

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been continuous advances in the field of glucose monitoring during the last four decades, which have led to the development of highly evolved blood glucose meters, non-invasive glucose monitoring (NGM devices and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS. Glucose monitoring is an integral part of diabetes management, and the maintenance of physiological blood glucose concentration is the only way for a diabetic to avoid life-threatening diabetic complications. CGMS have led to tremendous improvements in diabetic management, as shown by the significant lowering of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c in adults with type I diabetes. Most of the CGMS have been minimally-invasive, although the more recent ones are based on NGM techniques. This manuscript reviews the advances in CGMS for diabetes management along with the future prospects and the challenges involved.

  10. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT...... swim (13 ± 3% and 22 ± 3%), interval swimming (23 ± 3% and 8 ± 3%), and Yo-Yo IE1 running performance (58 ± 5% and 45 ± 4%). In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance...... performed 6-10 × 30 s all-out swimming interspersed by 2 min recovery and MOD swam continuously for 1 h at moderate intensity for a 15-week period completing in total 44 ± 1 and 43 ± 1 sessions, respectively. In CON, all measured variables were similar before and after the intervention period. Systolic BP...

  11. Clinical Management of a Patient with Chronic Recurrent Vertigo Following a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo, was provoked and right torsional up-beat nystagmus was observed in a 47-year-old patient when she was placed into the right Hallpike-Dix test position using infrared goggle technology. The clinical diagnosis was benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, specifically right posterior canalithiasis, resulting from a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI suffered approximately six-months earlier. Previous medical consultations did not include vestibular system examination, and Meclizine was prescribed to suppress her chief complaint of vertigo. Ultimately, the patient was successfully managed by performing two canalith repositioning maneuvers during a single clinical session. The patient reported 100% resolution of symptoms upon reexamination the following day, and the Hallpike-Dix test was negative. Continued symptom resolution was subjectively reported 10 days postintervention via telephone consultation. This case report supports previous publications concerning the presence of BPPV following TBI and the need for inclusion of vestibular system examination during medical consultation.

  12. Microstructural Evolution During Friction Stir Welding of Mild Steel and Ni-Based Alloy 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Johnnatan Rodriguez; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2017-01-01

    Microstructure evolution during friction stir welding (FSW) of mild steel and Ni-based alloy 625 was studied. Regarding the Ni-based alloy, the welding process led to grain refinement caused by discontinuous and continuous dynamic recrystallization, where bulging of the pre-existing grains and subgrain rotation were the primary mechanisms of recrystallization. In the steel, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was identified as the recovery process experienced by the austenite. Simple shear textures were observed in the regions affected by the deformation of both materials. Although the allotropic transformation obscured the deformation history, the thermo-mechanically affected zone was identified in the steel by simple shear texture components. A new methodology for the study of texture evolution based on rotations of the slip systems using pole figures is presented as an approximation to describe the texture evolution in FSW.

  13. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika;

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT...... performed 6-10 × 30 s all-out swimming interspersed by 2 min recovery and MOD swam continuously for 1 h at moderate intensity for a 15-week period completing in total 44 ± 1 and 43 ± 1 sessions, respectively. In CON, all measured variables were similar before and after the intervention period. Systolic BP...... swim (13 ± 3% and 22 ± 3%), interval swimming (23 ± 3% and 8 ± 3%), and Yo-Yo IE1 running performance (58 ± 5% and 45 ± 4%). In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance...

  14. Greenhouse Gas Conversion by Homogeneous Salen Catalyst Systems under Very Mild Reaction Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hyungsock; Song, Sanghoon; Ahn, Sunghyun; Kim, Taesoon; Kim, Beomsik; Chang, Taesun [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Homogeneous salen catalyt systems were investigated for the conversion of greenhouse gas into cyclic carbonate under room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Salen complexes were more active than salophen complexes. Neither electron withdrawing nor donating group showed lower conversion efficiency. Co-catalysts such as moisture or ammonium salt increased the conversion efficiency dramatically. These results have potential to decrease carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuel combustions under mild condition. One of the main scientific challenges in the 21st century is the global warming due to the increasing level of carbon dioxide. The consumption of fossil fuels is continue to increase with emitting substantial amount of green house gas. The solution currently considered is capturing and storing of carbon dioxide which compressing carbon dioxide and then storing it into oil wells or under the ocean. The other solution include converting the carbon dioxide into useful chemicals with significant commercial demand, but low chemical reactivity of carbon dioxide restricts the chemical reactions.

  15. Mild Clinical Course of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in an Elderly Japanese Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ohagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS is an emerging infectious and hemorrhagic disease recently described in China and western Japan. A 71-year-old healthy Japanese woman noticed a tick biting her after harvesting in an orchard and removed it herself. She developed diarrhea, anorexia, and chills eight days later. Because these symptoms continued, she visited a primary care physician 6 days after the onset. Laboratory data revealed thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was then referred to our hospital. Although not completely fulfilling the diagnostic criteria used in a retrospective study in Japan, SFTS was suspected, and we detected SFTS virus in the patient’s blood using RT-PCR. However, she recovered without intensive treatment and severe complications 13 days after the onset. In this report, we present a mild clinical course of SFTS virus infection in Japan in detail.

  16. Microstructural Evolution During Friction Stir Welding of Mild Steel and Ni-Based Alloy 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Johnnatan Rodriguez; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2017-03-01

    Microstructure evolution during friction stir welding (FSW) of mild steel and Ni-based alloy 625 was studied. Regarding the Ni-based alloy, the welding process led to grain refinement caused by discontinuous and continuous dynamic recrystallization, where bulging of the pre-existing grains and subgrain rotation were the primary mechanisms of recrystallization. In the steel, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was identified as the recovery process experienced by the austenite. Simple shear textures were observed in the regions affected by the deformation of both materials. Although the allotropic transformation obscured the deformation history, the thermo-mechanically affected zone was identified in the steel by simple shear texture components. A new methodology for the study of texture evolution based on rotations of the slip systems using pole figures is presented as an approximation to describe the texture evolution in FSW.

  17. Mild dissonance preferred over consonance in single chord perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Imre Lahdelma; Tuomas Eerola

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on harmony perception has mainly been concerned with horizontal aspects of harmony, turning less attention to how listeners perceive psychoacoustic qualities and emotions in single isolated chords. A recent study found mild dissonances to be more preferred than consonances in single chord perception, although the authors did not systematically vary register and consonance in their study; these omissions were explored here. An online empirical experiment was conducted where p...

  18. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  19. Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    induced mTBI has increased in recent years. Intracranial pressure monitoring is not always available in clinical care settings, and protocols need to... intracranial pressure , shear stress concentration, and relative motion between the brain and skull do indeed cause surface contusion, concussion, diffuse axonal injury, as well as acute subdural hematoma. ...civilian hospital for mild head injury. Follow-up 1-month post-injury, allowed for PCS evaluation. The analyses (odds ratios) suggest that elevated

  20. Non syndromic gingival fibromatosis in a mild mental retardation child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K Duddu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fibromatosis is a benign oral condition characterized by enlargement of gingival tissues. It usually develops as an isolated disorder but can be one of the features of a syndrome. This case report is of a 5-year-old male with severe gingival hyperplasia and mild mental retardation which was complicated by open bite, abnormal occlusion, open lip posture, and disabilities associated with mastication and speech. Full mouth gingivectomy in single sitting under general anesthesia was done with electrocautery.

  1. Ethical Implications of the Mild Encephalitis Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmüller, Rita; Müller, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental disease with a high mortality rate and severe social consequences. Due to insufficient knowledge about its etiopathogenesis, curative treatments are not available. One of the most promising new research concepts is the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia, developed mainly by Karl Bechter and Norbert Müller. According to this hypothesis, a significant subgroup of schizophrenia patients suffer from a mild, but chronic, form of encephalitis with markedly different etiologies ranging from viral infections, traumas to autoimmune diseases. This inflammatory process is thought to occur in the beginning or during the course of the disease. In this article, we investigate the consequences of the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia for the scientific community, and evaluate these consequences ethically. The mild encephalitis hypothesis implies that schizophrenia would no longer be considered an incurable psychiatric disorder. Instead, it would be considered a chronic, but treatable, neurological disease. This paradigm shift would doubtlessly have significant consequences: (1) major reforms would be necessary in the theoretical conceptualization of schizophrenia, which would challenge the psychiatric diagnostic systems, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5 and ICD-10. (2) Psychotic patients should be treated in interdisciplinary teams, optimally in neuropsychiatric units; additionally, specialists for endocrinology, diabetology, and cardiology should be consulted for the frequently occuring somatic comorbidities. (3) Current diagnostic procedures and (4) therapies would have to be modified significantly. (5) There might be repercussions for the pharmaceutical industry as well: first, because old drugs with expired patent protection could partly replace expensive drugs and, second, because there would be a demand for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. (6) Legal evaluation of

  2. Efficacy of Cellex in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Abusueva; M. A. Evzel’man; P R Kamchatnov; Kh. Yu. Umarova

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cognitive disorders may often lead to professional invalidisation and increasing dependence on the external assistance in every day life. Identification of patients with preserved intellectual status and social adaptation but with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be an effective measure. MCI detection and timely initiation of treatment in most patients is essential to delay the onset of severe dementia.Objective. Investigating influence of Cellex in patients with c...

  3. Mild Solutions for Fractional Differential Equations with Nonlocal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of the fractional differential equations with nonlocal conditions dqx(t/dtq=−Ax(t+f(t,x(t,Gx(t,  t∈[0,T],   and  x(0+g(x=x0, in a Banach space X, where 0

  4. Existence and Uniqueness of Mild Solution for Fractional Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of a class of nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations dqu(t/dtq+Au(t=f(t,u(t+∫0ta(t−sg(s,u(sds, t∈[0,T], u(0=u0, in a Banach space X, where 0

  5. Characteristics of Mild Dengue Virus Infection in Thai Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Timothy P. Endy, and Alan L. Rothman Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok , Thailand; University of...Virology, U.S. Army Medical Component, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok , Thailand, APO, AP, USA 96546. E-mail: yooni...confidence interval; NS = not significant. 1084 YOON AND OTHERS population , mild dengue illness accounted for most symptom- atic DENV infections across all

  6. Mild ciguatera poisoning: Case reports with neurophysiological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, R; Prockop, L D; Buonocore, M; Locatelli, C; Gandini, C; Manzo, L

    2000-10-01

    Ciguatera poisoning causes mainly gastrointestinal and neurological effects of variable severity. However, symptoms of peripheral neuropathy with paresthesias and paradoxical disturbance of thermal sensation are the hallmark. Electrophysiological studies are often normal, except in severe cases. We report four people who developed mild ciguatera poisoning after barracuda ingestion. Electrophysiological studies documented normocalcemic latent tetany. These findings are consistent with ciguatoxin's mechanism of toxicity, which involves inactivation of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and eventually increases nerve membrane excitability.

  7. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild steel in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild steel coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the corrosion rate. As the extract concentration increased from 4 ml to 10 ml at 30 minutes exposure, the volume of hydrogen gas evolved decreased from 19.1 cm3 to 11.2 cm3 in H2SO4 medium, while it reduced to 5 cm3 from 9 cm3 in HCl medium. Also, the metal surface-phytoconstituent interaction mechanism showed that 6 minutes is the best exposure time for the adsorption of the extract in both acidic media. The Jatropha Curcas leaf extract was adsorbed on the mild steel surface to inhibit corrosion, while the experimental data obtained at 30 minutes exposure in both acidic media were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Hence, Jatropha Curcas leaf extract is a good and safe inhibitor in both acidic solutions.

  8. Mild Dissonance Preferred Over Consonance in Single Chord Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdelma, Imre; Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-05-01

    Previous research on harmony perception has mainly been concerned with horizontal aspects of harmony, turning less attention to how listeners perceive psychoacoustic qualities and emotions in single isolated chords. A recent study found mild dissonances to be more preferred than consonances in single chord perception, although the authors did not systematically vary register and consonance in their study; these omissions were explored here. An online empirical experiment was conducted where participants (N = 410) evaluated chords on the dimensions of Valence, Tension, Energy, Consonance, and Preference; 15 different chords were played with piano timbre across two octaves. The results suggest significant differences on all dimensions across chord types, and a strong correlation between perceived dissonance and tension. The register and inversions contributed to the evaluations significantly, nonmusicians distinguishing between triadic inversions similarly to musicians. The mildly dissonant minor ninth, major ninth, and minor seventh chords were rated highest for preference, regardless of musical sophistication. The role of theoretical explanations such as aggregate dyadic consonance, the inverted-U hypothesis, and psychoacoustic roughness, harmonicity, and sharpness will be discussed to account for the preference of mild dissonance over consonance in single chord perception.

  9. Attention and inhibition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Zancada-Menéndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment is understood as a cognitive deficit of insufficient severity to fulfil the criteria for Alzheimer’s disease. Many studies have attempted to identify which cognitive functions are most affected by this type of impairment and which is the most sensitive neuropsychological test for early detection. This study investigated sustained and selective attention, processing speed, and the inhibition process using a sample of people divided into three groups mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease and cognitively healthy controls selected and grouped based on their scores in the Mini Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised. Three tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (Motor Screening Task, Stop Signal Task and Reaction time were used as well as the d2 attention test. The results show that that participants with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease showed lower levels of concentration compared with the cognitively healthy controls group in the d2 test and longer reaction times in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, although the differences were not marked in the latter test. The impairments in basic cognitive processes, such as reaction time and sustained attention, indicate the need to take these functions into account in the test protocols when discriminating between normal aging and early and preclinical dementia processes.

  10. Brain imaging of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhao Yin; Siou Li; Weina Zhao; Jiachun Feng

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing prevalence of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease has the potential to create a major worldwide healthcare crisis. Structural MRI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are currently attracting considerable interest. It is extremely important to study early structural and metabolic changes, such as those in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and gray matter structures in the medial temporal lobe, to allow the early detection of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The microstructural integrity of white matter can be studied with diffusion tensor imaging. Increased mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy are found in subjects with white matter damage. Functional imaging studies with positron emission tomography tracer compounds enable detection of amyloid plaques in the living brain in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we will focus on key findings from brain imaging studies in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, including structural brain changes studied with MRI and white matter changes seen with diffusion tensor imaging, and other specific imaging methodologies will also be discussed.

  11. Mild Dissonance Preferred Over Consonance in Single Chord Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on harmony perception has mainly been concerned with horizontal aspects of harmony, turning less attention to how listeners perceive psychoacoustic qualities and emotions in single isolated chords. A recent study found mild dissonances to be more preferred than consonances in single chord perception, although the authors did not systematically vary register and consonance in their study; these omissions were explored here. An online empirical experiment was conducted where participants (N = 410) evaluated chords on the dimensions of Valence, Tension, Energy, Consonance, and Preference; 15 different chords were played with piano timbre across two octaves. The results suggest significant differences on all dimensions across chord types, and a strong correlation between perceived dissonance and tension. The register and inversions contributed to the evaluations significantly, nonmusicians distinguishing between triadic inversions similarly to musicians. The mildly dissonant minor ninth, major ninth, and minor seventh chords were rated highest for preference, regardless of musical sophistication. The role of theoretical explanations such as aggregate dyadic consonance, the inverted-U hypothesis, and psychoacoustic roughness, harmonicity, and sharpness will be discussed to account for the preference of mild dissonance over consonance in single chord perception. PMID:27433333

  12. Mild Dissonance Preferred Over Consonance in Single Chord Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Lahdelma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on harmony perception has mainly been concerned with horizontal aspects of harmony, turning less attention to how listeners perceive psychoacoustic qualities and emotions in single isolated chords. A recent study found mild dissonances to be more preferred than consonances in single chord perception, although the authors did not systematically vary register and consonance in their study; these omissions were explored here. An online empirical experiment was conducted where participants (N = 410 evaluated chords on the dimensions of Valence, Tension, Energy, Consonance, and Preference; 15 different chords were played with piano timbre across two octaves. The results suggest significant differences on all dimensions across chord types, and a strong correlation between perceived dissonance and tension. The register and inversions contributed to the evaluations significantly, nonmusicians distinguishing between triadic inversions similarly to musicians. The mildly dissonant minor ninth, major ninth, and minor seventh chords were rated highest for preference, regardless of musical sophistication. The role of theoretical explanations such as aggregate dyadic consonance, the inverted-U hypothesis, and psychoacoustic roughness, harmonicity, and sharpness will be discussed to account for the preference of mild dissonance over consonance in single chord perception.

  13. Visual personal familiarity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Jurjanz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general concept or helps to identify an object or a person. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural networks associated with the perception of personal familiar faces and places in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy control subjects. Irrespective of stimulus type, patients compared to control subjects showed lower activity in right prefrontal brain regions when perceiving personally familiar versus unfamiliar faces and places. Both groups did not show different neural activity when perceiving faces or places irrespective of familiarity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight changes in a frontal cortical network associated with knowledge-based personal familiarity among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. These changes could contribute to deficits in social cognition and may reduce the patients' ability to transition from basic to complex situations and tasks.

  14. Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, ...

  15. Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  16. The effect of souvenaid on functional brain network organisation in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: a randomised controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke de Waal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synaptic loss is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Disturbed organisation of large-scale functional brain networks in AD might reflect synaptic loss and disrupted neuronal communication. The medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect, is designed to enhance synapse formation and function and has been shown to improve memory performance in patients with mild AD in two randomised controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Souvenaid compared to control product on brain activity-based networks, as a derivative of underlying synaptic function, in patients with mild AD. DESIGN: A 24-week randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multi-country study. PARTICIPANTS: 179 drug-naïve mild AD patients who participated in the Souvenir II study. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomised 1∶1 to receive Souvenaid or an iso-caloric control product once daily for 24 weeks. OUTCOME: In a secondary analysis of the Souvenir II study, electroencephalography (EEG brain networks were constructed and graph theory was used to quantify complex brain structure. Local brain network connectivity (normalised clustering coefficient gamma and global network integration (normalised characteristic path length lambda were compared between study groups, and related to memory performance. RESULTS: THE NETWORK MEASURES IN THE BETA BAND WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT BETWEEN GROUPS: they decreased in the control group, but remained relatively unchanged in the active group. No consistent relationship was found between these network measures and memory performance. CONCLUSIONS: The current results suggest that Souvenaid preserves the organisation of brain networks in patients with mild AD within 24 weeks, hypothetically counteracting the progressive network disruption over time in AD. The results strengthen the hypothesis that Souvenaid affects synaptic integrity and function. Secondly, we conclude

  17. 2015 Workshop on Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    his volume contains the papers presented at WoC 2015, the Workshop on Continuations held at ETAPS 2015. There were four submissions. Each of them was reviewed by, on the average, three PC members. The committee decided to accept three papers. The program also includes one invited talk. It also...... documents the depth, variety, and richness of continuations with four distilled tutorials. Thanks are due to the local organizers of ETAPS 2015 for the infras- tructure and to the general chairman of WoC 2015, Ugo de'Liguoro, for initiating this workshop and making it happen...

  18. Introduction to Continuous Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Niclas; Evgrafov, Anton; Patriksson, Michael

    optimal solutions for continuous optimization models. The main part of the mathematical material therefore concerns the analysis and linear algebra that underlie the workings of convexity and duality, and necessary/sufficient local/global optimality conditions for continuous optimization problems. Natural...... algorithms are then developed from these optimality conditions, and their most important convergence characteristics are analyzed. The book answers many more questions of the form “Why?” and “Why not?” than “How?”. We use only elementary mathematics in the development of the book, yet are rigorous throughout...

  19. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  20. No impact of early intervention on late outcome after minimal, mild and moderate head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heskestad, Ben; Waterloo, Knut; Baardsen, Roald;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of an educational intervention on outcome after minimal, mild and moderate head injury.......To evaluate the effect of an educational intervention on outcome after minimal, mild and moderate head injury....

  1. Cognitive and functional neuroimaging correlate for anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Gade, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD).......To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  2. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    distance betwen the Sun and the Earth (149.6 million km). This new planet is therefore located in the "habitable zone" where temperatures like those on the Earth are possible. Still, it is a giant, gaseous planet (with a minimum mass of 3.5 times that of Jupiter, or about 1000 times that of the Earth) and thus an unlikely place for the development of life. Nevertheless, it may be orbited by one or more moons on which a more bio-friendly environment has evolved. The presence of natural satellites ("moons") around giant extra-solar planets is not a far-fetched idea, just look at our own Solar System. HD 80606: a giant planet in an extremely elongated orbit ESO PR Photo 13b/01 ESO PR Photo 13b/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 233 pix - 21k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 465 pix - 41k] Caption : PR Photo 13b/01 shows the radial-velocity measurements of the star HD 80606 that hosts a planet in a very eccentric orbit. A planet in an extremely elongated orbit around the star HD 80606 was found in the frame of the ELODIE/Keck collaboration. The measured, very large eccentricity (e = 0.93; PR Photo 13b/01 ) implies of factor of no less than 26 between the smallest and largest distance to the star. When the planet is closest to the star, it is only a few stellar radii away (about 5 million kilometres). Continuation of the programme Further progress within the current programme is expected soon, when the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal becomes available, cf. ESO PR 06/01. This new instrument will have the observational capability of very high-accuracy positional measurements (astrometry) and thus be able to detect even very small wobbles of stellar positions in the sky that are due to the pull of orbiting planets. This will provide a crucial contribution to the determination of the true repartition of exoplanetary masses, a hotly debated question. Important advancement in our understanding of the formation of planetary systems is also expected with the advent of HARPS. This

  3. Continuous venovenous haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bistrup, C; Pedersen, R S; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    1996-01-01

    . Standard solutions for peritoneal dialysis are administered in a single-pass manner countercurrent to the blood flow. To control the dialysate flow through the filter, two separate pumps designed for intravenous infusion are used. Anticoagulation is achieved by means of continuous heparin infusion...

  4. Reparametrizations of Continuous Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli; Raussen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    compare it to the distributive lattice of countable subsets of the unit interval. The results obtained are used to analyse the space of traces in a topological space, i.e., the space of continuous paths up to reparametrization equivalence. This space is shown to be homeomorphic to the space of regular...

  5. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…

  6. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  7. Continuing professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, K.; Heijden, van der B.I.J.M.; Lewis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD), when provided formally, is something that is easy to recognize but perhaps rather more difficult to define. Theoretical and empirical controversy surrounds the scope and understanding of the concept. Definition is made more elusive by the different conceptu

  8. Prosthetic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Zach T; Potter, Benjamin K; Vandersea, James; Wolf, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current prosthetic technology is based on developments that have taken place during or directly following times of war. These developments have evolved and improved over the years, and now there are many more available options to provide a comfortable, cosmetic, and highly functional prosthesis. Even so, problems with fit and function persist. Recent developments have addressed some of the limitations faced by some military amputees. On-board microprocessor-controlled joints are making prosthetic arms and legs more responsive to environmental barriers and easier to control by the user. Advances in surgical techniques will allow more intuitive control and secure attachment to the prosthesis. As surgical techniques progress and permeate into standard practice, more sophisticated powered prosthetic devices will become commonplace, helping to restore neuromuscular loss of function. Prognoses following amputation will certainly rise, factoring into the surgeon's decision to attempt to save a limb versus perform an amputation.

  9. Memory concerns, memory performance and risk of dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Wolfsgruber

    Full Text Available Concerns about worsening memory ("memory concerns"; MC and impairment in memory performance are both predictors of Alzheimer's dementia (AD. The relationship of both in dementia prediction at the pre-dementia disease stage, however, is not well explored. Refined understanding of the contribution of both MC and memory performance in dementia prediction is crucial for defining at-risk populations. We examined the risk of incident AD by MC and memory performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI.We analyzed data of 417 MCI patients from a longitudinal multicenter observational study. Patients were classified based on presence (n = 305 vs. absence (n = 112 of MC. Risk of incident AD was estimated with Cox Proportional-Hazards regression models.Risk of incident AD was increased by MC (HR = 2.55, 95%CI: 1.33-4.89, lower memory performance (HR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.56-0.71 and ApoE4-genotype (HR = 1.89, 95%CI: 1.18-3.02. An interaction effect between MC and memory performance was observed. The predictive power of MC was greatest for patients with very mild memory impairment and decreased with increasing memory impairment.Our data suggest that the power of MC as a predictor of future dementia at the MCI stage varies with the patients' level of cognitive impairment. While MC are predictive at early stage MCI, their predictive value at more advanced stages of MCI is reduced. This suggests that loss of insight related to AD may occur at the late stage of MCI.

  10. The effect of organic matter associated with the corrosion products on the corrosion of mild steel in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Wagh, A.B.

    the corrosion of mild steel and the temperature and dissolved oxygen of seawater. In contrast to this, the corrosion and mild steel was inversely related to the organic carbon and water extractable carbohydrates associated with the corrosion products of mild...

  11. 2μm激光汽化术治疗晚期前列腺癌下尿路梗阻%Evaluation of two micron continuous wave laser in the treatment of lower urinary tract obstruction caused by advanced prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冉星; 李高峰; 俞建军

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨2μm激光汽化术治疗晚期前列腺癌下尿路梗阻疗效。方法从2012年2月至2013年9月,我院采用2μm激光汽化术治疗晚期前列腺癌下尿路梗阻患者26例,术前评估准备、观察平均手术时间、血浆血红蛋白降低,术前、后国际前列腺症状评分(IPSS)、生活质量评分(QoL)、残余尿量(RUV)及最大尿流率(Qmax)变化等指标。结果26例患者手术成功,手术病人无输血,没有患者出现前列腺电切综合征。平均手术时间为(81.2±24.4)min,平均血红蛋白下降(6.4±3.2)g/L。术前PSA,IPSS,QoL,Qmax,RUV分别为(13.9±4.2)μg/mL,(23.6±4.1),(5.9±1.2),(7.3±2.3)mL/s,(147.3±55.4)mL。术后1个月随访 PSA,IPSS, QoL,Qmax,RUV变化,分别为(1.6±0.8)μg/mL,(8.8±2.9),(2.4±0.8),(15.8±3.6)mL/s,(40.6±19.3) mL。手术前后各项指标差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论2μm激光汽化术针对治疗晚期前列腺癌下尿路梗阻是安全有效的微创手术方式。%Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of two micron continuous wave laser in the treatment of lower urinary tract obstruction caused by advanced prostate cancer.Methods Clinical data of 26 patients with lower urinary tract obstruction caused by advanced prostate cancer, who underwent two micron continuous wave laser, were analyzed retrospectively. The operative time, Hemoglobin decrease and operative complications was recorded. The variables such as PSA, IPSS, QoL, Qmax, post-void residual urine volume(RUV)were measured and analyzed before and after operations.Results All operations were performed successfully. None of patients received blood transfusion or had TURP syndrome. The mean operative time was 81.2±24.4 min, and the mean hemoglobin decrease was 6.4±3.2 g/L. The pre-operative levels of PSA, IPSS, QoL, Qmax, RUV were 13.9±4.2μg/mL, 23.6±4.1, 5.9±1.2, 7.3±2

  12. Continuous Platform Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    low risks and investments but also with relatively fuzzy results. When looking for new platform projects, it is important to make sure that the company and market is ready for the introduction of platforms, and to make sure that people from marketing and sales, product development, and downstream......, but continuous product family evolution challenges this strategy. The concept of continuous platform development is based on the fact that platform development should not be a one-time experience but rather an ongoing process of developing new platforms and updating existing ones, so that product family...... evolution does not make the platforms irrelevant. This research is based on case studies and applications in the two Danish companies, LEGO and Grundfos, where several platform development projects have been followed. LEGO is exceptional for their long experience with platform development and maintenance...

  13. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  14. Limit theory of restricted range approximations of complex-valued continuous functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of the best restricted range approximations of complex-valued continuous functions. Several properties for the approximating set PΩ such that the classical characterization results and/or the uniqueness results of the best approximations hold are introduced. Under the very mild conditions, we prove that these properties are equivalent that P is a Haar subspce.

  15. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  16. Continuity and consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In Danish family policy, changes initiated by the present conservative-liberal government differ little from those proposed by the opposition. Recent changes are minor, but significant ones occurred in the 1960s, when childcare was universalized, and in the 1980s, when parental leave substituted...... policy reflect changing conditions for employment and the minding of children and that there has been a high degree of continuity and consensus about the change, as indicated by the strong increase in female labour market involvement....

  17. Safety Campaign Continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/

  18. Discussion on advanced manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiankui

    2007-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing consists of continuity of manufacturing,its broad sense,and the core of the manufacturing process.The technology of continuous manufacturing is discussed according to both historical and modern perspectives.The relationship between human development and manufacturing technology is also discussed.Manufacturing is a continuously evolving topic.It is not only the foundation and means of imagination,conception,the science,and the technology of material change,but also the expression of national economy,national defense,and the support industries.The broad sense of manufacturing theory,which extends the concept of manufacturing,is an important development in the 20th century.The sense is analyzed in connection with design,material forming theory,synthesis of manufacturing technology,manufacturing modes,life cycle of product,hardware and sottware,and support environment,etc.At the same time,the core action and the development of the theory and technology of process is also discussed.At the end of this paper,the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.

  19. Evaluation of Outcome and Tolerability of Combination Chemotherapy with Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin as First Line Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehri, Zahra; Bakhshipour, Ali Reza; Zivari, Ali; Danesh, Hossein Ali; Metanat, Hasan Ali; Karimkoshteh, Azra; Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Rahimi, Hossein; Kiani, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Combination chemotherapy is accepted as a high efficacy treatment for gastric cancer, whereas choice of standard treatment is unclear. Multiple chemotherapeutic regimens have been used to achieve higher efficacy and lower toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the treatment results of advanced gastric cancer with Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin regimen. Subjects and Methods : All cases with documented gastric adenocarcinoma and advanced disease were candidates for receiving Xelox regimen (Capecitabine – 750 mg/m2/twice daily/ 1-14 days and Oxaliplatin 125 mg/m2 in 1st day). Results: Twenty five cases with advanced gastric cancer entered in study while 24 cases continued treatment protocol and were evaluated. Mean age was 59.5 ± 12.1 years (range: 20-75), male and female cases were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All cases received at least four cycles of Xelox regimen. Overall response rate was 74.99% with 29.16% complete response. Overall survival rate was 13 ± 0.53 months and DFS (disease-free survival) was 6 ± 1.09 months. Extremities neuropathy (62.5%), headache (45.8%) and muscle cramps (29.2%) were the most common complains. Haematological changes were rare and 16.7% of cases had mild cytopenia. Treatment related death was not observed. Conclusion: Xelox regimen is a safe and highly effective first line treatment for gastric cancer; however, considering it as first line therapy needs larger studies. PMID:27928475

  20. Mild Form of Treacher Collins Syndrome Imitating Juvenile Otosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Zeleník

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS is an inherited developmental disorder. More than 40% of individuals with TCS have conductive hearing loss attributed to external and middle ear anomalies. Mild cases of TCS often pass undiagnosed at birth or early childhood. The disease may be manifested as conductive hearing loss in teenagers and may resemble juvenile otosclerosis. Patients could suffer from slight facial variabilities including retrognathia (as in our case and others, which point out to a possible middle ear anomaly. Surgical corrections of middle ear anomalies including TCS generally lead to poorer outcomes comparing with juvenile otosclerosis, which should be discussed with parents during preoperative counselling.

  1. Cerebral infarction after mild head trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng-Hua; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Jun-Mei; Liang, Hong-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    We conducted this retrospective, case record review to determine the risk factors and clinical features associated with cerebral infarction after mild head trauma in children. The median age of the cohort was 2.18 years (range, 6 mo-8 y). Most (26/29) of the patients developed the neurological symptoms and signs within 72 hours after trauma, 51.7% within 30 minutes. The first symptoms included hemiparesis (20), facial paresis (7), and convulsion (7). 86.21% of the lesions lay in basal ganglia region. Pre-existing basal ganglia calcification was identified in 13 as a risk factor.

  2. CSF cortisol in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Julius; Schaper, Karsten; Kölsch, Heike; Cvetanovska, Gabriela; Rommel, Fatima; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Dodel, Richard; Wüllner, Ullrich; Jessen, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Hypercortisolaemia occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may be involved in the AD related neurodegenerative process. In order to determine whether brain structures are exposed to high cortisol concentrations early in AD, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol in 66 subjects with AD, 33 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 34 control subjects. CSF cortisol concentrations were higher in AD subjects compared to controls (pcortisol in MCI subjects compared with controls suggesting that the increase of CSF cortisol is not an early event in the course of AD.

  3. Mild ovarian stimulation for IVF: 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Bart C J M; Nargund, Geeta; Andersen, Anders Nyboe;

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian stimulation to achieve multiple follicle development has been an integral part of IVF treatment. In the context of improved laboratory performance, the need for a large number of oocytes as an integral part of a successful IVF programme may be questioned. The aim of the current debate...... is to summarize the studies performed during the last decade to develop the concept of mild stimulation aiming to obtain fewer than eight oocytes. Here we examine the balance between IVF success and patient discomfort, and complications and cost, and how these might improve by simpler ovarian stimulation...

  4. Mild form of treacher collins syndrome imitating juvenile otosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleník, Karol; Komínek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an inherited developmental disorder. More than 40% of individuals with TCS have conductive hearing loss attributed to external and middle ear anomalies. Mild cases of TCS often pass undiagnosed at birth or early childhood. The disease may be manifested as conductive hearing loss in teenagers and may resemble juvenile otosclerosis. Patients could suffer from slight facial variabilities including retrognathia (as in our case) and others, which point out to a possible middle ear anomaly. Surgical corrections of middle ear anomalies including TCS generally lead to poorer outcomes comparing with juvenile otosclerosis, which should be discussed with parents during preoperative counselling.

  5. Cognitive bibliotherapy for mild and moderate adolescent depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, J; Scogin, F; McKendree-Smith, N; Lyman, R D

    1998-08-01

    The efficacy of cognitive bibliotherapy for adolescents experiencing mild and moderate depressive symptomatology was examined with a group of 22 community-dwelling adolescents. Cognitive bibliotherapy was determined to be superior to a delayed-treatment control condition. The treatment produced both statistically and clinically significant improvements in depressive symptoms. Treatment gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up. A significant decrease in dysfunctional thoughts, but not in negative automatic thoughts, was found after treatment. These results contribute to converging evidence on the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatments for adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms.

  6. Advanced capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  7. Computing the continuous discretely

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This richly illustrated textbook explores the amazing interaction between combinatorics, geometry, number theory, and analysis which arises in the interplay between polyhedra and lattices. Highly accessible to advanced undergraduates, as well as beginning graduate students, this second edition is perfect for a capstone course, and adds two new chapters, many new exercises, and updated open problems. For scientists, this text can be utilized as a self-contained tooling device. The topics include a friendly invitation to Ehrhart’s theory of counting lattice points in polytopes, finite Fourier analysis, the Frobenius coin-exchange problem, Dedekind sums, solid angles, Euler–Maclaurin summation for polytopes, computational geometry, magic squares, zonotopes, and more. With more than 300 exercises and open research problems, the reader is an active participant, carried through diverse but tightly woven mathematical fields that are inspired by an innocently elementary question: What are the relationships betwee...

  8. Continuous system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  9. Ethanol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    EtOH is produced by continuous fermentation of molasses. Thus, molasses diluted to 20/sup 0/ Brix was inoculated with bakers' yeast and fermented at 32/sup 0/. When the medium reached 4% EtOH, it was circulated through a centrifuge. The concentrated yeast was recycled to the fermentor and the supernatant was sent to a still. After distillation, the still residue was returned to the fermentor. When the initial charge was entirely fermented, 13 kg molasses of 40/sup 0/ Brix was added to the fermentor per hour, and the yield of EtOH was 1.7 kg/100 L-hour.

  10. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...... at the limit state of serviceability is in some simple cases determined by setting up the statical and the compatibility conditions.With these moment distributions, the maximum deflection and the reinforcement stresses at the span middle and at a support are calculated.The results are compared with results...

  11. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. 7 CFR 53.17 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 53.17... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.17 Advance information... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  13. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  14. Effect of mild head injury on intelligence in Zahedan, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hadi Shorooei; Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini; Soheil Saadat; Arya Sheikh-Mozaffari; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of mild head injury (HI) on the victims' intelligence by measuring their intelligence quotient (IQ).Methods: This cohort study was performed in Khatamol-Anbia Hospital, Zahedan, Iran and the IQs of 30 mild HI patients were measured right after the injury (IQ0) and six months later (IQ6). The IQs of 90 close relatives of the patients were also measured at the same period of time as the non-exposure group. The IQs were measured with Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised (WAIS-R). The IQ0, IQ6 and their differences (IQ change) were compared in HI patients and their relatives using the Student's t test.Results: The mean IQ0 of the HI patients was similar to their relatives. The IQ6 of HI patients appeared to be less than those of their relatives. Moreover, the IQ6 of the HI patients appeared to be less than their initial scores. HI was associated with more decrease in IQ6 compared with IQ0and the female subjects showed more decrease in IQ6 compared with their IQ0.Conclusion: HI seems to be associated with decrease in IQ six months after the injury and it is more evident in female HI patients.

  15. Chronic effect of ketanserin in mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woittiez, A J; Wenting, G J; van den Meiracker, A H; Ritsema van Eck, H J; Man in't Veld, A J; Zantvoort, F A; Schalekamp, M A

    1986-02-01

    Ketanserin, an antagonist highly selective for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) type 2 (S2) receptors, was given as monotherapy in a dose of 40 mg b.i.d. to 24 subjects with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Its effects were evaluated in a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. The effect on blood pressure in 18 subjects was monitored by 24-hour ambulatory intra-arterial measurements. Systolic and diastolic intra-arterial pressures were significantly lowered by ketanserin both during the day and at night, whereas heart rate was unchanged. Cuff pressure readings (triplicate measurements) with the London School of Hygiene sphygmomanometer and an automatic device (12 measurements in 1 hour) in the outpatient clinic also showed a significant effect on both supine and standing pressures. No postural hypotension was noted. Ketanserin had no effect on endogenous creatinine clearance, serum cholesterol levels, and the plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone. The only side effect that was significantly more common with ketanserin than with placebo treatment was an increase in body weight. Ketanserin may have a place in the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension.

  16. Numerical study of flame structure in the mild combustion regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardani Amir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, turbulent non-premixed CH4+H2 jet flame issuing into a hot and diluted co-flow air is studied numerically. This flame is under condition of the moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD combustion regime and related to published experimental data. The modelling is carried out using the EDC model to describe turbulence-chemistry interaction. The DRM-22 reduced mechanism and the GRI2.11 full mechanism are used to represent the chemical reactions of H2/methane jet flame. The flame structure for various O2 levels and jet Reynolds numbers are investigated. The results show that the flame entrainment increases by a decrease in O2 concentration at air side or jet Reynolds number. Local extinction is seen in the upstream and close to the fuel injection nozzle at the shear layer. It leads to the higher flame entertainment in MILD regime. The turbulence kinetic energy decay at centre line of jet decreases by an increase in O2 concentration at hot Co-flow. Also, increase in jet Reynolds or O2 level increases the mixing rate and rate of reactions.

  17. Electrophysiological studies in mild idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlanda, P; Quartarone, A; Sinicropi, S; Pronestì, C; Nicolosi, C; Macaione, V; Picciolo, G; Messina, C

    1998-02-01

    Many techniques have been reported to improve the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), but there is no agreement on the diagnostic yield of these different methods. We used an electrophysiological protocol including the assessment of the orthodromic sensory conduction velocity of the median nerve along the carpal tunnel, comparison of median and ulnar sensory conduction between the ring finger and wrist, short segment incremental median sensory nerve conduction across the carpal tunnel recording from the III digit ('inching test'), the study of the refractory period of transmission (RPT) and calculation of the distoproximal ratio obtained by dividing the nerve conduction velocity in the median nerve between the third digit and the palm and between the palm and wrist in 41 patients with mild CTS (75 symptomatic hands) and in 45 control subjects. The distoproximal ratio calculation was the most sensitive technique (81%), but was also the least specific. The 'inching test', even though less sensitive, had the advantage of localising focal abnormalities of the median nerve along the carpal tunnel. RPT was abnormal in patients with recent symptoms. Combining the different techniques, an overall sensitivity of 92% was reached, 11% higher than the yield of the single best test suggesting that a multimodal approach could be useful. The best procedure for electrodiagnosis of mild CTS was to combine the median/ulnar comparison test with calculation of the disto-proximal ratio.

  18. Mildly negative social encounters reduce physical pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsook, Terry K; MacDonald, Geoff

    2010-11-01

    While previous research has demonstrated a reduction in physical pain sensitivity in response to social exclusion, the manipulations employed have arguably been far removed from typical daily experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of relatively ordinary social encounters on the perception of pain. Healthy participants rated the intensity and unpleasantness of painful stimuli before and after engaging in a structured interaction with a confederate who was instructed to either be warm and friendly or indifferent. A control group was asked to perform a similar structured activity, but alone. Consistent with predictions, participants who experienced the mildly negative social exchange reported lower pain intensity and unpleasantness after the encounter relative to baseline, whereas those exposed to the positive social exchange did not evidence any change in pain ratings. These results were not mediated by changes in mood or perceived connectedness. If mildly negative social encounters can provoke an analgesic effect, it is possible that social hypoalgesia may be considerably more commonplace than previously realized. Discussion focuses on the role of stress-induced hypoalgesia, and the implications of the results for clinical assessments of pain.

  19. Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudge Marilza VC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate and compare the incidence of histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes at term and preterm gestation. Research design and methods One-hundred-and-thirty-one placental samples were collected from Diabetes mellitus (DM positive screened patients. Two diagnostic tests, glycemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in parallel identified 4 groups normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH, gestational DM (GDM or overt DM (DM. Placental tissue specimens and sections from 4 groups were obtained by uniform random sampling and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Placentas from MGH group presented 17 types of histopathological change and higher rates of syncytial nodes and endarteritis. GDM placentas presented only nine types of histopathological change, high rates of dysmaturity, low rates of calcification and no syncytial nodes. Overt DM placentas showed 22 types of histopathological change, 21 of which were present in the preterm period. There were histopathological similarities between MGH and DM placentas, but the former exhibited a higher incidence of endarteritis, which has been described as a "post-mortem" phenomenon. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the distinct placental changes associated with DM and MGH depend on gestational period during which the diabetic insult occurs. It may reasonably be inferred that subclinical maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy, as showed in MGH group, is responsible for increased placental endarteritis, a postmortem lesion in the live fetus.

  20. Subclinical naming errors in mild cognitive impairment: A semantic deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra F. Willers

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Impairments in semantic memory have been demonstrated to be a critical factor in early AD. The Boston Naming Test (BNT is a straightforward method of examining semantic or visuo-perceptual processing and therefore represents a potential diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to examine naming ability and identify error types in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods: Twenty aMCI patients, twenty AD patients and twenty-one normal controls, matched by age, sex and education level were evaluated. As part of a further neuropsychological evaluation, all subjects performed the BNT. A comprehensive classification of error types was devised in order to compare performance and ascertain semantic or perceptual origin of errors. Results: AD patients obtained significantly lower total scores on the BNT than aMCI patients and controls. aMCI patients did not obtain significant differences in total scores, but showed significantly higher semantic errors compared to controls. Conclusion: This study reveals that semantic processing is impaired during confrontation naming in aMCI.

  1. Topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in mild lagophthalmos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itakura M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariko Itakura,1 Hirotaka Itakura,1,2 Tomoyuki Kashima,2 Hideo Akiyama,2 Shoji Kishi21Department of Ophthalmology, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, Maebashi, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University, School of Medicine, Maebashi, JapanAbstract: Administration of topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in dry eye. We consecutively studied seven eyes in seven cases (three males and four females with mild lagophthalmos (three cases after eyelid surgery, two cases of incomplete facial nerve palsy, and two cases of senile ectropion during the treatment of corneal disorders with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2 weeks. The fluorescein corneal staining (FCS score, tear film break-up time (TBUT, Schirmer's test, and decimal visual acuity were examined. Ocular symptoms were examined and scored by questioning each patient before and after administration of the drug. In all seven eyes, inferior corneal erosion decreased or disappeared within 2 weeks after administration of topical rebamipide. The FCS score was significantly improved (P < 0.05. The TBUT was significantly extended from 2.9 ± 0.5 seconds to 5.2 ± 0.4 seconds (P < 0.05. The scores of ocular symptoms, such as eye pain, dryness, blurred vision, and foreign body sensations, were significantly improved (P < 0.05.Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal disorders in mild lagophthalmos. This drug may provide a novel approach to treat lagophthalmos.Keywords: dry eye, ectropion, eyelid surgery, facial nerve palsy, lagophthalmos, rebamipide

  2. Neurosensory Symptom Complexes after Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hoffer

    Full Text Available Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI is a prominent public health issue. To date, subjective symptom complaints primarily dictate diagnostic and treatment approaches. As such, the description and qualification of these symptoms in the mTBI patient population is of great value. This manuscript describes the symptoms of mTBI patients as compared to controls in a larger study designed to examine the use of vestibular testing to diagnose mTBI. Five symptom clusters were identified: Post-Traumatic Headache/Migraine, Nausea, Emotional/Affective, Fatigue/Malaise, and Dizziness/Mild Cognitive Impairment. Our analysis indicates that individuals with mTBI have headache, dizziness, and cognitive dysfunction far out of proportion to those without mTBI. In addition, sleep disorders and emotional issues were significantly more common amongst mTBI patients than non-injured individuals. A simple set of questions inquiring about dizziness, headache, and cognitive issues may provide diagnostic accuracy. The consideration of other symptoms may be critical for providing prognostic value and treatment for best short-term outcomes or prevention of long-term complications.

  3. The Mild Space Weather in Solar Cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji; Xie, Hong; Makela, Pertti; Michalek, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The space weather is extremely mild during solar cycle 24: the number of major geomagnetic storms and high-energy solar energetic particle events are at the lowest since the dawn of the space age. Solar wind measurements at 1 AU using Wind and ACE instruments have shown that there is a significant drop in the density, magnetic field, total pressure, and Alfven speed in the inner heliosphere as a result of the low solar activity. The drop in large space weather events is disproportionately high because the number of energetic coronal mass ejections that cause these events has not decreased significantly. For example, the rate of halo CMEs, which is a good indicator of energetic CMEs, is similar to that in cycle 23, even though the sunspot number has declined by about 40%. The mild space weather seems to be a consequence of the anomalous expansion of CMEs due to the low ambient pressure in the heliosphere. The anomalous expansion results in the dilution of the magnetic contents of CMEs, so the geomagnetic storm...

  4. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment with low myocardial metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Ogata, Takeshi; Haruta, Masayuki; Kishi, Masahiko; Tsuyusaki, Yohei; Tateno, Akihiko; Tateno, Fuyuki; Mouri, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We reported cases of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) without the core clinical features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (dementia and spontaneous parkinsonism) with low uptake in 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. Methods: During a 3-year period at a university clinic, we had 254 patients with memory complaints; 106 men, 148 women; mean age 72.5 years (48-95 years). In all patients we performed neurologic examination; memory tests including the MMSE, ADAScog, FAB and additional WMS-R; and imaging tests including brain MRI, SPECT and MIBG scintigraphy. Results: The criteria of amnestic MCI were fulfilled in 44 patients; and 13 of them (30%) showed low MIBG uptake. They had the following: uniformly elderly, with an equal sex ratio, have relatively slow progression, preserved general cognitive function (MMSE 24.8/30). In addition to memory impairment, they commonly showed low frontal function by FAB (12.5/18) and some had mild visual hallucination (5). Other than memory disorder, they had autonomic disorder (nocturia in 7, constipation in 2, postural hypotension in one), REM sleep behavioral disorder (in 3) and occipital hypoperfusion by SPECT (in 5). Conclusion: This cohort of multidomain amnestic MCI cases may present with early stage DLB because of the presence of low MIBG uptake. Clinically, they commonly have low FAB, and may have visual hallucination, autonomic and sleep disorders. PMID:23383388

  5. The Effects of Mild Gestational Hyperglycemia on Exclusive Breastfeeding Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Verd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes increases the risk of a range of adverse perinatal outcomes, including breastfeeding failure, but the best cut-off point for gestational diabetes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between mild gestational glucose tolerance impairment and the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF. This is an observational study of 768 women with full term pregnancies that were screened for gestational diabetes at 24–28 weeks gestation. Subjects were divided into two groups: those with a normal 1-h glucose challenge test and those with an elevated 1-h glucose challenge test but still did not qualify for gestational diabetes. We constructed multivariable logistic regression models using data from 616 women with normal gestational glucose tolerance and 152 women with an isolated positive 1-h glucose challenge test. The risk of early exclusive breastfeeding cessation was found to increase in women with mildly impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy (adjusted OR, 1.65; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.45. Risks of early EBF cessation were also independently associated with the amount of neonatal weight loss and admission to the neonatal ward. Instead, parity was associated with a decreased risk for shorter EBF duration. Insulin resistance—even in the absence of gestational diabetes mellitus—may be an impeding factor for EBF.

  6. Adult mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome with mild manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS is usually a severe disorder of infancy or childhood, due to a reduced copy number of mtDNA molecules. MDS with only mild, non-specific clinical manifestations and onset in adulthood has not been reported. A 47-year-old Caucasian female with short stature and a history of migraine, endometriosis, Crohn’s disease, C-cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and a family history positive for mitochondrial disorder (2 sisters, aunt, niece, developed day-time sleepiness, exercise intolerance, and myalgias in the lower-limb muscles since age 46y. She slept 9-10 hours during the night and 2 hours after lunch daily. Clinical exam revealed sore neck muscles, bilateral ptosis, and reduced Achilles tendon reflexes exclusively. Blood tests revealed hyperlipidemia exclusively. Nerve conduction studies, needle electromyography, and cerebral and spinal magnetic resonance imaging were non-informative. Muscle biopsy revealed detached lobulated fibers with subsarcolemmal accentuation of the NADH and SDH staining. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed depletion of the mtDNA down to 9% of normal. MDS may be associated with a mild phenotype in adults and may not significantly progress during the first year after onset. In an adult with hypersomnia, severe tiredness, exercise intolerance, and a family history positive for mitochondrial disorder, a MDS should be considered.

  7. Sex differences in the chronic mild stress model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, Anthony; Herchick, Samantha; Thelen, Connor; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M

    2014-09-01

    A large volume of clinical and experimental evidence documents sex differences in brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, as well as in stress and drug responses. The chronic mild stress model (CMS) is one of the most extensively investigated animal models of chronic stress. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in female rodents despite the markedly higher prevalence of major depression among women. Herein, we review CMS studies conducted in rats and mice of both sexes and further discuss intriguing sex-dependent behavioral and neurobiological findings. The PubMed literature search engine was used to find and collect all relevant articles analyzed in this review. Specifically, a multitermed search was performed with 'chronic mild stress', 'chronic unpredictable stress' and 'chronic variable stress' as base terms and 'sex', 'gender', 'females' and 'depression' as secondary terms in various combinations. Male and female rodents appear to be differentially affected by CMS application, depending on the behavioral, physiological, and neurobiological indices that are being measured. Importantly, the CMS paradigm, despite its limitations, has been successfully used to assess a constellation of interdisciplinary research questions in the sex differences field and has served as a 'silver bullet' in assessing the role of sex in the neurobiology of major depression.

  8. Mild hypoxia affects synaptic connectivity in cultured neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Mulder, Alex T B; Farinha, Ana C; van Putten, Michel J A M; le Feber, Joost

    2014-04-01

    Eighty percent of patients with chronic mild cerebral ischemia/hypoxia resulting from chronic heart failure or pulmonary disease have cognitive impairment. Overt structural neuronal damage is lacking and the precise cause of neuronal damage is unclear. As almost half of the cerebral energy consumption is used for synaptic transmission, and synaptic failure is the first abrupt consequence of acute complete anoxia, synaptic dysfunction is a candidate mechanism for the cognitive deterioration in chronic mild ischemia/hypoxia. Because measurement of synaptic functioning in patients is problematic, we use cultured networks of cortical neurons from new born rats, grown over a multi-electrode array, as a model system. These were exposed to partial hypoxia (partial oxygen pressure of 150Torr lowered to 40-50Torr) during 3 (n=14) or 6 (n=8) hours. Synaptic functioning was assessed before, during, and after hypoxia by assessment of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses to electrical stimulation. Action potential heights and shapes and non-synaptic stimulus responses were used as measures of individual neuronal integrity. During hypoxia of 3 and 6h, there was a statistically significant decrease of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses, whereas direct responses and action potentials remained unchanged. These changes were largely reversible. Our results indicate that in cultured neuronal networks, partial hypoxia during 3 or 6h causes isolated disturbances of synaptic connectivity.

  9. Continuous epidural block of the cervical vertebrae for cervicogenic headache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ming-wei; NI Jia-xiang; GUO Yu-na; WANG Qi; YANG Li-qiang; LIU Jing-jie

    2009-01-01

    Background Cervicogenic headache (CEH) is caused by a structural abnormality in the cervical spine. Available treatments for CEH include medical therapy, local botulinum toxin injection, cervical epidural corticosteroid injection, and surgery. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of a continuous epidural block of the cervical vertebra.Methods Medical records were retrospectively analyzed for 37 patients diagnosed with CEH treated by a continuous epidural block of the cervical vertebra with lidocaine, dexamethasone, and saline (5 ml/min) for 3-4 weeks and triamcinolone acetonide 5 mg once weekly for 3-4 weeks. Pain was measured via the visual analogue scale (VAS) in combination with quality of life assessment. Outcome measures were patient-reported days with mild or moderate pain, occurrence of severe pain, and the daily oral dosages of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use (NSAID).Results In the 3 months immediately preceding placement of the epidural catheter, the mean number of days with mild or moderate pain was 22.0±4.3. The mean occurrence of severe pain was (3.20±0.75) times and the mean oral dosage of NSAID was (1267±325) mg. During the first 6 months after epidural administration of lidocaine and corticosteroids, the mean number of days with mild or moderate pain, the mean occurrence of severe pain, and the mean daily oral dosages of NSAIDs were significantly decreased compared to 3-month period immediately preceding treatment (P <0.01). By 12 months post-treatment, no significant difference in these three outcome measures was noted.Conclusions Continuous epidural block of the cervical vertebra for patients with CEH is effective for at least six months. Further research is needed to elucidate mechanisms of action and to prolong this effect.

  10. High-Intensity Intermittent Swimming Improves Cardiovascular Health Status for Women with Mild Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magni Mohr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n=21; HIT, moderate-intensity (n=21; MOD, and control groups (n=20; CON. HIT performed 6–10 × 30 s all-out swimming interspersed by 2 min recovery and MOD swam continuously for 1 h at moderate intensity for a 15-week period completing in total 44±1 and 43±1 sessions, respectively. In CON, all measured variables were similar before and after the intervention period. Systolic BP decreased (P<0.05 by 6±1 and 4±1 mmHg in HIT and MOD; respectively. Resting heart rate declined (P<0.05 by 5±1 bpm both in HIT and MOD, fat mass decreased (P<0.05 by 1.1±0.2 and 2.2±0.3 kg, respectively, while the blood lipid profile was unaltered. In HIT and MOD, performance improved (P<0.05 for a maximal 10 min swim (13±3% and 22±3%, interval swimming (23±3% and 8±3%, and Yo-Yo IE1 running performance (58±5% and 45±4%. In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance in sedentary women with mild hypertension. Adaptations are similar with high- and moderate-intensity training, despite markedly less total time spent and distance covered in the high-intensity group.

  11. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  12. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  13. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  14. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  15. Advances in Home Photo Printing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Lin; Brian Atkins; Huitao Luo

    2004-01-01

    With digital camera adoptions going main stream, consumers capture a record number of photos.Currently, the majority of the digital photos are printed at home. One of the key enablers of this transformation is the advancement of home photo printing technologies. In the past few years, inkjet printing technologies have continued to deliver smaller drop size, larger number of inks, and longer-lasting prints. In the mean time, advanced image processing automatically enhances captured digital photos while being printed. The combination of the above two forces has closed the gap between the home photo prints and AgX prints. It will give an overview of the home photo printing market and technology trends, and discuss major advancements in automatic image processing.

  16. Remark on Regularity of Continuous Operators on AL-Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯勋省; 陈滋利

    2004-01-01

    Let E and F be Banach lattices. It is known that if every continuous linear operator from E into F is regular, then, under some mild assumptions on E or F, either E is lattice isomorphic to an AL-space or F is lattice isomorphic to an AM-space. Here we present a characterization on an AL-space E such that every bounded linear operator from E into a Banach lattice is regular. A counterexample is also provided, which shows that the results are unexpected even if the domain is an AL-space or the range space is an AM-space.

  17. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  18. Continuity and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Reenberg, Anette; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Traditional agricultural land use systems in the humid tropics of the Southwest Pacific are, as elsewhere, affected by globalization processes. This paper analyzes the directions of change in the land use system of Bellona, a small outer island in the Solomon Islands. We focus on the human...... reveal only minor changes in the agricultural system. Land use and land cover dynamics are related to agricultural strategies, demographic factors, institutional actors as well as biophysical drivers or constraints. Local agricultural production still contributes significantly to local subsistence...... is a supplement to a range of strategies supporting the increasing number of people on the island. This explains why land use patterns continue relatively unchanged while livelihood and food supply strategies have changed....

  19. Knowledge and Continuous Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Caffyn, S.; Corso, M.;

    1999-01-01

    Competition today is forcing companies to increase their effectiveness through exploiting synergy and learning in product innovation. Literature, however, is still mainly focused on how product development projects, seen largely as isolated efforts, should be organised and managed. This article...... proposes a model to describe and explain how companies can gain a substantive competitive advantage by extending their innovation efforts to other phases of the product life cycle and by facilitating knowledge transfer and learning both within the company and with other partner organisations. The model...... is based on collaborative research by the authors, based on their involvement in the Euro-Australian co-operation project CIMA (Euro-Australian co-operation centre for Continuous Improvement and innovation MAnagement)....

  20. [Continuous-infusion ketamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, P G; Caggese, G; Di Fabio, A; Di Nino, G F; Cocchi, V

    1980-08-01

    An investigation was made of the employment of ketamin as the sole anaesthetic in general surgery, using continuous infusion of a 1% solution for both induction and maintenance in 118 cases. ECG was monitored and arterial pressure was measured invasively. Central venous pressure was also determined in 10 cases. Changes in serum enzyme values during and after surgery were examined in 35 patients. Blood samples were withdrawn before induction, after the return to consciousness, and 24 hr after the operation. Side-effects were common, but slight. Five patients suffered from nightmares, but these were persons with marked imaginative activity and a melancholic nature. Cardiocirculatory function was satisfactory. In particular, peripheral perfusion was excellent in all cases.

  1. Spaces of continuous functions

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, G L M

    2016-01-01

    The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.

  2. Quasi-continuous magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Naumovich, G.J.; Hoang, T.A.; Dent, P.C. [Everson Electric Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is completing a quasi-continuous magnet which will sustain a constant field of 60 T for 100 ms in a 32-mm 77 K bore. This magnet consists of 9 mechanically independent, nested, liquid nitrogen-cooled coils which are individually reinforced by high-strength stainless steel outer shells. The coils were wound from rectangular large cross-section, high-strength, high-conductivity copper conductor insulated wtih polyimide and fiberglass tapes. After winding, the coils were inserted into closely fitted, stainless steel reinforcing shells and impregnated with epoxy resin. Design, analysis, material, fabrication and operational issues for this class of magnets are reviewed. Fabrication and quality assurance testing of the 60 T coil set are covered in detail. Future growth of and possible links from this technology to other magnet systems are discussed. Needed improvements in design, analysis, materials, and fabrication are outlined.

  3. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of mild steel-mild steel joint formed by microwave hybrid heating process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Bansal; Apurbba Kumar Sharma; Shantanu Das

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, mild steel–mild steel (MS-MS) joints fabricated through microwave hybrid heating (MHH) have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron probe micro analyser (EPMA), Vicker’s microhardness measurement and tensile strength. The XRD spectrum of the developed joints shows substitution type of solid solution form in the joint zone. The back scattered electron (BSE) images of the joint obtained by SEM show complete melting of powder particle and consequently diffusion bonding takes place between the substrate and the powder particle. The electron probe micro analysis shows diffusion of element across the joint. The Vicker’s micro hardness of the joints was measured to be 420 ± 30 Hv, which is higher than that of substrate hardness 230 ± 10 Hv. The tensile strength of the sample was measured by an universal testing machine and found to be 240 MPa which is about 50% of base material strength. The SEM micrographs of the fractured sample indicate mixed modes of failure during fracture of the joint; both ductile and brittle modes of failures occurred as indicated by dimple and cleavage of the brittle faces, respectively.

  4. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  5. Diffusion MRI: Pitfalls, literature review and future directions of research in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delouche, Aurélie; Attyé, Arnaud; Heck, Olivier; Grand, Sylvie; Kastler, Adrian; Lamalle, Laurent; Renard, Felix; Krainik, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of disability in adults, many of whom report a distressing combination of physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms, collectively known as post-concussion syndrome, that persist after the injury. Significant developments in magnetic resonance diffusion imaging, involving voxel-based quantitative analysis through the measurement of fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity, have enhanced our knowledge on the different stages of mTBI pathophysiology. Other diffusion imaging-derived techniques, including diffusion kurtosis imaging with multi-shell diffusion and high-order tractography models, have recently demonstrated their usefulness in mTBI. Our review starts by briefly outlining the physical basis of diffusion tensor imaging including the pitfalls for use in brain trauma, before discussing findings from diagnostic trials testing its usefulness in assessing brain structural changes in patients with mTBI. Use of different post-processing techniques for the diffusion imaging data, identified the corpus callosum as the most frequently injured structure in mTBI, particularly at sub-acute and chronic stages, and a crucial location for evaluating functional outcome. However, structural changes appear too subtle for identification using traditional diffusion biomarkers, thus disallowing expansion of these techniques into clinical practice. In this regard, more advanced diffusion techniques are promising in the assessment of this complex disease.

  6. Evolutionary optimization for conditions of variable BHF for springback reduction in AHSS-mild steel TWB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N.-T.; Chakraborti, N.; Barlat, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the advanced high strength steels (AHSS)/mild steel TWB sheet is applied to the U-draw bending springback under non-constant blank holding force (BHF). On both sides of the blank, two different BHF-punch stroke are applied. A systematic approach to obtain optimal BHF-stroke profiles is proposed. The optimal condition would require satisfying two conflicting objectives simultaneously: (1) minimize springback deformation and (2) minimize the forming severity, leading to a Pareto-optimal problem. The optimization procedure consists of the following steps: sampling design, finite element (FE) simulations, metamodeling, and finally the calculation of a Pareto-frontier. PAM-STAMP® FE software is employed in this study. The generated outputs of FE simulations on some statistically significant sampling points are then used for the construction of metamodels of optimum accuracy and complexity, which, in turn, were used to evaluate the output for any set of inputs, replacing the computing intensive FE simulations. A novel genetic algorithms based multi-objective optimization technique is applied for optimization. Yet far to be completely removed, springback in TWB can be appreciably reduced using the proposed approach of variable BHF control.

  7. Guest Editorial: Cognitive-communication rehabilitation for combat-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. MacLennan, MA, CCC-SLP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 2 million servicemembers (SMs have served in two theaters of operation in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF], which ended in December 2011, and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]. Improvements in body armor and advances in medical care have resulted in the highest survival rate of wounded military personnel compared with any previous conflict in U.S. history [1]. Traumatic brain injury (TBI is among the most common injuries and has been called the “signature injury” of the Global War on Terror [2-3]. Data based on self-reports indicate that approximately 15 to 22 percent of SMs deployed in OIF/OEF may have sustained mild TBI (mTBI as a result of exposure to improvised explosive devices [4-7]. The true incidence of mTBI among SMs remains largely unknown, because many SMs either do not seek immediate medical care or receive a diagnosis long after the injury, when the details of the event are more difficult to establish [8].

  8. Neuropathology of mild traumatic brain injury: relationship to neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Maxwell, William L

    2012-06-01

    Neuroimaging identified abnormalities associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are but gross indicators that reflect underlying trauma-induced neuropathology at the cellular level. This review examines how cellular pathology relates to neuroimaging findings with the objective of more closely relating how neuroimaging findings reveal underlying neuropathology. Throughout this review an attempt will be made to relate what is directly known from post-mortem microscopic and gross anatomical studies of TBI of all severity levels to the types of lesions and abnormalities observed in contemporary neuroimaging of TBI, with an emphasis on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, it is impossible to discuss the neuropathology of mTBI without discussing what occurs with more severe injury and viewing pathological changes on some continuum from the mildest to the most severe. Historical milestones in understanding the neuropathology of mTBI are reviewed along with implications for future directions in the examination of neuroimaging and neuropathological correlates of TBI.

  9. Mild gestational diabetes as a risk factor for congenital cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Tapanainen, Anna E; Kaleva, Marko M;

    2006-01-01

    diabetes diagnosis and abnormality of the result of a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy were obtained from the hospital records after delivery. RESULTS: After adjustment for possible confounding factors, i.e. maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age at delivery, and risk factors...... an abnormal result in oral glucose tolerance test, P = 0.0016; odds ratio, 2.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.40-4.25)] when compared with boys with normal testicular descent. CONCLUSIONS: Mildly abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for congenital cryptorchidism......CONTEXT: Cryptorchidism is the most common malformation in newborn boys. Maternal diabetes has previously been suggested to be a risk factor for this disorder in one epidemiological study. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the prevalence of maternal glucose metabolism disorders during pregnancy in newborn...

  10. Should mild stimulation be the order of the day?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild stimulation protocols aim to reduce the physical, financial and emotional burden associated with the conventional IVF protocol without compromising the pregnancy rate. Such protocols help to decrease the complications and the discomfort related to the prolonged administration of agonist and large doses of gonadotrophins, by limiting the number of oocytes recruited to no more than eight. The per cycle pregnancy rates are lower though the cumulative pregnancy rate in a year is equivalent. This CPR comes by going through earlier repeat cycles. Whether this reduces the physical, emotional or financial burden remains a matter of debate. There is need to standardize these protocol and do more trials to compare the two effectively. Till such time there is a clear benefit above the conventional protocol it will not be the protocol of choice with most physicians.

  11. Inheritance of tolerance to Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Arrabal Arias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean stem necrosis is caused by Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV and it has been recognized as an emerging and economically important disease in Brazil. No resistant, but only tolerant cultivars have been identified so far, and their genetic control is still unknown. To investigate the inheritance of soybean tolerance to CPMMV, two crosses between tolerant cultivars (BRS 133 x BRSMT Pintado, and between a susceptible (CD 206 and a tolerant cultivar (BRSMT Pintado were carried out to obtain F2 and F2:3 generations. Quantitative and qualitative analyses applied to the data from greenhouse evaluations showed that there are at least two distinct major genes determining tolerance to CPMMV, one in the soybean cultivar BRS 133 and another in the cultivar BRSMT Pintado, with predominance of additive genetic effects and heritability levels that allow for efficient selection based on early generation means

  12. DISSIPATION OF WAVE ENERGY ON VERY MILD SLOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and calculation of wave attenuation when waves travel on sand bed, sand ripple bed and muddy bed, respectively. The study shows that (1) The dissipation of wave energy due to bottom percolation may be neglected on sand bed; (2) The wave attenuation due to the friction of sand ripples is one order higher than that of flat sand bed and (3) The energy loss of waves propagating on muddy bed is the largest. Then, the equivalent coefficients of friction are calculated in order to compare with the solution by the bottom-friction model. Wave attenuation are also computed by the Bingham-model and the principle of conservation of wave energy flux on very mild muddy slope. The results coincide well with the wave information from the Lianyungang Wave Observation Station. Theoretical prediction proves that the equivalent coefficients of friction strongly rely on water depth, which inerease with decreasing depth.

  13. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  14. Vergence in mild traumatic brain injury: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Szymanowicz, OD, MS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Vergence dysfunction in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI may have a negative effect on quality of life, functional abilities, and rehabilitative progress. In this study, we used a range of dynamic and static objective and subjective measures of vergence to assess 21 adult patients with mTBI and nearwork symptoms. The results were compared with 10 control adult subjects. With respect to dynamic parameters, responses in those with mTBI were slowed, variable, and delayed. With respect to static parameters, reduced near point of convergence and restricted near vergence ranges were found in those with mTBI. The present results provide evidence for the substantial adverse effect of mTBI on vergence function.

  15. Mild Diabetes Models and Their Maternal-Fetal Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Damasceno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of diabetes in pregnancy leads to hormonal and metabolic changes making inappropriate intrauterine environment, favoring the onset of maternal and fetal complications. Human studies that explore mechanisms responsible for changes caused by diabetes are limited not only for ethical reasons but also by the many uncontrollable variables. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate experimental models. The diabetes induced in laboratory animals can be performed by different methods depending on dose, route of administration, and the strain and age of animal used. Many of these studies are carried out in neonatal period or during pregnancy, but the results presented are controversial. So this paper, addresses the review about the different models of mild diabetes induction using streptozotocin in pregnant rats and their repercussions on the maternal and fetal organisms to propose an adequate model for each approached issue.

  16. Bronchodilators for treatment of mild bronchiolitis: a factorial randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E E; Milner, R; Allen, U; Maj, H

    1992-01-01

    A randomised double blind trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of inhaled bronchodilators, salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, compared with placebo in the treatment of bronchiolitis. Patients, who were 2 months to 2 years of age and without underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease, received drug 1 (salbutamol or saline placebo) followed one hour later by drug 2 (ipratropium bromide or placebo). Both agents were administered every four hours. The patients were allocated to one of four groups according to a factorial design. The four groups were similar in demographic characteristics, initial oxygenation, and clinical score. The change in oxygen saturation of recipients of both agents was significantly better than that of recipients of salbutamol alone or ipratropium bromide alone. This change, however, was not statistically different from that of the control group. No difference was observed in the clinical score or hospital duration. Inhaled bronchodilators did not improve the condition of hospitalised mild bronchiolitis. PMID:1533504

  17. How Do Children With Mild Intellectual Disabilities Perceive Loneliness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Papoutsaki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined 154 children with mild intellectual disability (MID attending special schools with regard to their reports of loneliness. Semi-structured interviews revealed that more than half of the students with MID reported feelings of loneliness. They tend to have as friends children from their neighborhood, friends of their siblings, children of their parents’ friends and from their school. Lonely children with MID tend to attribute their isolation to interpersonal deficits, lack of contact with peers and physical appearance, while one fourth cannot justify why they do not have any friends. Children with MID report that they withdraw from social interactions, engage in solitary activities and actively look for friends to cope with their feelings of loneliness and rejection, while very few resort to physical or verbal aggression. Moreover, boys and children living in smaller towns reported less feelings of loneliness than girls and children living in the capital.

  18. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SKIMMING FLOW OVER MILD STEPPED CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhi-yong; LEE Joseph Hun-wei

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulation of stepped channel flow was conducted using turbulence models based on the VOF technique. Stepped channel flow is a complicated air-water two-phase flow with free surface, which can be divided into three flow regimes: skimming flow, nappe flow and transition flow. The characteristics of skimming flow over mild stepped channel was investigated, including friction factors, air concentration profiles velocity field, clear-water and bulked depths, static pressure, etc. Smooth channel flow was also simulated to compare the hydraulic characteristics of the stepped channel flow with the smooth one. Comparisons between the computed and the measured were made. Furthermore, comparison of the computed air concentration with Straub and Anderson's data was also performed. The Fluent 6.1 software was employed to conduct this numerical simulation work.

  19. Persistent vertigo and dizziness after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Terry D; Kalra, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    Vertigo, dizziness, and disequilibrium are common symptoms following concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Dizziness and vertigo may be the result of trauma to the peripheral vestibular system or the central nervous system, or, in some cases, may be due to anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder; these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. While most peripheral vestibular disorders can be identified by testing and examination, those without inner-ear causes that have persisting complaints of dizziness and motion sickness are more difficult to understand and to manage. Some of these patients exhibit features compatible with vestibular migraine and may be treated successfully with migraine-preventative medications. This paper reviews the nonotogenic causes of persisting dizziness, the possible mechanisms, and the pathophysiology, as a framework for patient management and for future research.

  20. Profiles of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraita, Herminia; Chacón, José; Díaz-Mardomingo, Carmen; Martínez-Arias, Rosario

    2015-11-20

    We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to a set of neuropsychological data with the aim of corroborating the three cognitive profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) described in the literature, namely: healthy, amnestic, non-amnestic, and multidomain. The ultimate purpose of the LCA was to try to find the underlying classification of MCI and related pathologies by means of the participants' response patterns, rather than on more classical psychometric criteria, such as the standard deviation of the mean. We computed 547 neuropsychological assessments derived from 223 participants who were assessed annually for three consecutive years. The battery included tests of memory, language, executive function, and praxis. The results obtained by means of LCA, with a four-group solution and using the 40th percentile as the criterion, confirm prior classifications obtained with more questionable psychometric criteria, while providing longitudinal data on the course of MCI and the stability of group assignment over time.

  1. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease: heterogenous mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson disease (PD), with long-term longitudinal studies reporting that most PD patients develop dementia. A high proportion of patients with PD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) progress to dementia within a short time. Impairments occur in a range of cognitive domains, but single-domain impairment is more common than multiple one, non-amnestic more common than amnestic impairment. Although the term MCI applied to PD (PD-MCI) is not without controversy due to the lack of uniform diagnostic consensus criteria, the biological validity of PD-MCI is supported by many recent studies that show heterogenous mechanisms in the clinical presentation, neuropsychology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, and neuropathology, suggesting abnormal metabolic network activities involving several cortical and subcortical nervous systems. Prospective studies using specific biomarkers, including amyloid imaging, and cerebro-spinal fluid biomarkers are warranted for an exact diagnosis and prognostic assessment of early cognitive deficits in PD patients.

  2. DNA-repair in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholtz, Nina; Demuth, Ilja

    2013-10-01

    While the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of Alzheimer disease (late onset Alzheimer disease, LOAD) is not fully understood, it seems to be clear that a combination of genetic and environmental factors are involved and influence the course of the disease. Among these factors, elevated levels of oxidative stress have been recognized and individual differences in the capacity to deal with DNA damage caused by its effects have been the subject of numerous studies. This review summarizes the research on DNA repair proteins and genes in the context of LOAD pathogenesis and its possible prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The current status of the research in this field is discussed with respect to methodological issues which might have compromised the outcome of some studies and future directions of investigation on this subject are depicted.

  3. Investigation of Fecraly Coating on Corrosion Behaviour of Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B. AGBOOLA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Steel has found wide application in hot rolling equipments in the steel industry and the oil rig structures in sea water. These equipments are frequently subjected to corrosive and temperature condition which causes severe damage to them, hence the need to develop steel suitable to withstand these conditions in terms of surface treatment. This research work investigates the effect of FeCrAlY coating on mild steel under high temperature and aggressive environment. Iron based coatings are used due to low cost among other properties such as good corrosion resistance, ease of machining and high ductility when compared to hard metals.Thermal spraying of the specimens was carried out using high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF. Corrosion test was carried out on both coated and uncoated samples. All samples were subjected to the same high temperature treatment for oxidation test.

  4. Hydrodynamical interaction of mildly relativistic ejecta with an ambient medium

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamical interaction of spherical ejecta freely expanding at mildly relativistic speeds into an ambient cold medium is studied in semi-analytical and numerical ways to investigate how ejecta produced in energetic stellar explosions dissipate their kinetic energy through the interaction with the surrounding medium. We especially focus on the case in which the circumstellar medium is well represented by a steady wind at a constant mass-loss rate having been ejected from the stellar surface prior to the explosion. As a result of the hydrodynamical interaction, the ejecta and circumstellar medium are swept by the reverse and forward shocks, leading to the formation of a geometrically thin shell. We present a semi-analytical model describing the dynamical evolution of the shell and compare the results with numerical simulations. The shell can give rise to bright emission as it gradually becomes transparent to photons. while it is optically thick. We develop an emission model for the expected emission from th...

  5. Chronic post-traumatic headache after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dorte; Forchhammer, Hysse; Teasdale, Tom

    2014-01-01

    to or above the cut-off score for having post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to the HTQ. In terms of demographics and headache, the groups were comparable except the CPTH group were more often without affiliation to the labour market ( P ...BACKGROUND: The aetiology behind chronic post-traumatic headache (CPTH) after mild head injury is unclear and management is complicated. In order to optimize treatment strategies we aimed to characterize a CPTH population. METHODS: Ninety patients with CPTH and 45 patients with chronic primary...... headaches were enrolled from the Danish Headache Center. All patients were interviewed about demographic and headache data. They completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, SF-36 and a headache diary. RESULTS: The CPTH group experienced more cognitive...

  6. An Efficient Synthesis of Nitriles from Aldoximes Using Diethyl Phosphorocyanidate under Mild Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kieseung; An, Hyeonseong; Hwang, Chanyeon [Woosuk Univ.,Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Nitriles are valuable intermediates in organic synthesis not only because they serve as the appropriate precursors to various functional groups, but also because they are widely used as the key intermediates for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and various N-heterocyclic compounds. The cyano group itself is also frequently found in many biologically important molecules. Therefore, a variety of synthetic routes to nitriles from diverse chemical precursors have been developed. Among these routes, nitrile synthesis from aldoximes using an appropriate dehydrating agent has been a general and clean method. For this purpose, numerous reagents such as chlorosulfonyl isocyanate, di-2-pyridyl sulfite, Burgess reagent, [RuCl{sub 2}(p-cymene)]{sub 2}/MS, 4A, BOP, Pd(OAc){sub 2}/PPh{sub 3}, Cu(OAc){sub 2}/ultrasound have been developed. These reagents, however, may have limitations in some respects such as harsh reaction conditions, use of expensive or less readily available reagents, low yields, and lack of generality. Therefore, there is still a need to develop mild and general method for this conversion. Diethyl phosphorocyanidate (DEPC) was initially introduced as an efficient peptide coupling reagent, and has been utilized for useful organic reactions. Previously, we reported that 2-chloro-1-methylpyridinium iodide is an efficient and mild reagent for the dehydration of aldoximes to nitriles under mild conditions. In continuation of our interest in developing mild method for the conversion of aldoximes to nitriles, we herein wish to report the first application of DEPC to the efficient synthesis of nitriles from aldoximes under mild conditions (Scheme 1). In order to obtain the information regarding the optimum reaction conditions, 4-pyridine aldoxime (1a) was reacted with DEPC without base, and in presence of various base in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} at rt for a prolonged reaction time (20 h) (Table 1). CH{sub 2}CI{sub 2} was chosen as reaction medium in this reaction due to the

  7. 网络信息平台的延续护理在中晚期宫颈癌患者中的应用%Application of network information platform for the continuation of nursing in pa-tients with locally advanced cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英; 陈丽君; 黄英凡; 冯茜茜; 彭伟萍; 周文婧

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨应用网络信息平台的延续护理对中晚期宫颈癌患者社会支持和遵医行为影响。方法选取中晚期宫颈癌同步放化疗患者120例,随机分为干预组和对照组,每组60例。两组患者出院前均按常规给予出院指导,干预组患者出院后由专职随访护士应用自行设计的网络信息系统,实施延续护理3个月。出院前、出院后3个月对患者的社会支持状况和遵医行为(复诊、阴道冲洗及饮食依从性)进行问卷调查,比较两组患者的社会支持状况和遵医行为。结果出院前两组患者社会支持各项得分差异无统计学意义;出院3个月后干预组患者社会支持状况包括主观支持、客观支持、社会支持利用度和社会支持总得分均明显高于对照组(均P<0.05),患者遵医行为的按时复诊、按要求阴道冲洗及遵照饮食指导均明显高于对照组(均P<0.05)。结论应用网络信息平台的延续护理能够使护理人员高效、快捷地为离院患者提供康复指导,能有效提高中晚期宫颈癌同步放化疗出院后患者社会支持和遵医行为,从而改善患的治疗效果。%Objective To discuss the application of network information platform care social support in patients with locally ad -vanced cervical cancer and the medical behavior influence .Methods To select 120 cases met inclusion and exclusion criteria of locally ad-vanced cervical cancer patients with chemoradiation , and randomly divided into intervention group and control group ( n =60 ) .Two groups of patients were routinely given before leaving hospital discharge guidance , the intervention group patients were designed by professional nur-ses used in our follow-up research and development of network information system after discharge , and implement continue nursing for 3 months.For patients social support condition and according to the medical behavior ( visit, douching and

  8. Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Ganio, Matthew S; Casa, Douglas J; Lee, Elaine C; McDermott, Brendon P; Klau, Jennifer F; Jimenez, Liliana; Le Bellego, Laurent; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding the effects of mild dehydration on cognitive function. Therefore, mild dehydration was produced by intermittent moderate exercise without hyperthermia and its effects on cognitive function of women were investigated. Twenty-five females (age 23.0 ± 0.6 y) participated in three 8-h, placebo-controlled experiments involving a different hydration state each day: exercise-induced dehydration with no diuretic (DN), exercise-induced dehydration plus diuretic (DD; furosemide, 40 mg), and euhydration (EU). Cognitive performance, mood, and symptoms of dehydration were assessed during each experiment, 3 times at rest and during each of 3 exercise sessions. The DN and DD trials in which a volunteer attained a ≥1% level of dehydration were pooled and compared to that volunteer's equivalent EU trials. Mean dehydration achieved during these DN and DD trials was -1.36 ± 0.16% of body mass. Significant adverse effects of dehydration were present at rest and during exercise for vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and total mood disturbance scores of the Profile of Mood States and for task difficulty, concentration, and headache as assessed by questionnaire. Most aspects of cognitive performance were not affected by dehydration. Serum osmolality, a marker of hydration, was greater in the mean of the dehydrated trials in which a ≥1% level of dehydration was achieved (P = 0.006) compared to EU. In conclusion, degraded mood, increased perception of task difficulty, lower concentration, and headache symptoms resulted from 1.36% dehydration in females. Increased emphasis on optimal hydration is warranted, especially during and after moderate exercise.

  9. Recovery of resting brain connectivity ensuing mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Dawn Bharath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brains reveal amplified plasticity as they recover from an injury. We aimed to define time dependent plasticity changes in patients recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. 25 subjects with mild head injury were longitudinally evaluated within 36 hours, 3 and 6 months using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC. Region of interest (ROI based connectivity differences over time within the patient group and in comparison with a healthy control group were analyzed at p<0.005. We found 33 distinct ROI pairs that revealed significant changes in their connectivity strength with time. Within three months, the majority of the ROI pairs had decreased connectivity in mTBI population, which increased and became comparable to healthy controls at 6 months. Initial imaging within 36 hours of injury revealed hyper connectivity predominantly involving the salience network and default mode network, which reduced at 3 months when lingual, inferior frontal and fronto-parietal networks revealed hyper connectivity. At six months all the evaluated networks revealed hyper connectivity and became comparable to the healthy controls. Our findings in a fairly homogenous group of patients with mTBI evaluated during the 6 month window of recovery defines time varying brain connectivity changes as the brain recovers from an injury. A majority of these changes were seen in the frontal and parietal lobes between 3-6 months after injury. Hyper connectivity of several networks supported normal recovery in the first six months and it remains to be seen in future studies whether this can predict an early and efficient recovery of brain function.

  10. Mild hypothermia reduces cardiac post-ischemic reactive hyperemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Pals Jesper

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In experimentally induced myocardial infarction, mild hypothermia (33–35°C is beneficial if applied prior to ischemia or reperfusion. Hypothermia, when applied after reperfusion seems to confer little or no benefit. The mechanism by which hypothermia exerts its cell-protective effect during cardiac ischemia remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that hypothermia reduces the reperfusion damage; the additional damage incurred upon the myocardium during reperfusion. Reperfusion results in a massive increase in blood flow, reactive hyperemia, which may contribute to reperfusion damage. We postulated that hypothermia could attenuate the post-ischemic reactive hyperemia. Methods Sixteen 25–30 kg pigs, in a closed chest model, were anesthetized and temperature was established in all pigs at 37°C using an intravascular cooling catheter. The 16 pigs were then randomized to hypothermia (34°C or control (37°C. The left main coronary artery was then catheterized with a PCI guiding catheter. A Doppler flow wire was placed in the mid part of the LAD and a PCI balloon was then positioned proximal to the Doppler wire but distal to the first diagonal branch. The LAD was then occluded for ten minutes in all pigs. Coronary blood flow was measured before, during and after ischemia/reperfusion. Results The peak flow seen during post-ischemic reactive hyperemia (during the first minutes of reperfusion was significantly reduced by 43 % (p Conclusion Mild hypothermia significantly reduces post-ischemic hyperemia in a closed chest pig model. The reduction of reactive hyperemia during reperfusion may have an impact on cardiac reperfusion injury.

  11. Smoking habits in adolescents with mild to moderate asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2004-09-01

    To study the impact of mild to moderate asthma on smoking habits in adolescents. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that asthma does not prevent adolescents from smoking. A research questionnaire, filled by a systematic sample of military personnel upon enrollment to service in the Israeli Defense Force (IDF), was analyzed. Conscripts were asked to voluntarily fill (after obtaining a signed informed consent) a research questionnaire about their medical history, and several health related topics including smoking. This database was matched with the military medical profile of the soldier, which includes the patient asthma status. Overall, 38,047 young adults were included in this study. There was a significant increase in the rate of mild to moderate asthma, from the mid-1980's to date. During the 1980's and early 1990's, asthmatics smoked significantly less frequently (20-22%) than non-asthmatics (25-27%). In the mid- to late-1990's, the smoking rates increased relatively more in asthmatics, to the point that in the last 8 years of this study, they were found to be almost identical in both groups, at a rate of approximately 30%. The presence of asthma is not a powerful motivating agent to prevent from smoking. It is likely that smoking asthmatic teenagers are at risk for suboptimal lung growth, and as young adults, they will become at greater risk of lung function deterioration. We suggest that primary care physicians, caring for asthma in children, adolescents, and young adults, should explain the particular risks generated by tobacco smoking.

  12. Predictable chronic mild stress in adolescence increases resilience in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in adolescent rats (postnatal days (PNDs) 28-55) to test the resilience effect of PCMS on depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and forced swim test and anxiety-like behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and elevated plus maze in adulthood. We also investigated the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain during the PCMS procedure in adolescence. Moreover, we investigated the effect of PCMS in adolescence on subsequent responses to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS; PNDs 63-83) in adulthood. The results demonstrated that PCMS during adolescence produced antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects and increased mTOR signaling activity in the prefrontal cortex in early adulthood. Either systemic administration or intra-PFC infusion of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin completely blocked the behavioral effects produced by PCMS in adolescence. PCMS during adolescence resisted depressive- and anxiety-like behavior caused by CUS in adulthood. These findings indicate that PCMS in adolescence can contribute to resilience against depression and anxiety caused by stress in adulthood.

  13. Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Cast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    2012-03-31

    This Final Technical Report describes progress made on the sub-projects awarded in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42457: Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST). The final reports for each sub-project are attached in the appendix. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: a) Solid-solid separation b) Solid-liquid separation c) Chemical/Biological Extraction d) Modeling and Control, and e) Environmental Control.

  14. Progress of continuously rotating detonation engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Rui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuously rotating detonation engine (CRDE is a focus for concern in the field of aerospace propulsion. It has several advantages, including one-initiation, high thermal efficiency and simple structure. Due to these characteristics, it is expected to bring revolutionary advancements to aviation and aerospace propulsion systems and now has drawn much attention throughout the world. In this paper, an overview of the development of CRDE is given from several aspects: basic concepts, applications, experimental studies, numerical simulations, and so on. Representative results and outstanding contributions are summarized and the unresolved issues for further engineering applications of CRDE are provided.

  15. Entanglement Continuous Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, S; Orus, R

    2016-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called "entanglement-CUT" or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators, and we present proof-of-principle results for the spin-1/2 1d quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermo...

  16. Entanglement continuous unitary transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serkan; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Orús, Román

    2017-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called “entanglement-CUT” or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators. We also present proof-of-principle results for the spin-(1/2) 1d quantum Ising model and the 3-state quantum Potts model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermodynamic limit.

  17. Mild MPP(+) exposure impairs autophagic degradation through a novel lysosomal acidity-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyara, Masatsugu; Kotake, Yaichiro; Tokunaga, Wataru; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, but its underlying cause remains unknown. Although recent studies using PD-related neurotoxin MPP(+) suggest autophagy involvement in the pathogenesis of PD, the effect of MPP(+) on autophagic processes under mild exposure, which mimics the slow progressive nature of PD, remains largely unclear. We examined the effect of mild MPP(+) exposure (10 and 200 μM for 48 h), which induces a more slowly developing cell death, on autophagic processes and the mechanistic differences with acute MPP(+) toxicity (2.5 and 5 mM for 24 h). In SH-SY5Y cells, mild MPP(+) exposure predominantly inhibited autophagosome degradation, whereas acute MPP(+) exposure inhibited both autophagosome degradation and basal autophagy. Mild MPP(+) exposure reduced lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin D activity without changing lysosomal acidity, whereas acute exposure decreased lysosomal density. Lysosome biogenesis enhancers trehalose and rapamycin partially alleviated mild MPP(+) exposure induced impaired autophagosome degradation and cell death, but did not prevent the pathogenic response to acute MPP(+) exposure, suggesting irreversible lysosomal damage. We demonstrated impaired autophagic degradation by MPP(+) exposure and mechanistic differences between mild and acute MPP(+) toxicities. Mild MPP(+) toxicity impaired autophagosome degradation through novel lysosomal acidity-independent mechanisms. Sustained mild lysosomal damage may contribute to PD. We examined the effects of MPP(+) on autophagic processes under mild exposure, which mimics the slow progressive nature of Parkinson's disease, in SH-SY5Y cells. This study demonstrated impaired autophagic degradation through a reduction in lysosomal cathepsin D activity without altering lysosomal acidity by mild MPP(+) exposure. Mechanistic differences between acute and mild MPP(+) toxicity were also observed. Sustained mild damage of lysosome may be an underlying cause

  18. Unilateral and Mild Bilateral Hearing Loss in Children: Past and Current Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, audiologists have become increasingly aware of the potential effect of even mild degrees of hearing loss on the psychoeducational and psychosocial outcomes of children. This review describes some of the key research findings during the past several decades that have led us to our current thinking about unilateral and mild bilateral hearing loss in children. The first section addresses unilateral hearing loss. This is followed by a review of the literature on mild bilate...

  19. The Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Symptoms after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Aug 2008 – Dec 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Symptoms after Mild...absolute (ATA) hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) on post-concussion symptoms in 50 military service members with at least one combat-related, mild traumatic brain...symptoms after mild TBI. 15. SUBJECT TERMS: hyperbaric oxygen, HBOT, HBO, HBO2, traumatic brain injury, TBI, mTBI, post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD

  20. Measuring awareness in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: development of the Memory Awareness Rating Scale--adjusted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rachel M; Oyebode, Jan R; Clare, Linda

    2006-04-01

    Variations in level of awareness among people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may impact on well-being for the person with dementia and their carer, and may influence outcomes of cognitive rehabilitation interventions. Awareness has often been assessed using discrepancies between self and proxy rating or between self-rating and objective task performance, with the latter considered to be preferable. Measures are available that are suitable for people with mild AD, for example the Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARS). However, these may be less appropriate for people whose impairments are more advanced and who consequently have more difficulty with the objective task component. In order to provide a measure suitable for people with moderate AD, an adjusted Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARSA) was developed by altering the objective task component of the MARS. The MARSA was piloted with 41 participants with mild to moderate AD. It was found to be suitable for use with a broader group of participants than the MARS. The component ratings were found to have good internal consistency. The component ratings and the two indices of awareness had high test-retest reliability. The extension of the original measure offers the opportunity to consider awareness throughout the course of the disease and provides a basis for longitudinal investigations of awareness.

  1. Corrosion Inhibition Property of Some 1, 3, 4- Thiadiazolines on Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamitha Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the corrosion behavior of mild steel in acidic medium. The inhibitive effect of substituted 1, 3, 4-Thiadiazol-2-amines on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 has been studied by weight loss and electrochemical methods. The electrochemical parameters for mild steel in acidic solution with and without inhibitor were calculated. The effect of temperature on the corrosion rate, activation energy and free energy of adsorption were also calculated. The synergistic effect has been studied by weight loss and electrochemical methods. The electrochemical parameters for mild steel in acidic solution were also calculated.

  2. Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussive symptoms in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen

    2010-11-01

    The vast majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in children are of mild severity. Even if only a small proportion of children with mild TBI suffer negative outcomes, then mild TBI is a serious public health problem. This review summarizes the literature regarding the neurobehavioral outcomes associated with mild TBI in children and adolescents, focusing on the longstanding debate regarding postconcussive symptoms and attendant conceptual and methodological issues. The review also discusses future research directions, the long-term goal of which is to develop a comprehensive and integrated biopsychosocial model of outcomes that helps guide clinical management.

  3. Hippocampal atrophy and verbal episodic memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Carollina Peruzza Marchiani

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate hippocampal volume in patients with AD and aMCI, and correlate its atrophy with verbal episodic memory performance. Methods: We studied 42 individuals older than 50 years, including 14 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and 14 normal controls. All individuals were submitted to the Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT to evaluate episodic memory. They were also submitted to the forward (FDS and backward digit span (BDS subtest of WAIS-R to evaluate working memory and attention, and to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Hippocampal volumetric measurements were performed according to anatomic guidelines from a standard protocol using high-resolution T1-inversion recovery 3-mm coronal MRI slices. Hippocampal volumes (HV were corrected for the variation in total intracranial volume. There was no significant difference between the three groups concerning age and education. Results: On RAVLT, there was a continuum between the three groups, with AD recalling less words, controls more, and aMCI subjects showing an intermediate performance on all sub-items. We found an asymmetry between HVs, with smaller mean left HV for all groups. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test for comparisons of HV showed a significant difference among groups, with difference between controls and both AD and aMCI, although there was no significant difference between AD and aMCI groups. Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between hippocampal volumes and scores on RAVLT, confirming that medial temporal structures are closely associated with memory performance in normal ageing as well as in aMCI and AD.

  4. Advances in Intelligence and Security Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Wenji

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems Series comprises titles that present state of the art knowledge and the latest advances in intelligent systems. Its scope includes theoretical studies, design methods, and real-world implementations and applications. Traditionally, Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI) research and applications have focused on information sharing and data mining, social network analysis, infrastructure protection and emergency responses for security informatics. With the continuous advance of IT technologies and the increasing sophistication of national and international securi

  5. Broader Considerations of Higher Doses of Donepezil in the Treatment of Mild, Moderate, and Severe Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camryn Berk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Donepezil, a highly selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI, is approved as a symptomatic treatment mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD. Donepezil exerts its treatment effect through multiple mechanisms of action including nicotinic receptor stimulation, mitigation of excitotoxicity, and influencing APP processing. The use of donepezil at higher doses is justified given the worsening cholinergic deficit as the disease advances. Donepezil has been investigated in several clinical trials of subjects with moderate-to-severe AD. While the side effects are class specific (cholinergically driven, demonstrable benefit has been shown at the 10 mg dose and the 23 mg doses. Here, we review the clinical justification, efficacy, safety, and tolerability of use of donepezil in the treatment of moderate-to-severe AD.

  6. Understanding the Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Mini Review on fMRI and ERP Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD is predicted to increase rapidly in the coming decade, highlighting the importance of early detection and intervention in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Recently, remarkable advances have been made in the application of neuroimaging techniques in investigations of AD and MCI. Among the various neuroimaging techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has many potential advantages, noninvasively detecting alterations in brain function that may be present very early in the course of AD and MCI. In this paper, we first review task-related and resting-state fMRI studies on AD and MCI. We then present our recent fMRI studies with additional event-related potential (ERP experiments during a motion perception task in MCI. Our results indicate that fMRI, especially when combined with ERP recording, can be useful for detecting spatiotemporal functional changes in AD and MCI patients.

  7. Polyfluoroalkylation of 2-Aminothiazoles: Unexpected sp3 C CI Substitution under Mild Conditions%Polyfluoroalkylation of 2-Aminothiazoles: Unexpected sp3 C CI Substitution under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐卿卿; 沈其龙; 吕龙

    2011-01-01

    An efficient, highly selective method for polyfluoroalkylation of 2-aminothiazole derivatives was described. Specifically, a di-polyfluoroalkylated derivative was produced when 2-amino-4-chloromethylthiazole was reacted with perfluoroalkyl iodides under very mild conditions.

  8. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations.

  9. The effects of continuous positive airway pressure short-term treatment on 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and tumor necro-sis factor-α levels in the serum of the middle- and advanced-aged patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syn-drome%短期CPAP干预对中老年OSAHS患者血清8-OHdG、TNF-α的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章婷; 汪俊; 杨晶; 罗荧荃

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) could have an impact on levels of 8-OHdG and TNF-α in the serum of middle- and advanced-aged OSAHS patients. Methods Twenty-three patients with moderate to severe OSAHS(AHI≥15 events/h) and twenty-five patients(AHI<15 events/h) who were matched for sex,age,body mass index (BMI),and diseases as the control group were recruited. The OSAHS patients received the 3d CPAP treatment,and 8-OHdG,and TNF-αlevels were measured. After CPAP treatment,serum 8-OHdG and TNF-αlevels were reassessed. Results The Apnea-Hy-popnea Index (AHI),8-OHdG,TNF-αwere significantly higher and the minimum arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and mean SaO2 significantly lower in OSAHS patients than in the control group. After the 3d CPAP treatment,8-OHdG,TNF-α,and AHI signifi-cantly decreased in,while the minimum SaO2 and mean SaO2 significantly increased in the OSAHS patients. There were significant positive correlations between AHI and 8-OHdG,and TNF-αand significant negative correlations between the minimum SaO2 and mean SaO2 and 8-OHdG,and TNF-αin all subjects (P<0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the minimum SaO2 and mean SaO2 and between 8-OHdG and TNF-α. Conclusion There might be oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in middle- and advanced-aged OSAHS patients. CPAP treatment has a positive effect on oxidative stress and inflammatory re-sponses.%目的:观察血清8-OHdG、TNF-α在中老年OSAHS患者中的水平变化,比较短期CPAP干预对上述指标的影响。方法随机选择确诊的23例中、重度OSAHS患者(AHI≥15次/h)作为试验组和25例(AHI<15次/h)对照者。比较两组8-O-HdG、TNF-α水平及其关系,试验组随机给予连续3d CPAP干预,观察8-OHdG、TNF-α的变化。结果试验组AHI、8-O-HdG、TNF-α均高于对照组(P<0.05),夜间最低SaO2、平均SaO2低于对照组(P<0.05)。试验组经呼吸机治疗3d

  10. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    OpenAIRE

    Prak, Dennis R.J.; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There exist many inventory control studies that consider either continuous review & continuous ordering, or periodic review & periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information on the actual inventory level is not always up to date while making ordering decisions. This paper will therefore consider this case of periodic review and continuous ordering. Assuming zero fixed...

  11. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method for verifying timed temporal properties of continuous dynamical systems, and to develop a method for verifying the safety of an interconnection of continuous systems. The methods must be scalable in the number of continuous variables and the verif...

  12. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Dennis; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Many inventory control studies consider either continuous review and continuous ordering, or periodic review and periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information on the actua

  13. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Dennis R.J.; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There exist many inventory control studies that consider either continuous review & continuous ordering, or periodic review & periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information

  14. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after ...

  15. Living With Ambiguity: A Metasynthesis of Qualitative Research on Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Tim; Astell, Arlene; Nygård, Louise; Sixsmith, Andrew; Mihailidis, Alex; Hwang, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a diagnosis proposed to describe an intermediate state between normal cognitive aging and dementia. MCI has been criticised for its conceptual fuzziness, its ambiguous relationship to dementia, and the tension it creates between medical and sociological understandings of “normal aging”. Design and Methods: We examined the published qualitative literature on experiences of being diagnosed and living with MCI using metasynthesis as the methodological framework. Results: Two overarching conceptual themes were developed. The first, MCI and myself-in-time, showed that a diagnosis of MCI could profoundly affect a person’s understanding of their place in the world. This impact appears to be mediated by multiple factors including a person’s social support networks, which daily activities are affected, and subjective interpretations of the meaning of MCI. The second theme, Living with Ambiguity, describes the difficulties people experienced in making sense of their diagnosis. Uncertainty arose, in part, from lack of clarity and consistency in the information received by people with MCI, including whether they are even told MCI is the diagnosis. Implications: We conclude by suggesting an ethical tension is always at play when a MCI diagnosis is made. Specifically, earlier support and services afforded by a diagnosis may come at the expense of a person’s anxiety about the future, with continued uncertainty about how his or her concerns and needs can be addressed. PMID:26315317

  16. Possible antidepressant effects of vanillin against experimentally induced chronic mild stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Abo-youssef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is a flavoring agent widely used in food and beverages such as chocolates and dairy products and it is also used to mask unpleasant tastes in medicine. It has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of vanillin against experimentally induced stress in rats. Briefly rats were subdivided into four groups. Three groups were subjected to chronic mild stress and the fourth group served as normal control group. One week before induction of stress drugs or saline was administered daily and continued for another nine weeks. At the end of the experimental period behavioral tests including sucrose preference test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze test were assessed. In addition, brain biochemical parameters including MDA, GSH, NO and serotonin were determined. Vanillin succeeded to restore the behavioral and biochemical changes associated with stress. It significantly increased sucrose consumption in sucrose preference test and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze test as compared to stress control group. It also reduced immobility time in forced swim test and time spent in closed arm in elevated plus maze test. Additionally, it significantly decreased brain MDA and NO levels and significantly increased brain GSH and Serotonin levels compared to stress control group. It could be concluded that vanillin showed beneficial protective effects against experimentally induced stress in rats.

  17. Modelling probabilistic fatigue crack propagation rates for a mild structural steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.F.O. Correia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of fatigue crack growth models based on elastic–plastic stress–strain histories at the crack tip region and local strain-life damage models have been proposed in literature. The fatigue crack growth is regarded as a process of continuous crack initializations over successive elementary material blocks, which may be governed by smooth strain-life damage data. Some approaches account for the residual stresses developing at the crack tip in the actual crack driving force assessment, allowing mean stresses and loading sequential effects to be modelled. An extension of the fatigue crack propagation model originally proposed by Noroozi et al. (2005 to derive probabilistic fatigue crack propagation data is proposed, in particular concerning the derivation of probabilistic da/dN-ΔK-R fields. The elastic-plastic stresses at the vicinity of the crack tip, computed using simplified formulae, are compared with the stresses computed using an elasticplastic finite element analyses for specimens considered in the experimental program proposed to derive the fatigue crack propagation data. Using probabilistic strain-life data available for the S355 structural mild steel, probabilistic crack propagation fields are generated, for several stress ratios, and compared with experimental fatigue crack propagation data. A satisfactory agreement between the predicted probabilistic fields and experimental data is observed.

  18. Compensatory striatal-cerebellar connectivity in mild-moderate Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Alison C; Dagher, Alain; Fellows, Lesley K

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine depletion in the putamen is associated with altered motor network functional connectivity in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), but the functional significance of these changes remains unclear, attributed to either pathological or compensatory mechanisms in different studies. Here, we examined the effects of PD on dorsal caudal putamen functional connectivity, off and on dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), using resting state fMRI. Motor performance was assessed with the Purdue pegboard task. Twenty-one patients with mild-moderate Parkinson's disease were studied twice, once after an overnight DRT washout and once after the administration of a standard dose of levodopa (Sinemet), and compared to 20 demographically-matched healthy control participants. PD patients off DRT showed increased putamen functional connectivity with both the cerebellum (lobule V) and primary motor cortex (M1), relative to healthy controls. Greater putamen-cerebellar functional connectivity was significantly correlated with better motor performance, whereas greater putamen-M1 functional connectivity was predictive of poorer motor performance. The administration of levodopa improved motor performance in the PD group, as expected, and reduced putamen-cerebellar connectivity to levels comparable to the healthy control group. The strength of putamen-cerebellar functional connectivity continued to predict motor performance in the PD group while on levodopa. These findings argue that increased putamen-M1 functional connectivity reflects a pathological change, deleterious to motor performance. In contrast, increased putamen-cerebellar connectivity reflects a compensatory mechanism.

  19. Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Study in the Patients with Subacute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Ming Lin

    Full Text Available This study uses a MRI technique, three-dimension pulse continuous arterial spin labeling (3D-PCASL, to measure the patient's cerebral blood flow (CBF at the subacute stage of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI in order to analyze the relationship between cerebral blood flow and neurocognitive deficits.To provide the relationship between cortical CBF and neuropsychological dysfunction for the subacute MTBI patients.After MTBI, perfusion MR imaging technique (3D-PCASL measures the CBF of MTBI patients (n = 23 within 1 month and that of normal controls (n = 22 to determine the quantity and location of perfusion defect. The correlation between CBF abnormalities and cognitive deficits was elucidated by combining the results of the neuropsychological tests of the patients.We observed a substantial reduction in CBF in the bilateral frontal and left occipital cortex as compared with the normal persons. In addition, there were correlation between post concussive symptoms (including dizziness and simulator sickness and CBF in the hypoperfused areas. The more severe symptom was correlated with higher CBF in bilateral frontal and left occipital lobes.First, this study determined that despite no significant abnormality detected on conventional CT and MRI studies, hypoperfusion was observed in MTBI group using 3D-PCASL technique in subacute stage, which suggested that this approach may increase sensitivity to MTBI. Second, the correlation between CBF and the severity of post concussive symptoms suggested that changes in cerebral hemodynamics may play a role in pathophysiology underlies the symptoms.

  20. Mild Nutrient Starvation Triggers the Development of a Small-Cell Survival Morphotype in Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mu-Lu; Gengenbacher, Martin; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria, generally believed to be non-sporulating, are well known to survive shock starvation in saline for extended periods of time in a non-replicating state without any apparent morphological changes. Here, we uncover that mycobacteria can undergo cellular differentiation by exposing Mycobacterium smegmatis to mild starvation conditions. Traces of various carbon sources in saline triggered the development of a novel small resting cell (SMRC) morphotype. Development of SMRCs could also be observed for other mycobacteria, suggesting evolutionary conservation of this differentiation pathway. Fluorescence microscopic analyses showed that development of SMRCs progresses via septated, multi-nucleoided cell intermediates, which divide to generate mono-nucleoided SMRCs. Intriguingly, saline shock-starved large resting cells (LARCs), which did not show cell size or surface changes when observed by scanning electron microscopy, remodeled their internal structure to septated, multi-nucleoided cells, similar to the intermediates seen during differentiation to SMRCs. Our results suggest that mycobacteria harbor a starvation-induced differentiation program in which at first septated, multi-nucleoided cells are generated. Under zero-nutrient conditions bacteria terminate development at this stage as LARCs. In the presence of traces of a carbon source, these multi-nucleoided cells continue differentiation into mono-nucleoided SMRCs. Both SMRCs and LARCs exhibited extreme antibiotic tolerance. SMRCs showed increased long-term starvation survival, which was associated with the presence of lipid inclusion bodies.

  1. Substance Use and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention: A Novel Model for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H. Olson-Madden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI and substance use disorders (SUDs frequently co-occur. Individuals with histories of alcohol or other drug use are at greater risk for sustaining TBI, and individuals with TBI frequently misuse substances before and after injury. Further, a growing body of literature supports the relationship between comorbid histories of mild TBI (mTBI and SUDs and negative outcomes. Alcohol and other drug use are strongly associated with risk taking. Disinhibition, impaired executive function, and/or impulsivity as a result of mTBI also contribute to an individual’s proclivity towards risk-taking. Risk-taking behavior may therefore, be a direct result of SUD and/or history of mTBI, and risky behaviors may predispose individuals for subsequent injury or continued use of substances. Based on these findings, evaluation of risk-taking behavior associated with the co-occurrence of SUD and mTBI should be a standard clinical practice. Interventions aimed at reducing risky behavior among members of this population may assist in decreasing negative outcomes. A novel intervention (Substance Use and Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention (STRRP for reducing and preventing risky behaviors among individuals with co-occurring mTBI and SUD is presented. Areas for further research are discussed.

  2. Acetazolamide Mitigates Astrocyte Cellular Edema Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant, Nasya M.; Smith, Sean G.; Ali, Syed F.; Wolchok, Jeffrey C.; Balachandran, Kartik

    2016-09-01

    Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema. We hypothesized that mTBI-mediated astrocyte dysfunction, initiated by increased intracellular volume, could be reduced when treated with AZA. We tested our hypothesis in a three-dimensional in vitro astrocyte model of mTBI. Samples were subject to no stretch (control) or one high-speed stretch (mTBI) injury. AQP4 expression was significantly increased 24 hours after mTBI. mTBI resulted in a significant increase in the cell swelling within 30 min of mTBI, which was significantly reduced in the presence of AZA. Cell death and expression of S100B was significantly reduced when AZA was added shortly before mTBI stretch. Overall, our data point to occurrence of astrocyte swelling immediately following mTBI, and AZA as a promising treatment to mitigate downstream cellular mortality.

  3. PRAGMATIC ABILITIES OF PUPILS WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja SHILC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses characteristics of pragmatic abilities of storytelling of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities (MID, in the light of vocabulary characteristics, grammar structure and substantive structure of a story, considering their age and gender. The sample consists of 60 pupils with MID, aged 7 to 9, who attend special school. Child’s pragmatic abilities are assessed with The Storytelling Test. The research results reveal considerable progress of the older group in vocabulary, whereas the progress in grammatical and substantive structure was less substantial. When comparing achievements of pupils with MID according to the vocabulary, grammatical and substantive story structure, no gender differences are determined. A comparison of pragmatic abilities of younger and older groups of pupils with MID with the norms for peers with typical development shows minor deviation of the younger group. The research results reveal characteristics of pragmatic abilities of pupils with MID and can provide insights to speech therapists, teachers, special education teachers and counsellors when considering profiles of individuals that are taken as a basis for designing intervention programs. By implementing such program, we would encourage development of pragmatic abilities of pupils, thus affecting their academic achievements, communication competency and social skills.

  4. Biofeedback of baroreflex sensitivity in patients with mild essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhaus, Sabine; Rüddel, Heinz; Curio, Immo; Mussgay, Lutz; Scholz, O Berndt

    2003-01-01

    An attempt was made to reduce blood pressure by increasing the baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) via biofeedback. Six patients with mild essential hypertension and 5 normotensive participants were studied during 8 biofeedback sessions. Each session consisted of 5 trials, 5 min each. The first and the last trials served as baselines of heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and BRS. During the 3 middle trials the BRS was calculated online using the sequencing technique. The resulting value was used as a visual analogue feedback signal. Participants were asked to increase BRS. The mean BRS was 8.3 [ms/mmHg] for the hypertensive patients and 12.2 [ms/mmHg] for the normotensive participants. During biofeedback trials as well as across sessions neither the hypertensive nor the normotensive group showed a statistically significant increase of BRS, only heart rate variability increased significantly. Contrary to expectation blood pressure increased in both groups. One hypertensive subject made significant progress during the training by performing valsalva maneuvers. The data show that BRS is reduced in hypertensive subjects. The increase of the heart rate variability could be a sign of the activation of the baroreflex although the BRS itself did not increase. Despite the successful technical and organizational implementation of this biofeedback approach, it was not effective to systematically reduce blood pressure. A further development in the direction of guiding the patient to use the valsalva breathing pattern and/or a prolonged duration of the biofeedback training might be promising.

  5. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrate’s chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 °C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICP–AES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  6. Mild Hydrothermal Synthesis of Ni–Cu Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Mohamed Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Ni-rich Ni–Cu nanoparticles with Ni : Cu mass ratio (S of 2.0 and 2.6 were prepared using a mixture of polyoxyethylene (10 isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100 and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in a mild hydrothermal condition at 95ºC. X-ray diffractometry (XRD showed that the nanoparticles prepared at S=2.0 possessed Ni–Cu alloy characteristic whereas the characteristic was absent at S=2.6. The XRD data was enhanced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR which exhibited metal-metal (Ni–Cu band at 455 cm−1. Based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM, the average particle sizes for the nanoparticles prepared at S=2.0 and 2.6 were in the range of 19–23 nm. The as-prepared nanoparticles exhibited paramagnetic behaviour measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and the specific saturation magnetization decreased at the higher concentration of Ni.

  7. Impaired cognitive function and mental performance in mild dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M-M G; Morley, J E

    2003-12-01

    Dehydration is a reliable predictor of impaired cognitive status. Objective data, using tests of cortical function, support the deterioration of mental performance in mildly dehydrated younger adults. Dehydration frequently results in delirium as a manifestation of cognitive dysfunction. Although, the occurrence of delirium suggests transient acute global cerebral dysfunction, cognitive impairment may not be completely reversible. Animal studies have identified neuronal mitochondrial damage and glutamate hypertransmission in dehydrated rats. Additional studies have identified an increase in cerebral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity (nitric oxide synthase, NOS) with dehydration. Available evidence also implicates NOS as a neurotransmitter in long-term potentiation, rendering this a critical enzyme in facilitating learning and memory. With ageing, a reduction of NOS activity has been identified in the cortex and striatum of rats. The reduction of NOs synthase activity that occurs with ageing may blunt the rise that occurs with dehydration, and possibly interfere with memory processing and cognitive function. Dehydration has been shown to be a reliable predictor of increasing frailty, deteriorating mental performance and poor quality of life. Intervention models directed toward improving outcomes in dehydration must incorporate strategies to enhance prompt recognition of cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children with MID on a symbolic (digits) and a non-symbolic (dot-arrays) comparison task with the performance of two control groups of typically developing children: one group matched on chronological age and one group matched on mathematical ability level. Findings revealed that children with MID performed more poorly than their typically developing chronological age-matched peers on both the symbolic and non-symbolic comparison tasks, while their performance did not substantially differ from the ability-matched control group. These findings suggest that the development of numerical magnitude representation in children with MID is marked by a delay. This performance pattern was observed for both symbolic and non-symbolic comparison tasks, although difficulties on the former task were more prominent. Interventions in children with MID should therefore foster both the development of magnitude representations and the connections between symbols and the magnitudes they represent.

  9. Visuospatial memory and neuroimaging correlates in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitolo, Micaela; Gardini, Simona; Fasano, Fabrizio; Crisi, Girolamo; Pelosi, Annalisa; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Caffarra, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Spatial abilities decline in normal aging and decrease faster and earlier in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but these deficits are under investigated. The main goals of this study were to assess visuospatial memory abilities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in order to verify whether these tasks might be valid as the standard cognitive test to differentiate MCI individuals from normal controls and to investigate the brain structural correlates of visuospatial deficits. Twenty MCI patients and fourteen healthy elderly controls underwent an experimental visuospatial battery, which also included self-rating spatial questionnaires, and structural MRI brain imaging. Compared to healthy elderly controls, MCI patients scored significantly worse in almost all visuospatial tasks. ROC analysis showed that visuospatial tasks had an elevated discriminant power between groups (AUC >0.90). Voxel-based morphometry analysis, compared to controls, disclosed a higher level of atrophy in frontal and medio-temporal regions and a different pattern of correlation between grey matter values and visuospatial performance, with wider distributed areas of the occipital and middle temporal cortex in the map and route learning. This study indicates that visuospatial memory tests are valid tools in completing the diagnostic evaluation of MCI.

  10. Cognitive Training in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin Yan; LI Li; XIAO Jia Qing; HE Chang Zhi; LYU Xiu Lin; GAO Lei; YANG Xiao Wei; CUI Xin Gang; FAN Li Hua

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveWe investigated the feasibility and efficacy of cognitive training for older adults in rural settings and with low education levels, who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MethodsForty-five older adults (ages >65 years) with MCI were assigned to treatment or control groups, at a 2:1 ratio. Cognitivetraining occurred in the treatment group for 2 months. The cognitive abilities of the participants were assessed at pre-training, metaphase, and post-training time points, using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). ResultsFollowing training, cognitive abilities improved in the treatment group, based on the total scores of all 4 measures, as well as specifically on the MoCA and LOTCA. There were differences in the main effects of group and time point on some subscales, but these differences had little, if any, effect on the overall analyses. ConclusionThe present study demonstrated that cognitive training has beneficial effects on attention, language, orientation, visual perception, organization of visual movement, and logical questioning in patients with MCI. Furthermore, the observed effects are long-term changes.

  11. The Early Indicators of Functional Decrease in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Fautrelle, Lilian; Bourrelier, Julien; Rouaud, Olivier; Mourey, France

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Motor deficiency is associated with cognitive frailty in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). In this study we aimed to test the integrity in muscle synergies involved in an arm-pointing movement in functionally unimpaired MCI patients. We hypothesized that early motor indicators exist in this population at a preclinical level. Methods: Electromyographic signals were collected for 11 muscles in 3 groups: Young Adults (YA), Older Adults (OA), and MCI patients. The OA and MCI groups presented the same functional status. Each subject performed 20 arm-pointing movements from a standing position. Results: The main differences were (1) an earlier activation of the left Obliquus internus in MCI compared with OA group, (2) an earlier activation for the MCI compared with both OA and YA. The temporal differences in muscle synergies between MCI and OA groups were linked with executive functions of MCI patients, assessed by the trail making test. Moreover, the results show a delayed activation of the right Biceps Femoris and the right Erector Spinae at l3 in MCI and OA compared with YA. Interpretation: The motor program changes highlighted in our patient MCI group suggest that discrete modifications of the motor command seem to exist even in the absence of functional impairment. Instead of showing an indication of delayed muscle activation in the MCI patients, our results highlight some early activation of several trunk muscles. PMID:27570509

  12. Reorganization of functional networks in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M Buldú

    Full Text Available Whether the balance between integration and segregation of information in the brain is damaged in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI subjects is still a matter of debate. Here we characterize the functional network architecture of MCI subjects by means of complex networks analysis. Magnetoencephalograms (MEG time series obtained during a memory task were evaluated by synchronization likelihood (SL, to quantify the statistical dependence between MEG signals and to obtain the functional networks. Graphs from MCI subjects show an enhancement of the strength of connections, together with an increase in the outreach parameter, suggesting that memory processing in MCI subjects is associated with higher energy expenditure and a tendency toward random structure, which breaks the balance between integration and segregation. All features are reproduced by an evolutionary network model that simulates the degenerative process of a healthy functional network to that associated with MCI. Due to the high rate of conversion from MCI to Alzheimer Disease (AD, these results show that the analysis of functional networks could be an appropriate tool for the early detection of both MCI and AD.

  13. The mildly nonlinear imprint of structure on the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Gebbie, T

    1999-01-01

    I outline some nonperturbative relativistic effects that arise from gravitational corrections to the Boltzmann equations. These may be important for the study of CMB temperature anisotropies, particularly their interpretation. These terms are not included in the canonical treatment as they arise from the exact equations. Here a weakly nonlinear investigation of these effects is defined and investigated with an emphasis on a Rees-Sciama sourced effect -- the imprint of structure evolution on the CMB. It is shown that gravitational nonlinearity in the weakly nonlinear extension of almost-FLRW temperature anisotropies leads to cancellation on small-scales when threading in the Newtonian frame. In the general frame this cancellation does not occur. In the context of a flat almost-FLRW CDM model I provide a heuristic argument for a nonperturbative small scale correction, due to the Rees-Sciama effect, of not more than $\\Delta T/T \\sim 10^{-6}-10^{-5}$ near $\\ell \\sim 100 - 300$. The effect of mild gravitational no...

  14. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Geneviève; Lajoie, Susanne P.; Naismith, Laura M.; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1) and 8 weeks (Time 2) after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r = .31 to .44), number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r = .35 to .45), psychological distress (r = .57 to .67), and level of functionality (r = −.43 to −.29). Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2). Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms. PMID:27445604

  15. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Chaput

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1 and 8 weeks (Time 2 after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r=.31 to .44, number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r=.35 to .45, psychological distress (r=.57 to .67, and level of functionality (r=-.43 to -.29. Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2. Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms.

  16. Resilience Is Associated with Outcome from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoi, Heidi; Silverberg, Noah D; Wäljas, Minna; Turunen, Senni; Rosti-Otajärvi, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Luoto, Teemu Miikka Artturi; Julkunen, Juhani; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-07-01

    Resilient individuals manifest adaptive behavior and are better able to recover from adversity. The association between resilience and outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is examined, and the reliability and validity of the Resilience Scale and its short form in mTBI research is evaluated. Patients with mTBI (n=74) and orthopedic controls (n=39) completed the Resilience Scale at one, six, and 12 months after injury. Additionally, self-reported post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, pain, post-traumatic stress, and depression, as well as quality of life, were evaluated. The internal consistency of the Resilience Scale and the short form ranged from 0.91 to 0.93 for the mTBI group and from 0.86 to 0.95 for controls. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.70 to 0.82. Patients with mTBI and moderate-to-high resilience reported significantly fewer post-concussion symptoms, less fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms, and better quality of life, than the patients with low resilience. No association between resilience and time to return to work was found. Resilience was associated with self-reported outcome from mTBI, and based on this preliminary study, can be reliably evaluated with Resilience Scale and its short form in those with mTBIs.

  17. NOX Activity Is Increased in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunita; Parrino, Taryn E.; Knight, Alecia G.; Ebenezer, Philip J.; Weidner, Adam M.; LeVine, Harry; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Markesbery, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study was undertaken to investigate the profile of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, NOX activity and expression of the regulatory subunit p47phox and the catalytic subunit gp91phox was evaluated in affected (superior and middle temporal gyri) and unaffected (cerebellum) brain regions from a longitudinally followed group of patients. This group included both control and late-stage AD subjects, and also subjects with preclinical AD and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to evaluate the profile of NOX in the earliest stages of dementia. Data show significant elevations in NOX activity and expression in the temporal gyri of MCI patients as compared with controls, but not in preclinical or late-stage AD samples, and not in the cerebellum. Immunohistochemical evaluations of NOX expression indicate that whereas microglia express high levels of gp91phox, moderate levels of gp91phox also are expressed in neurons. Finally, in vitro experiments showed that NOX inhibition blunted the ability of oligomeric amyloid beta peptides to injure cultured neurons. Collectively, these data show that NOX expression and activity are upregulated specifically in a vulnerable brain region of MCI patients, and suggest that increases in NOX-associated redox pathways in neurons might participate in the early pathogenesis of AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1371–1382. PMID:19929442

  18. The Effect of Bilingualism on Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Troyer, Angela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Previous reports have found that lifelong bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of dementia, including Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type (DAT). Because amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is often a transition stage between normal aging and DAT, our aim in this paper was to establish whether this delay in symptom onset for bilinguals would also be seen in the onset of symptoms of aMCI and whether this delay would be consistent in different subtypes of aMCI. Method. We examined the effect of bilingualism on the age of diagnosis in individuals with single- or multiple-domain aMCI who were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires about their language and social background. Results. Our results showed an interaction between aMCI type and language history. Only individuals diagnosed with single-domain aMCI demonstrated a later age of diagnosis for bilinguals (M = 79.4 years) than monolinguals (M = 74.9 years). Discussion. This preliminary evidence suggests that the early protective advantage of bilingualism may be specific to single-domain aMCI, which is the type of aMCI most specifically associated with progression to DAT. PMID:22454387

  19. Abundance correlations in mildly metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jehin, E; Neuforge, C; Noels, A; Parmentier, G; Thoul, A A

    1999-01-01

    Accurate relative abundances have been obtained for a sample of 21 mildly metal-poor stars from the analysis of high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. With these accurate results, correlations between relative abundances have been searched for, with a special emphasis on the neutron capture elements. This analysis shows that the r elements are closely correlated to the alpha elements, which is in agreement with the generally accepted idea that the r-process takes place during the explosion of massive stars. The situation is more complex as far as the s elements are concerned. Their relation with the alpha elements is not linear. In a first group of stars, the relative abundance of the s elements increases only slightly with the alpha elements overabundance until the latter reaches a maximum value. For the second group, the s elements show a rather large range of enhancement and a constant (and maximum) value of the alpha elements overabundance. This peculiar behaviour leads us to distinguish betwee...

  20. Connectivity network measures predict volumetric atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Talia M; Jahanshad, Neda; Toga, Arthur W; Bernstein, Matt A; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cortical atrophy and disrupted anatomic connectivity, and leads to abnormal interactions between neural systems. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and graph theory can be used to evaluate major brain networks and detect signs of a breakdown in network connectivity. In a longitudinal study using both DWI and standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we assessed baseline white-matter connectivity patterns in 30 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mean age 71.8 ± 7.5 years, 18 males and 12 females) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Using both standard MRI-based cortical parcellations and whole-brain tractography, we computed baseline connectivity maps from which we calculated global "small-world" architecture measures, including mean clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. We evaluated whether these baseline network measures predicted future volumetric brain atrophy in MCI subjects, who are at risk for developing AD, as determined by 3-dimensional Jacobian "expansion factor maps" between baseline and 6-month follow-up anatomic scans. This study suggests that DWI-based network measures may be a novel predictor of AD progression.

  1. Hippocampal complex atrophy in poststroke and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnes, Per; Grambaite, Ramune; Rincon, Mariano; Bjørnerud, Atle; Gjerstad, Leif; Hessen, Erik; Auning, Eirik; Johansen, Krisztina; Almdahl, Ina S; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Vegge, Kjetil; Bjelke, Börje; Fladby, Tormod

    2015-11-01

    To investigate putative interacting or distinct pathways for hippocampal complex substructure (HCS) atrophy and cognitive affection in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD), we recruited healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and poststroke patients. HCSs were segmented, and quantitative white-matter hyperintensity (WMH) load and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β concentrations were determined. The WMH load was higher poststroke. All examined HCSs were smaller in amyloid-positive MCI than in controls, and the subicular regions were smaller poststroke. Memory was reduced in amyloid-positive MCI, and psychomotor speed and executive function were reduced in poststroke and amyloid-positive MCI. Size of several HCS correlated with WMH load poststroke and with CSF amyloid-β concentrations in MCI. In poststroke and amyloid-positive MCI, neuropsychological function correlated with WMH load and hippocampal volume. There are similar patterns of HCS atrophy in CVD and early-stage AD, but different HCS associations with WMH and CSF biomarkers. WMHs add to hippocampal atrophy and the archetypal AD deficit delayed recall. In line with mounting evidence of a mechanistic link between primary AD pathology and CVD, these additive effects suggest interacting pathologic processes.

  2. Efficacy of Cellex in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Abusueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive disorders may often lead to professional invalidisation and increasing dependence on the external assistance in every day life. Identification of patients with preserved intellectual status and social adaptation but with mild cognitive impairment (MCI is considered to be an effective measure. MCI detection and timely initiation of treatment in most patients is essential to delay the onset of severe dementia.Objective. Investigating influence of Cellex in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia and MCI.Materials and methods. As a part of non-interventional observational comparative study we evaluated the results of Cellex administration in 90 patients with MCI. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Patients from both groups received 1 course of 10 subcutaneous injections of Cellex drug at the dose of 1 mL, and patients from group 2 received two identical courses with an interval of two months. The survey, which included psychometric testing by using special questionnaires (Mini-Mental State Examination, “Frontal Assessment Battery” and “Clock Drawing” tests, Schulte test was performed before treatment, and at months 1 and 2 after its completion.Results. Neuropsychological examination revealed improvement in the patients state, more pronounced after the 2nd course of therapy.Discussion. Our results provide a basis for using Cellex in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia and MCI, allowing to proceede with further studies on the optimal dosage of that drug.

  3. Mild traumatic brain injury screening, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kathryn R; Holland, Sherray L; Meyer, Kimberly S; Martin, Elisabeth Moy; Wilmore, Michael; Grimes, Jamie B

    2012-08-01

    The majority of combat-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) within the U.S. Armed Forces is mild TBI (mTBI). This article focuses specifically on the screening, diagnosis, and treatment aspects of mTBI within the military community. Aggressive screening measures were instituted in 2006 to ensure that the mTBI population is identified and treated. Screenings occur in-theater, outside the contiguous United States, and in-garrison. We discuss specific screening procedures at each screening setting. Current diagnosis of mTBI is based upon self-report or through witnesses to the event. TBI severity is determined by specific Department of Defense criteria. Abundant clinician resources are available for mTBI in the military health care setting. Education resources for both the patient and the clinician are discussed in detail. An evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the care of mTBI was created through collaborative efforts of the DoD and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Although symptoms following mTBI generally resolve with time, active treatment is centered on symptom management, supervised rest, recovery, and patient education. Medical specialty care, ancillary services, and other therapeutic services may be required.

  4. Mild brain ischemia induces unique physiological properties in striatal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Cheung, Giselle; Kronenberg, Golo; Gertz, Karen; Ji, Shengbo; Kempermann, Gerd; Endres, Matthias; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2008-07-01

    We studied the properties of GFAP-expressing cells in adult mouse striatum using acute brain slices from transgenic animals expressing EGFP under GFAP promoter. Under physiological conditions, two distinct populations of GFAP-EGFP cells could be identified: (1) brightly fluorescent cells had bushy processes, passive membrane properties, glutamate transporter activity, and high gap junction coupling rate typical for classical astrocytes; (2) weakly fluorescent cells were characterized by thin, clearly distinguishable processes, voltage-gated currents, complex responses to kainate, and low coupling rate reminiscent of an astrocyte subtype recently described in the hippocampus. Mild focal cerebral ischemia confers delayed neuronal cell death and astrogliosis in the striatum. Following middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion, brightly fluorescent cells were the dominant GFAP-EGFP population observed within the ischemic lesion. Interestingly, the majority of these cells expressed voltage-gated channels, showed complex responses to kainate, and a high coupling rate exceeding that of brightly fluorescent control cells. A minority of cells had passive membrane properties and was coupled less compared with passive control cells. We conclude that, in the adult striatum, astrocytes undergo distinct pathophysiological changes after ischemic insults. The dominant population in the ischemic lesion constitutes a novel physiological phenotype unlike any normal astrocyte and generates a large syncytium which might be a neuroprotective response of reactive astrocytes.

  5. Caregivers in China: knowledge of mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Dai

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the experience and knowledge of mild cognitive impairment (MCI among Chinese family caregivers of individuals with MCI. The sample was recruited from memory clinics in Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used. Thirteen family members of individuals diagnosed with MCI participated in the study. Data analysis revealed three themes: 1 initial recognition of cognitive decline; 2 experience of the diagnosis of MCI; 3 perception of cognitive decline as a normal part of aging. While family members recognized the serious consequences of memory loss (e.g. getting lost, they would typically not take their family members to see a doctor until something specific triggered their access to the medical care system. The Chinese traditional perception of dementia as part of normal aging may serve to lessen the stigma of individuals with MCI, while the term "laonian chidai" which literally translates to "stupid, demented elderly" may exacerbate the stigma associated with individuals with MCI. It is suggested that family members' worries may be relieved by improving their access to accurate knowledge of the disease, community-based and institutional care services, and culturally appropriately words are needed for MCI.

  6. Verbal learning strategy following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Elizabeth K; Kraus, Marilyn F; Rubin, Leah H; Pliskin, Neil H; Little, Deborah M

    2011-07-01

    That learning and memory deficits persist many years following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is controversial due to inconsistent objective evidence supporting subjective complaints. Our prior work demonstrated significant reductions in performance on the initial trial of a verbal learning task and overall slower rate of learning in well-motivated mTBI participants relative to demographically matched controls. In our previous work, we speculated that differences in strategy use could explain the differences in rate of learning. The current study serves to test this hypothesis by examining strategy use on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition. Our present findings support the primary hypothesis that mTBI participants under-utilize semantic clustering strategies during list-learning relative to control participants. Despite achieving comparable total learning scores, we posit that the persisting learning and memory difficulties reported by some mTBI patients may be related to reduced usage of efficient internally driven strategies that facilitate learning. Given that strategy training has demonstrated improvements in learning and memory in educational and occupational settings, we offer that these findings have translational value in offering an additional approach in remediation of learning and memory complaints reported by some following mTBI.

  7. Predictable chronic mild stress improves mood, hippocampal neurogenesis and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, V K; Hattiangady, B; Kuruba, R; Shuai, B; Shetty, A K

    2011-02-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experienced in day-to-day life on functions such as mood, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis are unknown. Using FST and EPM tests on a prototype of adult rats, we demonstrate that PCMS (comprising 5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) decreases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors for prolonged periods. Moreover, we illustrate that decreased depression and anxiety scores after PCMS are associated with ~1.8-fold increase in the production and growth of new neurons in the hippocampus. Additionally, we found that PCMS leads to enhanced memory function in WMT as well as NORT. Collectively, these findings reveal that PCMS is beneficial to adult brain function, which is exemplified by increased hippocampal neurogenesis and improved mood and cognitive function.

  8. Interference impacts working memory in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aurtenetxe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM. Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control.

  9. Interference Impacts Working Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurtenetxe, Sara; García-Pacios, Javier; del Río, David; López, María E.; Pineda-Pardo, José A.; Marcos, Alberto; Delgado Losada, Maria L.; López-Frutos, José M.; Maestú, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM). Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well-understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus, the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control. PMID:27790082

  10. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Seawater using Jatropha Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Olamide

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigate the inhibition of Jatropha Stem Extract (JSE in sea water using mild steel coupons of dimension 5 × 5 × 0.5 cm. The cupons were immersed in test solutions of sea water and varied concentrations of extracts of 0.1g/l to 0.9g/l was used. The functional groups of the compounds was analyzed using an FTIR. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was a reduction in the corrosion rates. Furthermore, as the extract concentrations increased from 0.1g/l to 0.4g/l at 48hrs exposure time, the weight loss decreased by 14.3% in the medium. However, the Jatropha Stem Extract was absorbed on the substrate surface to inhibit corrosion, the morphology of phases formed from the scanning Electron Microscopy examination confirmed this trend. Hence, JSE is a good and safe inhibitor in sea water solution. The FT-IR results also indicates the presence of active corrosion inhibitor present in the Jatropha Stem.

  11. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ryon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1 between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and normal adults and (2 between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy. Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI.

  12. Mild cognitive impairment is associated with falls among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Lara, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The role of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on falls among older adults remains under-investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between MCI and number of falls or occurrence of non-accidental falls among older adults. METHODS: Data from the first wave......; and no limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). Multivariable Poisson and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between MCI and number of falls or the presence of non-accidental falls in the past 12 months. RESULTS: The prevalence of MCI was 10.1%. In the fully-adjusted model......, MCI was associated with a higher rate of falls (PR=1.41 95%CI=1.05-1.89) and odds for non-accidental falls in the past 12 months (OR=1.67 95%CI=1.07-2.61). Muscle strength and performance indicators, and medical health conditions were influential factors in the association between MCI and falls...

  13. Marine corrosion of mild steel at Lumut, Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ong Shiou; Potty, Narayanan Sambu; Liew, Mohd. Shahir

    2012-09-01

    The corrosion rate of structural steels in the adverse marine and offshore environments affects the economic interest of offshore structures since the loss of steel may have significant impact on structural safety and performance. With more emphasis to maintain existing structures in service for longer time and hence to defer replacement costs, there is increasing interest in predicting corrosion rate at a given location for a given period of exposure once the protection coating or cathodic protection is lost. The immersion depth, salinity, steel composition and water pollution will be taken into account. Various corrosion allowances are prescribed for structural members by different standards. There are no studies to determine the appropriate corrosion allowance for steel structures in marine environment in Malaysia. The objectives of the research are to determine the nature and rate of corrosion in mm/year for steel structures in marine environment. It also tries to identify whether the corrosion rate is affected by differences in the chemical composition of the steels, and microalgae. Two sets of corrosion coupons of Type 3 Steel consisting of mild steel were fabricated and immersed in seawater using steel frames. The corrosion rate of the coupon in mm/ per year is estimated based on the material weight loss with time in service. The results are compared with recommendations of the code.

  14. Risk indicators for eclampsia in gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Koopmans; J.J. Zwart; H. Groen; K.W.M. Bloemenkamp; B.W.J. Mol; M.G. van Pampus; J. van Roosmalen

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether eclampsia can be predicted in gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term. For this case-control study we selected 76 cases with eclampsia from the LEMMoN study and 1149 controls with mild hypertensive disease of pregnancy, who did not develop eclampsia, from the HYPITA

  15. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  16. Prediction of outcome in mild to moderate head injury : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Naalt, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the functional outcome of patients sustaining mild and moderate head injury (HI). Discrepancies across studies in the definition of minor, mild, and moderate HI are discussed in terms of hindering the interpretation of recovery. The predictive value of acute severity indices, neur

  17. EXISTENCE OF MILD SOLUTIONS TO NEUTRAL FRACTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH INFINITE DELAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the existence of mild solution to a class of neutral fractional differential equations with infinite delay. By means of fixed points methods, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions, which extend some known results.

  18. The executive interview as a screening test for executive dysfunction in patients with mild dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    To validate the Executive Interview (EXIT25) as a screening instrument for executive cognitive dysfunction in patients with mild dementia.......To validate the Executive Interview (EXIT25) as a screening instrument for executive cognitive dysfunction in patients with mild dementia....

  19. Procedures for Increasing Sustained Attention in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H.; Williams, Dean C.

    2013-01-01

    This research compared the effects of several factors on sustained attention in four participants with mild or mild-to-moderate intellectual disabilities. In each session, each participant received an extended number of conditional discriminations that required a differential response to infrequently occurring target stimuli. We assessed sustained…

  20. Review of Academic Mathematics Instruction for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Casey; Bouck, Emily C.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics education--like all education--faced changes in recent years including increasing expectations, and these expectations have impacted all students, including students with mild intellectual disability. To explore the impact of the changes on mathematics education on students with mild intellectual disability, the authors reviewed the…

  1. Heterogeneity in executive impairment in patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders;

    2006-01-01

    The presence of executive impairment in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) has primarily been demonstrated by means of group comparison. Whether executive dysfunction is a common feature of mild AD or only present in a subgroup of patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe...

  2. Exploring the Self-concept of Adults with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…

  3. Transition Services for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational background. Three hundred…

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Esbensen, Anna J.; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B.; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a…

  5. Implementing a Problem-Solving Intervention with Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Students with mild and moderate disabilities need to be skillful at problem solving. This article provides an overview of a problem-solving intervention designed to teach students with mild and moderate disabilities the skills of problem solving. An explanation of the assessments, materials, instructional outline, and methods is presented.…

  6. Subacute posttraumatic complaints and psychological distress in trauma patients with or without mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, M. E.; Gareb, Barzi; El Moumni, M.; Scheenen, M. E.; van der Horn, H. J.; Timmerman, M. E.; Spikman, J. M.; van der Naalt, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the frequency, nature and profile of complaints for trauma patients with and without mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and to assess their relation to anxiety and depression. Methods: A prospective cohort study in a level-one trauma centre was conducted. Mild traumatic brain

  7. Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Experiences and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba

    2016-01-01

    Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about…

  8. Risk Indicators for Eclampsia in Gestational Hypertension or Mild Preeclampsia at Term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; Zwart, J.J.; Groen, H.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Mol, B.W.; van Pampus, Maria; Van Roosmalen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether eclampsia can be predicted in gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term. Methods. For this case-control study we selected 76 cases with eclampsia from the LEMMoN study and 1149 controls with mild hypertensive disease of pregnancy, who did not develop eclamp

  9. DISAL glycosyl donors for the synthesis of a linear hexasaccharide under mild conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Laursen, Jane B.; Larsen, K.;

    2003-01-01

    The new class of glycosyl donors with a methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate (DISAL) anomeric leaving group has proved efficient for glycosylation under strictly neutral, mildly basic, or mildly acidic conditions. Here, we report the synthesis of novel DISAL disaccharide glycosyl donors prepared by easy ...

  10. Diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: Movement Disorder Society Task Force guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvan, I.; Goldman, J.G.; Tröster, A.I.; Schmand, B.A.; Weintraub, D.; Petersen, R.C.; Mollenhauer, B.; Adler, C.H.; Marder, K.; Williams-Gray, C.H.; Aarsland, D.; Kulisevsky, J.; Rodriguez-Oroz, M.C.; Burn, D.J.; Barker, R.A.; Emre, M.

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment is common in nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and may be a harbinger of dementia. In view of its importance, the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to delineate diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD. The proposed diagnostic cr

  11. Social Information Processing in Boys with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, P.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of the socially inadequate behaviour of children…

  12. Antihypertensive Efficacy of Carvedilol and Amlodipine in Patients of Mild to Moderate Hypertension – A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujala Verma, Gulshan Bano, Mohan Lal, B. Kapoor, P. Sharma, Rashmi Sharma

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective randomized parallel study, the antihypertensive effect of oral carvedilol andamlodipine was evaluated on systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure(DBP inpatients of mild to moderate hypertension over a period of 12 weeks. Eighty two patients whofulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomized to receive amlodipine (n=42 5-10mg/day and carvedilol(n=40 25-50mg/day. Blood pressure was recorded in the sitting and standing position during followup visits at 2,4,8 and 12 weeks using mercury sphygmomanometer. Dosage adjustments if neededwere made at 4 and 8 weeks of study. Both carvedilol and amlodipine produced a statisticallysignificant (P<0.001 and dose related fall in SBP and DBP , which became evident at two weeks ofinitiation of therapy and continued till 12 weeks. On comparative analysis of the effect of carvedilol andamlodipine on BP, amlodipine produced a greater fall in sitting and standing SBP at all study intervals ascompared to carvedilol, with statistically significant fall at 8 and 12 weeks (P<0.01. However, the fall insitting and standing DBP was statistically comparable with both the drugs. The findings of the presentstudy indicate that carvedilol has become an alternative treatment for mild to moderate hypertension.

  13. SMFM Statement: benefit of antihypertensive therapy for mild-to-moderate chronic hypertension during pregnancy remains uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Chronic hypertension is present in up to 5% of pregnant women and constitutes a major cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this document is to summarize the current recommendations regarding use of antihypertensive medications during pregnancy for women with mild-to-moderate chronic hypertension in the setting of the recently published Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study (CHIPS). The recently published CHIPS trial was a multicenter international randomized controlled trial comparing "less tight control" to "tight control" of blood pressure for pregnant women with hypertension. The most updated recommendations regarding management of pregnant women with hypertension are found from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy, which are endorsed by the Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). SMFM recommends that clinicians continue to follow existing guidelines for management of pregnant women with mild-to-moderate chronic hypertension due to the fact that the benefits and risks of pharmacologic treatment for these women remain uncertain, and adequately powered randomized controlled trials are needed to address the less common but clinically significant nonsurrogate perinatal outcomes.

  14. Recent Development in Continuing Engineering Education in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C. F.; Cheah, K. K.

    There has been rapid development in Southeast Asian countries in the past decades. Continuing engineering education and professional development play key roles in the advance of engineering know-how in the rapidly changing technological world especially in Southeast Asia. This paper intends to provide an overview of continuing professional development activities in a number of Southeast Asian countries. The introduction of compulsory professional development hours for the renewal of professional engineering registration in Singapore and some of its neighboring countries will facilitate further rapid development in continuing engineering education. Examples on successful cases and models will be illustrated. The improvements on some existing programs will also be highlighted.

  15. Filling in the gaps: Anticipatory control of eye movements in chronic mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Diwakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A barrier in the diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI stems from the lack of measures that are adequately sensitive in detecting mild head injuries. MRI and CT are typically negative in mTBI patients with persistent symptoms of post-concussive syndrome (PCS, and characteristic difficulties in sustaining attention often go undetected on neuropsychological testing, which can be insensitive to momentary lapses in concentration. Conversely, visual tracking strongly depends on sustained attention over time and is impaired in chronic mTBI patients, especially when tracking an occluded target. This finding suggests deficient internal anticipatory control in mTBI, the neural underpinnings of which are poorly understood. The present study investigated the neuronal bases for deficient anticipatory control during visual tracking in 25 chronic mTBI patients with persistent PCS symptoms and 25 healthy control subjects. The task was performed while undergoing magnetoencephalography (MEG, which allowed us to examine whether neural dysfunction associated with anticipatory control deficits was due to altered alpha, beta, and/or gamma activity. Neuropsychological examinations characterized cognition in both groups. During MEG recordings, subjects tracked a predictably moving target that was either continuously visible or randomly occluded (gap condition. MEG source-imaging analyses tested for group differences in alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results showed executive functioning, information processing speed, and verbal memory deficits in the mTBI group. Visual tracking was impaired in the mTBI group only in the gap condition. Patients showed greater error than controls before and during target occlusion, and were slower to resynchronize with the target when it reappeared. Impaired tracking concurred with abnormal beta activity, which was suppressed in the parietal cortex, especially the right hemisphere, and enhanced in left caudate and

  16. Management of Advanced Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sheahan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx continues to be the commonest head and neck cancer in many Western countries. The larynx plays a key role for many essential functions, including breathing, voice production, airway protection, and swallowing. The goals of laryngeal cancer treatment are thus to provide best possible oncologic control, while optimizing functional outcomes. In recent decades, the treatment paradigm for advanced laryngeal cancer has shifted from one of primary surgery (total laryngectomy as gold standard, toward non-surgical organ-preserving treatment using radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. However, concerns have emerged regarding functional outcomes after chemoradiotherapy, as well as possible decreased overall survival in patients with laryngeal cancer. The purpose of the present review is to review surgical and non-surgical options for treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer, as well as the evidence supporting each of these.

  17. Safety and Effectiveness of Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Neonates With Respiratory Distress and Its Failure Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Sethi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure is safe, efficacious and easy to use in preterm and term neonates with mild to moderate respiratory distress. The major failure factors in our study were sepsis, recurrent apnea, and shock. The survival rate in our study was 60%. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 202-206

  18. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

  19. Advanced verification topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  20. Advanced stitching technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardino, Frank L.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of textile composites, the selection of materials and constructional techniques must be matched with product performance, productivity, and cost requirements. Constructional techniques vary. A classification of various textile composite systems is given. In general, the chopped fiber system is not suitable for structural composite applications because of fiber discontinuity, uncontrolled fiber orientation and a lack of fiber integration or entanglement. Linear filament yarn systems are acceptable for structural components which are exposed to simple tension in their applications. To qualify for more general use as structural components, filament yarn systems must be multi-directionally positioned. With the most sophisticated filament winding and laying techniques, however, the Type 2 systems have limited potential for general load-bearing applications because of a lack of filament integration or entanglement, which means vulnerability to splitting and delamination among filament layers. The laminar systems (Type 3) represented by a variety of simple fabrics (woven, knitted, braided and nonwoven) are especially suitable for load-bearing panels in flat form and for beams in a roled up to wound form. The totally integrated, advanced fabric system (Type 4) are thought to be the most reliable for general load-bearing applications because of fiber continuity and because of controlled multiaxial fiber orientation and entanglement. Consequently, the risk of splitting and delamination is minimized and practically omitted. Type 4 systems can be woven, knitted, braided or stitched through with very special equipment. Multiaxial fabric technologies are discussed.