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Sample records for advanced compact accelerator

  1. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  2. Studies of accelerated compact toruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1983-01-04

    In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa < 1), increases as R/sup -2/, the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency.

  3. Combined generating-accelerating buncher for compact linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, E. A.; Matsievskiy, S. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Sokolov, I. D.; Zavadtsev, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Described in the previous article [1] method of the power extraction from the modulated electron beam has been applied to the compact standing wave electron linear accelerator feeding system, which doesnt require any connection waveguides between the power source and the accelerator itself [2]. Generating and accelerating bunches meet in the hybrid accelerating cell operating at TM020 mode, thus the accelerating module is placed on the axis of the generating module, which consists from the pulsed high voltage electron sources and electrons dumps. This combination makes the accelerator very compact in size which is very valuable for the modern applications such as portable inspection sources. Simulations and geometry cold tests are presented.

  4. Design of a Compact Pulsed Power Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A 100 kA/60 ns compact pulsed power accelerator was designed to study the influence to the X-pinch by the load. It is composed of a Marx generator, a combined pulse forming (PFL), a gas-filled V/N field distortion switch, a transfer line,

  5. 2nd European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Ralph; Grebenyuk, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop has the mission to discuss and foster methods of beam acceleration with gradients beyond state of the art in operational facilities. The most cost effective and compact methods for generating high energy particle beams shall be reviewed and assessed. This includes diagnostics methods, timing technology, special need for injectors, beam matching, beam dynamics with advanced accelerators and development of adequate simulations. This workshop is organized in the context of the EU-funded European Network for Novel Accelerators (EuroNNAc2), that includes 52 Research Institutes and universities.

  6. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  7. Hall MHD Equilibrium of Accelerated Compact Toroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S. J.; Hwang, D. Q.; Horton, R. D.; Evans, R. W.; Brockington, S. J.

    2007-11-01

    We examine the structure and dynamics of the compact toroid's magnetic field. The compact toroid is dramatically accelerated by a large rail-gun Lorentz force density equal to j xB. We use magnetic data from the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment to answer the question of exactly where in the system j xB has nonzero values, and to what extent we can apply the standard model of force-free equilibrium. In particular we present a method of analysis of the magnetic field probe signals that allows direct comparison to the predictions of the Woltjer-Taylor force-free model and Turner's generalization of magnetic relaxation in the presence of a non-zero Hall term and fluid vorticity.

  8. Technology and applications of advanced accelerator concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the ...

  9. A Variable Energy CW Compact Accelerator for Ion Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Carol J. [Fermilab; Taylor, J. [Huddersfield U.; Edgecock, R. [Huddersfield U.; Schulte, R. [Loma Linda U.

    2016-03-10

    Cancer is the second-largest cause of death in the U.S. and approximately two-thirds of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy with the majority of the radiation treatments performed using x-rays produced by electron linacs. Charged particle beam radiation therapy, both protons and light ions, however, offers advantageous physical-dose distributions over conventional photon radiotherapy, and, for particles heavier than protons, a significant biological advantage. Despite recognition of potential advantages, there is almost no research activity in this field in the U.S. due to the lack of clinical accelerator facilities offering light ion therapy in the States. In January, 2013, a joint DOE/NCI workshop was convened to address the challenges of light ion therapy [1], inviting more than 60 experts from diverse fields related to radiation therapy. This paper reports on the conclusions of the workshop, then translates the clinical requirements into accelerat or and beam-delivery technical specifications. A comparison of available or feasible accelerator technologies is compared, including a new concept for a compact, CW, and variable energy light ion accelerator currently under development. This new light ion accelerator is based on advances in nonscaling Fixed-Field Alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator design. The new design concepts combine isochronous orbits with long (up to 4m) straight sections in a compact racetrack format allowing inner circulating orbits to be energy selected for low-loss, CW extraction, effectively eliminating the high-loss energy degrader in conventional CW cyclotron designs.

  10. Development of compact accelerator neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letourneau Alain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a worldwide growing interest for small-scale and reduced-cost neutron sources not based on nuclear fission. High-intensity proton or deuteron beams impinging on light materials could be used to produce such neutron sources with intensities or brightness comparable to nuclear reactor for dedicated experiments. To develop such technologies several key technological issues have to be addressed. Among them the neutron production and the maximization of the neutron extraction and transport to the instrument is a key parameter for the design of high-brightness sources adapted for the required application. This issue have to be addressed with validated and predictive Monte-Carlo simulations. In this paper we present preliminary results on the use of Geant4 in the context of Compact Accelerator based Neutron Source (CANS developments.

  11. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  12. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to 6...

  13. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to...

  14. Engineering Prototype for a Compact Medical Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografos, Anthony; Hening, Andy; Joshkin, Vladimir; Leung, Kevin; Pearson, Dave; Pearce-Percy, Henry; Rougieri, Mario; Parker, Yoko; Weir, John [CPAC, Livermore, CA (United States); Blackfield, Donald; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Poole, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Hamm, Robert W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Pleasanton, CA (United States); Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Gelnhausen (Germany)

    2011-12-13

    A compact accelerator system architecture based on the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) for medical proton beam therapy has been developed by the Compact Particle Acceleration Corporation (CPAC). The major subsystems are a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) injector linac, a pulsed kicker to select the desired proton bunches, and a DWA linear accelerator incorporating a high gradient insulator (HGI) with stacked Blumleins to produce the required acceleration energy. The Blumleins are switched with solid state laser-driven optical switches integrated into the Blumlein assemblies. Other subsystems include a high power pulsed laser, fiber optic distribution system, electrical charging system, and beam diagnostics. An engineering prototype has been constructed and characterized, and these results will be used within the next three years to develop an extremely compact 150 MeV system capable of modulating energy, beam current, and spot size on a shot-to-shot basis. This paper presents the details the engineering prototype, experimental results, and commercialization plans.

  15. Applications of the Strategic Defense Initiative's compact accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarelli, Nick; Lynch, Ted

    1991-12-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative's (SDI) investment in particle accelerator technology for its directed energy weapons program has produced breakthroughs in the size and power of new accelerators. These accelerators, in turn, have produced spinoffs in several areas: the radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator (RFQ linac) was recently incorporated into the design of a cancer therapy unit at the Loma Linda University Medical Center, an SDI-sponsored compact induction linear accelerator may replace Cobalt-60 radiation and hazardous ethylene-oxide as a method for sterilizing medical products, and other SDIO-funded accelerators may be used to produce the radioactive isotopes oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 for positron emission tomography (PET). Other applications of these accelerators include bomb detection, non-destructive inspection, decomposing toxic substances in contaminated ground water, and eliminating nuclear waste.

  16. Modern compact accelerators of cyclotron type for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.

    2016-09-01

    Ion beam therapy and hadron therapy are types of external beam radiotherapy. Recently, the vast majority of patients have been treated with protons and carbon ions. Typically, the types of accelerators used for therapy were cyclotrons and synchrocyclotrons. It is intuitively clear that a compact facility fits best to a hospital environment intended for particle therapy and medical diagnostics. Another criterion for selection of accelerators to be mentioned in this article is application of superconducting technology to the magnetic system design of the facility. Compact isochronous cyclotrons, which accelerate protons in the energy range 9-30 MeV, have been widely used for production of radionuclides. Energy of 230 MeV has become canonical for all proton therapy accelerators. Similar application of a carbon beam requires ion energy of 430 MeV/u. Due to application of superconducting coils the magnetic field in these machines can reach 4-5 T and even 9 T in some cases. Medical cyclotrons with an ironless or nearly ironless magnetic system that have a number of advantages over the classical accelerators are in the development stage. In this work an attempt is made to describe some conceptual and technical features of modern accelerators under consideration. The emphasis is placed on the magnetic and acceleration systems along with the beam extraction unit, which are very important from the point of view of the facility compactness and compliance with the strict medical requirements.

  17. KLYNAC: Compact linear accelerator with integrated power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyzhenkov, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-16

    Accelerators and accelerator-based light sources have a wide range of applications in science, engineering technology and medicine. Today the scienti c community is working towards improving the quality of the accelerated beam and its parameters while trying to develop technology for reducing accelerator size. This work describes a design of a compact linear accelerator (linac) prototype, resonant Klynac device, which is a combined linear accelerator and its power supply - klystron. The intended purpose of a Klynac device is to provide a compact and inexpensive alternative to a conventional 1 to 6 MeV accelerator, which typically requires a separate RF source, an accelerator itself and all the associated hardware. Because the Klynac is a single structure, it has the potential to be much less sensitive to temperature variations than a system with separate klystron and linac. We start by introducing a simpli ed theoretical model for a Klynac device. We then demonstrate how a prototype is designed step-by-step using particle-in-cell simulation studies for mono- resonant and bi-resonant structures. Finally, we discuss design options from a stability point of view and required input power as well as behavior of competing modes for the actual built device.

  18. Final report on the LLNL compact torus acceleration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.; Hartman, C.; McLean, H.; Molvik, A.

    1995-03-19

    In this report, we summarize recent work at LLNL on the compact torus (CT) acceleration project. The CT accelerator is a novel technique for projecting plasmas to high velocities and reaching high energy density states. The accelerator exploits magnetic confinement in the CT to stably transport plasma over large distances and to directed kinetic energies large in comparison with the CT internal and magnetic energy. Applications range from heating and fueling magnetic fusion devices, generation of intense pulses of x-rays or neutrons for weapons effects and high energy-density fusion concepts.

  19. Compact Superconducting Radio-frequency Accelerators and Innovative RF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kephart, Robert [Fermilab; Chattopadhyay, Swaapan [Northern Illinois U.; Milton, Stephen [Colorado State U.

    2015-04-10

    We will present several new technical and design breakthroughs that enable the creation of a new class of compact linear electron accelerators for industrial purposes. Use of Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) cavities allow accelerators less than 1.5 M in length to create electron beams beyond 10 MeV and with average beam powers measured in 10’s of KW. These machines can have the capability to vary the output energy dynamically to produce brehmstrahlung x-rays of varying spectral coverage for applications such as rapid scanning of moving cargo for security purposes. Such compact accelerators will also be cost effective for many existing and new industrial applications. Examples include radiation crosslinking of plastics and rubbers, creation of pure materials with surface properties radically altered from the bulk, modification of bulk or surface optical properties of materials, sterilization of medical instruments animal solid or liquid waste, and destruction of organic compounds in industrial waste water effluents. Small enough to be located on a mobile platform, such accelerators will enable new remediation methods for chemical and biological spills and/or in-situ crosslinking of materials. We will describe one current design under development at Fermilab including plans for prototype and value-engineering to reduce costs. We will also describe development of new nano-structured field-emitter arrays as sources of electrons, new methods for fabricating and cooling superconducting RF cavities, and a new novel RF power source based on magnetrons with full phase and amplitude control.

  20. Net Shape Manufacturing of Accelerator Components by High Pressure Combustion Driven Powder Compaction

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarathnam, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of the net shape and cost-effective manufacturing aspects of high density accelerator (normal and superconducting) components (e.g., NLC Copper disks) and materials behavior of copper, stainless steel, refractory materials (W, Mo and TZM), niobium and SiC by innovative high pressure Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) technology. Some of the unique process advantages include high densities, net-shaping, improved surface finish/quality, suitability for simple/complex geometries, synthesis of single as well as multilayered materials, milliseconds of compaction process time, little or no post-machining, and process flexibility. Some of the key results of CDC fabricated sample geometries, process optimization, sintering responses and structure/property characteristics such as physical properties, surface roughness/quality, electrical conductivity, select microstructures and mechanical properties will be presented. Anticipated applications of CDC compaction include advanced x-ray targets, vac...

  1. Radiation Fields in the Vicinity of Compact Accelerator Neutron Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Brandon W. Blackburn; Augustine J. Caffrey

    2006-10-01

    Intense pulsed radiation fields emitted from sealed tube neutron generators provide a challenge for modern health physics survey instrumentation. The spectral sensitivity of these survey instruments requires calibration under realistic field conditions while the pulsed emission characteristics of neutron generators can vary from conditions of steady-state operation. As a general guide for assessing radiological conditions around neutron generators, experiments and modeling simulations have been performed to assess radiation fields near DD and DT neutron generators. The presence of other materials and material configurations can also have important effects on the radiation dose fields around compact accelerator neutron generators.

  2. Research opportunities with compact accelerator-driven neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I. S.; Andreani, C.; Carpenter, J. M.; Festa, G.; Gorini, G.; Loong, C.-K.; Senesi, R.

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of the neutron in 1932 neutron beams have been used in a very broad range of applications, As an aging fleet of nuclear reactor sources is retired the use of compact accelerator-driven neutron sources (CANS) is becoming more prevalent. CANS are playing a significant and expanding role in research and development in science and engineering, as well as in education and training. In the realm of multidisciplinary applications, CANS offer opportunities over a wide range of technical utilization, from interrogation of civil structures to medical therapy to cultural heritage study. This paper aims to provide the first comprehensive overview of the history, current status of operation, and ongoing development of CANS worldwide. The basic physics and engineering regarding neutron production by accelerators, target-moderator systems, and beam line instrumentation are introduced, followed by an extensive discussion of various evolving applications currently exploited at CANS.

  3. Acceleration of Compact Radio Jets on Sub-parsec Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Zensus, J. Anton

    2016-08-01

    Jets of compact radio sources are highly relativistic and Doppler boosted, making studies of their intrinsic properties difficult. Observed brightness temperatures can be used to study the intrinsic physical properties of relativistic jets, and constrain models of jet formation in the inner jet region. We aim to observationally test such inner jet models. The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) cores of compact radio sources are optically thick at a given frequency. The distance of the core from the central engine is inversely proportional to the frequency. Under the equipartition condition between the magnetic field energy and particle energy densities, the absolute distance of the VLBI core can be predicted. We compiled the brightness temperatures of VLBI cores at various radio frequencies of 2, 8, 15, and 86 GHz. We derive the brightness temperature on sub-parsec scales in the rest frame of the compact radio sources. We find that the brightness temperature increases with increasing distance from the central engine, indicating that the intrinsic jet speed (the Lorentz factor) increases along the jet. This implies that the jets are accelerated in the (sub-)parsec regions from the central engine.

  4. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of accelerator physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  5. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of Accelerator Physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  6. Acceleration of compact toroid plasma rings for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, C.W.; Barr, W.L.; Eddleman, J.L.; Gee, M.; Hammer, J.H.; Ho, S.K.; Logan, B.G.; Meeker, D.J.; Mirin, A.A.; Nevins, W.M.

    1988-08-26

    We describe experimental results for a new type of collective accelerator based on magnetically confined compact torus (CT) plasma rings and discuss applications to both inertial and magnetic fusion. We have demonstrated the principle of CT acceleration in the RACE device with acceleration of 0.5 mg ring masses to 400 km/s and 0.02 mg ring masses to 1400 km/s at greater than or equal to30% efficiency. Scaling the CT accelerator to the multi-megajoule level could provide an efficient, economical driver for inertial fusion (ICF) or magnetically insulated inertial fusion. Efficient conversion to x-rays for driving hohlraum-type ICF targets has been modeled using a radiation-hydrodynamics code. At less demanding conditions than required for ICF, a CT accelerator can be applied to fueling and current drive in tokamaks. Fueling is accomplished by injecting CTs at the required rate to sustain the particle inventory and at a velocity sufficient to penetrate to the magnetic axis before CT dissolution. Current drive is a consequence of the magnetic helicity content of the CT, which is approximately conserved during reconnection of the CT fields with the tokamak. Major areas of uncertainty in CT fueling and current drive concern the mechanism by which CTs will stop in a tokamak plasma and the effects of the CT on energy confinement and magnetic stability. Bounds on the required CT injection velocity are obtained by considering drag due to emission of an Alfven-wave wake and rapid reconnection and tilting on the internal Alfven time scale of the CT. Preliminary results employing a 3-D, resistive MHD code show rapid tilting with the CT aligning its magnetic moment with the tokamak field. Requirements for an experimental test of CT injection and scenarios for fueling a reactor will also be discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Ion acceleration in a scalable MEMS RF-structure for a compact linear accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Persaud, A; Feinberg, E; Seidl, P A; Waldron, W L; Lal, A; Vinayakumar, K B; Ardanuc, S; Schenkel, T

    2016-01-01

    A new approach for a compact radio-frequency(rf) accelerator structure is presented. The idea is based on the Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) structure that was first developed in the 1980s. The MEQALAC allowed scaling of rf-structure down to dimensions of centimeters while at the same time allowing for higher beam currents through parallel beamlets. Using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) for highly scalable fabrication, we reduce the critical dimension to the sub-millimeter regime, while massively scaling up the potential number of parallel beamlets. The technology is based on rf-acceleration components and electrostatic quadrupoles (ESQs) implemented in a silicon wafer based design where each beamlet passes through beam apertures in the wafer. The complete accelerator is then assembled by stacking these wafers. This approach allows fast and cheap batch fabrication of the components and flexibility in system design for different applications. For prototyping these ...

  8. Development of a Compact Radiography Accelerator Using Dielectric Wall Accelerator Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sampayan, Stephen; Chen Yu Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven; Holmes, Clifford; McCarrick, James F; Nelson, Scott D; Nunnally, William; Poole, Brian R; Rhodes, Mark; Sanders, David; Sullivan, James; Wang, Lisa; Watson, James

    2005-01-01

    We are developing of a compact accelerator system primarily intended for pulsed radiography. Design characteristics are an 8 MeV endpoint energy, 2 kA beam current and a cell gradient of approximately 3 MV/m. Overall length of the device is below 3 m. Such compact designs have been made possible with the development of high specific energy dielectrics (> 10 J/cc), specialized transmission line designs and multi-gap laser-triggered low jitter (<1 ns) gas switches. In this geometry, the pulse forming lines, switches and insulator/beam pipe are fully integrated within each cell to form a compact stand-alone stackable unit. We detail our research and modeling to date, recent high voltage test results, and the integration concept of the cells into a radiographic system.

  9. Advanced Accelerator Concepts Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2014-05-13

    A major focus of research supported by this Grant has been on the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. We first trapped antihydrogen in 2010 and soon thereafter demonstrated trapping for 1000s. We now have observed resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen. These papers in Nature and Nature Physics report the major milestones in anti-atom trapping. The success was only achieved through careful work that advanced our understanding of collective dynamics in charged particle systems, the development of new cooling and diagnostics, and in- novation in understanding how to make physics measurements with small numbers of anti-atoms. This research included evaporative cooling, autoresonant excitation of longitudinal motion, and centrifugal separation. Antihydrogen trapping by ALPHA is progressing towards the point when a important theories believed by most to hold for all physical systems, such as CPT (Charge-Parity-Time) invariance and the Weak Equivalence Principle (matter and antimatter behaving the same way under the influence of gravity) can be directly tested in a new regime. One motivation for this test is that most accepted theories of the Big Bang predict that we should observe equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However astrophysicists have found very little antimatter in the universe. Our experiment will, if successful over the next seven years, provide a new test of these ideas. Many earlier detailed and beautiful tests have been made, but the trapping of neutral antimatter allows us to explore the possibility of direct, model-independent tests. Successful cooling of the anti atoms, careful limits on systematics and increased trapping rates, all planned for our follow-up experiment (ALPHA-II) will reach unrivaled precision. CPT invariance implies that the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen should be identical. Spectra can be measured in principle with great precision, and any di erences we might observe would revolutionize fundamental physics. This is the

  10. Accelerating development of advanced inverters :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ropp, Michael; Schutz, Dustin

    2013-11-01

    The high penetration of utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing heightened concern over the effect that variable renewable generation will have on the electrical power system (EPS). These concerns have initiated the need to amend the utility interconnection standard to allow advanced inverter control functionalities that provide: (1) reactive power control for voltage support, (2) real power control for frequency support and (3) better tolerance of grid disturbances. These capabilities are aimed at minimizing the negative impact distributed PV systems may have on EPS voltage and frequency. Unfortunately, these advanced control functions may interfere with island detection schemes, and further development of advanced inverter functions requires a study of the effect of advanced functions on the efficacy of antiislanding schemes employed in industry. This report summarizes the analytical, simulation and experimental work to study interactions between advanced inverter functions and anti-islanding schemes being employed in distributed PV systems.

  11. Multiple-applications of Accelerated Compact Toroid Injection for MFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, David; Horton, Robert; Evans, Russell; Liu, Fei; Zhu, Ben; Hong, Sean; Buchenauer, Dean

    2010-11-01

    The CTIX experiment has explored the potential applications of launching a fast moving magnetized compact toroid for Magnetic Fusion experiments. These applications include central fueling of a MFE device such as tokamaks, stellarators, etc. At present, the UC Davis CTIX accelerator has achieved densities at mid to upper 10^15 per cc, at speeds reaching over 200 km/sec. In order to meet the parameters of even larger fusion devices, the technology of the accelerator needs to incorporate the latest plasma wall interaction findings. As a result of the next step in CT development, UC Davis will be collaborating with the Fusion Technology group at Sandia National Laboratory in Livermore California. We will be designing new plasmas facing electrodes that can reduce electrode impurities and increase electrode lifetime. In addition to producing high density CTs, we will include the updated conical compression results from our previous installed drift section compressor. In addition of the MFE applications, the ability to enhance the CT density, fields as well as speed can be useful to other fusion areas such as MIF, etc.

  12. Injector Design for Advanced Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Faltens, A.

    1996-11-01

    Accelerator designs intended to provide acceleration at a much lower cost per Joule than the ILSE or ELISE designs are under study. For these designs, which typically have many beams, an injector of significantly lower cost is needed. A goal, which from our design appears to be achievable, is to reduce the transverse dimension to half that of the 2 MeV, 800 mA ILSE injector(E. Henestroza, ``Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion", Proc. of the 11th International Wkshp. on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, 1993.) while generating about the same current. A single channel of a lower cost injector includes an 800 kV column, accelerating a 700 mA beam extracted from a potassium source of 4 cm radius by a 120 kV electrode. The beam passes into a superconducting 7 T solenoid of 15 cm aperture and 15 cm length. This high-field solenoid provides the focusing needed for a small beam without increasing the electric field gradient. The injector and its matching section, also designed, fit within a 12 cm radius, which is small enough to allow construction of attractive multi-beam injectors. We will present solutions for the generation and transport of 700 mA potassium beams of up to 1.6 MeV within the same transverse constraint.

  13. Advanced visualization technology for terascale particle accelerator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, K-L; Schussman, G.; Wilson, B.; Ko, K.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.

    2002-11-16

    This paper presents two new hardware-assisted rendering techniques developed for interactive visualization of the terascale data generated from numerical modeling of next generation accelerator designs. The first technique, based on a hybrid rendering approach, makes possible interactive exploration of large-scale particle data from particle beam dynamics modeling. The second technique, based on a compact texture-enhanced representation, exploits the advanced features of commodity graphics cards to achieve perceptually effective visualization of the very dense and complex electromagnetic fields produced from the modeling of reflection and transmission properties of open structures in an accelerator design. Because of the collaborative nature of the overall accelerator modeling project, the visualization technology developed is for both desktop and remote visualization settings. We have tested the techniques using both time varying particle data sets containing up to one billion particle s per time step and electromagnetic field data sets with millions of mesh elements.

  14. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Advanced Accelerator Physics Course

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Course on Advanced Accelerator Physics organized by the CERN Accelerator School. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway from 18 to 29 August 2013, in collaboration with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Its syllabus was based on previous courses and in particular on the course held in Berlin 2003 whose proceedings were published as CERN Yellow Report CERN- 2006-002. The field has seen significant advances in recent years and some topics were presented in a new way and other topics were added. The lectures were supplemented with tutorials on key topics and 14 hours of hands on courses on Optics Design and Corrections, RF Measurement Techniques and Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics. These courses are a key element of the Advanced Level Course.

  15. Inverse free electron laser accelerator for advanced light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Duris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the inverse free electron laser (IFEL scheme as a compact high gradient accelerator solution for driving advanced light sources such as a soft x-ray free electron laser amplifier or an inverse Compton scattering based gamma-ray source. In particular, we present a series of new developments aimed at improving the design of future IFEL accelerators. These include a new procedure to optimize the choice of the undulator tapering, a new concept for prebunching which greatly improves the fraction of trapped particles and the final energy spread, and a self-consistent study of beam loading effects which leads to an energy-efficient high laser-to-beam power conversion.

  16. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misuri, Alessio [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  17. Diagnostics for advanced laser acceleration experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misuri, Alessio

    2002-06-01

    The first proposal for plasma based accelerators was suggested by 1979 by Tajima and Dawson. Since then there has been a tremendous progress both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical progress is particularly due to the growing interest in the subject and to the development of more accurate numerical codes for the plasma simulations (especially particle-in-cell codes). The experimental progress follows from the development of multi-terawatt laser systems based on the chirped-pulse amplification technique. These efforts have produced results in several experiments world-wide, with the detection of accelerated electrons of tens of MeV. The peculiarity of these advanced accelerators is their ability to sustain extremely large acceleration gradients. In the conventional radio frequency linear accelerators (RF linacs) the acceleration gradients are limited roughly to 100 MV/m; this is partially due to breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. The electrical breakdown is originated by the emission of the electrons from the walls of the cavity. The electrons cause an avalanche breakdown when they reach other metal parts of the RF linacs structure.

  18. Advanced Accelerator Magnets for Upgrading the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L; de Rijk, G; Todesco, E

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is working at about half its design value, limited by the defective splices of the magnet interconnections. While the full energy will be attained after the splice consolidation in 2014, CERN is preparing a plan for a Luminosity upgrade (High Luminosity LHC) around 2020 and has launched a pre-study for exploring an Energy upgrade (High Energy LHC) around 2030. Both upgrades strongly rely on advanced accelerator magnet technology, requiring dipoles and quadrupoles of accelerator quality and operating fields in the 11-13 T range for the luminosity upgrade and 16-20 T range for the energy upgrade. The paper will review the last ten year of Nb3Sn accelerator magnet R&D and compare it to the needs of the upgrades and will critically assess the results of the Nb3Sn and HTS technology and the planned R&D programs also based on the inputs of first year of LHC operation.

  19. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung, E-mail: hjkwon@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongsangbukdo 38180 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  20. A compact railgun accelerator for millimeter-sized dielectric solid armatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Sakharov, V. A.; Bobashev, S. V.; Ponyaev, S. A.; Reznikov, B. I.; Rozov, S. I.

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter-sized dielectric solid armatures have been accelerated in a compact railgun system. It is shown that application of an external pulsed magnetic field can solve the problem of catastrophic erosion of electrodes at the initial stage and accelerate small armatures up to a velocity of about 6 km/s.

  1. Vacuum system for Advanced Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denhoy, B.S.

    1981-09-03

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear electron beam accelerator designed to study charged particle beam propagation. ATA is designed to produce a 10,000 amp 50 MeV, 70 ns electron beam. The electron beam acceleration is accomplished in ferrite loaded cells. Each cell is capable of maintaining a 70 ns 250 kV voltage pulse across a 1 inch gap. The electron beam is contained in a 5 inch diameter, 300 foot long tube. Cryopumps turbomolecular pumps, and mechanical pumps are used to maintain a base pressure of 2 x 10/sup -6/ torr in the beam tube. The accelerator will be installed in an underground tunnel. Due to the radiation environment in the tunnel, the controlling and monitoring of the vacuum equipment, pressures and temperatures will be done from the control room through a computer interface. This paper describes the vacuum system design, the type of vacuum pumps specified, the reasons behind the selection of the pumps and the techniques used for computer interfacing.

  2. [Advanced accelerator R and D program]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This proposal requests funding for a 3-year renewal of the DOE advanced accelerator R and D (AARD) program at Texas A and M University. The program to date has focused on the development of the gigatron, a compact high-efficiency microwave driver for future linear colliders. The author reports results and progress in that project, and plans to bring it to a milestone and conclusion by mid-1995. He proposes to initiate a second project, the development of a new technology for ultra-high field superconducting magnets for future hadron colliders. This project builds upon two magnet designs which he has introduced during the past year, which have the potential for a dramatic extension of the achievable field strength for both dipoles and quadrupoles.

  3. Performance of a compact injector for heavy-ion medical accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Y.; Yamada, S.; Murakami, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Fujisawa, T.; Ogawa, H.; Miyahara, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Muramatsu, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ueda, T.

    2007-03-01

    A compact injector, designed for a heavy-ion medical accelerator complex, was constructed. It consists of an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion-Source (ECRIS) and two linacs, which are a Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole linac and an Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (IH-DTL) having the same operating frequency of 200 MHz. For beam focusing of the IH-DTL, the method of Alternating-Phase-Focusing (APF) was employed. The compact injector can accelerate heavy ions having a charge-to-mass ratio of {q}/{m}={1}/{3} up to 4.0 MeV/u. Use of the APF IH-DTL and operating frequency of 200 MHz allowed us to design compact linacs; the total length of the two linacs is less than 6 m. Beam-acceleration tests of the compact injector system were performed. The measured intensity of accelerated C4+12 beams with the compact injector was 380 eμA. Beam transmission of the APF IH-DTL was estimated to be as high as 96%, which is comparable to the value calculated by a simulation code. Transverse phase-space and energy distributions of accelerated beams were measured and compared with those calculated by the simulation code, and we found that they were agreed well with each other.

  4. Review of Compact Commercial Accelerator Products and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Historically, particle accelerators were developed initially for nuclear, then for particle physics research. From this research resulted applications of accelerators in the field of medicine and industry. These application-oriented accelerators are generally built commercially, and they often emphasize other qualities than the accelerators for research. The research applications frequently require energies or beam qualities at the limit of the existing technologies. They offer the largest flexibility in term of particles and beam properties, but are more complex, more expensive and often require large and highly qualified staff to operate and maintain them. In contrast, most applications are done with low to moderate energy protons or electrons, but often with large average beam power. The accelerators are generally specialized for a specific application, and are therefore very simple and inexpensive to operate. The author will review some applications in the field of medicine, such as the production of radio-isotopes for medical diagnostic or the production of electrons, protons or fast neutron beams for cancer therapy. In the industrial field, high power electron beam are used for sterilization and for the modification of materials. Log No. 1001

  5. Compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator Development For Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy And Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y -; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Gower, E; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Stanley, J; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-06-17

    Compact dielectric wall (DWA) accelerator technology is being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DWA accelerator uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. Its high electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The DWA concept can be applied to accelerate charge particle beams with any charge to mass ratio and energy. Based on the DWA system, a novel compact proton therapy accelerator is being developed. This proton therapy system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources. Applications of the DWA accelerator to problems in homeland security will also be discussed.

  6. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  7. A compact permanent magnet cyclotrino for accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.T.; Clark, D.J.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Li, C.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The authors describe the development of a new instrument for the detection of trace amounts of rare isotopes, a Cyclotron Mass Spectrometer (CMS). A compact low energy cyclotron optimized for high mass resolution has been designed and has been fabricated. The instrument has high sensitivity and is designed to measure carbon-14 at abundances of < 10{sup {minus}12}. A novel feature of the instrument is the use of permanent magnets to energize the iron poles of the cyclotron. The instrument uses axial injection, employing a spiral inflector. The instrument has been assembled and preliminary measurements of the magnetic field show that it has a uniformity on the order of 2 parts in 10{sup 4}.

  8. A compact laser-driven plasma accelerator for megaelectronvolt-energy neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, R.; Madhu Trivikram, T.; Rishad, K. P. M.; Narayanan, V.; Krishnakumar, E.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2013-03-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in charged-particle acceleration using intense, ultrashort laser pulses. Accelerating neutral atoms is an important complementary technology because such particles are unaffected by electric and magnetic fields and can thus penetrate deeper into a target than ions. However, compact laser-based accelerators for neutral atoms are limited at best to millielectronvolt energies. Here, we report the generation of megaelectronvolt-energy argon atoms from an optical-field-ionized dense nanocluster ensemble. Measurements reveal that nearly every laser-accelerated ion is converted to an energetic neutral atom as a result of highly efficient electron transfer from Rydberg excited clusters, within a sheath around the laser focus. This process, although optimal in nanoclusters, is generic and adaptable to most laser-produced plasmas. Such compact laser-driven energetic neutral atom sources could have applications in fast atom lithography for surface science and tokamak diagnostics in plasma technology.

  9. The Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research Underground - CASPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2014-03-01

    An accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is being constructed by a collaboration lead by South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The study of alpha induced reactions of astrophysical interest in a quasi-background free environment is the goal of the laboratory. Specifically, neutron producing reactions for the s-process will be investigated. This process is responsible for the nucleosynthesis of half of the the elements heavier than iron. An outline of CASPAR, its timeline and scientific goals will be presented.

  10. LIGA-fabricated compact mm-wave linear accelerator cavities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.J.; Bajikar, S.S.; DeCarlo, F.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Mancini, D.C.; Nassiri, A.; Lai, B.; Feinerman, A.D.; White, V.

    1998-03-23

    Millimeter-wave rf cavities for use in linear accelerators, free-electron lasers, and mm-wave undulatory are under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Typical cavity dimensions are in the 1000 mm range, and the overall length of the accelerator structure, which consists of 30-100 cavities, is about 50-100 mm. An accuracy of 0.2% in the cavity dimensions is necessary in order to achieve a high Q-factor of the cavity. To achieve this these structures are being fabricated using deep X-ray lithography, electroforming, and assembly (LIGA). The first prototype cavity structures are designed for 108 GHz and 2p/3-mode operation. Input and output couplers are integrated with the cavity structures. The cavities are fabricated on copper substrates by electroforming copper into 1-mm-thick PMMA resists patterned by deep x-ray lithography and polishing the copper down to the desired thickness. These are fabricated separately and subsequently assembled with precision spacing and alignment using microspheres, optical fibers, or microfabricated spacers/alignment pieces. Details of the fabrication process, alignment, and assembly work are presented in here.

  11. Advanced Accelerator Development Strategy Report: DOE Advanced Accelerator Concepts Research Roadmap Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-03

    Over a full two day period, February 2–3, 2016, the Office of High Energy Physics convened a workshop in Gaithersburg, MD to seek community input on development of an Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) research roadmap. The workshop was in response to a recommendation by the HEPAP Accelerator R&D Subpanel [1] [2] to “convene the university and laboratory proponents of advanced acceleration concepts to develop R&D roadmaps with a series of milestones and common down selection criteria towards the goal for constructing a multi-TeV e+e– collider” (the charge to the workshop can be found in Appendix A). During the workshop, proponents of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (LWFA), particle-beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), and dielectric wakefield acceleration (DWFA), along with a limited number of invited university and laboratory experts, presented and critically discussed individual concept roadmaps. The roadmap workshop was preceded by several preparatory workshops. The first day of the workshop featured presentation of three initial individual roadmaps with ample time for discussion. The individual roadmaps covered a time period extending until roughly 2040, with the end date assumed to be roughly appropriate for initial operation of a multi-TeV e+e– collider. The second day of the workshop comprised talks on synergies between the roadmaps and with global efforts, potential early applications, diagnostics needs, simulation needs, and beam issues and challenges related to a collider. During the last half of the day the roadmaps were revisited but with emphasis on the next five to ten years (as specifically requested in the charge) and on common challenges. The workshop concluded with critical and unanimous endorsement of the individual roadmaps and an extended discussion on the characteristics of the common challenges. (For the agenda and list of participants see Appendix B.)

  12. Design of a compact focusing lens system with short acceleration tube at 300 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki, E-mail: ishii.yasuyuki@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Ohkubo, Takeru; Kojima, Takuji; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    A compact focusing lens system with high demagnification over 1500 was designed to form an ion nanobeam with 346 keV energy by adding a short distance acceleration tube for beam acceleration and focusing downstream of the existing double acceleration lens system. The demagnification, focusing points and aberrations of the acceleration tube were studied using beam trajectory calculation. The acceleration tube was designed to have a length of 140 mm and a demagnification of 2 at its acceleration tube voltage of 300 kV, which resulted in a new compact focusing lens system with a total length of about 640 mm. In addition, the maximum voltage and electric-field of the acceleration tube were confirmed experimentally on the built device to be 300 kV and 30 kV/cm, respectively. The final beam size formed by the system was estimated to be 130 nm in diameter using the design parameters. The result suggests that an ion nanobeam of 346 keV can be formed by an apparatus having the reasonable length of 2 m, which permits us to develop a system for 1 MV by elongating its tube length.

  13. Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironova, M., E-mail: mirona@imbm.bas.bg; Ivanova, M., E-mail: magdalena.ivanova@imbm.bas.bg; Naidenov, V., E-mail: valna53@mail.bg [Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 4, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Georgiev, I., E-mail: ivan.georgiev@parallel.bas.bg [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies & Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stary, J., E-mail: stary@ugn.cas.cz [Institute of Geonics Czech Academy of Sciences, Studentska str., Ostrava 1768 (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-28

    Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro – fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.

  14. Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, M.; Ivanova, M.; Naidenov, V.; Georgiev, I.; Stary, J.

    2015-10-01

    Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro - fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.

  15. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Amatuni, G.A.; Amirkhanyan, Z.G.; Aslyan, L.V.; Avagyan, V.Sh.; Danielyan, V.A.; Davtyan, H.D.; Dekhtiarov, V.S.; Gevorgyan, K.L.; Ghazaryan, N.G.; Grigoryan, B.A.; Grigoryan, A.H.; Hakobyan, L.S. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Haroutiunian, S.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Ivanyan, M.I.; Khachatryan, V.G.; Laziev, E.M. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Manukyan, P.S. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Margaryan, I.N.; Markosyan, T.M. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); and others

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  16. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, F.W.

    1990-10-01

    On January 26, 1990 at 20:03:30, the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) was turned off with the shot counter reading 12,425,999. During the interval between 1985 and 1990 there were eight major experiments performed at ATA. Three of these experiments were for the Free Electron Laser program, and five were for the Charged Particle Beam (CPB) program. The five experiments were: Spring 1985 Propagation Experiment (April 1985), December 1985 20m Propagation Experiment (December 1985), Open Air Experiment (March--June 1987), Beam Transport Experiment (Spring 1988), and Multi Pulse Propagation Experiment (September 89--January 90). Several new technologies such as the rise time sharpener, the Beam Director, and the Fast Corrector Coil were also developed. Experiments for diagnostic development such as the transition radiation studies were also conducted. In this report the major experiments will be revisited; their highlights and shortcomings will be outlined. The current view on the understanding of lead pulse stability and CPB feasibility will be discussed.

  17. A compact linear accelerator based on a scalable microelectromechanical-system RF-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, A.; Ji, Q.; Feinberg, E.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Lal, A.; Vinayakumar, K. B.; Ardanuc, S.; Hammer, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    A new approach for a compact radio-frequency (RF) accelerator structure is presented. The new accelerator architecture is based on the Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) structure that was first developed in the 1980s. The MEQALAC utilized RF resonators producing the accelerating fields and providing for higher beam currents through parallel beamlets focused using arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles (ESQs). While the early work obtained ESQs with lateral dimensions on the order of a few centimeters, using a printed circuit board (PCB), we reduce the characteristic dimension to the millimeter regime, while massively scaling up the potential number of parallel beamlets. Using Microelectromechanical systems scalable fabrication approaches, we are working on further reducing the characteristic dimension to the sub-millimeter regime. The technology is based on RF-acceleration components and ESQs implemented in the PCB or silicon wafers where each beamlet passes through beam apertures in the wafer. The complete accelerator is then assembled by stacking these wafers. This approach has the potential for fast and inexpensive batch fabrication of the components and flexibility in system design for application specific beam energies and currents. For prototyping the accelerator architecture, the components have been fabricated using the PCB. In this paper, we present proof of concept results of the principal components using the PCB: RF acceleration and ESQ focusing. Ongoing developments on implementing components in silicon and scaling of the accelerator technology to high currents and beam energies are discussed.

  18. Project of compact accelerator for cancer proton therapy; Progetto di acceleratore compatto per terapia oncologica con protoni (TOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A. [ENEA, Cntro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-04-01

    The status of the sub-project `Compact Accelerator` in the framework of the Hadrontherapy Project leaded by Prof. Amaldi is described. Emphasis is given to the reasons of the use of protons for radiotherapy applications, to the results of the preliminary design studies of four types of accelerators as possible radiotherapy dedicated `Compact Accelerator` and to the scenario of the fonts of financial resources.

  19. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  20. Laser Technology for Advanced Acceleration: Accelerating Beyond TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jonathan; Mourou, Gérard; Tajima, Toshiki

    The implementation of the suggestion of thin film compression (TFC) allows the newest class of high power, ultrafast laser pulses (typically 20fs at near-infrared wavelengths) to be compressed to the limit of a single-cycle laser pulse (2fs). Its simplicity and high efficiency, as well as its accessibility to a single-cycle laser pulse, introduce a new regime of laser-plasma interaction that enhances laser acceleration. Single-cycle laser acceleration of ions is a far more efficient and coherent process than the known laser-ion acceleration mechanisms. The TFC-derived single-cycle optical pulse is capable of inducing a single-cycle X-ray laser pulse (with a far shorter pulse length and thus an extremely high intensity) through relativistic compression. The application of such an X-ray pulse leads to the novel regime of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons in the X-ray regime, yielding a prospect of “TeV on a chip.” This possibility of single-cycle X-ray pulses heralds zeptosecond and EW lasers (and zeptoscience). The additional invention of the coherent amplification network (CAN) fiber laser pushes the frontier of high repetition, high efficiency lasers, which are the hallmark of needed applications such as laser-driven LWFA colliders and other, societal applications. CAN addresses the crucial aspect of intense lasers that have traditionally lacked the above properties.

  1. Advances of Accelerator Physics and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    This volume, consisting of articles written by experts with international repute and long experience, reviews the state of the art of accelerator physics and technologies and the use of accelerators in research, industry and medicine. It covers a wide range of topics, from basic problems concerning the performance of circular and linear accelerators to technical issues and related fields. Also discussed are recent achievements that are of particular interest (such as RF quadrupole acceleration, ion sources and storage rings) and new technologies (such as superconductivity for magnets and RF ca

  2. Advanced Beamline Design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokop, Christopher [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  3. Mid-Infrared Evidence for Accelerated Evolution in Compact Group Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Lisa May; Gallagher, Sarah C; Hibbard, John E; Hornschemeier, Ann E; Charlton, Jane C; Jarrett, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    We find evidence for accelerated evolution in compact group galaxies from the distribution in mid-infrared colorspace of 42 galaxies from 12 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) compared to the the distributions of several other samples including the LVL+SINGS galaxies, interacting galaxies, and galaxies from the Coma Cluster. We find that the HCG galaxies are not uniformly distributed in colorspace, as well as quantitative evidence for a gap. Galaxies in the infall region of the Coma cluster also exhibit a non-uniform distribution and a less well defined gap, which may reflect a similarity with the compact group environment. Neither the Coma Center or interacting samples show evidence of a gap, leading us to speculate that the gap is unique to the environment of high galaxy density where gas has not been fully processed or stripped.

  4. Post-acceleration of laser driven protons with a compact high field linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Turchetti, Giorgio; Bolton, Paul R.

    2013-05-01

    We present a start-to-end 3D numerical simulation of a hybrid scheme for the acceleration of protons. The scheme is based on a first stage laser acceleration, followed by a transport line with a solenoid or a multiplet of quadrupoles, and then a post-acceleration section in a compact linac. Our simulations show that from a laser accelerated proton bunch with energy selection at ~ 30MeV, it is possible to obtain a high quality monochromatic beam of 60MeV with intensity at the threshold of interest for medical use. In the present day experiments using solid targets, the TNSA mechanism describes accelerated bunches with an exponential energy spectrum up to a cut-off value typically below ~ 60MeV and wide angular distribution. At the cut-off energy, the number of protons to be collimated and post-accelerated in a hybrid scheme are still too low. We investigate laser-plasma acceleration to improve the quality and number of the injected protons at ~ 30MeV in order to assure efficient post-acceleration in the hybrid scheme. The results are obtained with 3D PIC simulations using a code where optical acceleration with over-dense targets, transport and post-acceleration in a linac can all be investigated in an integrated framework. The high intensity experiments at Nara are taken as a reference benchmarks for our virtual laboratory. If experimentally confirmed, a hybrid scheme could be the core of a medium sized infrastructure for medical research, capable of producing protons for therapy and x-rays for diagnosis, which complements the development of all optical systems.

  5. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-06-11

    This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.

  6. Advanced fusion MHD power conversion using the CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Campbell, R.; Logan, B.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-10-01

    The CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle concept for a tokamak reactor involves the use of a high-temperature Rankine cycle in combination with microwave superheaters and nonequilibrium MHD disk generators to obtain a compact, low-capital-cost power conversion system which fits almost entirely within the reactor vault. The significant savings in the balance-of-plant costs are expected to result in much lower costs of electricity than previous concepts. This paper describes the unique features of the CFAR cycle and a high- temperature blanket designed to take advantage of it as well as the predicted performance of the MHD disk generators using mercury seeded with cesium. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Advanced Accelerator Applications University Participation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Chen; A. Hechanova

    2007-07-25

    Our research tasks span the range of technology areas for transmutation, gas-cooled reactor technology, and high temperature heat exchangers, including separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel, methods of fuel fabrication, reactor-accelerator coupled experiments, corrosion of materials exposed to lead-bismuth eutectic, and special nuclear materials protection and accountability.

  8. Radiography with cosmic-ray and compact accelerator muons; Exploring inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons (CRM) arriving from the sky on the surface of the earth are now known to be used as radiography purposes to explore the inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms, ranging in thickness from meter to kilometers scale, such as volcanic mountains, blast furnaces, nuclear reactors etc. At the same time, by using muons produced by compact accelerators (CAM), advanced radiography can be realized for objects with a thickness in the sub-millimeter to meter range, with additional exploration capability such as element identification and bio-chemical analysis. In the present report, principles, methods and specific research examples of CRM transmission radiography are summarized after which, principles, methods and perspective views of the future CAM radiography are described.

  9. Compact muon source with electron accelerator for a mobile muSR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamine, K., E-mail: kanetada.nagamine@ucr.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0191 (Japan); Miyadera, H.; Jason, A. [AOT-ABS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Seki, R. [Department of Physics, State University of California, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    In order to increase accessibility to the muSR spectroscopy for people in various fields of science and engineering, a conceptual design study was made to realize a compact and inexpensive muon source by using 300 MeV electron microtron and a large-acceptance muon-capture. Advanced radiography imaging with muon spin probes will become possible for bio-medical studies, inspection of re-enforced architectures, etc.

  10. Prospect for application of compact accelerator-based neutron source to neutron engineering diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yoshimasa; Taketani, Atsushi; Takamura, Masato; Sunaga, Hideyuki; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Oba, Yojiro; Otake, Yoshie; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    A compact accelerator-based neutron source has been lately discussed on engineering applications such as transmission imaging and small angle scattering as well as reflectometry. However, nobody considers using it for neutron diffraction experiment because of its low neutron flux. In this study, therefore, the neutron diffraction experiments are carried out using Riken Accelerator-driven Compact Neutron Source (RANS), to clarify the capability of the compact neutron source for neutron engineering diffraction. The diffraction pattern from a ferritic steel was successfully measured by suitable arrangement of the optical system to reduce the background noise, and it was confirmed that the recognizable diffraction pattern can be measured by a large sampling volume with 10 mm in cubic for an acceptable measurement time, i.e. 10 min. The minimum resolution of the 110 reflection for RANS is approximately 2.5% at 8 μs of the proton pulse width, which is insufficient to perform the strain measurement by neutron diffraction. The moderation time width at the wavelength corresponding to the 110 reflection is estimated to be approximately 30 μs, which is the most dominant factor to determine the resolution. Therefore, refinements of the moderator system to decrease the moderation time by decreasing a thickness of the moderator or by applying the decoupler system or application of the angular dispersive neutron diffraction technique are important to improve the resolution of the diffraction experiment using the compact neutron source. In contrast, the texture evolution due to plastic deformation was successfully observed by measuring a change in the diffraction peak intensity by RANS. Furthermore, the volume fraction of the austenitic phase in the dual phase mock specimen was also successfully evaluated by fitting the diffraction pattern using a Rietveld code. Consequently, RANS has been proved to be capable for neutron engineering diffraction aiming for the easy access

  11. Compact atomic gravimeter based on a pulsed and accelerated optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Andia, Manuel; Nez, François; Biraben, François; Guellati-Khélifa, Saïda; Cladé, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We present a new scheme of compact atomic gravimeter based on atom interferometry. Atoms are maintained against gravity using a sequence of coherent accelerations performed by the Bloch oscillations technique. We demonstrate a sensitivity of 4.8$\\times 10^{-8}$ with an integration time of 4 min. Combining this method with an atomic elevator allows to measure the local gravity at different positions in the vacuum chamber. This method can be of relevance to improve the measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant $G$.

  12. A compact 500 MHz 4 kW Solid-State Power Amplifier for accelerator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Ferreira, L. F. R.; Garvey, T.

    2011-05-01

    We present the development of a compact narrow-band Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA). We foresee a promising application of solid-state amplifiers specifically in accelerators for new generation synchrotron light sources. Such a new technology has reached a competitive price/performance ratio and expected lifetime in comparison with klystron and IOT amplifiers. The increasing number of synchrotron light sources using 500 MHz as base frequency justifies the effort in the development of the proposed amplifier. Two different techniques are also proposed to improve the control and performance of these new distributed amplification systems which we call, respectively, complete distributed system and forced compression.

  13. Design of a low-cost, compact SRF accelerator for flue gas and wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Funding is being requested pursuant to a proposal that was submitted and reviewed through the Portfolio Analysis and Management System (PAMS). PAMS Proposal ID: 222439. The proposed project consists of the design of a novel superconducting continuous-wave accelerator capable of providing a beam current of ~1 A at an energy of 1-2 MeV for the treatment of flue gases and wastewater streams. The novel approach consists on studying the feasibility of using a single-cell Nb cavity coated with a thin Nb3Sn layer of the inner surface and conductively cooled by to 4.2 K by cryocoolers inside a compact cryomodule. The proposed study will include beam transport simulations, thermal and mechanical engineering analysis of the cryomodule and a cost analysis for both the fabrications costs and the operational and maintenance costs of such accelerator. The outcome of the project will be a report summarizing the analysis and results from the design study.

  14. Compact beam transport system for free-electron lasers driven by a laser plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhirong

    2017-02-01

    Utilizing laser-driven plasma accelerators (LPAs) as a high-quality electron beam source is a promising approach to significantly downsize the x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility. A multi-GeV LPA beam can be generated in several-centimeter acceleration distance, with a high peak current and a low transverse emittance, which will considerably benefit a compact FEL design. However, the large initial angular divergence and energy spread make it challenging to transport the beam and realize FEL radiation. In this paper, a novel design of beam transport system is proposed to maintain the superior features of the LPA beam and a transverse gradient undulator (TGU) is also adopted as an effective energy spread compensator to generate high-brilliance FEL radiation. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are presented based on a demonstration experiment with an electron energy of 380 MeV and a radiation wavelength of 30 nm.

  15. Compact Torus Accelerator Driven Inertial Confinement Fusion Power Plant HYLIFE-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B G; Moir, R W; Tabak, M; Bieri, R L; Hammer, J H; Hartman, C W; Hoffman, M A; Leber, R L; Petzoldt, R W; Tobin, M T

    2005-03-30

    A Compact Torus Accelerator (CTA) is used to accelerate a Compact Torus (CT) to 35 MJ kinetic energy which is focused to a 20 mm diameter where its kinetic energy is converted to a shaped x-ray pulse of 30 MJ. The capsule yield with a prescribed radiation profile is calculated to be (gain 60 times 30 MJ) 1.8 GJ. Schemes for achieving this profile are described. The CT is accelerated in a length of 30 m within an annulus of 150 mm ID and 300 mm OD where the maximum magnetic field is 28 T. A 2.5 m conical taper reduces the mean diameter of the CT from 225 mm to 20 mm. The conical section is made out of solid Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}. The target with its frozen conical guide section is accurately placed at the end of the accelerator about once per second. The reactor called HYLIFE uses liquid jets to attenuate blast effects including shrapnel from the shattered conical guide section and radiation so that the vessel is expected to last 30 years. The calculated cost of electricity is estimated (in constant 1988 dollars) to be about 4.8 cents/kW {center_dot} h compared to the future cost of nuclear and coal of 4.3 to 5.8 cents/kW {center_dot} h. The CT driver contributes 17% to the cost of electricity. Present CT's make 2 x 10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2}; the goal of experiments in progress is 10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2} with further modifications to allow 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2}, whereas the reactor requires 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} in a shaped pulse.

  16. Advanced test accelerator: a high-current induction linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.G.; Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1982-11-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a linear induction accelerator being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim of the ATA, together with its associated physics program is the research and development necessary to resolve whether particle-beam propagation is possible. Since the accelerator is the tool needed to do the basic propagation experiment, many of its design parameters are specified by the physics. The accelerator parameters are: 50 MeV, 10 kA, 70 ns pulse width (FWHM), and a 1 kHz rep-rate during a ten-pulse burst. In addition, beam quality and pulse-to-pulse repeatability must be excellent. The unique features of the accelerator are the 10 kA beam and the 1 kHz burst frequency.

  17. The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab: Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Henderson, Stuart [Fermilab; Leibfritz, Jerry [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in commissioning phase at Fermilab is foreseen to support a broad range of beam-based experiments to study fundamental limitations to beam intensity and to develop novel approaches to particle-beam generation, acceleration and manipulation. ASTA incorporates a superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) linac coupled to a flexible high-brightness photoinjector. The facility also includes a small-circumference storage ring capable of storing electrons or protons. This report summarizes the facility capabilities, and provide an overview of the accelerator-science researches to be enabled.

  18. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spentzouris, P.; /Fermilab; Cary, J.; /Tech-X, Boulder; McInnes, L.C.; /Argonne; Mori, W.; /UCLA; Ng, C.; /SLAC; Ng, E.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-14

    for software development and applications accounts for the natural domain areas (beam dynamics, electromagnetics, and advanced acceleration), and all areas depend on the enabling technologies activities, such as solvers and component technology, to deliver the desired performance and integrated simulation environment. The ComPASS applications focus on computationally challenging problems important for design or performance optimization to all major HEP, NP, and BES accelerator facilities. With the cost and complexity of particle accelerators rising, the use of computation to optimize their designs and find improved operating regimes becomes essential, potentially leading to significant cost savings with modest investment.

  19. Intense Combined Source of Neutrons and Photons for Interrogation Based on Compact Deuteron RF Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (108/s at 2.5 MeV, 1010/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>1012/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction 11B(d,n)12C(γ15.1), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a short RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements [Taddeucci et al. (2007)], indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ∼1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full- system implementation.

  20. Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) pulse power technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.; Branum, D.; Cook, E.

    1981-03-09

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear induction accelerator with the following design parameters: 50 MeV, 10 kA, 70 ns, and 1 kHz in a ten-pulse burst. Acceleration is accomplished by means of 190 ferrite-loaded cells, each capable of maintaining a 250 kV voltage pulse for 70 ns across a 1-inch gap. The unique characteristic of this machine is its 1 kHz burst mode capability at very high currents. This paper dscribes the pulse power development program which used the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) technology as a starting base. Considerable changes have been made both electrically and mechanically in the pulse power components with special consideration being given to the design to achieve higher reliability. A prototype module which incorporates all the pulse power components has been built and tested for millions of shots. Prototype components and test results are described.

  1. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Zharkova, Valentina V; Benz, Arnold O; Browning, Phillippa; Dauphin, Cyril; Emslie, A Gordon; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Kontar, Eduard P; Mann, Gottfried; Onofri, Marco; Petrosian, Vahe; Turkmani, Rim; Vilmer, Nicole; Vlahos, Loukas

    2011-01-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  2. SimTrack: A compact c++ code for particle orbit and spin tracking in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun

    2015-11-01

    SimTrack is a compact c++ code of 6-d symplectic element-by-element particle tracking in accelerators originally designed for head-on beam-beam compensation simulation studies in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It provides a 6-d symplectic orbit tracking with the 4th order symplectic integration for magnet elements and the 6-d symplectic synchro-beam map for beam-beam interaction. Since its inception in 2009, SimTrack has been intensively used for dynamic aperture calculations with beam-beam interaction for RHIC. Recently, proton spin tracking and electron energy loss due to synchrotron radiation were added. In this paper, I will present the code architecture, physics models, and some selected examples of its applications to RHIC and a future electron-ion collider design eRHIC.

  3. SimTrack: A compact c++ library for particle orbit and spin tracking in accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yun [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    SimTrack is a compact c++ library of 6-d symplectic element-by-element particle tracking in accelerators originally designed for head-on beam-beam compensation simulation studies in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It provides a 6-d symplectic orbit tracking with the 4th order symplectic integration for magnet elements and the 6-d symplectic synchro-beam map for beam-beam interaction. Since its inception in 2009, SimTrack has been intensively used for dynamic aperture calculations with beam-beam interaction for RHIC. Recently, proton spin tracking and electron energy loss due to synchrotron radiation were added. In this article, I will present the code architecture, physics models, and some selected examples of its applications to RHIC and a future electron-ion collider design eRHIC.

  4. Prospects for early localization of gravitational-wave signals from compact binary coalescences with advanced detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Manzotti, Alessandro; Dietz, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A leading candidate source of detectable gravitational waves is the inspiral and merger of pairs of stellar-mass compact objects. The advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo detectors will allow scientists to detect inspiral signals from more massive systems and at earlier times in the detector band, than with first generation detectors. The signal from a coalescence of two neutron stars is expected to stay in the sensitive band of advanced detectors for several minutes, thus allowing detection befo...

  5. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: an advanced form of hypofractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budrukkar, Ashwini

    2008-01-01

    Altered fractionation schedules are being increasingly investigated in the treatment of breast cancer. Two such schedules that are frequently compared are hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HERT) and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Though these two modalities are considered separately, APBI is an actually an advanced form of hypofractionation, where acceleration of the treatment is possible due to the smaller volume being irradiated. HERT as well as APBI are investigational at present and are being tested in randomized trials. This article looks at the advantages of APBI as a hypofractionation schedule.

  6. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An advanced form of hypofractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budrukkar Ashwini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered fractionation schedules are being increasingly investigated in the treatment of breast cancer. Two such schedules that are frequently compared are hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HERT and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI. Though these two modalities are considered separately, APBI is an actually an advanced form of hypofractionation, where acceleration of the treatment is possible due to the smaller volume being irradiated. HERT as well as APBI are investigational at present and are being tested in randomized trials. This article looks at the advantages of APBI as a hypofractionation schedule.

  7. The production of radionuclides for nuclear medicine from a compact, low-energy accelerator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, William D; Parks, Geoffrey T; Titov, Dmitry; Beasley, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The field of nuclear medicine is reliant on radionuclides for medical imaging procedures and radioimmunotherapy (RIT). The recent shut-downs of key radionuclide producers have highlighted the fragility of the current radionuclide supply network, however. To ensure that nuclear medicine can continue to grow, adding new diagnostic and therapy options to healthcare, novel and reliable production methods are required. Siemens are developing a low-energy, high-current - up to 10 MeV and 1 mA respectively - accelerator. The capability of this low-cost, compact system for radionuclide production, for use in nuclear medicine procedures, has been considered. The production of three medically important radionuclides - (89)Zr, (64)Cu, and (103)Pd - has been considered, via the (89)Y(p,n), (64)Ni(p,n) and (103)Rh(p,n) reactions, respectively. Theoretical cross-sections were generated using TALYS and compared to experimental data available from EXFOR. Stopping power values generated by SRIM have been used, with the TALYS-generated excitation functions, to calculate potential yields and isotopic purity in different irradiation regimes. The TALYS excitation functions were found to have a good agreement with the experimental data available from the EXFOR database. It was found that both (89)Zr and (64)Cu could be produced with high isotopic purity (over 99%), with activity yields suitable for medical diagnostics and therapy, at a proton energy of 10MeV. At 10MeV, the irradiation of (103)Rh produced appreciable quantities of (102)Pd, reducing the isotopic purity. A reduction in beam energy to 9.5MeV increased the radioisotopic purity to 99% with only a small reduction in activity yield. This work demonstrates that the low-energy, compact accelerator system under development by Siemens would be capable of providing sufficient quantities of (89)Zr, (64)Cu, and (103)Pd for use in medical diagnostics and therapy. It is suggested that the system could be used to produce many other

  8. Advanced Gas-Cooled Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Experiment. AGATE; Advanced Gas-Cooled Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Experiment. AGATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettler, John; Biss, Klaus [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Nuklearen Brennstoffkreislauf (INBK); Bongardt, Klaus [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Kernphysik (IKP)] (and others)

    2011-07-01

    In Germany the question of final radioactive waste disposal is not yet decided. For intermediate-level radioactive waste the final repository Konrad is licensed, for the high-level radioactive waste not certified repository exists. Transmutation by neutron reaction can reduce the long-term heat output and the amount of long-living radionuclides (minor actinides MA). Several accelerator-driven transmutation concepts have been discussed in the past. The authors describe preliminary results of a feasibility study of the concept AGATE (advanced gas-cooled accelerator-driven transmutation experiment). An accelerated 600 MeV proton beam on the spallation target that is the neutron source in the subcritical reactor. In the starting phase the concept assumes MOX fuel with 20% Pu. In a later phase an optimized fuel for the MA transmutation has to be elaborated.

  9. Doing More with Less: Cost-effective, Compact Particle Accelerators (489th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trbojevic, Dejan [BNL Collider-Accelerator Department

    2013-10-22

    Replace a 135-ton magnet used for cancer-fighting particle therapies with a magnet that weighs only two tons? Such a swap is becoming possible thanks to new particle accelerator advances being developed by researchers at Brookhaven Lab. With an approach that combines techniques used by synchrotron accelerators with the ability to accept more energy, these new technologies could be used for more than fighting cancer. They could also decrease the lifecycle of byproducts from nuclear power plants and reduce costs for eRHIC—a proposed electron-ion collider for Brookhaven Lab that researchers from around the world would use to explore the glue that holds together the universe’s most basic building blocks and explore the proton-spin puzzle. During this lecture, Dr. Trbojevic provides an overview of accelerator technologies and techniques—particularly a non-scaling, fixed-focused alternating gradient—to focus particle beams using fewer, smaller magnets. He discusses how these technologies will benefit eRHIC and other applications, including particle therapies being developed to combat cancer.

  10. The detectability of eccentric compact binary coalescences with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Thrane, Eric; Luo, Jialun; Christensen, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. While most binaries are expected to possess circular orbits, some may be eccentric, for example, if they are formed through dynamical capture. Eccentric orbits can create difficulty for matched filtering searches due to the challenges of creating effective template banks to detect these signals. In previous work, we showed how seedless clustering can be used to detect low-mass ($M_\\text{total}\\leq10M_\\odot$) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems, assuming a circular post-Newtonian expansion. Here, we describe a parameterization that is designed to maximize sensitivity to low-eccentricity ($0\\leq\\epsilon\\leq0.6$) systems, derived from the analytic equations. We show that this parameterization provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting eccentric low-mass compact binaries. Base...

  11. Design of APhF-IH Linac for a Compact Medical Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, V; Iwata, Y

    2003-01-01

    The design of a small injection linac for a compact medical synchrotron is discussed. The linac design is based on interdigital H-type (IH) drift-tube structure with alternative phase focusing (APhF). A high acceleration rate and an absence of magnetic lenses inside drift-tubes reduce the cost and length of APhF-IH linac in comparison with HIMAC linac based on Alvarez structure with magnet quadrupoles inside drift-tubes. To reduce effects of emittance growth, the RFQ structure is used in front of the APhF linac. In such linac layout, the current transmission of a carbon beam can reach up to 90-100%. In this report, the basic parameters of whole linac are presented, while the design of APhF structure is considered in details. Two reference designs of 4 MeV/u 200 MHz APhF linacs with different voltage distributions along the whole tank have been generated and analyzed numerically. For the first design, a constant voltage distribution along the tank is assumed. The total length of the structure is about 4.2 m. F...

  12. Effects of Field Distortions in IH-APF Linac for a Compact Medical Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery; Yamada, Satoru

    2004-01-01

    The project on developing compact medical accelerators for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is a doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-Mev/u 200-MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in the IH-cavity are caused by an asymmetry of the gap fields due to presence of the stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the gap voltages from programmed values. The RF fields in the IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically. The intrinsic field distortions a...

  13. A compact 300 kV solid-state high-voltage nanosecond generator for dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yi; Xia, Liansheng; Zhang, Huang; Pan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jun; Shi, Jinshui; Zhang, Linwen; Deng, Jianjun

    2015-05-01

    Compact solid-state system is the main development trend in pulsed power technologies. A compact solid-state high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator with output voltage of 300 kV amplitude, 10 ns duration (FWHM), and 3 ns rise-time was designed for a dielectric wall accelerator. The generator is stacked by 15 planar-plate Blumlein pulse forming lines (PFL). Each Blumlein PFL consists of two solid-state planar transmission lines, a GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch, and a laser diode trigger. The key components of the generator and the experimental results are reported in this paper.

  14. CAS course on Advanced Accelerator Physics in Warsaw

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ) recently organised a course on Advanced Accelerator Physics. The course was held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.    The course followed an established format with lectures in the mornings and practical courses in the afternoons. The lecture programme consisted of 34 lectures, supplemented by private study, tutorials and seminars. The practical courses provided ‘hands-on’ experience of three topics: ‘Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics’, ‘RF Measurement Techniques’ and ‘Optics Design and Corrections’. Participants selected one of the three courses and followed their chosen topic throughout the duration of the school. Sixty-six students representing 18 nationalities attended this course, with most participants coming from European counties, but also from South Korea, Taiwan and Russia. Feedback from th...

  15. CAS course on advanced accelerator physics in Trondheim, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) recently organised a course on advanced accelerator physics. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway, from 18 to 29 August 2013. Accommodation and lectures were at the Hotel Britannia and practical courses were held at the university.   The course's format included lectures in the mornings and practical courses in the afternoons. The lecture programme consisted of 32 lectures supplemented by discussion sessions, private study and tutorials. The practical courses provided "hands-on" experience in three topics: RF measurement techniques, beam instrumentation and diagnostics, and optics design and corrections. Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the course. The programme concluded with seminars and a poster session.  70 students representing 21 nationalities were selected from over 90 applicants, with most participa...

  16. Advanced multipoles for accelerator magnets theoretical analysis and their measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Schnizer, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents research on the transversal beam dynamics of accelerators and evaluates and describes the respective magnetic field homogeneity.  The widely used cylindrical circular multipoles have disadvantages for elliptical apertures or curved trajectories, and the book also introduces new types of advanced multipole magnets, detailing their application, as well as the numerical data and measurements obtained. The research presented here provides more precise descriptions of the field and better estimates of the beam dynamics. Moreover, the effects of field inhomogeneity can be estimated with higher precision than before. These findings are further elaborated to demonstrate their usefulness for real magnets and accelerator set ups, showing their advantages over cylindrical circular multipoles. The research findings are complemented with data obtained from the new superconducting beam guiding magnet models (SIS100) for the FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) project.  Lastly, the book...

  17. FY 88 laser transport experiments on ATA (Advanced Test Accelerator)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, F.W.; Boyd, J.K.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chong, Y.P.; Fawley, W.M.; Hildum, J.S.; Lee, P.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Prono, D.S.; Smith, A.C.

    1988-11-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) in the spring/summer of 1988 to study the transport of the ''laser guided'' electron beam through the accelerator and beyond. The electron beam was guided from the /approximately/3.75 MeV point through the accelerator on an ion channel created by firing a KrF laser (248 nm, P approx.100--400 mJ) into a benzene filled (p approx..1 ..mu..) beamline. Beam transport was documented at several locations with a variety of diagnostics for various beam parameters; channel, gas, and laser parameters; and for various machine configurations. The focus of this experiment was to document, understand, and then alter (remove) the time variation in the observed accelerated beam parameters. The temporal variation of the beam manifests itself in several ways as has been documented. Beam radius versus time, R(t), from both bow probe and optical data shows the beam radius expanding by factors of up to several over the 40 ns of beam pulse. When the beam is threaded through any device with a limited acceptance the radius variation is parlayed into a current variation, I(t). This has been documented for transport through the fusible link, rise time sharpener, slits, bends, emittance selectors, and during free expansion. The beam temporal variation in time may be viewed as radius increase or blowup, brightness degradation, or emittance increase. The observations of blowup predate the introduction of the collimator. The observations prior to this experiment were made in the post accelerator transport sections. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Neutrons production on the IPHI accelerator for the validation of the design of the compact neutron source SONATE

    CERN Document Server

    Menelle, Alain; Prunes, Fabien; Homatter, Benoit; Annighöfer, Burkhard; Porcher, Florence; Chauvin, Nicolas; Schwindling, Jérôme; Letourneau, Alain; Marchix, Anthony; Tran, Ngoc-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    We aim at building an accelerator based compact neutron source which would provide a thermal neutron flux on the order of 4E12 n.s-1.cm-2.sr-1. Such brilliance would put compact neutron sources on par with existing medium flux neutron research reactors. We performed the first neutron production tests on the IPHI proton accelerator at Saclay. The neutron fluxes were measured using gold foil activation and 3He detectors. The measured fluxes were compared with MCNP and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations in which the whole experimental setup was modelled. There is a good agreement between the experimental measurements and the Monte-Carlo simulations. The available modelling tools will allow us to optimize the whole Target Moderator Reflector assembly together with the neutron scattering spectrometer geometries.

  19. Compact X-ray Free Electron Laser from a Laser-plasma Accelerator using a Transverse Gradient Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC; Schroeder, Carl B.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-09-13

    Compact laser-plasma accelerators can produce high energy electron beams with low emittance, high peak current but a rather large energy spread. The large energy spread hinders the potential applications for coherent FEL radiation generation. In this paper, we discuss a method to compensate the effects of beam energy spread by introducing a transverse field variation into the FEL undulator. Such a transverse gradient undulator together with a properly dispersed beam can greatly reduce the effects of electron energy spread and jitter on FEL performance. We present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for SASE and seeded extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray FELs based on laser plasma accelerators.

  20. Recent advances in kicker pulser technology for linear induction accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y J; Cook, E; Davis, B; Dehope, W J; Yen, B

    1999-06-01

    Recent progress in the development and understanding of linear induction accelerator have produced machines with 10s of MeV of beam energy and multi-kiloampere currents. Near-term machines, such as DARHT-2, are envisioned with microsecond pulselengths. Fast beam kickers, based on cylindrical electromagnetic stripline structures, will permit effective use of these extremely high-energy beams in an increasing number of applications. In one application, radiography, kickers were an essential element in resolving temporal evolution of hydrodynamic events by cleaving out individual pulses from long, microsecond beams. Advanced schemes are envisioned where these individual pulses are redirected through varying length beam lines and suitably recombined for stereographic imaging or tomographic reconstruction. Recent advances in fast kickers and their pulsed power technology are described. Kicker pulsers based on both planar triode and all solid-state componentry are discussed and future development plans are presented.

  1. Advanced turbine/CO{sub 2} pellet accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.

    1994-09-01

    An advanced turbine/CO{sub 2} pellet accelerator is being evaluated as a depaint technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program, sponsored by Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has developed a robot-compatible apparatus that efficiently accelerates pellets of dry ice with a high-speed rotating wheel. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air sandblast pellet accelerators, the turbine system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as efficient. A preliminary study of the apparatus as a depaint technology has been undertaken. Depaint rates of military epoxy/urethane paint systems on 2024 and 7075 aluminum panels as a function of pellet speed and throughput have been measured. In addition, methods of enhancing the strip rate by combining infra-red heat lamps with pellet blasting have also been studied. The design and operation of the apparatus will be discussed along with data obtained from the depaint studies. Applications include removal of epoxy-based points from aircraft and the cleaning of surfaces contaminated with toxic, hazardous, or radioactive substances. The lack of a secondary contaminated waste stream is of great benefit.

  2. Detectability of eccentric compact binary coalescences with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, M.; Meyers, P.; Thrane, E.; Luo, J.; Christensen, N.

    2015-03-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. While most binaries are expected to possess circular orbits, some may be eccentric, for example, if they are formed through dynamical capture. Eccentric orbits can create difficulty for matched filtering searches due to the challenges of creating effective template banks to detect these signals. In previous work, we showed how seedless clustering can be used to detect low-mass (Mtotal≤10 M⊙) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems, assuming a circular post-Newtonian expansion. Here, we describe a parametrization that is designed to maximize sensitivity to low-eccentricity (0 ≤ɛ ≤0.6 ) systems, derived from the analytic equations. We show that this parametrization provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting eccentric low-mass compact binaries. Based on these results, we conclude that advanced detectors will have a chance of detecting eccentric binaries if optimistic models prove true. However, a null observation is unlikely to firmly rule out models of eccentric binary populations.

  3. The DPC-2000 advanced control system for the Dynamitron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, Bernard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    1993-07-01

    The DPC-2000 is an advanced control system utilizing the latest technology in computer control circuitry and components. Its overall design is modular and technologically advanced to keep up with customer and engineering demands. The full control system is presented as four units. They are the Remote I/O (Input / Output), Local Analog and Digital I/O, Operator Interface and the Main Computer. The central processing unit, the heart of the system, executes a high level language program that communicates to the different sub-assemblies through advanced serial and parallel communication lines. All operational parameters of the accelerator are monitored, controlled and corrected at close to 20 times per second. The operator is provided with a selection of many informative screen displays. The control program handles all graphic screen displays and the updating of these screens directly; it does not have to communicate to a display terminal. This adds to the quick response and excellent operator feedback received while operating the machine. The CPU also has the ability to store and record all process variable setpoints for each product that will be treated. This allows the operator to set up the process parameters by selecting the product identification code from a menu presented on the display screen. All process parameters are printed to report at regular intervals during a process run for later analysis and record keeping.

  4. The ``Uberbank'': A search for compact binary coalescences in the first Observing run of Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capano, Collin; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Modeled searches for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence (CBC) use a ``bank'' of template waveforms to search the wide range of parameters that binaries may have. Recent advances in waveform modeling and template placement techniques have opened up the possibility to efficiently search for systems with non-precessing spin, using waveforms that model the inspiral, merger, and ringdown of coalescing binaries. I discuss how these advances were combined to produce the template bank used to search for CBCs in the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. This bank covered the full range of plausible masses and non-precessing spins of binary neutron stars, stellar-mass binary black holes, and binaries consisting of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole.

  5. Compact x-ray free-electron laser from a laser-plasma accelerator using a transverse-gradient undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhirong; Ding, Yuantao; Schroeder, Carl B

    2012-11-16

    Compact laser-plasma accelerators can produce high energy electron beams with low emittance, high peak current but a rather large energy spread. The large energy spread hinders the potential applications for coherent free-electron laser (FEL) radiation generation. We discuss a method to compensate the effects of beam energy spread by introducing a transverse field variation into the FEL undulator. Such a transverse gradient undulator together with a properly dispersed beam can greatly reduce the effects of electron energy spread and jitter on FEL performance. We present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for self-amplified spontaneous emission and seeded extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray FELs based on laser plasma accelerators.

  6. Flow-accelerated corrosion monitoring through advanced sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung T.; Seong, Seung H.; Lee, Cheol K.; Hur, Sub; Lee, Na Y.; Lee, Sang J.

    2005-02-01

    In order to successfully implement the extended-life operation plan of the nuclear power plant (NPP), predictive maintenance based on on-line monitoring of deteriorated components becomes highly important. Pipe wall-thinning is usually caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) under the undesirable combination of water chemistry, flow velocity and material composition. In order to increase the confidence of understanding on underlying process, a multi-disciplinary approach has been adopted in this work. Here, we apply a combination of several advanced sensors, ranging from chemical electrodes to mechanical vibration sensors to monitor the thickness change of the elbow, which can be still economical option. Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) and pH are chosen as electrochemical parameters, the change of vibration mode, displacement, and etc. are chosen as mechanical parameters to monitor the wall thinning phenomena. Electrodes are developed for the on-line monitoring of pH and ECP. Vibration is considered as a promising candidate as a mechanical parameter. Various sensors are surveyed and some are chosen based on FEM analysis result, which shows the approximate vibration range according to the thickness change. Mechanical sensors need to be sensitive enough to detect small thickness change with adequate safety margin to a pipe rupture. A few sensors are suggested to detect vibration or displacement quantitatively. Fiber optic sensors are chosen for their non-contacting property, which is appropriate for the high temperature application. Accelerometer and capacitance gage are suggested for their applicability fit to the test purpose.

  7. Concept of an Accelerator-Driven Advanced Nuclear Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of clean energy is a matter of primary importance for sustainable development as well as a vital approach for solving worldwide energy-related issues. If the low utilization rate of nuclear fuel, nuclear proliferation, and insufficient nuclear safety can be solved, nuclear fission energy could be used as a sustainable and low-carbon clean energy form for thousands of years, providing steady and base-load electrical resources. To address these challenges, we propose an accelerator-driven advanced nuclear energy system (ADANES, consisting of a burner system and a fuel recycle system. In ADANES, the ideal utilization rate of nuclear fuel will be >95%, and the final disposal of nuclear waste will be minimized. The design of a high-temperature ceramic reactor makes the burner system safer. Part of fission products (FPs are removed during the simple reprocessing in the fuel recycle system, significantly reducing the risks of nuclear proliferation of nuclear technology and materials. The ADANES concept integrates nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear fuel breeding, and safety power production, with an ideal closed loop operation of nuclear fission energy, constituting a major innovation of great potential interest for future energy applications.

  8. Characterization of compact accelerator DD neutron source for in situ calibration experiment on neutron measurement at LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Yasunari; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Ogata, Tomohiro; Umemura, Norihiro; Asai, Keisuke; Kawarabayashi, Jun [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Sasao, Mamiko [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    A compact Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator DD neutron source has been developed for in situ calibration experiments on neutron measurements at LHD. The equipment mainly consists of three parts; a deuterium (D) reservoir/ion source, a self-loaded deuterium target and a 100 kV high voltage power supply, all of which are contained in a compact cylindrical stainless steel (SUS) tube of 70 mm in diameter and 780 mm in length. About one hour steady operation was performed under the acceleration voltage of 80 keV and the ion beam current of {approx}60 {mu}A, corresponding to the DD neutron yield of around 10{sup 5} n/s. The neutron emission profile and energy spectrum were measured with an NE213 scintillator and a {sup 3}He gas proportional counter. Preliminary neutronic calculations with a Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP' were also executed for simulating the in situ calibration experiment for neutron detectors that will be installed on LHD. Through the experiments and the calculations, it is shown that the present DD neutron source is valid for in situ calibration on threshold type detectors used for neutron emission profile monitoring and neutron spectrometry at DD plasma experiments. (author)

  9. The PyCBC search for compact binary mergers in the second run of Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Canton, Tito; PyCBC Team

    2017-01-01

    The PyCBC software implements a matched-filter search for gravitational-wave signals associated with mergers of compact binaries. During the first observing run of Advanced LIGO, it played a fundamental role in the discovery of the binary-black-hole merger signals GW150914, GW151226 and LVT151012. In preparation for Advanced LIGO's second run, PyCBC has been modified with the goal of increasing the sensitivity of the search, reducing its computational cost and expanding the explored parameter space. The ability to report signals with a latency of tens of seconds and to perform inference on the parameters of the detected signals has also been introduced. I will give an overview of PyCBC and present the new features and their impact.

  10. Low-latency analysis pipeline for compact binary coalescences in the advanced gravitational wave detector era

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, T; Germain, V; Guidi, G M; Marion, F; Montani, M; Mours, B; Piergiovanni, F; Wang, G

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Band Template Analysis (MBTA) pipeline is a low-latency coincident analysis pipeline for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary coalescences (CBCs). MBTA runs with a low computational cost, and can identify candidate GW events online with a sub-minute latency. The low computational running cost of MBTA also makes it useful for data quality studies. Events detected by MBTA online can be used to alert astronomical partners for electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. We outline the current status of MBTA and give details of recent pipeline upgrades and validation tests that were performed in preparation for the first advanced detector observing period. The MBTA pipeline is ready for the outset of the advanced detector era and the exciting prospects it will bring.

  11. Low-latency analysis pipeline for compact binary coalescences in the advanced gravitational wave detector era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T.; Buskulic, D.; Germain, V.; Guidi, G. M.; Marion, F.; Montani, M.; Mours, B.; Piergiovanni, F.; Wang, G.

    2016-09-01

    The multi-band template analysis (MBTA) pipeline is a low-latency coincident analysis pipeline for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary coalescences. MBTA runs with a low computational cost, and can identify candidate GW events online with a sub-minute latency. The low computational running cost of MBTA also makes it useful for data quality studies. Events detected by MBTA online can be used to alert astronomical partners for electromagnetic follow-up. We outline the current status of MBTA and give details of recent pipeline upgrades and validation tests that were performed in preparation for the first advanced detector observing period. The MBTA pipeline is ready for the outset of the advanced detector era and the exciting prospects it will bring.

  12. Design and optimization of Compact Linear Collider main linac accelerating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Hao; Grudiev, Alexej

    2016-11-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) main linac uses waveguide damped structure as its baseline design. The current baseline structure design written in the CLIC Conceptual Design Report is named "CLIC-G." Recent activities on the CLIC-G design including high power tests on structure prototypes and the study of machining cost assessment had raised the need of reoptimizing the structure design to minimize the machining cost and the pulse surface temperature rise. This work presents optimization of the structure geometry, high-order-mode (HOM) damping loads and the design of a HOM-free power splitter for the input coupler. Compared to the current baseline design CLIC-G, the new structure design reduced the pulse surface temperature rise, input power and manufacturing cost and achieves better suppression to the long range transverse wakefield. Cell disks and damping loads for the new structure design are also more compact than those of the CLIC-G design.

  13. The Nano-X Linear Accelerator: A Compact and Economical Cancer Radiotherapy System Incorporating Patient Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Enid M; Keall, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    Rapid technological improvements in radiotherapy delivery results in improved outcomes to patients, yet current commercial systems with these technologies on board are costly. The aim of this study was to develop a state-of-the-art cancer radiotherapy system that is economical and space efficient fitting with current world demands. The Nano-X system is a compact design that is light weight combining a patient rotation system with a vertical 6 MV fixed beam. In this paper, we present the Nano-X system design configuration, an estimate of the system dimensions and its potential impact on shielding cost reductions. We provide an assessment of implementing such a radiotherapy system clinically, its advantages and disadvantages compared to a compact conventional gantry rotating linac. The Nano-X system has several differentiating features from current radiotherapy systems, it is [1] compact and therefore can fit into small vaults, [2] light weight, and [3] engineering efficient, i.e., it rotates a relatively light component and the main treatment delivery components are not under rotation (e.g., DMLCs). All these features can have an impact on reducing the costs of the system. In terms of shielding requirements, leakage radiation was found to be the dominant contributor to the Nano-X vault and as such no primary shielding was necessary. For a low leakage design, the Nano-X vault footprint and concrete volume required is 17 m2 and 35 m3 respectively, compared to 54 m2 and 102 m3 for a conventional compact linac vault, resulting in decreased costs in shielding. Key issues to be investigated in future work are the possible patient comfort concerns associated with the patient rotation system, as well as the magnitude of deformation and subsequent adaptation requirements.

  14. A preliminary study of a D-T tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket using compact fusion advanced Brayton (CFAB) cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Ohnishi, M.; Yamamoto, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Key issues on a D-T Tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket concept using CFAB (Compact Fusion Advanced Brayton) cycle are presented. Although the previously proposed and studied compact fusion advanced Rankine cycle using mercury liquid metal has shown, in general, excellent performance characteristics in extracting energy and electricity with high efficiency by the {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} nonequilibrium MHD disk generator, and in enhancing safety potential, there was a fear about uses of hazardous mercury as primary coolant as well as its limited natural resources. To overcome these disadvantages while retaining the advantage features of a ultra-high temperature coolant inherent in the synchrotron energy-enhanced D-T tokamak reactor, a compact fusion advanced Brayton cycle using helium was reexamined which was once considered relatively not superior in the CFAR study, at the expense of high, but acceptable circulation power, lower heat transfer characteristics, and probably of a little bit reduced safety.

  15. Commnity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science And Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators And Accelerator Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John; /Tech-X, Boulder; Mcinnes, Lois Curfman; /Argonne; Mori, Warren; /UCLA; Ng, Cho; /SLAC; Ng, Esmond; Ryne, Robert; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-10-21

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors.

  16. Commnity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John; /Tech-X, Boulder; Mcinnes, Lois Curfman; /Argonne; Mori, Warren; /UCLA; Ng, Cho; /SLAC; Ng, Esmond; Ryne, Robert; /LBL, Berkeley

    2008-07-01

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators is essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modeling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multi-physics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors.

  17. Advances in X-Band and S-Band Linear Accelerators for Security, NDT, and Other Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mishin, Andrey V

    2005-01-01

    At AS&E High Energy Systems Division, we designed several new advanced high energy electron beam and X-ray sources. Our primary focus has always been in building the world's most portable commercial X-band accelerators. Today, our X-band systems frequently exceed performance of the similar S-band machines, while they are more portable compared to the latter. The new designs of the X-band accelerators in the most practical energy range from 1 MeV to 6 MeV have been tested delivering outstanding results. Seventy 6 MeV X-band linacs systems have been produced. The most compact linac for security is used by AS&E in a self-shielded, Shaped Energy™ cargo screening system. We pioneered using the X-band linear accelerators for CT, producing high quality images of oil pipes and wood logs. An X-band linear accelerator head on a robotic arm has been used for electron beam radiation curing of an odd-shaped graphite composite part. We developed the broad-range 4 MeV to over 10 MeV energy-regulated X-band ...

  18. THz cavities and injectors for compact electron acceleration using laser-driven THz sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Fakhari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a design methodology for developing ultrasmall electron injectors and accelerators based on cascaded cavities excited by short multicycle THz pulses obtained from laser-driven THz generation schemes. Based on the developed concept for optimal coupling of the THz pulse, a THz electron injector and two accelerating stages are designed. The designed electron gun consists of a four cell cavity operating at 300 GHz and a door-knob waveguide to coaxial coupler. Moreover, special designs are proposed to mitigate the problem of thermal heat flow and induced mechanical stress to achieve a stable device. We demonstrated a gun based on cascaded cavities that is powered by only 1.1 mJ of THz energy in 300 cycles to accelerate electron bunches up to 250 keV. An additional two linac sections can be added with five and four cell cavities both operating at 300 GHz boosting the bunch energy up to 1.2 MeV using a 4-mJ THz pulse.

  19. Essay: Robert H. Siemann As Leader of the Advanced Accelerator Research Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Eric R.; Hogan, Mark J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-14

    Robert H. Siemann originally conceived of the Advanced Accelerator Research Department (AARD) as an academic, experimental group dedicated to probing the technical limitations of accelerators while providing excellent educational opportunities for young scientists. The early years of the Accelerator Research Department B, as it was then known, were dedicated to a wealth of mostly student-led experiments to examine the promise of advanced accelerator techniques. High-gradient techniques including millimeter-wave rf acceleration, beam-driven plasma acceleration, and direct laser acceleration were pursued, including tests of materials under rf pulsed heating and short-pulse laser radiation, to establish the ultimate limitations on gradient. As the department and program grew, so did the motivation to found an accelerator research center that brought experimentalists together in a test facility environment to conduct a broad range of experiments. The Final Focus Test Beam and later the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator provided unique experimental facilities for AARD staff and collaborators to carry out advanced accelerator experiments. Throughout the evolution of this dynamic program, Bob maintained a department atmosphere and culture more reminiscent of a university research group than a national laboratory department. His exceptional ability to balance multiple roles as scientist, professor, and administrator enabled the creation and preservation of an environment that fostered technical innovation and scholarship.

  20. Advancements in Catheter-Directed Ultrasound-Accelerated Thrombolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, Denise E.; Schrijver, A. Marjolein; Zeebregts, Clark J.; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review all available literature on catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis for peripheral artery occlusions, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. A total

  1. Advancements in catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Schrijver, A.M.; Zeebregts, C.J.A.; Vries, J.P. de; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review all available literature on catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis for peripheral artery occlusions, stroke, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. A total

  2. Compact solid state radio frequency amplifiers in kW regime for particle accelerator subsystems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh Jain; D K Sharma; A K Gupta; P R Hannurkar; S K Pathak

    2013-08-01

    Radio frequency and Microwave (RFM) infrastructure test facility is under development at RRCAT for evaluating and powering, subsystems of particle accelerator. As a part of this facility, design of 20–30 kW UHF solid state power amplifiers is in progress. For this work, design procedure has been formulated for the development of solid state amplifier modules, radial combiner, divider and directional coupler; with specifications suited to RFM power system for particle accelerator. Methodology has been demonstrated by developing two different compact amplifiers with power output of 2 kW each, operating at 352 MHz and 505.8 MHz, respectively. This paper describes underlying design principles and indigenous development of these amplifiers, consisting of 270–300 W amplifier modules, 8-way 2 kW radial combiner/divider and directional couplers. Design methodology for power combiner has been extended by physically realizing higher power (4 kW) 16-way power combiner and 2-way combiner (8 kW) for higher power (8 kW) amplifier configuration planned. Simple design, indigenous technology, high efficiency and ease of fabrication, are the main features of this design.

  3. Exploring the Physics Limitations of Compact High Gradient Accelerating Structures Simulations of the Electron Current Spectrometer Setup in Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Van Vliet, Philine Julia

    2017-01-01

    The high field gradient of 100 MV/m that will be applied to the accelerator cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), gives rise to the problem of RF breakdowns. The field collapses and a plasma of electrons and ions is being formed in the cavity, preventing the RF field from penetrating the cavity. Electrons in the plasma are being accelerated and ejected out, resulting in a breakdown current up to a few Amp`eres, measured outside the cavities. These breakdowns lead to luminosity loss, so reducing their amount is of great importance. For this, a better understanding of the physics behind RF breakdowns is needed. To study these breakdowns, the XBox 2 test facility has a spectrometer setup installed after the RF cavity that is being conditioned. For this report, a simulation of this spectrometer setup has been made using Geant4. Once a detailed simulation of the RF field and cavity has been made, it can be connected to this simulation of the spectrometer setup and used to recreate the data that has b...

  4. Advanced Accelerators: Particle, Photon and Plasma Wave Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ronald L. [Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2017-06-29

    The overall objective of this project was to study the acceleration of electrons to very high energies over very short distances based on trapping slowly moving electrons in the fast moving potential wells of large amplitude plasma waves, which have relativistic phase velocities. These relativistic plasma waves, or wakefields, are the basis of table-top accelerators that have been shown to accelerate electrons to the same high energies as kilometer-length linear particle colliders operating using traditional decades-old acceleration techniques. The accelerating electrostatic fields of the relativistic plasma wave accelerators can be as large as GigaVolts/meter, and our goal was to study techniques for remotely measuring these large fields by injecting low energy probe electron beams across the plasma wave and measuring the beam’s deflection. Our method of study was via computer simulations, and these results suggested that the deflection of the probe electron beam was directly proportional to the amplitude of the plasma wave. This is the basis of a proposed diagnostic technique, and numerous studies were performed to determine the effects of changing the electron beam, plasma wave and laser beam parameters. Further simulation studies included copropagating laser beams with the relativistic plasma waves. New interesting results came out of these studies including the prediction that very small scale electron beam bunching occurs, and an anomalous line focusing of the electron beam occurs under certain conditions. These studies were summarized in the dissertation of a graduate student who obtained the Ph.D. in physics. This past research program has motivated ideas for further research to corroborate these results using particle-in-cell simulation tools which will help design a test-of-concept experiment in our laboratory and a scaled up version for testing at a major wakefield accelerator facility.

  5. The complete plastid genome sequence of Welwitschia mirabilis: an unusually compact plastome with accelerated divergence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boore Jeffrey L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Welwitschia mirabilis is the only extant member of the family Welwitschiaceae, one of three lineages of gnetophytes, an enigmatic group of gymnosperms variously allied with flowering plants or conifers. Limited sequence data and rapid divergence rates have precluded consensus on the evolutionary placement of gnetophytes based on molecular characters. Here we report on the first complete gnetophyte chloroplast genome sequence, from Welwitschia mirabilis, as well as analyses on divergence rates of protein-coding genes, comparisons of gene content and order, and phylogenetic implications. Results The chloroplast genome of Welwitschia mirabilis [GenBank: EU342371] is comprised of 119,726 base pairs and exhibits large and small single copy regions and two copies of the large inverted repeat (IR. Only 101 unique gene species are encoded. The Welwitschia plastome is the most compact photosynthetic land plant plastome sequenced to date; 66% of the sequence codes for product. The genome also exhibits a slightly expanded IR, a minimum of 9 inversions that modify gene order, and 19 genes that are lost or present as pseudogenes. Phylogenetic analyses, including one representative of each extant seed plant lineage and based on 57 concatenated protein-coding sequences, place Welwitschia at the base of all seed plants (distance, maximum parsimony or as the sister to Pinus (the only conifer representative in a monophyletic gymnosperm clade (maximum likelihood, bayesian. Relative rate tests on these gene sequences show the Welwitschia sequences to be evolving at faster rates than other seed plants. For these genes individually, a comparison of average pairwise distances indicates that relative divergence in Welwitschia ranges from amounts about equal to other seed plants to amounts almost three times greater than the average for non-gnetophyte seed plants. Conclusion Although the basic organization of the Welwitschia plastome is typical, its

  6. Performance report for the low energy compact radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometer at Uppsala University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehpour, M., E-mail: mehran.salehpour@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Applied Nuclear Physics Division, P.O. Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Håkansson, K.; Possnert, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Applied Nuclear Physics Division, P.O. Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Wacker, L.; Synal, H.-A. [Ion Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    A range of ion beam analysis activities are ongoing at Uppsala University, including Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Various isotopes are used for AMS but the isotope with the widest variety of applications is radiocarbon. Up until recently, only the 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator had been used at our site for radiocarbon AMS, ordinarily using 12 MeV {sup 14,13,12}C{sup 3+} ions. Recently a new radiocarbon AMS system, the Green-MICADAS, developed at the ion physics group at ETH Zurich, was installed. The system has a number of outstanding features which will be described. The system operates at a terminal voltage of 175 kV and uses helium stripper gas, extracting singly charged carbon ions. The low- and high energy mass spectrometers in the system are stigmatic dipole permanent magnets (0.42 and 0.97 T) requiring no electrical power nor cooling water. The system measures both the {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C and the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios on-line. Performance of the system is presented for both standard mg samples as well as μg-sized samples.

  7. Performance report for the low energy compact radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometer at Uppsala University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, M.; Håkansson, K.; Possnert, G.; Wacker, L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2016-03-01

    A range of ion beam analysis activities are ongoing at Uppsala University, including Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Various isotopes are used for AMS but the isotope with the widest variety of applications is radiocarbon. Up until recently, only the 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator had been used at our site for radiocarbon AMS, ordinarily using 12 MeV 14,13,12C3+ ions. Recently a new radiocarbon AMS system, the Green-MICADAS, developed at the ion physics group at ETH Zurich, was installed. The system has a number of outstanding features which will be described. The system operates at a terminal voltage of 175 kV and uses helium stripper gas, extracting singly charged carbon ions. The low- and high energy mass spectrometers in the system are stigmatic dipole permanent magnets (0.42 and 0.97 T) requiring no electrical power nor cooling water. The system measures both the 14C/12C and the 13C/12C ratios on-line. Performance of the system is presented for both standard mg samples as well as μg-sized samples.

  8. AWAKE: Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E

    2014-01-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is a promising alternative reaching accelerating fields a magnitude of up to 3 higher (GV/m) when compared to conventional RF acceleration. AWAKE, world’s first proton-driven plasma wakefield experiment, was launched at CERN to verify this concept. In this experiment proton bunches at 400 GeV/c will be extracted from the CERN SPS and sent to the plasma cell, where the proton beam drives the plasma wakefields and creates a large accelerating field. This large gradient of ~GV/m can be achieved by relying on the self-modulation instability (SMI) of the proton beam; when seeded by ionization through a short laser pulse, a train of micro-bunches with a period on the order of the plasma wavelength (~mm) develops, which can drive such a large amplitude wake from a long proton bunch (~12 cm). An electron beam will be injected into the plasma to probe the accelerating wakefield. The AWAKE experiment is being installed at CERN in the former CNGS facility, which must be modified to mat...

  9. Acceleration of Advanced CN Antidote Agents for Mass Exposure Treatments: DMTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0098 TITLE: Acceleration of Advanced CN Antidote Agents for Mass Exposure Treatments: DMTS...26 Sept 2012 – 25 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acceleration of Advanced CN Antidote Agents for Mass Exposure Treatments: DMTS 5a. CONTRACT...gas values and blood pressure during CN treatment and reversal. In the first year of this work, stability and IM antidote administration studies were

  10. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Hai-En; Shaw, Joseph; Li, Zhengyan; Arefiev, Alexey V; Zhang, Xi; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Khudik, V; Shvets, G; Downer, M C

    2014-01-01

    We present results of the first tunable Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the easily aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The LPA is driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses, and produces high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams. A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit efficiently retro-reflects the LPA driving pulse with relativistic intensity into oncoming electrons to produce $2\\times10^{7}$ CBS x-ray photons per shot with 10-20 mrad angular divergence and 50 % (FWHM) energy spread without detectable bremsstrahlung background. The x-ray central energy is tuned from 75 KeV to 200 KeV by tuning the LPA e-beam central energy. Particle-in-cell simulations of the LPA, the drive pulse/PM interaction and CBS agree well with measurements.

  11. Observation of Gigawatt-Class THz Pulses from a Compact Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, A.; Herzer, S.; Schmidt, A.; Singh, P.; Reinhard, A.; Ziegler, W.; Brömmel, D.; Karmakar, A.; Gibbon, P.; Dillner, U.; May, T.; Meyer, H.-G.; Paulus, G. G.

    2013-08-01

    We report the observation of subpicosecond terahertz (T-ray) pulses with energies ≥460μJ from a laser-driven ion accelerator, thus rendering the peak power of the source higher even than that of state-of-the-art synchrotrons. Experiments were performed with intense laser pulses (up to 5×1019W/cm2) to irradiate thin metal foil targets. Ion spectra measured simultaneously showed a square law dependence of the T-ray yield on particle number. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show the presence of transient currents at the target rear surface which could be responsible for the strong T-ray emission.

  12. A compact high efficiency 8 kW 325 MHz power amplifier for accelerator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Singh, P.

    2014-11-01

    A solid state RF power amplifier (SSRFPA) has been designed and developed for 8 kW RF power at 325 MHz. The work was carried out to achieve high efficiency (over 70% efficiency), high gain and compact size for the amplifier module. The sub-components of this amplifier like a 1 kW amplifier module at 325 MHz, an 8-way RF power combiner rated for 8 kW RF power and a micro-strip based power divider have been designed and developed in-house. The size of the amplifier is miniaturized by incorporating innovative design techniques and proper selection of the substrate material in the input/output matching networks. Measured power gain and conversion efficiency of the solid state RF power amplifier module at 1.06 kW output is 21.7 dB and 73.2%, respectively. A coaxial line based 8-way Wilkinson power combiner has been designed and developed. Return loss of the combiner at the output (combined) port is 26.4 dB at 325 MHz. Transmission parameters of the combiner from each input (splitting) port to output port are 9.1 dB±0.15 dB. This amplifier uses a pre-driver of 20 W and a driver amplifier of 150 W. Total power gain and efficiency of 8 kW SSRFPA have been 92.3 dB (including the driver stages) and 68.3%, respectively. The harmonic content in the RF output is less than -50 dBc for all the harmonics. Main features of this development are high power density (kW/cm3), large value for kW/module, high efficiency (68.3%) for 8 kW SSRFPA at 325 MHz and rugged operation.

  13. A compact high efficiency 8 kW 325 MHz power amplifier for accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar, E-mail: jkmishra@barc.gov.in; Ramarao, B.V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Singh, P.

    2014-11-11

    A solid state RF power amplifier (SSRFPA) has been designed and developed for 8 kW RF power at 325 MHz. The work was carried out to achieve high efficiency (over 70% efficiency), high gain and compact size for the amplifier module. The sub-components of this amplifier like a 1 kW amplifier module at 325 MHz, an 8-way RF power combiner rated for 8 kW RF power and a micro-strip based power divider have been designed and developed in-house. The size of the amplifier is miniaturized by incorporating innovative design techniques and proper selection of the substrate material in the input/output matching networks. Measured power gain and conversion efficiency of the solid state RF power amplifier module at 1.06 kW output is 21.7 dB and 73.2%, respectively. A coaxial line based 8-way Wilkinson power combiner has been designed and developed. Return loss of the combiner at the output (combined) port is 26.4 dB at 325 MHz. Transmission parameters of the combiner from each input (splitting) port to output port are 9.1 dB±0.15 dB. This amplifier uses a pre-driver of 20 W and a driver amplifier of 150 W. Total power gain and efficiency of 8 kW SSRFPA have been 92.3 dB (including the driver stages) and 68.3%, respectively. The harmonic content in the RF output is less than −50 dBc for all the harmonics. Main features of this development are high power density (kW/cm{sup 3}), large value for kW/module, high efficiency (68.3%) for 8 kW SSRFPA at 325 MHz and rugged operation.

  14. Report on the Lake Arrowhead workshop on advanced acceleration concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.

    1989-03-01

    We review the present status of the field of New Acceleration Concepts, as presented at the Lake Arrowhead workshop, held at the beginning of 1989. Many new and promising results have been obtained recently, and the field is actively developing. We discuss briefly some of the main results presented at the workshop. 43 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Advanced Klystrons for High Efficiency Accelerator Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2014-03-26

    This program explored tailoring of RF pulses used to drive accelerator cavities. Simulations indicated that properly shaping the pulse risetime to match accelerator cavity characteristics reduced reflected power and increased total efficiency. Tailoring the pulse requires a high power, gridded, klystron to shape the risetime while also controlling the beam current. The Phase I program generated a preliminary design of a gridded electron gun for a klystron producing 5-10 MW of RF power. This required design of a segmented cathode using Controlled Porosity Reservoir cathodes to limit power deposition on the grid. The program was successful in computationally designing a gun producing a high quality electron beam with grid control. Additional analysis of pulse tailoring indicated that technique would only be useful for cavity drive pulses that were less than approximately 2-3 times the risetime. Otherwise, the efficiency gained during the risetime of the pulse became insignificant when considering the efficiency over the entire pulse. Consequently, it was determined that a Phase II program would not provide sufficient return to justify the cost. Never the less, other applications for a high power gridded gun are currently being pursued. This klystron, for example, would facilitate development inverse Comptom x-ray sources by providing a high repetition rate (10 -100 kHz) RF source.

  16. Coated Particles Fuel Compact-General Purpose Heat Source for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    Coated Particles Fuel Compacts (CPFC) have recently been shown to offer performance advantage for use in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) and design flexibility for integrating at high thermal efficiency with Stirling Engine converters, currently being considered for 100 We. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS). The particles in the compact consist of 238PuO2 fuel kernels with 5-μm thick PyC inner coating and a strong ZrC outer coating, whose thickness depends on the maximum fuel temperature during reentry, the fuel kernel diameter, and the fraction of helium gas released from the kernels and fully contained by the ZrC coating. In addition to containing the helium generated by radioactive decay of 238Pu for up to 10 years before launch and 10-15 years mission lifetime, the kernels are intentionally sized (>= 300 μm in diameter) to prevent any adverse radiological effects on reentry. This paper investigates the advantage of replacing the four iridium-clad 238PuO2 fuel pellets, the two floating graphite membranes, and the two graphite impact shells in current State-Of-The-Art (SOA) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) with CPFC. The total mass, thermal power, and specific power of the CPFC-GPHS are calculated as functions of the helium release fraction from the fuel kernels and maximum fuel temperature during reentry from 1500 K to 2400 K. For the same total mass and volume as SOA GPHS, the generated thermal power by single-size particles CPFC-GPHS is 260 W at Beginning-Of-Mission (BOM), versus 231 W for the GPHS. For an additional 10% increase in total mass, the CPFC-GPHS could generate 340 W BOM; 48% higher than SOA GPHS. The corresponding specific thermal power is 214 W/kg, versus 160 W/kg for SOA GPHS; a 34% increase. Therefore, for the same thermal power, the CPFC-GPHS is lighter than SOA GPHS, while it uses the same amount of 238PuO2 fuel and same aeroshell. For the same helium release fraction and fuel temperature, binary-size particles CPFC-GPHS could

  17. Particle acceleration studies with intense lasers and advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C. D.; Gray, R. J.; MacLellan, D. A.; Rusby, D.; McKenna, P.; Ridgers, C. P.; Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Wilson, L.; Green, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    The interaction of lasers with matter is a subject which has progressed rapidly over the last two decades as higher intensity lasers are found to have possible applications in inertial fusion, laboratory astrophysics and ion acceleration for oncology or ultrafast proton probing. All of these applications require a good understanding of laser-electron coupling and fast electron transport in solid targets which has proven difficult to diagnose. Here we present data from an experiment carried out on the Astra Gemini laser system at STFC-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, where novel targets and diagnostics illuminate the complex processes at play. An outline of how x-ray free electron lasers may further expand our understanding of such processes will also be described.

  18. Accelerated fractionation in advanced head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmi, P.; Cellai, E. (Florence University (Italy). Department of Radiotherapy); Chiavacci, A.; Fablai, C. (Florence Hospital (Italy). Department of Radiotherapy)

    1990-03-01

    From 1975 to 1985, 161 patients affected by head and neck cancer (58 oropharynx, 67 oral cavity, 36 paranasal sinuses) were treated with radiotherapy using an accelerated fractionation (AF) schedule at the University and Hospital Radiotherapy Departments of Florence. Five-year actuarial local control and survival was 38% for the oropharynx, 18% and 20% for the oral cavity, and 38% and 31% for the paranasal sinuses. Results were analysed according to T and N stage as well. Severe late sequelae were evaluated in 53 patients without local disease and with a minimum follow-up of one year: 8 patients developed osteonecrosis; there were 3 cases of trismus, 2 cases of laryngeal oedema, one case of blindness and one case of opththalmitis. (author). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 9 tabs.

  19. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwendtner, E; Adli, E.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; AMORIM, L.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D; experiment at CERN and the world׳s first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of ...

  20. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment.

  1. Recent advances in biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Sang Soo; Henderson, Paul T; Turteltaub, Kenneth W

    2009-06-17

    The use of radioisotopes has a long history in biomedical science, and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), an extremely sensitive nuclear physics technique for detection of very low-abundant, stable and long-lived isotopes, has now revolutionized high-sensitivity isotope detection in biomedical research, because it allows the direct determination of the amount of isotope in a sample rather than measuring its decay, and thus the quantitative analysis of the fate of the radiolabeled probes under the given conditions. Since AMS was first used in the early 90's for the analysis of biological samples containing enriched 14C for toxicology and cancer research, the biomedical applications of AMS to date range from in vitro to in vivo studies, including the studies of 1) toxicant and drug metabolism, 2) neuroscience, 3) pharmacokinetics, and 4) nutrition and metabolism of endogenous molecules such as vitamins. In addition, a new drug development concept that relies on the ultrasensitivity of AMS, known as human microdosing, is being used to obtain early human metabolism information of candidate drugs. These various aspects of AMS are reviewed and a perspective on future applications of AMS to biomedical research is provided.

  2. Recent advances in biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hah Sang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of radioisotopes has a long history in biomedical science, and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS, an extremely sensitive nuclear physics technique for detection of very low-abundant, stable and long-lived isotopes, has now revolutionized high-sensitivity isotope detection in biomedical research, because it allows the direct determination of the amount of isotope in a sample rather than measuring its decay, and thus the quantitative analysis of the fate of the radiolabeled probes under the given conditions. Since AMS was first used in the early 90's for the analysis of biological samples containing enriched 14C for toxicology and cancer research, the biomedical applications of AMS to date range from in vitro to in vivo studies, including the studies of 1 toxicant and drug metabolism, 2 neuroscience, 3 pharmacokinetics, and 4 nutrition and metabolism of endogenous molecules such as vitamins. In addition, a new drug development concept that relies on the ultrasensitivity of AMS, known as human microdosing, is being used to obtain early human metabolism information of candidate drugs. These various aspects of AMS are reviewed and a perspective on future applications of AMS to biomedical research is provided.

  3. Advanced fuel developments for an industrial accelerator driven system prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delage, Fabienne; Ottaviani, Jean Pierre [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA (France); Fernandez-Carretero, Asuncion; Staicu, Dragos [JRC-ITU (Germany); Boccaccini, Claudia-Matzerath; Chen, Xue-Nong; Mascheck, Werner; Rineiski, Andrei [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - FZK (Germany); D' Agata, Elio [JRC-IE (Netherlands); Klaassen, Frodo [NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sobolev, Vitaly [SCK-CEN (Belgium); Wallenius, Janne [KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Abram, T. [National Nuclear Laboratory - NNL (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for transmutation in a fast spectrum, can be described as a highly innovative concept in comparison with fuels used in critical cores. ADS fuel is not fertile, so as to improve the transmutation performance. It necessarily contains a high concentration ({approx}50%) of minor actinides and plutonium. This unusual fuel composition results in high gamma and neutron emissions during its fabrication, as well as degraded core performance. So, an optimal ADS fuel is based on finding the best compromise between thermal, mechanical, chemical, neutronic and technological constraints. CERCER and CERMET composite fuels consisting of particles of (Pu,MA)O{sub 2} phases dispersed in a magnesia or molybdenum matrix are under investigation within the frame of the ongoing European Integrated Project EUROTRANS (European Research programme for Transmutation) which aims at performing a conceptual design of a 400 MWth transmuter: the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT). Performances and safety of EFIT cores loaded with CERCER and CERMET fuels have been evaluated. Out-of-pile and in-pile experiments are carried out to gain knowledge on the properties and the behaviour of these fuels. The current paper gives an overview of the work progress. (authors)

  4. THE 13TH ADVANCED ACCELERATOR CONCEPTS WORKSHOP (AAC'8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, Wim [UC Berkeley; Schroder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric

    2008-07-15

    The Thirteenth Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) was held from July 27 to August 2, 2008 at the Chaminade Conference Center in Santa Cruz, California, USA, organized by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California at Berkeley. There were unprecedented levels of interest in the 2008 AAC Workshop, and participation was by invitation, with 215 workshop attendees, including 58 students. Reflecting the world-wide growth of the advanced accelerator community, there was significant international participation, with participants from twelve countries attending.

  5. Advanced laser particle accelerator development at LANL: from fast ignition to radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaillard, Sandrine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, D T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cobble, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, M J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gautier, D C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwan, T J T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montgomery, D S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kluge, Thomas [FZD-GERMANY; Bussmann, Micheal [FZD-GERMANY; Bartal, T [UCSD; Beg, F N [UCSD; Gall, B [UNIV OF MISSOURI; Geissel, M [SNL; Korgan, G [NANOLABZ; Kovaleski, S [UNIV OF MISSOURI; Lockard, T [UNIV OF NEVADA; Malekos, S [NANOLABZ; Schollmeier, M [SNL; Sentoku, Y [UNIV OF NEVADA; Cowan, T E [FZD-GERMANY

    2010-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, SN M detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high current and high energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology in conjunction with our partners at the ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent etliciencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  6. Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Cowan, T. E.; Gall, B.; Gautier, D. C.; Geissel, M.; Kwan, T. J.; Korgan, G.; Kovaleski, S.; Lockard, T.; Malekos, S.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schollmeier, M.; Sentoku, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity [1] and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser [2]. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  7. Hyperfractionated accelerated radiochemotherapy (HFA-RCT) with mitomycin C for advanced head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, J; Dobrowsky, W; Schmid, R; Pokrajac, B; Selzer, E; Potter, R

    2004-01-01

    To investigate efficacy and feasibility of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy combined with mitomycin C, patients with locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region were administered 64-66 Gy in four weeks and mitomycin C (20 mg/m(2)) on day five. Twenty-

  8. Effects of Early Acceleration of Students in Mathematics on Taking Advanced Mathematics Coursework in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Based on data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), students were classified into high-, middle-, and low-ability students. The effects of early acceleration in mathematics on the most advanced mathematics coursework (precalculus and calculus) in high school were examined in each category. Results showed that although early…

  9. Effects of Early Acceleration of Students in Mathematics on Taking Advanced Mathematics Coursework in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Based on data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), students were classified into high-, middle-, and low-ability students. The effects of early acceleration in mathematics on the most advanced mathematics coursework (precalculus and calculus) in high school were examined in each category. Results showed that although early…

  10. Advanced Accelerated Power Cycling Test for Reliability Investigation of Power Device Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Jørgensen, Søren; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of tested power IGBT module. The various realistic electrical operating conditions close to real three-phase converter applications can be achieved by the simple control method. Further, by the proposed concept of applying the temperature stress, it is possible to apply various magnitudes of temperature......This paper presents an apparatus and methodology for an advanced accelerated power cycling test of insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules. In this test, the accelerated power cycling test can be performed under more realistic electrical operating conditions with online wear-out monitoring...... power cycling test setup is given. Then, an improved in situ junction temperature estimation method using on-state collector–emitter voltage VCE ON and load current is proposed. In addition, a procedure of advanced accelerated power cycling test and test results with 600 V, 30 A transfer molded IGBT...

  11. BESTIA - The next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last two decades, BNL's ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. Our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particle acceleration of ions and electrons.

  12. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, E.; Adli, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V. K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P. N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A. A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K. V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V. A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z. M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Spitsyn, R. I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P. V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C. P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected into the sample wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  13. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwendtner, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Adli, E. [University of Oslo, Oslo 0316 (Norway); Amorim, L. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Apsimon, R. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Assmann, R. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, München 80805 (Germany); Bauche, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Berglyd Olsen, V.K. [University of Oslo, Oslo 0316 (Norway); Bernardini, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bingham, R. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Biskup, B. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Czech Technical University, Zikova 1903/4, 166 36 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Bohl, T.; Bracco, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Burrows, P.N. [John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Burt, G. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Buttenschön, B. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendelsteinstr. 1, Greifswald 17491 (Germany); Butterworth, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Caldwell, A. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, München 80805 (Germany); Cascella, M. [UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected into the sample wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  14. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V.K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A.A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V.A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Oz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z.M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A.P.; Spitsyn, R.I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P.V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected to sample the wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  15. Advanced beam dynamics and diagnostics concepts for laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornmair, Irene

    2017-05-15

    Laser-Plasma Accelerators (LPAs) combine a multitude of unique features, which makes them very attractive as drivers for next generation brilliant light sources including compact X-ray free-electron lasers. They provide high accelerating gradients, thereby drastically shrinking the accelerator size, while at the same time the produced electron bunches are intrinsically as short as a few femtoseconds and carry high peak currents. LPA are subject of very active research, yet, the field currently faces the challenge of improving the beam quality, and achieving stable and well-controlled injection and acceleration. This thesis tackles this issue from three different sides. A novellongitudinal phase space diagnostics is proposed that employs the strong fields present in plasma wakefields to streak ultrashort electron bunches. This allows for a temporal resolution down to the attosecond range, enabling direct determination to the current profile and the slice energy spread, both crucial quantities for the performance of free-electron lasers. Furthermore, adiabatic matching sections at the plasma-vacuum boundary are investigated. These can drastically reduce the beam divergence and thereby relax the constraints on the subsequent beam optics. For externally injected beams, the matching sections could even provide the key technology that permits emittance conservation by increasing the matched beam size to a level achievable with currently available magnetic optics. Finally, a new method is studied that allows to modify the wakefield shape. To this end, the plasma density is periodically modulated. One possible application can be to remove the linearly correlated energy spread, or chirp, from the accelerated bunch, which is suspected of being responsible for the main part of the often large energy spread of plasma accelerated beams.

  16. Advances in compact manufacturing for shape and performance controllability of large-scale components-a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fangcheng; Li, Yongtang; Qi, Huiping; Ju, Li

    2017-01-01

    Research on compact manufacturing technology for shape and performance controllability of metallic components can realize the simplification and high-reliability of manufacturing process on the premise of satisfying the requirement of macro/micro-structure. It is not only the key paths in improving performance, saving material and energy, and green manufacturing of components used in major equipments, but also the challenging subjects in frontiers of advanced plastic forming. To provide a novel horizon for the manufacturing in the critical components is significant. Focused on the high-performance large-scale components such as bearing rings, flanges, railway wheels, thick-walled pipes, etc, the conventional processes and their developing situations are summarized. The existing problems including multi-pass heating, wasting material and energy, high cost and high-emission are discussed, and the present study unable to meet the manufacturing in high-quality components is also pointed out. Thus, the new techniques related to casting-rolling compound precise forming of rings, compact manufacturing for duplex-metal composite rings, compact manufacturing for railway wheels, and casting-extruding continuous forming of thick-walled pipes are introduced in detail, respectively. The corresponding research contents, such as casting ring blank, hot ring rolling, near solid-state pressure forming, hot extruding, are elaborated. Some findings in through-thickness microstructure evolution and mechanical properties are also presented. The components produced by the new techniques are mainly characterized by fine and homogeneous grains. Moreover, the possible directions for further development of those techniques are suggested. Finally, the key scientific problems are first proposed. All of these results and conclusions have reference value and guiding significance for the integrated control of shape and performance in advanced compact manufacturing.

  17. Response compaction for system-on-a-chip based on advanced convolutional codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of test response compaction. In order to maximize compaction ratio, a single-output compactor based on a (n, n-1, m, 3) convolutional code is presented. When the proposed theorems are satisfied, the compactor can avoid two and any odd erroneous bits cancellations, and handle one unknown bit (X bit). When the X bits in response are clustered, multiple-weight check matrix design algorithm can be used to reduce the effect of massive X bits. Some extended experimental results show that the proposed encoder has an acceptable-level X tolerant capacity and low error cancellations probability.

  18. Temporal Electron-bunch Shaping from a Photoinjector for Advanced Accelerator Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemery, Francois [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, Philippe [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    Advanced-accelerator applications often require the production of bunches with shaped temporal distributions. An example of sought-after shape is a linearly-ramped current profile that can be improve the transformer ratio in beam-driven acceleration, or produce energy-modulated pulse for, e.g., the subsequent generation of THz radiation. Typically,  such a shaping is achieved by manipulating ultra-relativistic electron bunches. In this contribution we discuss the possibility of shaping the bunch via photoemission and demonstrate using particle-in-cell simulations the production of MeV electron bunches with quasi-ramped current profile.

  19. Planned High-brightness Channeling Radiation Experiment at Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Ben [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, Daniel [NICADD, DeKalb; Panuganti, Harsha [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Brau, Charles [Vanderbilt U.; Choi, Bo [Vanderbilt U.; Gabella, William [Vanderbilt U.; Ivanov, Borislav [Vanderbilt U.; Mendenhall, Marcus [Vanderbilt U.; Lynn, Christopher [Swarthmore Coll.; Sen, Tanaji [Fermilab; Wagner, Wolfgang [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf

    2014-07-01

    In this contribution we describe the technical details and experimental setup of our study aimed at producing high-brightness channeling radiation (CR) at Fermilab’s new user facility the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). In the ASTA photoinjector area electrons are accelerated up to 40-MeV and focused to a sub-micron spot on a ~40 micron thick carbon diamond, the electrons channel through the crystal and emit CR up to 80-KeV. Our study utilizes ASTA’s long pulse train capabilities and ability to preserve ultra-low emittance, to produce the desired high average brightness.

  20. Generation of electron beams from a laser-based advanced accelerator at Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    CERN Document Server

    Elsied, Ahmed M M; Li, Song; Mirzaie, Mohammad; Sokollik, Thomas; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    At Shanghai Jiao Tong University, we have established a research laboratory for advanced acceleration research based on high-power lasers and plasma technologies. In a primary experiment based on the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) scheme, multi-hundred MeV electron beams having a reasonable quality are generated using 20-40 TW, 30 femtosecond laser pulses interacting independently with helium, neon, nitrogen and argon gas jet targets. The laser-plasma interaction conditions are optimized for stabilizing the electron beam generation from each type of gas. The electron beam pointing angle stability and divergence angle as well as the energy spectra from each gas jet are measured and compared.

  1. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  2. Medium-Term Stability of the Photon Beam Energy of An Elekta CompactTM Linear Accelerator Based on Daily Measurements of Beam Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, we aimed to assess the medium-term energy stability of a 6MV Elekta CompactTM linear accelerator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published article to evaluate this linear accelerator in terms of energy stability. As well as investigating the stability of the linear accelerator energy over a period of several weeks, the results will be useful for estimation of the required tolerance values for the beam quality factor (BQF of the PTW QUICKCHECK weblineTM (QCW daily checking device. Materials and Methods Over a 13 week period of routine clinical service, 52 daily readings of BQF were taken and then analyzed for a 10×10 cm2 field. Results No decreasing or increasing trend in BQF was observed over the study period. The mean BQF value was estimated at 5.4483 with a standard deviation (SD of 0.0459 (0.8%. The mean value was only 0.1% different from the baseline value. Conclusion The results of this medium-term stability study of the Elekta Compact linear accelerator energy showed that 96.2% of the observed BQF values were within ±1.3% of the baseline value. This can be considered to be within the recommended tolerance for linear accelerator photon beam energy. If an approach of applying ±3 SD is taken, the tolerance level for BQF may be suggested to be set at ±2.5%. However, further research is required to establish a relationship between BQF value and the actual changes in beam energy and penetrative quality.

  3. Results of the GstLAL Search for Compact Binary Mergers in Advanced LIGO's First Observing Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ryan; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO's first observing period ended in January 2016. We discuss the GstLAL matched-filter search over this data set for gravitational waves from compact binary objects with total mass up to 100 solar masses. In particular, we discuss the recovery of the unambiguous gravitational wave signals GW150914 and GW151226, as well as the possible third signal LVT151012. Additionally, we discuss the constraints we can place on binary-neutron-star and neutron-star-black-hole system merger rates.

  4. Investigation of advanced propulsion technologies: The RAM accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two principal areas of advanced propulsion investigated are the ram accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater. The concept of the ram accelerator is presented as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerothermodynamics research. The ram accelerator is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled in a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Combustion on and behind the projectile generates thrust which accelerates it to very high velocities. The acceleration can be tailored for the 'soft launch' of instrumented models. The distinctive reacting flow phenomena that have been observed in the ram accelerator are relevant to the aerothermodynamic processes in airbreathing hypersonic propulsion systems and are useful for validating sophisticated CFD codes. The recently demonstrated scalability of the device and the ability to control the rate of acceleration offer unique opportunities for the use of the ram accelerator as a large-scale hypersonic ground test facility. The flowing gas radiation receiver is a novel concept for using solar energy to heat a working fluid for space power or propulsion. Focused solar radiation is absorbed directly in a working gas, rather than by heat transfer through a solid surface. Previous theoretical analysis had demonstrated that radiation trapping reduces energy loss compared to that of blackbody receivers, and enables higher efficiencies and higher peak temperatures. An experiment was carried out to measure the temperature profile of an infrared-active gas and demonstrate the effect of radiation trapping. The success of this effort validates analytical models of heat transfer in this receiver, and confirms the potential of this approach for achieving high efficiency space power and propulsion.

  5. Wake potentials and impedances for the ATA (Advanced Test Accelerator) induction cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, G.D.

    1990-09-04

    The AMOS Wakefield Code is used to calculate the impedances of the induction cell used in the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Livermore. We present the wakefields and impedances for multipoles m = 0, 1 and 2. The ATA cell is calculated to have a maximum transverse impedance of approximately 1000 {Omega}/m at 875 MHz with a quality factor Q = 5. The sensitivity of the impedance spectra to modeling variations is discussed.

  6. Hierarchical Formation in Action: Characterizing Accelerated Galaxy Evolution in Compact Groups Using Whole-sky WISE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey; Gallagher, Sarah; Alatalo, Katherine; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2016-04-01

    Compact groups provide an environment to study the growth of galaxies amid multiple prolonged interactions. With their dense galaxy concentrations and relatively low velocity dispersions, compact groups mimic the conditions of hierarchical galaxy assembly. Compact group galaxies are known to show a bimodality in Spitzer IRAC infrared color space: galaxies are preferentially either quiescent with low specific star formation rates (SSFRs) or prolifically forming stars—galaxies with moderate levels of specific star formation are rare. Previous Spitzer IRAC studies identifying this “canyon” have been limited by small number statistics. We utilize whole-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data to study 163 compact groups, thereby tripling our previous sample and including more galaxies with intermediate mid-IR colors indicative of moderate SSFRs. We define a distinct WISE mid-IR color space ≤ft({log}≤ft[\\tfrac{{f}12}{{f}4.6}\\right]\\right) versus ≤ft({log}≤ft[\\tfrac{{f}22}{{f}3.4}\\right]\\right) that we use to identify canyon galaxies from the larger sample. We confirm that compact group galaxies show a bimodal distribution in the mid-infrared and identify 37 canyon galaxies with reliable photometry and intermediate mid-IR colors. Morphologically, we find that the canyon harbors a large population of both Sa-Sbc and E/S0 type galaxies, and that they fall on the optical red sequence rather than the green valley. Finally, we provide a catalog of WISE photometry for 567 of 652 galaxies selected from the sample of 163 compact groups.

  7. Recent advances of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors: principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Wojtas, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of compact interband cascade lasers(ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based trace gas sensors will permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense than transitions in the overtone and combination bands in the near-infrared. This has led to the design and fabrication of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors for use in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the spectroscopic detection and monitoring of four molecular species, methane (CH4) [1], ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO) [2] and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [3] will be described. CH4, C2H6 and H2CO can be detected using two detection techniques: mid-infrared tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) using a compact multi-pass gas cell and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Both techniques utilize state-of-the-art mid-IR, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) ICLs and QCLs. TDLAS was performed with an ultra-compact 54.6m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass gas cell capable of 435 passes between two concave mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. QEPAS used a small robust absorption detection module (ADM) which consists of a quartz tuning fork (QTF), two optical windows, gas inlet/outlet ports and a low noise frequency pre-amplifier. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection were employed for spectral data processing. TDLAS and QEPAS can achieve minimum detectable absorption losses in the range from 10-8 to 10-11cm-1/Hz1/2. Several recent examples of real world applications of field deployable gas sensors will be described. For example, an ICL based TDLAS sensor system is capable of detecting CH4 and C2H6 concentration levels of 1 ppb in a 1 sec. sampling time, using an ultra-compact, robust sensor architecture. H2S detection was realized with a THz QEPAS sensor

  8. The Advanced Composition Explorer Shock Database and Application to Particle Acceleration Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of particle acceleration via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) has been studied in depth by Gosling et al. (1981), van Nes et al. (1984), Mason (2000), Desai et al. (2003), Zank et al. (2006), among many others. Recently, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) using the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) shock database at 1 AU explored two questions: does the upstream distribution alone have enough particles to account for the accelerated downstream distribution and can the slope of the downstream accelerated spectrum be explained using DSA? As was shown in this research, diffusive shock acceleration can account for a large population of the shocks. However, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) used a subset of the larger ACE database. Recently, work has successfully been completed that allows for the entire ACE database to be considered in a larger statistical analysis. We explain DSA as it applies to single and multiple shocks and the shock criteria used in this statistical analysis. We calculate the expected injection energy via diffusive shock acceleration given upstream parameters defined from the ACE Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) data to construct the theoretical upstream distribution. We show the comparison of shock strength derived from diffusive shock acceleration theory to observations in the 50 keV to 5 MeV range from an instrument on ACE. Parameters such as shock velocity, shock obliquity, particle number, and time between shocks are considered. This study is further divided into single and multiple shock categories, with an additional emphasis on forward-forward multiple shock pairs. Finally with regard to forward-forward shock pairs, results comparing injection energies of the first shock, second shock, and second shock with previous energetic population will be given.

  9. Hierarchical Formation in Action: Characterizing Accelerated Galaxy Evolution in Compact Groups Using Whole-Sky WISE Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zucker, Catherine; Johnson, Kelsey; Gallagher, Sarah; Alatalo, Katherine; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups provide an environment to study the growth of galaxies amid multiple prolonged interactions. With their dense galaxy concentrations and relatively low velocity dispersions, compact groups mimic the conditions of hierarchical galaxy assembly. Compact group galaxies are known to show a bimodality in $Spitzer$ IRAC infrared colorspace: galaxies are preferentially either quiescent with low specific star formation rates, or are prolifically forming stars---galaxies with moderate levels of specific star formation are rare. Previous $Spitzer$ IRAC studies identifying this "canyon" have been limited by small number statistics. We utilize whole-sky WISE data to study 163 compact groups, thereby tripling our previous sample and including more galaxies with intermediate mid-IR colors indicative of moderate specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We define a distinct WISE mid-IR color-space ($\\log[{\\frac{\\rm f_{12}}{\\rm f_{4.6}}}]$ vs. $\\log[{\\frac{\\rm f_{22}}{\\rm f_{3.4}}}]$) that we use to identify canyon...

  10. Organization of the 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop by Stanford University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hogan, Mark [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Essentially all we know today and will learn in the future about the fundamental nature of matter is derived from probing it with directed beams of particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and photons. The resulting ability to “see” the building blocks of matter has had an immense impact on society and our standard of living. Over the last century, particle accelerators have changed the way we look at nature and the universe we live in and have become an integral part of the Nation’s technical infrastructure. Today, particle accelerators are essential tools of modern science and technology. The cost and capabilities of accelerators would be greatly enhanced by breakthroughs in acceleration methods and technology. For the last 32 years, the Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop has acted as the focal point for discussion and development of the most promising acceleration physics and technology. It is a particularly effective forum where the discussion is leveraged and promoted by the unique and demanding feature of the AAC Workshop: the working group structure, in which participants are asked to consider their contributions in terms of even larger problems to be solved. The 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC2014) Workshop was organized by Stanford University from July 13 - 18, 2014 at the Dolce Hays Mansion in San Jose, California. The conference had a record 282 attendees including 62 students. Attendees came from 11 countries representing 66 different institutions. The workshop format consisted of plenary sessions in the morning with topical leaders from around the world presenting the latest breakthroughs to the entire workshop. In the late morning and afternoons attendees broke out into eight different working groups for more detailed presentations and discussions that were summarized on the final day of the workshop. In addition, there were student tutorial presentations on two afternoons to provide in depth education and

  11. First Beam and High-Gradient Cryomodule Commissioning Results of the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Darren; et al.

    2015-06-01

    The advanced superconducting test accelerator at Fermilab has accelerated electrons to 20 MeV and, separately, the International Linear Collider (ILC) style 8-cavity cryomodule has achieved the ILC performance milestone of 31.5 MV/m per cavity. When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one ILC-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We report on the results of first beam, the achievement of our cryomodule to ILC gradient specifications, and near-term future plans for the facility.

  12. A compact control system to achieve stable voltage and low jitter trigger for repetitive intense electron-beam accelerator based on resonant charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongfeng; Liu, Jinliang; Yang, Jianhua; Cheng, Xinbing; Yang, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    A compact control system based on Delphi and Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA) is developed for a repetitive intense electron-beam accelerator(IEBA), whose output power is 10GW and pulse duration is 160ns. The system uses both hardware and software solutions. It comprises a host computer, a communication module and a main control unit. A device independent applications programming interface, devised using Delphi, is installed on the host computer. Stability theory of voltage in repetitive mode is analyzed and a detailed overview of the hardware and software configuration is presented. High voltage experiment showed that the control system fulfilled the requests of remote operation and data-acquisition. The control system based on a time-sequence control method is used to keep constant of the voltage of the primary capacitor in every shot, which ensured the stable and reliable operation of the electron beam accelerator in the repetitive mode during the experiment. Compared with the former control system based on Labview and PIC micro-controller developed in our laboratory, the present one is more compact, and with higher precision in the time dimension. It is particularly useful for automatic control of IEBA in the high power microwave effects research experiments where pulse-to-pulse reproducibility is required.

  13. Development and application of compact and on-chip electron linear accelerators for dynamic tracking cancer therapy and DNA damage/repair analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, M.; Demachi, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Dobashi, K.; Fujisawa, H.; Chhatkuli, R. B.; Tsuda, A.; Tanaka, S.; Matsumura, Y.; Otsuki, S.; Kusano, J.; Yamamoto, M.; Nakamura, N.; Tanabe, E.; Koyama, K.; Yoshida, M.; Fujimori, R.; Yasui, A.

    2015-06-01

    We are developing compact electron linear accelerators (hereafter linac) with high RF (Radio Frequency) frequency (9.3 GHz, wavelength 32.3 mm) of X-band and applying to medicine and non-destructive testing. Especially, potable 950 keV and 3.95 MeV linac X-ray sources have been developed for on-site transmission testing at several industrial plants and civil infrastructures including bridges. 6 MeV linac have been made for pinpoint X-ray dynamic tracking cancer therapy. The length of the accelerating tube is ∼600 mm. The electron beam size at the X-ray target is less than 1 mm and X-ray spot size at the cancer is less than 3 mm. Several hardware and software are under construction for dynamic tracking therapy for moving lung cancer. Moreover, as an ultimate compact linac, we are designing and manufacturing a laser dielectric linac of ∼1 MeV with Yr fiber laser (283 THz, wavelength 1.06 pm). Since the wavelength is 1.06 μm, the length of one accelerating strcture is tens pm and the electron beam size is in sub-micro meter. Since the sizes of cell and nuclear are about 10 and 1 μm, respectively, we plan to use this “On-chip” linac for radiation-induced DNA damage/repair analysis. We are thinking a system where DNA in a nucleus of cell is hit by ∼1 μm electron or X-ray beam and observe its repair by proteins and enzymes in live cells in-situ.

  14. Ultra-compact TDLAS humidity measurement cell with advanced signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A.; Strzoda, R.; Schrobenhauser, R.; Weigel, R.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy humidity measurements with an ultra-compact measurement cell are presented. The optical path length is 2 cm. The system uses a vertical cavity surface emitting laser at 1.854 μm. The main limiting factor of the humidity resolution is not the noise but interference fringes produced by reflecting surfaces. Next to the system setup, a novel rejection method to eliminate these fringes, based on Fourier domain analysis of the absorption line, is described. In contrast to other fringe rejection methods, the presented method is able to handle fringes, whose free spectral range is in the range of the half width of the absorption line. The achievable humidity resolution for the presented cell is below 0.25 % relative humidity at room temperature.

  15. Status of the advanced photon source and its accelerator control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Kraimer, M.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), its control system and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) tools being used to implement this control system. The status of the physical plant and each of the accelerators as well as detailed descriptions of the software tools used to build the accelerator control system are presented. The control system uses high-performance graphic workstations and the X-Windows graphical user interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level, using TCP/IP protocols over high-performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  16. Wujiang Private Enterprises Accelerated the Introduction of International Advanced Textile Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Wujiang private enterprises have accelerated the introduction of international advanced textile equipment to achieve industrial structure transformation and upgrade from the beginning of this year. According to the statistics from Wujiang Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, during the first nine months, Wujiang textile equipment import value was 340 million USD, growing 8.2% year on year. Imports of textile equipment mainly include high-speed winding machine, elasticizer, air-jet looms, water jet looms, sizing machine, spinning machine, and setting machine, which are mainly from Japan and Germany.

  17. Advanced high brightness ion rf accelerator applications in the nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of modern rf linear accelerators to provide intense high quality beams of protons, deuterons, or heavier ions is opening new possibilities for transmuting existing nuclear wastes, for generating electricity from readily available fuels with minimal residual wastes, for building intense neutron sources for materials research, for inertial confinement fusion using heavy ions, and for other new applications. These are briefly described, couched in a perspective of the advances in the understanding of the high brightness beams that has enabled these new programs. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Simulation studies of the ion beam transport system in a compact electrostatic accelerator-based D-D neutron generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Basanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of an ion beam transport mechanism contributes to the production of a good quality ion beam with a higher current and better beam emittance. The simulation of an ion beam provides the basis for optimizing the extraction system and the acceleration gap for the ion source. In order to extract an ion beam from an ion source, a carefully designed electrode system for the required beam energy must be used. In our case, a self-extracted penning ion source is used for ion generation, extraction and acceleration with a single accelerating gap for the production of neutrons. The characteristics of the ion beam extracted from this ion source were investigated using computer code SIMION 8.0. The ion trajectories from different locations of the plasma region were investigated. The simulation process provided a good platform for a study on optimizing the extraction and focusing system of the ion beam transported to the required target position without any losses and provided an estimation of beam emittance.

  19. Study of vortex ring dynamics in the nonlinear Schrodinger equation utilizing GPU-accelerated high-order compact numerical integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Ronald Meyer

    We numerically study the dynamics and interactions of vortex rings in the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). Single ring dynamics for both bright and dark vortex rings are explored including their traverse velocity, stability, and perturbations resulting in quadrupole oscillations. Multi-ring dynamics of dark vortex rings are investigated, including scattering and merging of two colliding rings, leapfrogging interactions of co-traveling rings, as well as co-moving steady-state multi-ring ensembles. Simulations of choreographed multi-ring setups are also performed, leading to intriguing interaction dynamics. Due to the inherent lack of a close form solution for vortex rings and the dimensionality where they live, efficient numerical methods to integrate the NLSE have to be developed in order to perform the extensive number of required simulations. To facilitate this, compact high-order numerical schemes for the spatial derivatives are developed which include a new semi-compact modulus-squared Dirichlet boundary condition. The schemes are combined with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme in order to keep the overall method fully explicit. To ensure efficient use of the schemes, a stability analysis is performed to find bounds on the largest usable time step-size as a function of the spatial step-size. The numerical methods are implemented into codes which are run on NVIDIA graphic processing unit (GPU) parallel architectures. The codes running on the GPU are shown to be many times faster than their serial counterparts. The codes are developed with future usability in mind, and therefore are written to interface with MATLAB utilizing custom GPU-enabled C codes with a MEX-compiler interface. Reproducibility of results is achieved by combining the codes into a code package called NLSEmagic which is freely distributed on a dedicated website.

  20. Advanced treatment planning methods for efficient radiation therapy with laser accelerated proton and ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J

    2010-10-01

    clustering and reduce the number of particles that have to be blocked in the beam delivery system. Furthermore, the optimization routine can be adjusted to reduce the number of dose spots and laser shots. The authors implemented these methods into a research treatment planning system for laser accelerated particles. The authors' proposed methods can decrease the amount of secondary radiation produced when blocking particles with wrong energies or when reducing the total number of particles from one laser shot. Additionally, caused by the efficient use of the beam, the treatment time is reduced considerably. Both improvements can be achieved without extensively changing the quality of the treatment plan since conventional intensity modulated particle therapy usually includes a certain amount of unused degrees of freedom which can be used to adapt to laser specific properties. The advanced beam delivery and treatment planning methods reduce the need to have a perfect laser-based accelerator reproducing the properties of conventional accelerators that might not be possible without increasing treatment time and secondary radiation to the patient. The authors show how some of the differences to conventional beams can be overcome and efficiently used for radiation treatment.

  1. Union of Compact Accelerator-Driven Neutron Sources (UCANS) I & II Neutron applications laboratory for ESS-Bilbao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón, S.; Magán, M.; Sordo, F.; Ghiglino, A.; Mart«ınez, F.; Bermejo, F. J.; Perlado, J. M.

    The ESS-Bilbao Accelerator Center site at Lejoa UPV/EHU campus will be provided with a proton accelerator up to 300-400 MeV. In the first construction phase, a beam extraction will be set at the end of the DTL, which will produce a 50 MeV proton beam with an average current of 2.25 mA and 1.5 ms pulses at a frequency of 20 Hz. These beam characteristics allow to configure a low intensity neutron source based on Be (p, n) reactions, which enables experimentation with cold neutrons similar to that of LENS. The total beam power will be 112 kW, so the configuration of the neutron production target will be based on a rotating disk of beryllium slabs facing the beam on one side and a cryogenic methane moderator on the other, with the target-moderator system surrounded by a beryllium reflector. In this paper, first estimates will be presented for thermomechanical conditions of the target cooling scheme, neutron source intensities, and cold neutron pulses.

  2. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Douglas C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  3. Energy and periastron advance of compact binaries on circular orbits at the fourth post-Newtonian order

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Laura; Bohé, Alejandro; Faye, Guillaume; Marsat, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we complete our preceding work on the Fokker Lagrangian describing the dynamics of compact binary systems at the fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) order in harmonic coordinates. We clarify the impact of the non-local character of the Fokker Lagrangian or the associated Hamiltonian on both the conserved energy and the relativistic periastron precession for circular orbits. We show that the non-locality of the action, due to the presence of the tail effect at the 4PN order, gives rise to an extra contribution to the conserved integral of energy with respect to the Hamiltonian computed on shell, which was not taken into account in our previous work. We also provide a direct derivation of the periastron advance by taking carefully into account this non-locality. We then argue that the infra-red (IR) divergences in the calculation of the gravitational part of the action are problematic, which motivates us to introduce a second ambiguity parameter, in addition to the one already assumed previously. After f...

  4. A light-weight compact proton gantry design with a novel dose delivery system for broad-energetic laser-accelerated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, U.; Cowan, T. E.; Enghardt, W.; Hofmann, K. M.; Karsch, L.; Kroll, F.; Schramm, U.; Wilkens, J. J.; Pawelke, J.

    2017-07-01

    Proton beams may provide superior dose-conformity in radiation therapy. However, the large sizes and costs limit the widespread use of proton therapy (PT). The recent progress in proton acceleration via high-power laser systems has made it a compelling alternative to conventional accelerators, as it could potentially reduce the overall size and cost of the PT facilities. However, the laser-accelerated beams exhibit different characteristics than conventionally accelerated beams, i.e. very intense proton bunches with large divergences and broad-energy spectra. For the application of laser-driven beams in PT, new solutions for beam transport, such as beam capture, integrated energy selection, beam shaping and delivery systems are required due to the specific beam parameters. The generation of these beams are limited by the low repetition rate of high-power lasers and this limitation would require alternative solutions for tumour irradiation which can efficiently utilize the available high proton fluence and broad-energy spectra per proton bunch to keep treatment times short. This demands new dose delivery system and irradiation field formation schemes. In this paper, we present a multi-functional light-weight and compact proton gantry design for laser-driven sources based on iron-less pulsed high-field magnets. This achromatic design includes improved beam capturing and energy selection systems, with a novel beam shaping and dose delivery system, so-called ELPIS. ELPIS system utilizes magnetic fields, instead of physical scatterers, for broadening the spot-size of broad-energetic beams while capable of simultaneously scanning them in lateral directions. To investigate the clinical feasibility of this gantry design, we conducted a treatment planning study with a 3D treatment planning system augmented for the pulsed beams with optimizable broad-energetic widths and selectable beam spot sizes. High quality treatment plans could be achieved with such unconventional beam

  5. Accelerated development of Zr-containing new generation ferritic steels for advanced nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sridharan, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys that can be fabricated using conventional steelmaking methods. The new alloys are expected to have superior high-temperature creep performance and excellent radiation resistance as compared to Grade 91. The designed alloys were fabricated using arc-melting and drop-casting, followed by hot rolling and conventional heat treatments. Comprehensive experimental studies have been conducted on the developed alloys to evaluate their hardness, tensile properties, creep resistance, Charpy impact toughness, and aging resistance, as well as resistance to proton and heavy ion (Fe2+) irradiation.

  6. Summary report of working group 3: Laser and high-gradient structure-based acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonian, Gerard; Simakov, Evgenya

    2017-03-01

    High-gradient particle acceleration with reduced power demands is essential for miniaturization and cost reduction of future accelerators. Applications for compact accelerators span collider research for High Energy Physics, light source development for Basic Energy Sciences and National Security, and industrial accelerators for Energy and Environmental Applications. Working Group 3 discussed and surveyed the recent advances in achieving higher gradients and better acceleration efficiency in externally powered, structure-based accelerators. The topics covered in Working Group 3 included dielectric laser acceleration, millimeter-wave accelerators, breakdown phenomena, exotic topologies such as photonic band-gap structures, artificial materials, and nanostructures, and novel rf technology.

  7. XCAMS: The compact {sup 14}C accelerator mass spectrometer extended for {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al at GNS Science, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondervan, A., E-mail: a.zondervan@gns.cri.nz [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Hauser, T.M. [National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, WI (United States); Kaiser, J. [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Kitchen, R.L. [National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, WI (United States); Turnbull, J.C.; West, J.G. [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We review the performance of a 0.5 MV AMS system for {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, and {sup 26}Al. • We identify the limiting factors to {sup 10}Be machine blank and detection efficiency. • We discuss an AMS data reduction method that accounts for non-Poisson uncertainty. - Abstract: A detailed description is given of the 0.5 MV tandem accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system for {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, installed in early 2010 at GNS Science, New Zealand. Its design follows that of previously commissioned Compact {sup 14}C-only AMS (CAMS) systems based on the Pelletron tandem accelerator. The only basic departure from that design is an extension of the rare-isotope achromat with a 45° magnet and a two-anode gas-ionisation detector, to provide additional filtering for {sup 10}Be. Realised performance of the three AMS modes is discussed in terms of acceptance-test scores, {sup 14}C Poisson and non-Poisson errors, and {sup 10}Be detection limit and sensitivity. Operational details and hardware improvements, such as {sup 10}Be beam transport and particle detector setup, are highlighted. Statistics of repeat measurements of all graphitised {sup 14}C calibration cathodes since start-up show that 91% of their total uncertainty values are less than 0.3%, indicating that the rare-isotope beamline extension has not affected precision of {sup 14}C measurement. For {sup 10}Be, the limit of detection in terms of the isotopic abundance ratio {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be is 6 × 10{sup −15} at at{sup −1} and the total efficiency of counting atoms in the sample cathode is 1/8500 (0.012%).

  8. Compact NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemich, Bernhard; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Zia, Wasif [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC)

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue. In both applications, the sample (or patient) is positioned inside a large, superconducting magnet to magnetize the atomic nuclei. Interrogating radio-frequency pulses result in frequency spectra that provide the chemist with molecular information, the medical doctor with anatomic images, and materials scientist with NMR relaxation parameters. Recent advances in magnet technology have led to a variety of small permanent magnets to allow compact and low-cost instruments. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the practical use of compact NMR at a level nearly as basic as the operation of a smart phone.

  9. Conceptual study of a compact accelerator-driven neutron source for radioisotope production, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Angelone, M; Rollet, S

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of a compact accelerator-driven device for the generation of neutron spectra suitable for isotope production by neutron capture, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy, is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations. The device is essentially an extension of the activator proposed by Rubbia left bracket CERN/LHC/97-04(EET) right bracket , in which fast neutrons are diffused and moderated within a properly sized lead block. It is shown that by suitable design of the lead block, as well as of additional elements of moderating and shielding materials, one can generate and exploit neutron fluxes with the spectral features required for the above applications. The linear dimensions of the diffusing-moderating device can be limited to about 1 m. A full-scale device for all the above applications would require a fast neutron source of about 10**1**4 s**-**1, which could be produced by a 1 mA, 30 MeV proton beam impinging on a Be target. The concept could be tested at the Frascati Neutron Gener...

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Neutronic Parameters in Electron Accelerator-driven Subcritical Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Ebrahimkhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of the core neutronic parameters is one of the key components in all nuclear reactors. In this research, the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the neutron flux in a uranium target have been calculated. In addition, sensitivity of the core neutronic parameters in accelerator-driven subcritical advanced liquid metal reactors, such as electron beam energy (Ee and source multiplication coefficient (ks, has been investigated. A Monte Carlo code (MCNPX_2.6 has been used to calculate neutronic parameters such as effective multiplication coefficient (keff, net neutron multiplication (M, neutron yield (Yn/e, energy constant gain (G0, energy gain (G, importance of neutron source (φ∗, axial and radial distributions of neutron flux, and power peaking factor (Pmax/Pave in two axial and radial directions of the reactor core for four fuel loading patterns. According to the results, safety margin and accelerator current (Ie have been decreased in the highest case of ks, but G and φ∗ have increased by 88.9% and 21.6%, respectively. In addition, for LP1 loading pattern, with increasing Ee from 100 MeV up to 1 GeV, Yn/e and G improved by 91.09% and 10.21%, and Ie and Pacc decreased by 91.05% and 10.57%, respectively. The results indicate that placement of the Np–Pu assemblies on the periphery allows for a consistent keff because the Np–Pu assemblies experience less burn-up.

  11. BESTIA – The next generation ultra-fast CO{sub 2} laser for advanced accelerator research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelsky, Igor V., E-mail: igor@bnl.gov; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last two decades, BNL's ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO{sub 2} lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. Our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO{sub 2} laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO{sub 2} laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particle acceleration of ions and electrons.

  12. NMOS管Snapback特性ESD仿真模型研究%Modeling NMOS Snapback for ESD Simulation Using Advanced Compact Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国平; 蒋婷; 韩兆芳; 孙云华

    2012-01-01

    随着集成电路特征尺寸的不断缩小,ESD的问题始终困扰着芯片设计师们。文章提出了一种宏模型用于ESD的snapback仿真,它包含一个MOS管、一个NPN晶体管和一个衬底电阻,没有外部的电流源。简化的宏模型没有必要使用行为级的语言,如Verilog-A、VHDL-A。这使得仿真速度和收敛性得到提高。同时比较了三种先进的BJT模型:VBIC、Mextram、HICUM。模型参数可以通过模型参数提取软件(BSIMProPlus、ICCAP等)提取。%As technology feature sizes move into the deep submicron regime,conerns regarding ESD by chip designers is increasing.This paper presents a macro model approach for modeling ESD snapback.It includes a MOS transistor,a NPN transistor and a resistor for substrate resistance.No external current source is included.The simplicity of the presented macro model makes behavior languages,such as Verilog-A,VHDL-A,not necessary in model implantation.It has the advantages of high simulation speed and less convergence issues.The paper also distinguishes three advanced BJT compact models(VBIC,Mextram,HICUM)for ESD snapback simulation.The model parameters can be extracted using software,such as BSIMProPlus,ICCAP.

  13. Laser-plasma interactions from thin tapes for high-energy electron accelerators and seeding compact FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Brian Henry

    This thesis comprises a detailed investigation of the physics of using a plasma mirror (PM) from a tape by reflecting ultrashort pulses from a laser-triggered surface plasma. The tapes used in the characterization of the PM are VHS and computer data storage tape. The tapes are 6.6 m (computer storage tape) and 15 m (VHS) thick. Each tape is 0.5 inches wide, and 10s of meters of tape are spooled using a tape drive; providing thousands of shots on a single reel of tape. The amount of reflected energy of the PM was studied for different input intensities. The fluence was varied by translating the focus of the laser upstream and downstream of the tape, which changed the spot size on the tape surface and hence changed the fluence. This study measured reflectances from both sides of the two tapes, and for input light of both s and p-polarizations. Lastly, an analytic model was developed to understand the reflectance as a function of fluence for each tape material and polarization. Another application that benefits from the advancements of LPA technology is an LPAbased FEL. By sending a high quality electron bunch through an undulator (a periodic structure of positive and negative magnetic poles), the electrons oscillate transversely to the propagation axis and produce radiation. The 1.5 m THUNDER undulator at the BELLA Center has been commissioned using electron beams of 400MeV beams with broad energy spread (35%). To produce a coherent LPA-based FEL, the beam quality would need to improve to sub-percent level energy spread. A seed source could be used to help induce bunching of the electron beam within the undulator. This thesis described the experimental investigation of the physics of using solid-based surface high-harmonic generation (SHHG) from a thin tape as a possible seed source for an FEL. A thin tape placed within centimeters of the undulator's entrance could act as a harmonic generating source, while simultaneously transmitting an electron beam. This removes

  14. 76 FR 23543 - The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative To Advance Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Economic Development Administration The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative... Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Obama Administration announces the Jobs and Innovation Accelerator...-fueled job creation and economic prosperity through public-private partnerships. The...

  15. Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravatta, Luciana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Padula, Gilbert D.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lacks Cancer Center Saint Mary' s Health Care, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Ferrandina, Gabriella [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Bonomo, Pierluigi; Deodato, Francesco; Massaccesi, Mariangela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Mignogna, Samantha; Tambaro, Rosa [Department of Palliative Therapies, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Rossi, Marco [Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care, and Pain Medicine, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Flocco, Mariano [' Madre Teresa di Calcutta' Hospice, Larino (Italy); Scapati, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, ' San Francesco' Hospital, Nuoro (Italy); and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose of a conformal short-course accelerated radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic advanced pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: A phase I trial in 3 dose-escalation steps was designed: 14 Gy (3.5-Gy fractions), 16 Gy (4-Gy fractions), and 18 Gy (4.5-Gy fractions). The eligibility criteria included locally advanced and/or metastatic pelvic cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of {<=}3. Treatment was delivered in 2 days with twice-daily fractionation and at least an 8-hour interval. Patients were treated in cohorts of 6-12 to define the maximum tolerated dose. The dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any acute toxicity of grade 3 or greater, using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Pain was recorded using a visual analog scale. The effect on quality of life was evaluated according to Cancer Linear Analog Scale (CLAS). Results: Of the 27 enrolled patients, 11 were male and 16 were female, with a median age of 72 years (range 47-86). The primary tumor sites were gynecologic (48%), colorectal (33.5%), and genitourinary (18.5%). The most frequent baseline symptoms were bleeding (48%) and pain (33%). Only grade 1-2 acute toxicities were recorded. No patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity. With a median follow-up time of 6 months (range 3-28), no late toxicities were observed. The overall (complete plus partial) symptom remission was 88.9% (95% confidence interval 66.0%-97.8%). Five patients (41.7%) had complete pain relief, and six (50%) showed >30% visual analog scale reduction. The overall response rate for pain was 91.67% (95% confidence interval 52.4%-99.9%). Conclusions: Conformal short course radiotherapy in twice-daily fractions for 2 consecutive days was well tolerated up to a total dose of 18 Gy. A phase II study is ongoing to confirm the efficacy on symptom control and quality of life indexes.

  16. Recent advances in high-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration using the full PIC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, J.-L.; Lehe, R.; Vincenti, H.; Godfrey, B. B.; Haber, I.; Lee, P.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical simulations have been critical in the recent rapid developments of plasma-based acceleration concepts. Among the various available numerical techniques, the particle-in-cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations from first principles. The fundamentals of the PIC method were established decades ago, but improvements or variations are continuously being proposed. We report on several recent advances in PIC-related algorithms that are of interest for application to plasma-based accelerators, including (a) detailed analysis of the numerical Cherenkov instability and its remediation for the modeling of plasma accelerators in laboratory and Lorentz boosted frames, (b) analytic pseudo-spectral electromagnetic solvers in Cartesian and cylindrical (with azimuthal modes decomposition) geometries, and (c) novel analysis of Maxwell's solvers' stencil variation and truncation, in application to domain decomposition strategies and implementation of perfectly matched layers in high-order and pseudo-spectral solvers.

  17. Towards swift ion bunch acceleration by high-power laser pulses at the Centre for Advanced Laser Applications (CALA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, F. H.; Haffa, D.; Bin, J. H.; Englbrecht, F.; Gao, Y.; Gebhard, J.; Hartmann, J.; Hilz, P.; Kreuzer, C.; Lehrack, S.; Ostermayr, T. M.; Rösch, T. F.; Speicher, M.; Würl, M.; Parodi, K.; Schreiber, J.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2017-07-01

    Laser-driven acceleration of ions has inspired novel applications, that can benefit from ion bunch properties different from conventionally (non-laser based) accelerated particle beams. Those differences range from extremely short bunch durations, broad energy spectra, large divergence angles and small source sizes to ultra-high ion bunch densities. So far, the main focus of research has been concentrating on the physics of the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasmas and the related mechanisms of ion acceleration. Now, the new Centre for Advanced Laser Applications (CALA) near Munich aims at pushing these ion bunches towards applications, including radiation therapy of tumors and the development of heavy ion bunches with solid-state-like density. These are needed for novel reaction mechanisms ('fission-fusion') to study the origin of heavy elements in the universe and to prepare for related studies at the upcoming EU-funded high-power laser facility ELI - Nuclear Physics in Bucharest.

  18. Recent advances in high-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration using the full PIC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vay, J.-L., E-mail: jlvay@lbl.gov [LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lehe, R. [LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vincenti, H. [CEA, Saclay (France); Godfrey, B.B. [LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); U. Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Haber, I. [U. Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Lee, P. [LPGP, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-09-01

    Numerical simulations have been critical in the recent rapid developments of plasma-based acceleration concepts. Among the various available numerical techniques, the particle-in-cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations from first principles. The fundamentals of the PIC method were established decades ago, but improvements or variations are continuously being proposed. We report on several recent advances in PIC-related algorithms that are of interest for application to plasma-based accelerators, including (a) detailed analysis of the numerical Cherenkov instability and its remediation for the modeling of plasma accelerators in laboratory and Lorentz boosted frames, (b) analytic pseudo-spectral electromagnetic solvers in Cartesian and cylindrical (with azimuthal modes decomposition) geometries, and (c) novel analysis of Maxwell's solvers' stencil variation and truncation, in application to domain decomposition strategies and implementation of perfectly matched layers in high-order and pseudo-spectral solvers.

  19. Planned High-gradient Flat-beam-driven Dielectric Wakefield Experiments at the Fermilab’s Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemery, Francois [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, Daniel [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Zhu, Jun [Mianyang CAEP

    2014-07-01

    In beam driven dielectric wakefield acceleration (DWA), high-gradient short-wavelength accelerating fields are generally achieved by employing dielectric-lined waveguides (DLWs)  with small aperture which constraints the beam sizes. In this paper we investigate the possibility of using a low-energy (50-MeV) flat beams to induce high-gradient wakes in a slab-symmetric DLW. We demonstrate via numerical simulations the possibility to produce axial electric field with peak amplitude close to 0.5 GV/m. Our studies are carried out using the Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) photoinjector beamline. We finally discuss a possible experiment that could be performed in the ASTA photoinjector and eventually at higher energies.  

  20. Advanced Catalysis Technologies: Lanthanum Cerium Manganese Hexaaluminate Combustion Catalysts for Flat Plate Reactor for Compact Steam Reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    E. Pocoroba, E.M. Johansson, S.G. Jaras, ”Aging Of Palladium, Platinum And Manganese-Based Combustion Catalysts For Biogas Applications,” Catalysis...M.J. Binder, “JP-8 Catalytic Cracking For Compact Fuel Processors,” Journal of Power Sources 129 (2004) 81-89. 12. P-O.F. Andersson, M

  1. Can pure accelerated radiotherapy given as six fractions weekly be an option in locally advanced carcinoma cervix: Results of a prospective randomized phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Accelerated radiotherapy given as six fractions per week is an effective alternative to concomitant chemoradiation in locally advanced carcinoma cervix and has shown lesser toxicities in our study.

  2. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  3. Accelerated rogue waves generated by soliton fusion at the advanced stage of supercontinuum formation in photonic-crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driben, Rodislav; Babushkin, Ihar

    2012-12-15

    Soliton fusion is a fascinating and delicate phenomenon that manifests itself in optical fibers in case of interaction between copropagating solitons with small temporal and wavelength separation. We show that the mechanism of acceleration of a trailing soliton by dispersive waves radiated from the preceding one provides necessary conditions for soliton fusion at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation in photonic-crystal fibers. As a result of fusion, large-intensity robust light structures arise and propagate over significant distances. In the presence of small random noise the delicate condition for the effective fusion between solitons can easily be broken, making the fusion-induced giant waves a rare statistical event. Thus oblong-shaped giant accelerated waves become excellent candidates for optical rogue waves.

  4. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Baffes, C; Leibfritz, J; Oplt, S; Rakhno, I

    2013-01-01

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type RF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a Helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. In addition, the potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  5. Particle Accelerators in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  6. Compact LINAC for deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, J F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, L J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.

  7. Different Topographic Response Between Mild to Moderate and Advanced Keratoconus After Accelerated Collagen Cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Chow, Vanissa W S; Jhanji, Vishal; Wong, Victoria W Y

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical and topographic effects after accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in keratoconus. This was a prospective interventional study in 25 eyes of 24 Asian patients with keratoconus, where 10 eyes in group 1 had mild to moderate keratoconus with the steepest keratometry reading (Kmax) keratoconus with Kmax ≥ 58.0 D. The patients underwent accelerated CXL with 18 W/cm UV-A light for 5 minutes. Clinical and topographic parameters were obtained before and 1 year after treatment. Overall, spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity, refraction, average keratometry readings, Kmax, anterior elevation at the apex, and corneal endothelial cell density remained stable (P keratoconus but not as effective in the less progressed counterparts.

  8. Electron-beam dynamics for an advanced flash-radiography accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-22

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in cell (PIC) codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup (BBU), image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. Beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  9. The Procedure Execution Manager and Its Application to Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, C. W.; Borland, M.

    1997-05-01

    The Procedure Execution Manager (PEM) combines a complete scripting environment for coding accelerator operation procedures with a manager application for executing and monitoring of the procedures. PEM is based on Tcl/Tk, a supporting graphics library, and the dp-tcl extension for distributed processing. A careful design balance has been achieved which meets the flexibility requirements of commissioning physicists and the operations-driven need for automation and a consistent user interface. The scripting environment provides support for distributed, parallel execution of procedures along with join and controlled abort operations. The manager application allows an operator to execute a procedure in automatic, semi-automatic, or manual modes. A number of successful applications of PEM to accelerator operations have been made to date. These include startup, shutdown, and other control of the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low-energy transport lines (LET), and the booster rf systems. The PAR/LET procedures make nested use of PEM's ability to run parallel procedures. There are also a number of procedures to guide and assist tune-up operations, to make accelerator physics measurements, and to diagnose equipment.

  10. Long-short GRBs within the horizon of the advanced LIGO/VIRGO network and Time lag between compact object coalescence and GRB onset

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Short duration GRBs (SGRBs) are widely believed to be powered by the mergers of compact binaries, like binary neutron stars or possibly neutron star-black hole binaries. Though the prospect of detecting SGRBs with gravitational wave (GW) signals by the advanced LIGO/VIRGO network is promising, no known SGRB has been found within the expected advanced LIGO/VIRGO sensitivity range. We argue, however, that the two long-short GRBs (GRB 060505 and GRB 060614) may be within the horizon of advanced GW detectors. In the upcoming era of GW astronomy, the merger origin of some long-short GRBs, as favored by the macronova signature displayed in GRB 060614, can be unambiguously tested. The model-dependent time-lags between the merger and the onset of the prompt emission of GRB are estimated. The comparison of such time-lags between model prediction to the real data expected in the era of the GW astronomy would be helpful in revealing the physical processes taking place at the central engine (including the launch of the r...

  11. Advanced Development of a Compact 5-15 lbf Lox/Methane Thruster for an Integrated Reaction Control and Main Engine Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; McManamen, John Patrick; Sooknanen, Josh; Studak, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the advanced development and testing of a compact 5 to 15 lbf LOX/LCH4 thruster for a pressure-fed integrated main engine and RCS propulsion system to be used on a spacecraft "vertical" test bed (VTB). The ability of the RCS thruster and the main engine to operate off the same propellant supply in zero-g reduces mass and improves mission flexibility. This compact RCS engine incorporates several features to dramatically reduce mass and parts count, to ease manufacturing, and to maintain acceptable performance given that specific impulse (Isp) is not the driver. For example, radial injection holes placed on the chamber body for easier drilling, and high temperature Haynes 230 were selected for the chamber over other more expensive options. The valve inlets are rotatable before welding allowing different orientations for vehicle integration. In addition, the engine design effort selected a coil-on-plug ignition system which integrates a relay and coil with the plug electrode, and moves some exciter electronics to avionics driver board. The engine injector design has small dribble volumes to target minimum pulse widths of 20 msec. and an efficient minimum impulse bit of less than 0.05 lbf-sec. The propellants, oxygen and methane, were chosen because together they are a non-toxic, Mars-forward, high density, space storable, and high performance propellant combination that is capable of pressure-fed and pump-fed configurations and integration with life support and power subsystems. This paper will present the results of the advanced development testing to date of the RCS thruster and the integration with a vehicle propulsion system.

  12. Compact Orthoalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Wilce, A

    2004-01-01

    We initiate a study of topological orthoalgebras (TOAs), concentrating on the compact case. Examples of TOAs include topological orthomodular lattices, and also the projection lattice of a Hilbert space. As the latter example illustrates, a lattice-ordered TOA need not be a topological lattice. However, we show that a compact Boolean TOA is a topological Boolean algebra. Using this, we prove that any compact regular TOA is atomistic, and has a compact center. We prove also that any compact TOA with isolated 0 is of finite height. We then focus on stably ordered TOAs: those in which the upper-set generated by an open set is open. These include both topological orthomodular lattices and interval orthoalgebras -- in particular, projection lattices. We show that the topology of a compact stably-ordered TOA with isolated 0 is determined by that of of its space of atoms.

  13. Reactor applications of the compact fusion advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle for a D-T tokamak fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, H.A.; Logan, B.G.; Campbell, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    We have made a preliminary design of a D-T fusion reactor blanket and MHD power conversion system based on the CFAR concept, and found that the performance and costs for the reference cycle are very attractive. While much remains to be done, the potential advantage of liquid metal Rankine cycles for fusion applications are much clearer now. These include low pressures and mass flow rates, a nearly isothermal module shell which minimizes problems of thermal distortion and stresses, and an insensitivity to pressure losses in the blanket so that the two-phase MHD pressure drops in the boilling part of the blanket and the ordinary vapor pressure drops in the pebble-bed superheating zones are acceptable (the direct result of pumping a liquid rather than having to compress a gas). There are no moving parts in the high-temperature MHD power generators, no steam bottoming plant is required, only small vapor precoolers and condensers are needed because of the high heat rejection trmperatures, and only a relatively small natural-draft heat exhanger is required to reject the heat to the atmosphere. The net result is a very compact fusion reactor and power conversion system which fit entirely inside an 18 meter radius reactor vault. Although we have not yet performed a detailed cost analysis, preliminary cost estimates indicate low capital costs and a very attractive cost of electricity. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Uncertainty quantification an accelerated course with advanced applications in computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Soize, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental notions and advanced mathematical tools in the stochastic modeling of uncertainties and their quantification for large-scale computational models in sciences and engineering. In particular, it focuses in parametric uncertainties, and non-parametric uncertainties with applications from the structural dynamics and vibroacoustics of complex mechanical systems, from micromechanics and multiscale mechanics of heterogeneous materials. Resulting from a course developed by the author, the book begins with a description of the fundamental mathematical tools of probability and statistics that are directly useful for uncertainty quantification. It proceeds with a well carried out description of some basic and advanced methods for constructing stochastic models of uncertainties, paying particular attention to the problem of calibrating and identifying a stochastic model of uncertainty when experimental data is available. < This book is intended to be a graduate-level textbook for stu...

  15. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  16. Implementation of an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control system using PAT tools into a direct compaction continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Sahay, Abhishek; Karry, Krizia M; Muzzio, Fernando; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2014-10-01

    It is desirable for a pharmaceutical final dosage form to be manufactured through a quality by design (QbD)-based approach rather than a quality by testing (QbT) approach. An automatic feedback control system coupled with PAT tools that is part of the QbD paradigm shift, has the potential to ensure that the pre-defined end product quality attributes are met in a time and cost efficient manner. In this work, an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control architecture coupled with real time inline/online monitoring tools and principal components analysis (PCA) based additional supervisory control layer has been proposed for a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. The advantages of both MPC and PID have been utilized in a hybrid scheme. The control hardware and software integration and implementation of the control system has been demonstrated using feeders and blending unit operation of a continuous tablet manufacturing pilot plant and an NIR based PAT tool. The advanced hybrid MPC-PID control scheme leads to enhanced control loop performance of the critical quality attributes in comparison to a regulatory (e.g. PID) control scheme indicating its potential to improve pharmaceutical product quality.

  17. Numerical Investigation of a Cascaded Longitudinal Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb

    2015-06-01

    In a cascaded longitudinal space-charge amplifier (LSCA), initial density noise in a relativistic e-beam is amplified via the interplay of longitudinal space charge forces and properly located dispersive sections. This type of amplification process was shown to potentially result in large final density modulations [1] compatible with the production of broadband electromagnetic radiation. The technique was recently demonstrated in the optical domain [2]. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performances of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab’s Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). We especially explore the properties of the produced broadband radiation. Our studies have been conducted with a grid-less three-dimensional space-charge algorithm.

  18. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  19. Advanced modeling to accelerate the scale up of carbon capture technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Sun, XIN; Storlie, Curtis B.; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to help meet the goals of the DOE carbon capture program, the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) was launched in early 2011 to develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced computational tools and validated multi-scale models to reduce the time required to develop and scale-up new carbon capture technologies. This article focuses on essential elements related to the development and validation of multi-scale models in order to help minimize risk and maximize learning as new technologies progress from pilot to demonstration scale.

  20. Compact synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weihreter, Ernst

    1996-01-01

    This book covers a new niche in circular accelerator design, motivated by the promising industrial prospects of recent micromanufacturing methods - X-ray lithography, synchrotron radiation-based micromachining and microanalysis techniques. It describes the basic concepts and the essential challenges for the development of compact synchrotron radiation sources from an accelerator designer's point of view and gives an outline of the actual state of the art. The volume is intended as an introduction and as a reference for physicists, engineers and managers involved in this rapidly developing fiel

  1. Advanced LIGO's ability to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem through compact binary coalescence detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Madeline; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Ochsner, Evan; Nielsen, Alex B.

    2013-10-01

    We study the ability of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. The cosmic censorship conjecture, which is believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, limits the spin-to-mass-squared ratio of a Kerr black hole, χ≡j/m2≤1. The no-hair theorem, which is also believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, suggests a particular value for the tidal Love number of a nonrotating black hole (k2=0). Using the Fisher matrix formalism, we examine the measurability of the spin and tidal deformability of compact binary systems involving at least one putative black hole. Using parameter measurement errors and correlations obtained from the Fisher matrix, we determine the smallest detectable violation of bounds implied by the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. We examine the effect of excluding unphysical areas of parameter space when determining the smallest detectable apparent violations, and we examine the effect of different post-Newtonian corrections to the amplitude of the compact binary coalescence gravitational waveform, as given in Arun et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 104023 (2009)]. In addition, we perform a brief study of how the recently calculated 3.0 pN and 3.5 pN spin-orbit corrections to the phase [Marsat et al., Classical Quantum Gravity 30, 055007 (2013)] affect spin and mass parameter measurability. We find that physical priors on the symmetric mass ratio and higher harmonics in the gravitational waveform could significantly affect the ability of aLIGO to investigate cosmic censorship and the no-hair theorem for certain systems.

  2. Vol.27 - MicroTCA based Platform for advanced particle accelerators diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Juszczyk, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    All over the world there are many research centers that are conducting researches with use of particle accelerators. Thanks to various experiments we could better understand surrounding world. But, there are still a lot of unknowns to explore which science needs better instruments. One of these tools are measurement systems. Unfortunately currently used solutions do not provide sufficient performance to satisfy growing needs. This implies the search for new solutions. One of such solution is a modern uTCA architecture. In this document an open source project of a base card (AFC -AMC to FMC carrier board) based on this standard has been described. This card is equipped with two FMC connectors, which allow to connect wide variety of extension cards. In combination with a powerful FPGA device this card is an universal base circuit for variety of projects. Among the others it allows to implement algorithms which are collecting data from fast ADCs and to process these data. Moreover the applied uTCA architecture p...

  3. Advances in Climate Informatics: Accelerating Discovery in Climate Science with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleoni, C.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the scientific consensus on climate change, drastic uncertainties remain. The climate system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. Climate data is Big Data, yet the magnitude of data and climate model output increasingly overwhelms the tools currently used to analyze them. Computational innovation is therefore needed. Machine learning is a cutting-edge research area at the intersection of computer science and statistics, focused on developing algorithms for big data analytics. Machine learning has revolutionized scientific discovery (e.g. Bioinformatics), and spawned new technologies (e.g. Web search). The impact of machine learning on climate science promises to be similarly profound. The goal of the novel interdisciplinary field of Climate Informatics is to accelerate discovery in climate science with machine learning, in order to shed light on urgent questions about climate change. In this talk, I will survey my research group's progress in the emerging field of climate informatics. Our work includes algorithms to improve the combined predictions of the IPCC multi-model ensemble, applications to seasonal and subseasonal prediction, and a data-driven technique to detect and define extreme events.

  4. Capture and Transport of Laser Accelerated Protons by Pulsed Magnetic Fields: Advancements Toward Laser-Based Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, Trevor J.

    The interaction of intense laser light (I > 10 18 W/cm2) with a thin target foil leads to the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism (TNSA). TNSA is responsible for the generation of high current, ultra-low emittance proton beams, which may allow for the development of a compact and cost effective proton therapy system for the treatment of cancer. Before this application can be realized, control is needed over the large divergence and the 100% kinetic energy spread that are characteristic of TNSA proton beams. The work presented here demonstrates control over the divergence and energy spread using strong magnetic fields generated by a pulse power solenoid. The solenoidal field results in a parallel proton beam with a kinetic energy spread DeltaE/E = 10%. Assuming that next generation lasers will be able to operate at 10 Hz, the 10% spread in the kinetic energy along with the 23% capture efficiency of the solenoid yield enough protons per laser pulse to, for the first time, consider applications in Radiation Oncology. Current lasers can generate proton beams with kinetic energies up to 67.5 MeV, but for therapy applications, the proton kinetic energy must reach 250 MeV. Since the maximum kinetic energy Emax of the proton scales with laser light intensity as Emax ∝ I0.5, next generation lasers may very well accelerate 250 MeV protons. As the kinetic energy of the protons is increased, the magnetic field strength of the solenoid will need to increase. The scaling of the magnetic field B with the kinetic energy of the protons follows B ∝ E1/2. Therefor, the field strength of the solenoid presented in this work will need to be increased by a factor of 2.4 in order to accommodate 250 MeV protons. This scaling factor seems reasonable, even with present technology. This work not only demonstrates control over beam divergence and energy spread, it also allows for us to now perform feasibility studies to further research what a laser-based proton therapy system

  5. A compact 10 kW, 476 MHz solid state radio frequency amplifier for pre-buncher cavity of free electron laser injector linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Gupta, P D

    2013-09-01

    A 10 kW, 476 MHz, 0.1% duty cycle solid state RF amplifier system for driving sub-harmonic, pre-buncher cavity of IR-FEL injector LINAC, has been developed at RRCAT. The 10 kW power is achieved by combining output of eight 1400 W amplifier modules using 8-way planar corporate combiner. The solid state amplifier modules have been developed using 50 V RF LDMOS transistors which although meant for push-pull operation are being used in single ended configuration with matching circuit developed on a thin (25 mils), high dielectric constant (9.7), low loss microwave laminate with an aim to have a compact structure. Ease of fabrication, modularity, small size, and low cost are the important features of this design which could be used as a template for low duty cycle medium to high pulsed power UHF amplifier system.

  6. A compact 10 kW, 476 MHz solid state radio frequency amplifier for pre-buncher cavity of free electron laser injector linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Rammana Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-09-15

    A 10 kW, 476 MHz, 0.1% duty cycle solid state RF amplifier system for driving sub-harmonic, pre-buncher cavity of IR-FEL injector LINAC, has been developed at RRCAT. The 10 kW power is achieved by combining output of eight 1400 W amplifier modules using 8-way planar corporate combiner. The solid state amplifier modules have been developed using 50 V RF LDMOS transistors which although meant for push-pull operation are being used in single ended configuration with matching circuit developed on a thin (25 mils), high dielectric constant (9.7), low loss microwave laminate with an aim to have a compact structure. Ease of fabrication, modularity, small size, and low cost are the important features of this design which could be used as a template for low duty cycle medium to high pulsed power UHF amplifier system.

  7. Advanced 3D Poisson solvers and particle-in-cell methods for accelerator modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, David B; McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Applied Numerical Algorithms Group, SciDAC Applied Differential Equations Center (United States)

    2005-01-01

    We seek to improve on the conventional FFT-based algorithms for solving the Poisson equation with infinite-domain (open) boundary conditions for large problems in accelerator modeling and related areas. In particular, improvements in both accuracy and performance are possible by combining several technologies: the method of local corrections (MLC); the James algorithm; and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The MLC enables the parallelization (by domain decomposition) of problems with large domains and many grid points. This improves on the FFT-based Poisson solvers typically used as it doesn't require the all-to-all communication pattern that parallel 3d FFT algorithms require, which tends to be a performance bottleneck on current (and foreseeable) parallel computers. In initial tests, good scalability up to 1000 processors has been demonstrated for our new MLC solver. An essential component of our approach is a new version of the James algorithm for infinite-domain boundary conditions for the case of three dimensions. By using a simplified version of the fast multipole method in the boundary-to-boundary potential calculation, we improve on the performance of the Hockney algorithm typically used by reducing the number of grid points by a factor of 8, and the CPU costs by a factor of 3. This is particularly important for large problems where computer memory limits are a consideration. The MLC allows for the use of adaptive mesh refinement, which reduces the number of grid points and increases the accuracy in the Poisson solution. This improves on the uniform grid methods typically used in PIC codes, particularly in beam problems where the halo is large. Also, the number of particles per cell can be controlled more closely with adaptivity than with a uniform grid. To use AMR with particles is more complicated than using uniform grids. It affects depositing particles on the non-uniform grid, reassigning particles when the adaptive grid changes and maintaining the

  8. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  9. Accelerated Adoption of Advanced Health Information Technology in Beacon Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily; Wittie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To complement national and state-level HITECH Act programs, 17 Beacon communities were funded to fuel community-wide use of health information technology to improve quality. Health centers in Beacon communities received supplemental funding. This article explores the association between participation in the Beacon program and the adoption of electronic health records. Using the 2010-2012 Uniform Data System, trends in health information technology adoption among health centers located within and outside of Beacon communities were explored using differences in mean t tests and multivariate logistic regression. Electronic health record adoption was widespread and rapidly growing in all health centers, especially quality improvement functionalities: structured data capture, order and results management, and clinical decision support. Adoption lagged for functionalities supporting patient engagement, performance measurement, care coordination, and public health. The use of advanced functionalities such as care coordination grew faster in Beacon health centers, and Beacon health centers had 1.7 times higher odds of adopting health records with basic safety and quality functionalities in 2010-2012. Three factors likely underlie these findings: technical assistance, community-wide activation supporting health information exchange, and the layering of financial incentives. Additional technical assistance and community-wide activation is needed to support the use of functionalities that are currently lagging. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  10. Technologies of image guidance and the development of advanced linear accelerator systems for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Vincent W C; Law, Maria Y Y; Star-Lack, Josh; Cheung, Fion W K; Ling, C Clifton

    2011-01-01

    As advanced radiotherapy approaches for targeting the tumor and sparing the normal tissues have been developed, the image guidance of therapy has become essential to directing and confirming treatment accuracy. To approach these goals, image guidance devices now include kV on-board imagers, kV/MV cone-beam CT systems, CT-on-rails, and mobile and in-room radiographic/fluoroscopic systems. Nonionizing sources, such as ultrasound and optical systems, and electromagnetic devices have been introduced to monitor or track the patient and/or tumor positions during treatment. In addition, devices have been designed specifically for monitoring and/or controlling respiratory motion. Optimally, image-guided radiation therapy systems should possess 3 essential elements: (1) 3D imaging of soft tissues and tumors, (2) efficient acquisition and comparison of the 3D images, and (3) an efficacious process for clinically meaningful intervention. Understanding and using these tools effectively is central to current radiotherapy practice. The implementation and integration of these devices continue to carry practical challenges, which emphasize the need for further development of the technologies and their clinical applications.

  11. Computational and experimental advances in drug repositioning for accelerated therapeutic stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameer, Khader; Readhead, Ben; Dudley, Joel T

    2015-01-01

    Drug repositioning is an important component of therapeutic stratification in the precision medicine paradigm. Molecular profiling and more sophisticated analysis of longitudinal clinical data are refining definitions of human diseases, creating needs and opportunities to re-target or reposition approved drugs for alternative indications. Drug repositioning studies have demonstrated success in complex diseases requiring improved therapeutic interventions as well as orphan diseases without any known treatments. An increasing collection of available computational and experimental methods that leverage molecular and clinical data enable diverse drug repositioning strategies. Integration of translational bioinformatics resources, statistical methods, chemoinformatics tools and experimental techniques (including medicinal chemistry techniques) can enable the rapid application of drug repositioning on an increasingly broad scale. Efficient tools are now available for systematic drug-repositioning methods using large repositories of compounds with biological activities. Medicinal chemists along with other translational researchers can play a key role in various aspects of drug repositioning. In this review article, we briefly summarize the history of drug repositioning, explain concepts behind drug repositioning methods, discuss recent computational and experimental advances and highlight available open access resources for effective drug repositioning investigations. We also discuss recent approaches in utilizing electronic health record for outcome assessment of drug repositioning and future avenues of drug repositioning in the light of targeting disease comorbidities, underserved patient communities, individualized medicine and socioeconomic impact.

  12. Image guided, adaptive, accelerated, high dose brachytherapy as model for advanced small volume radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haie-Meder, Christine; Siebert, Frank-André; Pötter, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Brachytherapy has consistently provided a very conformal radiation therapy modality. Over the last two decades this has been associated with significant improvements in imaging for brachytherapy applications (prostate, gynecology), resulting in many positive advances in treatment planning, application techniques and clinical outcome. This is emphasized by the increased use of brachytherapy in Europe with gynecology as continuous basis and prostate and breast as more recently growing fields. Image guidance enables exact knowledge of the applicator together with improved visualization of tumor and target volumes as well as of organs at risk providing the basis for very individualized 3D and 4D treatment planning. In this commentary the most important recent developments in prostate, gynecological and breast brachytherapy are reviewed, with a focus on European recent and current research aiming at the definition of areas for important future research. Moreover the positive impact of GEC-ESTRO recommendations and the highlights of brachytherapy physics are discussed what altogether presents a full overview of modern image guided brachytherapy. An overview is finally provided on past and current international brachytherapy publications focusing on "Radiotherapy and Oncology". These data show tremendous increase in almost all research areas over the last three decades strongly influenced recently by translational research in regard to imaging and technology. In order to provide high level clinical evidence for future brachytherapy practice the strong need for comprehensive prospective clinical research addressing brachytherapy issues is high-lighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intensification of volatile organic compounds mass transfer in a compact scrubber using the O3/H2O2 advanced oxidation process: kinetic study and hydroxyl radical tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biard, Pierre-François; Couvert, Annabelle; Renner, Christophe; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre

    2011-11-01

    This study assesses the potential of ozonation and advanced oxidation process O(3)/H(2)O(2) to enhance the dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) mass transfer in a compact chemical scrubber developed for air treatment applications. Theoretical calculations, through Hatta number and enhancement factor evaluations for two parallel irreversible reactions, were compared to experimental data and enabled the description of the mass transfer mechanisms. These calculations required the determination of the kinetic constant of the DMDS oxidation by molecular ozone ( [Formula: see text] ) and the measurement of the hydroxyl radical concentration within the scrubber. The competitive kinetic method using the 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (resorcinol) enabled to determine a value of the kinetic constant [Formula: see text] of 1.1×10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at 293K. Then, experiments using para-chlorobenzoic acid in solution allowed measuring the average hydroxyl concentration in the scrubber between the inlet and the outlet depending on the chemical conditions (pH and inlet O(3) and H(2)O(2) concentrations). High hydroxyl radical concentrations (10(-8)M) and ratio of the HO°-to-O(3) exposure (R(ct)≈10(-4)) were put in evidence.

  14. Advanced LIGO's ability to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem through compact binary coalescence detections

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, Madeline; Ochsner, Evan; Nielsen, Alex B

    2013-01-01

    We study the ability of the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. The cosmic censorship conjecture, which is believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, limits the spin-to-mass-squared ratio of a Kerr black hole. The no-hair theorem, which is also believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, suggests a particular value for the tidal Love number of a non-rotating black hole. Using the Fisher matrix formalism, we examine the measurability of the spin and tidal deformability of compact binary systems involving at least one putative black hole. Using parameter measurement errors and correlations obtained from the Fisher matrix, we determine the smallest detectable violation of bounds implied by the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. We examine the effect of excluding unphysical areas of parameter space when determining the smallest detectable apparen...

  15. Reactor physics studies for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Reactor-Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovskiy, Evgeny Yuryevich

    In the recently completed RACE Project of the AFCI, accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADS) experiments were conducted to develop technology of coupling accelerators to nuclear reactors. In these experiments electron accelerators induced photon-neutron reactions in heavy-metal targets to initiate fission reactions in ADS. Although the Idaho State University (ISU) RACE ADS was constructed only to develop measurement techniques for advanced experiments, many reactor kinetics experiments were conducted there. In the research reported in this dissertation, a method was developed to calculate kinetics parameters for measurement and calculation of the reactivity of ADS, a safety parameter that is necessary for control and monitoring of power production. Reactivity is measured in units of fraction of delayed versus prompt neutron from fission, a quantity that cannot be directly measured in far-subcritical reactors such as the ISU RACE configuration. A new technique is reported herein to calculate it accurately and to predict kinetic behavior of a far-subcritical ADS. Experiments conducted at ISU are first described and experimental data are presented before development of the kinetic theory used in the new computational method. Because of the complexity of the ISU ADS, the Monte-Carlo method as applied in the MCNP code is most suitable for modeling reactor kinetics. However, the standard method of calculating the delayed neutron fraction produces inaccurate values. A new method was developed and used herein to evaluate actual experiments. An advantage of this method is that its efficiency is independent of the fission yield of delayed neutrons, which makes it suitable for fuel with a minor actinide component (e.g. transmutation fuels). The implementation of this method is based on a correlated sampling technique which allows the accurate evaluation of delayed and prompt neutrons. The validity of the obtained results is indicated by good agreement between experimental

  16. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosales; Fajardo, Garcia; Curbelo, Perez; Oliva, Munoz; Hernandez, Garcia, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Habana City (Cuba); Castells, Escriva [Energetic Engeniering Institute, Politechnical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Abanades [Department of Simulation of Termoenergetic Systems, Politechnical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  17. The downregulation of thioredoxin accelerated Neuro2a cell apoptosis induced by advanced glycation end product via activating several pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Ma, Haiying; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Bo; Qi, Hui; Li, Zeyu; Kong, Hui; Kong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx), a 12 kDa protein, has different functions in different cellular environments, playing important anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic roles and regulating the expression of transcription factors. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts from glucose-protein condensation reactions and are considered crucial to the development of diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neurodegeneration and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to use a Trx inhibitor to investigate the effects and mechanism of Trx down-regulation on AGE-induced Neuro2a cell apoptosis. Neuro2a cells were cultured in vitro and treated with different conditions. The apoptosis and proliferation of Neuro2a cells were detected using flow cytometry, DNA-Ladder and CCK8 assays. Rho 123 was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential. ROS generation and caspase3 activity were detected using a DCFH-DA probe and micro-plate reader. Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of proteins and genes. We found that the down-regulation of thioredoxin could accelerate AGE-induced apoptosis in Neuro2a cells. A possible underlying mechanism is that the down-regulation of thioredoxin stimulated the up-regulation of ASK1, p-JNK, PTEN, and Txnip, as well as the down-regulation of p-AKT, ultimately increasing ROS levels and caspase3 activity.

  18. The Study of Advanced Accelerator Physics Research at UCLA Using the ATF at BNL: Vacuum Acceleration by Laser of Free Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, David B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-07

    An experiment was designed and data were taken to demonstrate that a tightly focused laser on vacuum can accelerate an electron beam in free space. The experiment was proof-of-principle and showed a clear effect for the laser beam off and on. The size of the effect was about 20% and was consistent over 30 laser and beam shots.

  19. The Study of Advanced Accelerator Physics Research at UCLA Using the ATF at BNL: Vacuum Acceleration by Laser of Free Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, David B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-07

    An experiment was designed and data taken to demonstrate that a tightly focused laser on vacuum can accelerate an electron beam in free space. The experiment was proof-of-principle and showed a clear effect for the laser beam off and on. The size of the effect was about 20% and was consistent over 30 laser and beam shots.

  20. FINAL REPORT DE-FG02-04ER41317 Advanced Computation and Chaotic Dynamics for Beams and Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, John R [U. Colorado

    2014-09-08

    During the year ending in August 2013, we continued to investigate the potential of photonic crystal (PhC) materials for acceleration purposes. We worked to characterize acceleration ability of simple PhC accelerator structures, as well as to characterize PhC materials to determine whether current fabrication techniques can meet the needs of future accelerating structures. We have also continued to design and optimize PhC accelerator structures, with the ultimate goal of finding a new kind of accelerator structure that could offer significant advantages over current RF acceleration technology. This design and optimization of these requires high performance computation, and we continue to work on methods to make such computation faster and more efficient.

  1. Prospective randomized trial to compare accelerated (six fractions a week radiotherapy against concurrent chemoradiotherapy (using conventional fractionation in locally advanced head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT is currently considered to be the standard of care in locally advanced head and neck cancer. The optimum radiotherapy schedule for best local control and acceptable toxicity is not yet clear. We aimed at shortening of treatment time by using accelerated radiation, thereby comparing the disease response, loco-regional tumor control and tolerability of accelerated radiation (six fractions per week against CCRT in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: We conducted the prospective randomized study for a period of 2 years from June 2011 to May 2013 in 133 untreated patients of histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Study group (66 patients received accelerated radiotherapy with 6 fractions per week (66Gy/33#/5½ weeks. Control group (67 patients received CCRT with 5 fractions per week radiation (66 Gy/33#/6½ weeks along with intravenous cisplatin 30 mg/m 2 weekly. Tumor control, survival, acute and late toxicities were assessed. Results: Median overall treatment time was 38 days and 45 days in the accelerated radiotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation arm, respectively. At a median follow up of 12 months, 41 patients (62.1% in the accelerated radiotherapy arm and 47 patients (70.1% in the CCRT arm were disease free (P = 0.402. Local disease control was comparable in both the arms. Acute toxicities were significantly higher in the CCRT arm as compared with accelerated radiotherapy arm. There was no difference in late toxicities between the two arms. Conclusion: We can achieve, same or near to the same local control, with lower toxicities with accelerated six fractions per week radiation compared with CCRT especially for Indian population.

  2. Preliminary energy-filtering neutron imaging with time-of-flight method on PKUNIFTY: A compact accelerator based neutron imaging facility at Peking University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Zou, Yubin; Wen, Weiwei; Lu, Yuanrong; Guo, Zhiyu

    2016-07-01

    Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility (PKUNIFTY) works on an accelerator-based neutron source with a repetition period of 10 ms and pulse duration of 0.4 ms, which has a rather low Cd ratio. To improve the effective Cd ratio and thus improve the detection capability of the facility, energy-filtering neutron imaging was realized with the intensified CCD camera and time-of-flight (TOF) method. Time structure of the pulsed neutron source was firstly simulated with Geant4, and the simulation result was evaluated with experiment. Both simulation and experiment results indicated that fast neutrons and epithermal neutrons were concentrated in the first 0.8 ms of each pulse period; meanwhile in the period of 0.8-2.0 ms only thermal neutrons existed. Based on this result, neutron images with and without energy filtering were acquired respectively, and it showed that detection capability of PKUNIFTY was improved with setting the exposure interval as 0.8-2.0 ms, especially for materials with strong moderating capability.

  3. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  4. Compact fiber optic accelerometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Peng; Jun Yang; Bing Wu; Yonggui Yuan; Xingliang Li; Ai Zhou; Libo Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A compact fiber optic accelerometer based on a Michelson interferometer is proposed and demonstrated.In the proposed system,the sensing element consists of two single-mode fibers glued together by epoxy,which then act as a simple supported beam.By demodulating the optical phase shift,the acceleration is determined as proportional to the force applied on the central position of the two single-mode fibers.This simple model is able to calculate the sensitivity and the resonant frequency of the compact accelerometer.The experimental results show that the sensitivity and the resonant frequency of the accelerometer are 0.42 rad/g and 600 Hz,respectively.

  5. A compact, coherent light source system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, S. G.; Dattoli, G.; DiPalma, E.; Einstein, J.; Milton, S. V.; Petrillo, V.; Rau, J. V.; Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I. P.; van der Slot, P. J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Our team has been examining several architectures for short-wavelength, coherent light sources. We are presently exploring the use and role of advanced, high-peak power lasers for both accelerating the electrons and generating a compact light source with the same laser. Our overall goal is to devise light sources that are more accessible by industry and in smaller laboratory settings. Although we cannot and do not want to compete directly with sources such as third-generation light sources or that of national-laboratory-based free-electron lasers, we have several interesting schemes that could bring useful and more coherent, short-wavelength light source to more researchers. Here, we present and discuss several results of recent simulations and our future steps for such dissemination.

  6. Compact Vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Marques, M A; Menezes, R; Zafalan, I

    2016-01-01

    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane.

  7. Compact vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M.A.; Zafalan, I. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane. (orig.)

  8. Final Report on "Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Steven H. [Naval Research Laboratory

    2013-10-13

    This is the final report on the research program ?Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz,? which was carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) under Interagency Agreement DE?AI02?01ER41170 with the Department of Energy. The period covered by this report is 15 July 2010 ? 14 July 2013. The program included two principal tasks. Task 1 involved a study of the key physics issues related to the use of high gradient dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures in rf linear accelerators and was carried out in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC. Task 2 involved a study of high power active microwave pulse compressors and was carried out in collaboration with Omega-P, Inc. and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod. The studies under Task 1 were focused on rf-induced multipactor and breakdown in externally driven DLA structures at the 200-ns timescale. Suppression of multipactor and breakdown are essential to the practical application of dielectric structures in rf linear accelerators. The structures that were studied were developed by ANL and Euclid Techlabs and their performance was evaluated at high power in the X-band Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. Three structures were designed, fabricated, and tested, and the results analyzed in the first two years of the program: a clamped quartz traveling-wave (TW) structure, a externally copper-coated TW structure, and an externally copper-coated dielectric standing-wave (SW) structure. These structures showed that rf breakdown could be largely eliminated by eliminating dielectric joints in the structures, but that the multipactor loading was omnipresent. In the third year of the program, the focus of the program was on multipactor suppression using a strong applied axial magnetic field, as proposed by Chang et al. [C. Chang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063304 (2011).], and a

  9. Advanced Simulation and Optimization Tools for Dynamic Aperture of Non-scaling FFAGs and Accelerators including Modern User Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, F.; Makino, Kyoko; Berz, Martin; Johnstone, C.

    2010-09-01

    With the U.S. experimental effort in HEP largely located at laboratories supporting the operations of large, highly specialized accelerators, colliding beam facilities, and detector facilities, the understanding and prediction of high energy particle accelerators becomes critical to the success, overall, of the DOE HEP program. One area in which small businesses can contribute to the ongoing success of the U.S. program in HEP is through innovations in computer techniques and sophistication in the modeling of high-energy accelerators. Accelerator modeling at these facilities is performed by experts with the product generally highly specific and representative only of in-house accelerators or special-interest accelerator problems. Development of new types of accelerators like FFAGs with their wide choices of parameter modifications, complicated fields, and the simultaneous need to efficiently handle very large emittance beams requires the availability of new simulation environments to assure predictability in operation. In this, ease of use and interfaces are critical to realizing a successful model, or optimization of a new design or working parameters of machines. In Phase I, various core modules for the design and analysis of FFAGs were developed and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) have been investigated instead of the more general yet less easily manageable console-type output COSY provides.

  10. Clinical evaluation of accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer with concomitant use of daily low-dose Carboplatin (CBDCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Sekiya, Yuichi; Araki, Hitoshi [Chiba Cancer Center (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    From May 1994 to May 1996, 39 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated irradiation (1.6 Gy, twice daily, 10 times a week, with minimum interval of 6 hours between fractions and the total tumor dose to 70.4 Gy) and concomitant use of daily low-dose Carboplatin (30 mg/body). The average age was 64.2 years (38-85). The median follow-up period was 16.4 months with a range of 2-36 months. Complete response rate was 66.7%. The organ preservation rates were almost acceptable in advanced cases. The major acute toxicity was stomatitis, but no therapeutic interruption was observed. Grade 4 laryngeal late sequelae was observed in 2 cases. We think this method is effective for locally advanced head and neck cancer but total dose should be reduced to 67.2 Gy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. (author)

  11. Compact ultrafast orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer for on-line gas analysis by electron impact ionization and soft single photon ionization using an electron beam pumped rare gas excimer lamp as VUV-light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlberger, F; Saraji-Bozorgzad, M; Gonin, M; Fuhrer, K; Zimmermann, R

    2007-11-01

    Orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometers (oaTOFMS), which are exhibiting a pulsed orthogonal extraction of ion bunches into the TOF mass analyzer from a continuous primary ion beam, are well-suited for continuous ionization methods such as electron impact ionization (EI). Recently an electron beam pumped rare gas excimer lamp (EBEL) was introduced, which emits intensive vacuum UV (VUV) radiation at, e.g., 126 nm (argon excimer) and is well suited as the light source for soft single photon ionization (SPI) of organic molecules. In this paper, a new compact oaTOFMS system which allows switching between SPI, using VUV-light from an EBEL-light source, and conventional EI is described. With the oaTOFMS system, EBEL-SPI and EI mass spectral transients can be recorded at very high repetition rates (up to 100 kHz), enabling high duty cycles and therefore good detection efficiencies. By using a transient recorder card with the capability to perform on-board accumulation of the oaTOF transients, final mass spectra with a dynamic range of 106 can be saved to the hard disk at a rate of 10 Hz. As it is possible to change the ionization modes (EI and SPI) rapidly, a comprehensive monitoring of complex gases with highly dynamic compositions, such as cigarette smoke, is possible. In this context, the EI based mass spectra address the bulk composition (compounds such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc. in the up to percentage concentration range) as well as some inorganic trace gases such as argon, sulfur dioxide, etc. down to the low ppm level. The EBEL-SPI mass spectra on the other hand are revealing the organic composition down to the lower ppb concentration range.

  12. Adiabatic Compression of Compact Tori for Current Drive and Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Simon; McNab, Angus; Miller, Kenneth; Ziemba, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Several critical issues stand in the development path for compact tori. An important one is the production of strong magnetic fields, (or large flux amplifications) by use of a low current source. The Pulsed Build-up Experiment is a Phase II SBIR project in which we aim to show a new means for generating strong magnetic fields from a low current source, namely, the repetitive injection of helicity-bearing plasma that also undergoes an acceleration and compression. In the Phase I SBIR, advanced computations were benchmarked against analytic theory and run to determine the best means for the acceleration and compression of a compact torus plasma. The study included detailed simulations of magnetic reconnection. In Phase II, an experiment has been designed and is being built to produce strong magnetic fields in a spheromak by the repetitive injection of magnetic helicity from a low current coaxial plasma source. The plasma will be accelerated and compressed in a similar manner to a traveling wave adiabatic compression scheme that was previously applied to a mirror plasma [1]. [1] P. M. Bellan Scalings for a Traveling Mirror Adiabatic Magnetic Compressor Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53(8) 1214 (1982) Work supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER84449.

  13. Compact Gamma-ray Source Technology Development Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Rusnak, B

    2009-09-25

    This study focuses on the applicability of current accelerator and laser technologies to the construction of compact, narrow bandwidth, gamma-ray sources for DHS missions in illicit materials detection. It also identifies research and development areas in which advancement will directly benefit these light sources. In particular, we review the physics of Compton scattering based light sources and emphasize the source properties most important to Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) applications of interest. The influences of laser and electron beam properties on the light source are examined in order to evaluate the utility of different technologies for this application. Applicable bulk and fiber-based laser systems and laser recirculation technologies are discussed and Radio Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerator (linac) technologies are examined to determine the optimal frequency and pulse formats achievable.

  14. A plasma wakefield acceleration experiment using CLARA beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, G., E-mail: guoxing.xia@cockcroft.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); Angal-Kalinin, D.; Clarke, J. [STFC/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); Smith, J. [Tech-X UK Corporation, Daresbury Innovation Centre, Warrington (United Kingdom); Cormier-Michel, E. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States); Jones, J.; Williams, P.H.; Mckenzie, J.W.; Militsyn, B.L. [STFC/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); Hanahoe, K.; Mete, O. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); Aimidula, A.; Welsch, C.P. [The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-11

    We propose a Plasma Accelerator Research Station (PARS) based at proposed FEL test facility CLARA (Compact Linear Accelerator for Research and Applications) at Daresbury Laboratory. The idea is to use the relativistic electron beam from CLARA, to investigate some key issues in electron beam transport and in electron beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration, e.g. high gradient plasma wakefield excitation driven by a relativistic electron bunch, two bunch experiment for CLARA beam energy doubling, high transformer ratio, long bunch self-modulation and some other advanced beam dynamics issues. This paper presents the feasibility studies of electron beam transport to meet the requirements for beam driven wakefield acceleration and presents the plasma wakefield simulation results based on CLARA beam parameters. Other possible experiments which can be conducted at the PARS beam line are also discussed.

  15. A plasma wakefield acceleration experiment using CLARA beam

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, G; Clarke, J; Smith, J; Cormier-Michel, E; Jones, J; Williams, P H; Mckenzie, J W; Militsyn, B L; Hanahoe, K; Mete, O; Aimidula, A; Welsch, C P

    2014-01-01

    We propose a Plasma Accelerator Research Station (PARS) based at proposed FEL test facility CLARA (Compact Linear Accelerator for Research and Applications) at Daresbury Laboratory. The idea is to use the relativistic electron beam from CLARA, to investigate some key issues in electron beam transport and in electron beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration, e.g. high gradient plasma wakefield excitation driven by a relativistic electron bunch, two bunch experiment for CLARA beam energy doubling, high transformer ratio, long bunch self-modulation and some other advanced beam dynamics issues. This paper presents the feasibility studies of electron beam transport to meet the requirements for beam driven wakefield acceleration and presents the plasma wakefield simulation results based on CLARA beam parameters. Other possible experiments which can be conducted at the PARS beam line are also discussed.

  16. Accelerating Cosmologies from Compactification

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2003-01-01

    A solution of the (4+n)-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations is found for which spacetime is compactified on a compact hyperbolic manifold of time-varying volume to a flat four-dimensional FLRW cosmology undergoing accelerated expansion in Einstein conformal frame. This shows that the `no-go' theorem forbidding acceleration in `standard' (time-independent) compactifications of string/M-theory does not apply to `cosmological' (time-dependent) hyperbolic compactifications.

  17. Accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost technique (69.5 Gy/5 weeks). An alternative in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubes, Jiri; Vondracek, Vladimir; Pala, Miloslav [Prague Univ., Prag (Czech Republic). Inst. of Radiation Oncology; Cvek, Jakub; Feltl, David [Faculty Hospital Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Oncology

    2011-10-15

    To present the feasibility and results of accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost technique (69.5 Gy/5 weeks) in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. A total of 65 patients were treated between June 2006 and August 2009. The distribution of clinical stages was as follows: II 11%, III 23%, IV 61%, and not defined 5%. The median follow-up was 30.5 months. The treatment plan was completed in 94% of patients. Patients were treated using the conformal or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. The median overall treatment time was 37 days (13-45 days). The mean radiotherapy dose was 68.4 Gy (16-74 Gy). Overall survival was 69% after 2 years. Disease-free survival was 62% after 2 years. Acute toxicity {>=} grade 3(RTOG scale) included mucositis (grade 3: 42.6%), pharynx (grade 3: 42.3%), skin (grade 3: 9.5%), larynx (grade 3: 4%), while late toxicity affected skin (grade 3: 6.25%) and salivary glands (grade 3: 3.7%). Accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost technique is feasible in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer, has an acceptable toxicity profile, and yields promising treatment results.

  18. Acceleration in the linear non-scaling fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerator EMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, S.; Barlow, R.; Berg, J. S.; Bliss, N.; Buckley, R. K.; Clarke, J. A.; Craddock, M. K.; D'Arcy, R.; Edgecock, R.; Garland, J. M.; Giboudot, Y.; Goudket, P.; Griffiths, S.; Hill, C.; Hill, S. F.; Hock, K. M.; Holder, D. J.; Ibison, M. G.; Jackson, F.; Jamison, S. P.; Johnstone, C.; Jones, J. K.; Jones, L. B.; Kalinin, A.; Keil, E.; Kelliher, D. J.; Kirkman, I. W.; Koscielniak, S.; Marinov, K.; Marks, N.; Martlew, B.; McIntosh, P. A.; McKenzie, J. W.; Méot, F.; Middleman, K. J.; Moss, A.; Muratori, B. D.; Orrett, J.; Owen, H. L.; Pasternak, J.; Peach, K. J.; Poole, M. W.; Rao, Y.-N.; Saveliev, Y.; Scott, D. J.; Sheehy, S. L.; Shepherd, B. J. A.; Smith, R.; Smith, S. L.; Trbojevic, D.; Tzenov, S.; Weston, T.; Wheelhouse, A.; Williams, P. H.; Wolski, A.; Yokoi, T.

    2012-03-01

    In a fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerator, eliminating pulsed magnet operation permits rapid acceleration to synchrotron energies, but with a much higher beam-pulse repetition rate. Conceived in the 1950s, FFAGs are enjoying renewed interest, fuelled by the need to rapidly accelerate unstable muons for future high-energy physics colliders. Until now a `scaling' principle has been applied to avoid beam blow-up and loss. Removing this restriction produces a new breed of FFAG, a non-scaling variant, allowing powerful advances in machine characteristics. We report on the first non-scaling FFAG, in which orbits are compacted to within 10mm in radius over an electron momentum range of 12-18MeV/c. In this strictly linear-gradient FFAG, unstable beam regions are crossed, but acceleration via a novel serpentine channel is so rapid that no significant beam disruption is observed. This result has significant implications for future particle accelerators, particularly muon and high-intensity proton accelerators.

  19. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  20. Novel path towards compact laser ion accelerators for hadron therapy: Tenfold energy increase in laser-driven multi-MeV ion generation using a gas target mixed with submicron clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Y; Tampo, M; Pikuz, T A; Nakamura, T; Kando, M; Hayashi, Y; Yogo, A; Sakaki, H; Kameshima, T; Pirozhkov, A S; Ogura, K; Mori, M; Esirkepov, T Zh; Boldarev, A S; Gasilov, V A; Magunov, A I; Kodama, R; Bolton, P R; Kato, Y; Tajima, T; Daido, H; Bulanov, S V

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate generation of 10-20 MeV/u ions with a compact 4 TW laser using a gas target mixed with submicron clusters, corresponding to tenfold increase in the ion energies compared to previous experiments with solid targets. It is inferred that the high energy ions are generated due to formation of a strong dipole vortex structure. The demonstrated method has a potential to construct compact and high repetition rate ion sources for hadron therapy and other applications.

  1. Brittle and compaction creep in porous sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Michael; Brantut, Nicolas; Baud, Patrick; Meredith, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Strain localisation in the Earth's crust occurs at all scales, from the fracture of grains at the microscale to crustal-scale faulting. Over the last fifty years, laboratory rock deformation studies have exposed the variety of deformation mechanisms and failure modes of rock. Broadly speaking, rock failure can be described as either dilatant (brittle) or compactive. While dilatant failure in porous sandstones is manifest as shear fracturing, their failure in the compactant regime can be characterised by either distributed cataclastic flow or the formation of localised compaction bands. To better understand the time-dependency of strain localisation (shear fracturing and compaction band growth), we performed triaxial deformation experiments on water-saturated Bleurswiller sandstone (porosity = 24%) under a constant stress (creep) in the dilatant and compactive regimes, with particular focus on time-dependent compaction band formation in the compactive regime. Our experiments show that inelastic strain accumulates at a constant stress in the brittle and compactive regimes leading to the development of shear fractures and compaction bands, respectively. While creep in the dilatant regime is characterised by an increase in porosity and, ultimately, an acceleration in axial strain to shear failure (as observed in previous studies), compaction creep is characterised by a reduction in porosity and a gradual deceleration in axial strain. The overall deceleration in axial strain, AE activity, and porosity change during creep compaction is punctuated by excursions interpreted as the formation of compaction bands. The growth rate of compaction bands formed during creep is lower as the applied differential stress, and hence background creep strain rate, is decreased, although the inelastic strain required for a compaction band remains constant over strain rates spanning several orders of magnitude. We find that, despite the large differences in strain rate and growth rate

  2. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  3. Compact Neutron Sources for Energy and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    We choose nuclear data and nuclear material inspection for energy application, and nondestructive testing of explosive and hidden nuclear materials for security application. Low energy (˜100keV) electrostatic accelerators of deuterium are commercially available for nondestructive testing. For nuclear data measurement, electrostatic ion accelerators and L-band (1.428GHz) and S-band (2.856GHz) electron linear accelerators (linacs) are used for the neutron source. Compact or mobile X-band (9.3, 11.424GHz) electron linac neutron sources are under development. A compact proton linac neutron source is used for nondestructive testing, especially water in solids. Several efforts for more neutron intensity using proton and deuteron accelerators are also introduced.

  4. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  5. Accelerator Technology Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  6. Advanced materials characterization and modeling using synchrotron, neutron, TEM, and novel micro-mechanical techniques - A European effort to accelerate fusion materials development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Fu, C.-C.; Kaprolat, A.

    2013-01-01

    For the realization of fusion as an energy source, the development of suitable materials is one of the most critical issues. The required material properties are in many aspects unique compared to the existing solutions, particularly the need for necessary resistance to irradiation with neutrons...... having energies up to 14 MeV. In addition to withstanding the effects of neutrons, the mechanical stability of structural materials has to be maintained up to high temperatures. Plasma-exposed materials must be compatible with the fusion plasma, both with regard to the generation of impurities injected...... as testing under neutron flux-induced conditions. For the realization of a DEMO power plant, the materials solutions must be available in time. The European initiative FEMaS-CA – Fusion Energy Materials Science – Coordination Action – aims at accelerating materials development by integrating advanced...

  7. Simulation on advanced operation mode for the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor%紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆先进运行模式的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美霞; 刘成岳; 吴斌

    2012-01-01

    Reversed shear (RS) operation mode is simulated with Jsolver and TSC codes on some important issues, such as RS Plasma configuration, bootstrap current fraction and RS operation mode discharge simulation etc.. To some degree, the modeling results show that the RS operation mode is advanced and feasible for the compact Fusion-fission hybrid reactor.%使用Jsolver程序及托卡马克模拟程序TSC对紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆系统的反剪切平衡位形、自举电流份额及放电模拟进行数值模拟研究,以此探讨该混合堆的可行性和先进性.

  8. Compaction Behavior of Isomalt after Roll Compaction

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force....

  9. Advanced glycation end products accelerate ischemia/reperfusion injury through receptor of advanced end product/nitrative thioredoxin inactivation in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ma, Yanzhuo; Wang, Rutao; Xia, Chenhai; Zhang, Rongqing; Lian, Kun; Luan, Ronghua; Sun, Lu; Yang, Lu; Lau, Wayne B; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling

    2011-10-01

    The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with increased cardiac endothelial injury. However, no causative link has been established between increased AGEs and enhanced endothelial injury after ischemia/reperfusion. More importantly, the molecular mechanisms by which AGEs may increase endothelial injury remain unknown. Adult rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were isolated and incubated with AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA. After AGE-BSA or BSA preculture, CMECs were subjected to simulated ischemia (SI)/reperfusion (R). AGE-BSA increased SI/R injury as evidenced by enhanced lactate dehydrogenase release and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, AGE-BSA significantly increased SI/R-induced oxidative/nitrative stress in CMECs (as measured by increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, total nitric oxide production, superoxide generation, and peroxynitrite formation) and increased SI/R-induced nitrative inactivation of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), an essential cytoprotective molecule. Supplementation of EUK134 (peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst), human Trx-1, or soluble receptor of advanced end product (sRAGE) (a RAGE decoy) in AGE-BSA precultured cells attenuated SI/R-induced oxidative/nitrative stress, reduced SI/R-induced Trx-1 nitration, preserved Trx-1 activity, and reduced SI/R injury. Our results demonstrated that AGEs may increase SI/R-induced endothelial injury by increasing oxidative/nitrative injury and subsequent nitrative inactivation of Trx-1. Interventions blocking RAGE signaling or restoring Trx activity may be novel therapies to mitigate endothelial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the diabetic population.

  10. Advanced Electronic Systems for HEP Experiments, Astroparticle Physics, Accelerator Technology, FELs and Fusion; 2013 WILGA January Symposium (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The cycle of WILGA conferences [wilga.ise.pw.edu.pl] on Photonics and Web Engineering, Advanced Electronic Systems, under the auspices of IEEE, SPIE, KEiT PAN and WEiTI PW was initiated in 1998 by a Research Team PERG/ELHEP ISE PW. The WILGA conferences take place two times a year and the participants are young scientists from this country and abroad. This paper debates chosen topical tracks and some papers presented during the 31 WILGA Conference, which took place on 8-10 February 2013 at the Faculty of WEiTI PW. The conference was attended by over 60 persons. Here we discuss closer the subjects of biomedical electronics and informatics, as well as chosen aspects of applications of advanced electronic circuits and systems. The next 32 WILGA Conference will take place on 27 May – 02 June 2013 in WUT WILGA resort near Warsaw. Proposed conference papers are submitted via the WILGA Conference web page. Email for the correspondence is: photonics@ise.pw.edu.pl. The papers are published in journals Elektronika, I...

  11. Aacsfi-PSC. Advanced accelerator concepts for strong field interaction simulated with the Plasma-Simulation-Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, Hartmut [Munich Univ. (Germany). Chair for Computational and Plasma Physics

    2016-11-01

    Since the installation of SuperMUC phase 2 the 9216 nodes of phase 1 are more easily available for large scale runs allowing for the thin foil and AWAKE simulations. Besides phase 2 could be used in parallel for high throughput of the ion acceleration simulations. Challenging to our project were the full-volume checkpoints required by PIC that strained the I/O-subsystem of SuperMUC to its limits. New approaches considered for the next generation system, like burst buffers could overcome this bottleneck. Additionally, as the FDTD solver in PIC is strongly bandwidth bound, PSC will benefit profoundly from high-bandwidth memory (HBM) that most likely will be available in future HPC machines. This will be of great advantage as in 2018 phase II of AWAKE should begin, with a longer plasma channel further increasing the need for additional computing resources. Last but not least, it is expected that our methods used in plasma physics (many body interaction with radiation) will be more and more adapted for medical diagnostics and treatments. For this research field we expect centimeter sized volumes with necessary resolutions of tens of micro meters resulting in boxes of >10{sup 12} voxels (100-200 TB) on a regular basis. In consequence the demand for computing time and especially for data storage and data handling capacities will also increase significantly.

  12. Commissioning and early experience with a new-generation low-energy linear accelerator with advanced delivery and imaging functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new-generation low-energy linear accelerator (UNIQUE was introduced in the clinical arena during 2009 by Varian Medical Systems. The world's first UNIQUE was installed at Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland and put into clinical operation in June 2010. The aim of the present contribution was to report experience about its commissioning and first year results from clinical operation. Methods Commissioning data, beam characteristics and the modeling into the treatment planning system were summarized. Imaging system of UNIQUE included a 2D-2D matching capability and tests were performed to identify system repositioning capability. Finally, since the system is capable of delivering volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc, a summary of the tests performed for such modality to assess its performance in preclinical settings and during clinical usage was included. Results Isocenter virtual diameter was measured as less than 0.2 mm. Observed accuracy of isocenter determination and repositioning for 2D-2D matching procedures in image guidance was Conclusions The results of the commissioning tests and of the first period of clinical operation, resulted meeting specifications and having good margins respect to tolerances. UNIQUE was put into operation for all delivery techniques; in particular, as shown by the pre-treatment quality assurance results, it enabled accurate and safe delivery of RapidArc plans.

  13. 微波加速Ullmann反应的研究%Advances in Investigation of Ullmann Reaction Accelerated by Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖尚友; 朱俊; 穆小静; 李正华

    2013-01-01

    Ullmann反应被广泛用于有机中间体的合成,包括C-C,C-O,C-S,C-N键的形成.近年的研究表明,微波能加速Ullmann反应,并能明显提高其反应产率.因此,微波在Ullmann反应中的应用日益受到人们的重视.围绕C-C,C-O,C-S,C-N键的形成,对微波在反应中的应用进展进行了综述.%The Ullmann reaction has been extensively applied in the synthesis of organic intermediates,especially in the formation of carbon-carbon bond,carbon-oxygen bond,carbon-sulfur bond and carbon-nitrogen bond.It has been demonstrated that microwave irradiation can obviously accelerate the Ullmann reaction and improve the yields,so the application of microwave in the Ullmann reaction has caught increasing attention in recent years.The application of microwave in the Ullmarm reaction and the progresses in the formation of carbon-carbon bond,carbon-oxygen bond,carbon-sulfur bond and carbon-nitrogen bond are reviewed in this paper.

  14. Towards low-latency real-time detection of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences in the era of advanced detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Jing; Wen, Linqing; Chen, Yanbei

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of gravitational wave (GW) events will help shed light on the nature of the sources, and more can be learned if the EM follow-ups can start as soon as the GW event becomes observable. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient time-domain algorithm capable of detecting gravitational waves (GWs) from coalescing binaries of compact objects with nearly zero time delay. In case when the signal is strong enough, our algorithm also has the flexibility to trigger EM observation before the merger. The key to the efficiency of our algorithm arises from the use of chains of so-called Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filters, which filter time-series data recursively. Computational cost is further reduced by a template interpolation technique that requires filtering to be done only for a much coarser template bank than otherwise required to sufficiently recover optimal signal-to-noise ratio. Towards future detectors with sensitivity extending to lower frequencies, ou...

  15. Compaction stimulates denitrification in an urban park soil using 15N tracing technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shun; Deng, Huan; Rensing, Christopher Günther T

    2014-01-01

    Soils in urban areas are subjected to compaction with accelerating urbanization. The effects of anthropogenic compaction on urban soil denitrification are largely unknown. We conducted a study on an urban park soil to investigate how compaction impacts denitrification. By using 15N labeling method......, no statistical difference in total N losses and 15N-(N2O+N2) flux between the uncompacted soil and the compacted soil was detected. Compaction promoted soil denitrification and may impact urban N biogeochemical cycling....

  16. Ion Acceleration and D-D Nuclear Fusion in Laser-Generated Plasma from Advanced Deuterated Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser shot was calculated.

  17. Ion acceleration and D-D nuclear fusion in laser-generated plasma from advanced deuterated polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-23

    Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser shot was calculated.

  18. Pathway to a compact SASE FEL device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G., E-mail: giuseppe.dattoli@enea.it [ENEA – Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Di Palma, E. [ENEA – Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Petrillo, V. [Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rau, Julietta V. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, ISM-CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I. [ENEA – Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Biedron, S.G.; Einstein, J.; Milton, S.V. [CSU – Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Newly developed high peak power lasers have opened the possibilities of driving coherent light sources operating with laser plasma accelerated beams and wave undulators. We speculate on the combination of these two concepts and show that the merging of the underlying technologies could lead to new and interesting possibilities to achieve truly compact, coherent radiator devices.

  19. Pathway to a Compact SASE FEL Device

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, G; Petrillo, V; Rau, J V; Sabia, E; Spassovsky, I; Biedron, S G; Einstein, J; Milton, S V

    2015-01-01

    Newly developed high peak power lasers have opened the possibilities of driving coherent light sources operating with laser plasma accelerated beams and wave undulators. We speculate on the combination of these two concepts and show that the merging of the underlying technologies could lead to new and interesting possibilities to achieve truly compact, coherent radiator devices.

  20. Compact x-ray lasers in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, W.A.

    1988-10-03

    Compact x-ray lasers in the laboratory can be produced with ultrahigh gradient rf linacs based on recent advances in linac technology by an SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be converted to soft x rays in the range of 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high field strength wigglers. Alternatively, the beam can pump a low density dielectric to produce x rays via recombination. Such linear light sources can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitable for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Application of Plasma Waveguides to High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milchberg, Howard [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This grant supported basic experimental, theoretical and computer simulation research into developing a compact, high pulse repetition rate laser accelerator using the direct laser acceleration mechanism in plasma-based slow wave structures.

  2. Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  3. On Compact Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping WANG; Jiong Sheng LI

    2005-01-01

    Let G be a finite simple graph with adjacency matrix A, and let P(A) be the convex closure of the set of all permutation matrices commuting with A. G is said to be compact if every doubly stochastic matrix which commutes with A is in P(A). In this paper, we characterize 3-regular compact graphs and prove that if G is a connected regular compact graph, G - v is also compact, and give a family of almost regular compact connected graphs.

  4. Compactness in Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakasho Kazuhisa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we mainly formalize in Mizar [2] the equivalence among a few compactness definitions of metric spaces, norm spaces, and the real line. In the first section, we formalized general topological properties of metric spaces. We discussed openness and closedness of subsets in metric spaces in terms of convergence of element sequences. In the second section, we firstly formalize the definition of sequentially compact, and then discuss the equivalence of compactness, countable compactness, sequential compactness, and totally boundedness with completeness in metric spaces.

  5. Scientists at Brookhaven contribute to the development of a better electron accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Scientists working at Brookhaven have developed a compact linear accelerator called STELLA (Staged Electron Laser Acceleration). Highly efficient, it may help electron accelerators become practical tools for applications in industry and medicine, such as radiation therapy (1 page)

  6. Hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant integrated boost of 70-75 Gy in 5 weeks for advanced head and neck cancer. A phase I dose escalation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvek, J.; Skacelikova, E.; Otahal, B.; Halamka, M.; Feltl, D. [University Hospital Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Oncology; Kubes, J. [University Hospital Bulovka, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kominek, P. [University Hospital Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2012-08-15

    Background and purpose: The present study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of a new, 5-week regimen of 70-75 Gy hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant integrated boost (HARTCIB) for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer. Methods and materials: A total of 39 patients with very advanced, stage IV nonmetastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (median gross tumor volume 72 ml) were included in this phase I dose escalation study. A total of 50 fractions intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were administered twice daily over 5 weeks. Prescribed total dose/dose per fraction for planning target volume (PTV{sub tumor}) were 70 Gy in 1.4 Gy fractions, 72.5 Gy in 1.45 Gy fractions, and 75 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions for 10, 13, and 16 patients, respectively. Uninvolved lymphatic nodes (PTV{sub uninvolved}) were irradiated with 55 Gy in 1.1 Gy fractions using the concomitant integrated boost. Results: Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the RTOG/EORTC scale; the incidence of grade 3 mucositis was 51% in the oral cavity/pharynx and 0% in skin and the recovery time was {<=} 9 weeks for all patients. Late toxicity was evaluated in patients in complete remission according to the RTOG/EORTC scale. No grade 3/4 late toxicity was observed. The 1-year locoregional progression-free survival was 50% and overall survival was 55%. Conclusion: HARTCIB (75 Gy in 5 weeks) is feasible for patients deemed unsuitable for chemoradiation. Acute toxicity was lower than predicted from radiobiological models; duration of dysphagia and confluent mucositis were particularly short. Better conformity of radiotherapy allows the use of more intensive altered fractionation schedules compared with older studies. These results suggest that further dose escalation might be possible when highly conformal techniques (e.g., stereotactic radiotherapy) are used.

  7. STATUS OF THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Carroll, J; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-04-22

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system is capable of accelerating any charge to mass ratio particle. Applications of high gradient proton and electron versions of this accelerator will be discussed. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  8. About the scheme of the infrared FEL system for the accelerator based on HF wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabanov, V.S.; Dzergach, A.I. [Moscow Radiotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Accelerators, based on localization of plasmoids in the HF wells (RF traps) of the axially-symmetric electromagnetic field E {sub omn} in an oversized (m,n>>1) resonant system, can give accelerating gradients {approximately}100 kV/{lambda}, e.g. 10 GV/m if {lambda}=10 {mu}m. One of possible variants of HF feeding for these accelerators is based on using the powerful infrared FEL System with 2 frequencies. The corresponding FEL`s may be similar to the Los Alamos compact Advanced FEL ({lambda}{sub 1,2}{approximately}10 pm, e-beam energy {approximately}15 MeV, e-beam current {approximately}100 A). Their power is defined mainly by the HF losses in the resonant system of the supposed accelerator.

  9. Split Course Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radio-Chemotherapy (SCHARC for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: Influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprague Lisa D

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol "SCHARC" and the overall survival of our patients. Methods From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer (88 % stage IV, 12 % stage III were assigned to receive the SCHARC protocol. Around half of the patients were diagnosed with oro-hypopharynx carcinoma (52 %, one third with tongue and floor of mouth tumors (29 % and one fifth (19 % suffered from H & N cancer at other sites. The schedule consisted of one therapy block with 30 Gy in 20 fractions over a two week period with concomitant chemotherapy (d 1–5: 20 mg/m2/d DDP + 750–1000 mg/m2/d 5FU (cont. infusion. This therapy block was repeated after a fortnight break up to a cumulative dose of 60 Gy and followed by a boost up to 70 Gy (69–70.5 Gy. All patients assigned to this scheme were included in the survival evaluation. Results Forty patients (63 % received both radiation and chemotherapy according to the protocol. The mean follow up was 2.3 years (829 d and the median follow up was 1.9 years (678 d, respectively. The analysis of survival revealed an estimated 3 year overall survival rate of 57 %. No patient died of complications, 52 patients (80 % had acute grade 2–3 mucositis, and 33 patients (58 % suffered from acute grade 3 skin toxicity. Leucopenia was no major problem (mean nadir 3.4 g/nl, no patient 10.5 g/dl and for patients who completed the protocol. Conclusion The SCHARC protocol was effective in patients diagnosed with advanced head and neck cancer. It led to long-term disease control and survival in about 50 % of the patients with significant but acceptable toxicity. Most patients

  10. Study on compressive strength of self compacting mortar cubes under normal & electric oven curing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, G. J.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.

    2017-07-01

    In the majority of civil engineering applications, the basic building blocks were the masonry units. Those masonry units were developed as a monolithic structure by plastering process with the help of binding agents namely mud, lime, cement and their combinations. In recent advancements, the mortar study plays an important role in crack repairs, structural rehabilitation, retrofitting, pointing and plastering operations. The rheology of mortar includes flowable, passing and filling properties which were analogous with the behaviour of self compacting concrete. In self compacting (SC) mortar cubes, the cement was replaced by mineral admixtures namely silica fume (SF) from 5% to 20% (with an increment of 5%), metakaolin (MK) from 10% to 30% (with an increment of 10%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) from 25% to 75% (with an increment of 25%). The ratio between cement and fine aggregate was kept constant as 1: 2 for all normal and self compacting mortar mixes. The accelerated curing namely electric oven curing with the differential temperature of 128°C for the period of 4 hours was adopted. It was found that the compressive strength obtained from the normal and electric oven method of curing was higher for self compacting mortar cubes than normal mortar cube. The cement replacement by 15% SF, 20% MK and 25%GGBS obtained higher strength under both curing conditions.

  11. Momentum compaction and phase slip factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Section 2.3.11 of the Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering on Landau damping is updated. The slip factor and its higher orders are given in terms of the various orders of the momentum compaction. With the aid of a simplified FODO lattice, formulas are given for the alteration of the lower orders of the momentum compaction by various higher multipole magnets. The transition to isochronicity is next demonstrated. Formulas are given for the extraction of the first three orders of the slip factor from the measurement of the synchrotron tune while changing the rf frequency. Finally bunch-length compression experiments in semi-isochronous rings are reported.

  12. A Conceptual Description of the ESS-Bilbao Accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Bustinduy, Ibón; Bermejo, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    3rd International Meeting of the Union for Compact Accelerator-driven Neutron Sources, UCANS III, 31 July–3 August 2012, Bilbao, Spain & the 4th International Meeting of the Union for Compact Accelerator-driven Neutron Sources, UCANS IV, 23-27 September 2013, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japa. 10 pags., 9 figs.; 1 tab. Codes: ibsimu, gpt, nigun, mad, tracewin, toutatis and rfqsim.

  13. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  14. Radiotherapy using a laser proton accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Murakami, Masao; Miyajima, Satoshi; Okazaki, Yoshiko; Sutherland, Kenneth L; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Bulanov, Sergei V; Daido, Hiroyuki; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Koga, James; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Tajima, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    Laser acceleration promises innovation in particle beam therapy of cancer where an ultra-compact accelerator system for cancer beam therapy can become affordable to a broad range of patients. This is not feasible without the introduction of a technology that is radically different from the conventional accelerator-based approach. The laser acceleration method provides many enhanced capabilities for the radiation oncologist. It reduces the overall system size and weight by more than one order of magnitude. The characteristics of the particle beams (protons) make them suitable for a class of therapy that might not be possible with the conventional accelerator, such as the ease for changing pulse intensity, the focus spread, the pinpointedness, and the dose delivery in general. A compact, uncluttered system allows a PET device to be located in the vicinity of the patient in concert with the compact gantry. The radiation oncologist may be able to irradiate a localized tumor by scanning with a pencil-like particle...

  15. Compaction behavior of isomalt after roll compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Mosig, Johanna; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2012-09-27

    The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force. In all cases, the tensile strength increases with raising tableting forces. The specific compaction force has a different influence. For isomalt alone the tensile strength is highest for tablets made from granules prepared at 2 kN/cm and 6 kN/cm and decreases at higher values, i.e., >10 kN/cm. Tensile strength of the blend tablets is almost one third lower compared to the strongest tablets of pure isomalt. Friability of pure isomalt tablets is above the limit. Disintegration time is longest when the tensile strength is at its maximum and decreases with higher porosity and lower tensile strengths. Isomalt proves to be suitable for tableting after roll compaction. Even though the capacity as a binder might not be as high as of other excipients, it is a further alternative for the formulation scientist.

  16. Compaction Behavior of Isomalt after Roll Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kleinebudde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the new isomalt grade galenIQ™ 801 for dry granulation and following tableting is evaluated in this study. Isomalt alone, as well as a blend of equal parts with dibasic calcium phosphate, is roll compacted and tableted. Particle size distribution and flowability of the granules and friability and disintegration time of the tablets are determined. Tensile strength of tablets is related to the specific compaction force during roll compaction and the tableting force. In all cases, the tensile strength increases with raising tableting forces. The specific compaction force has a different influence. For isomalt alone the tensile strength is highest for tablets made from granules prepared at 2 kN/cm and 6 kN/cm and decreases at higher values, i.e., >10 kN/cm. Tensile strength of the blend tablets is almost one third lower compared to the strongest tablets of pure isomalt. Friability of pure isomalt tablets is above the limit. Disintegration time is longest when the tensile strength is at its maximum and decreases with higher porosity and lower tensile strengths. Isomalt proves to be suitable for tableting after roll compaction. Even though the capacity as a binder might not be as high as of other excipients, it is a further alternative for the formulation scientist.

  17. Plasma Channel Guided Laser Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, C G

    2005-01-01

    High quality electron beams (several 109 electrons above 80 MeV energy with percent energy spread and low divergence) have been produced for the first time in a compact, high gradient, all-optical laser accelerator by extending the interaction distance using a pre-formed plasma density channel to guide the drive laser pulse. Laser-driven accelerators, in which particles are accelerated by the electric field of a plasma wave (wake) driven by the radiation pressure of an intense laser, have over the past decade demonstrated accelerating fields thousands of times greater than those achievable in conventional radio-frequency accelerators. This has spurred interest in them as compact next- generation sources of energetic electrons and radiation. To date, however, acceleration distances have been severely limited by the lack of a controllable method for extending the propagation distance of the focused laser pulse. The ensuing short acceleration distance resulted in low-energy beams with 100 percent electron energy...

  18. Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  19. Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  20. R&D Toward a Compact High-Brilliance X-Ray Source Based on Channeling Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, P.; /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U.; Brau, C.A.; Choi, B.K.; Gabella, W.E.; Jarvis, J.D.; Mendenhall, M.H.; /Vanderbilt U.; Lewellen, J.W.; /Naval Postgraduate School; Mihalcea, D.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2012-08-01

    X-rays have been valuable to a large number of fields including Science, Medicine, and Security. Yet, the availability of a compact high-spectral brilliance X-ray sources is limited. A technique to produce X-rays with spectral brilliance B {approx} 10{sup 12} photons.(mm-mrd){sup -2}.(0.1% BW){sup -1} .s{sup -1} is discussed. The method is based on the generation and acceleration of a low-emittance field-emitted electron bunches. The bunches are then focused on a diamond crystal thereby producing channeling radiation. In this paper, after presenting the overarching concept, we discuss the generation, acceleration and transport of the low-emittance bunches with parameters consistent with the production of high-brilliance X-rays through channeling radiation. We especially consider the example of the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in construction at Fermilab where a proof-of-principle experiment is in preparation.

  1. Technologies for Advanced Induction Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, M A; Autrey, D; Duncan, G; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Hanks, R; Kamin, G; Sangster, C; Sharp, W; Williams, C

    2000-01-01

    To harness fusion energy is one of today's greatest technological challenges, and one well worth pursuing. Success in the development of fusion power would result in a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. The fusion reaction, the process that powers the sun and the stars, can be duplicated on Earth. However, to date these fusion processes have been the products of large-scale experimental efforts. They have yet to achieve fusion in a manner that is cost effective and efficient enough to be applied in a commercial reactor. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been centrally involved in the Nation's inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program for over 25 years. Much of the focus of the LLNL ICF Program has been the well-known effort to develop high power, short wavelength laser drivers to create the conditions necessary for the fusion process. But the ICF Program has also been investigating, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the potential of heavy-ion accelerato...

  2. Accelerating Development of Advanced Inverters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ropp, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV) generators, poses technical challenges for grid management. The grid has been optimized over decades to rely on large centralized power plants with well-established feedback controls. Conventional generators provide relatively constant dispatchable power and help to regulate both voltage and frequency. In contrast, photovoltaic (PV) power is variable, is only as predictable as the weather, and provides no control action. Thus, as conventional generation is displaced by PV power, utility operation stake holders are concerned about managing fluctuations in grid voltage and frequency. Furthermore, since the operation of these distributed resources are bound by certain rules that require they stop delivering power when measured voltage or frequency deviate from the nominal operating point, there are also concerns that a single grid event may cause a large fraction of generation to turn off, triggering a black out or break-up of an electric power system.

  3. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  4. Compact Polarimetry Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  5. Mechanics of tissue compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlier, Hervé; Maître, Jean-Léon

    2015-12-01

    During embryonic development, tissues deform by a succession and combination of morphogenetic processes. Tissue compaction is the morphogenetic process by which a tissue adopts a tighter structure. Recent studies characterized the respective roles of cells' adhesive and contractile properties in tissue compaction. In this review, we formalize the mechanical and molecular principles of tissue compaction and we analyze through the prism of this framework several morphogenetic events: the compaction of the early mouse embryo, the formation of the fly retina, the segmentation of somites and the separation of germ layers during gastrulation.

  6. Compact Polarimetry Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  7. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  8. Preliminary study on development of 300 Kv compact focused gaseous ion beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, T.; Ishii, Y.; Kamiya, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma, 370-1292 (Japan); Miyake, Y. [Beam Seiko Instruments Inc., 2-10-1 Kamata, Ohta-ku, Tokyo, 144-0052 (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    A new 300 kV compact focused gaseous ion beam (gas-FIB) system with three-stage acceleration lens was constructed at JAEA. The preliminary experiments of formation of the focused gaseous ion beams were carried out to show the availability of the gas-FIB system as a writing tool for 3D proton lithography. As a result of the experiments, it was proved that the focal point was kept at the same position under changing the kinetic energy but with keeping the kinetic energy ratio constant, which was defined as the ratio of kinetic energy in object side to that in image side for the third acceleration lens. This characteristic of the gas-FIB is a good point to advance the 3D proton lithography changing penetration depth in a sample by varying the beam energy.

  9. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  10. A rudimentary electron energy analyzer for accelerator diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, R. A.; Harkay, K. C.

    2000-10-01

    We have constructed a compact, planar retarding field analyzer for the diagnostics of low-energy, background electrons in a high-energy particle accelerator. Bench measurements of the analyzer have been made to characterize it, and the results are reasonable in light of models of this type of analyzer. Comparisons to results obtained using a beam-position monitor (BPM) show the advantages of this analyzer for electron diagnostics. Sample results from analyzers installed at the Advanced Photon Source storage ring at Argonne National Laboratory and the Proton Storage Ring at Los Alamos National Laboratory show how the analyzers can be used for studying the intensity, energy, and time structure of electrons in an accelerator environment.

  11. Compaction Scale Up and Optimization of Cylindrical Fuel Compacts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey J. Einerson; Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott E. Niedzialek; W. Clay Richardson; Scott G. Nagley

    2012-10-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of designed experiments have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel. Results from these experiments are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operational using nuclear fuel materials. The process is being certified for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts for the AGR-5/6/7 experiment at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  12. Muon Acceleration - RLA and FFAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Alex

    2011-10-01

    Various acceleration schemes for muons are presented. The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and 'beam shaping' can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a non-scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain across the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. The RLAs offer very efficient usage of high gradient superconducting RF and ability to adjust path-length after each linac pass through individual return arcs with uniformly periodic FODO optics suitable for chromatic compensation of emittance dilution with sextupoles. However, they require spreaders/recombiners switchyards at both linac ends and significant total length of the arcs. The non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring combines compactness with very large chromatic acceptance (twice the injection energy) and it allows for large number of passes through the RF (at least eight, possibly as high as 15).

  13. Compaction properties of isomalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Gerad K.; Engelhart, Jeffrey J. P.; Eissens, Anko C.

    2009-01-01

    Although other polyols have been described extensively as filler-binders in direct compaction of tablets, the polyol isomalt is rather unknown as pharmaceutical excipient, in spite of its description in all the main pharmacopoeias. In this paper the compaction properties of different types of ispoma

  14. Compact Information Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    network traffic, information retrieval, and databases are faced with very large, inherently high-dimensional, or naturally streaming datasets. This...proposal aims at developing mathematically rigorous and general- purpose statistical methods based on stable random projections, to achieve compact...detections (e.g., DDoS attacks), machine learning, databases , and search. Fundamentally, compact data representations are highly beneficial because they

  15. Compaction properties of isomalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Gerad K; Engelhart, Jeffrey J P; Eissens, Anko C

    2009-08-01

    Although other polyols have been described extensively as filler-binders in direct compaction of tablets, the polyol isomalt is rather unknown as pharmaceutical excipient, in spite of its description in all the main pharmacopoeias. In this paper the compaction properties of different types of ispomalt were studied. The types used were the standard product sieved isomalt, milled isomalt and two types of agglomerated isomalt with a different ratio between 6-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-d-sorbitol (GPS) and 1-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-d-mannitol dihydrate (GPM). Powder flow properties, specific surface area and densities of the different types were investigated. Compactibility was investigated by compression of the tablets on a compaction simulator, simulating the compression on high-speed tabletting machines. Lubricant sensitivity was measured by compressing unlubricated tablets and tablets lubricated with 1% magnesium stearate on an instrumented hydraulic press. Sieved isomalt had excellent flow properties but the compactibility was found to be poor whereas the lubricant sensitivity was high. Milling resulted in both a strong increase in compactibility as an effect of the higher surface area for bonding and a decrease in lubricant sensitivity as an effect of the higher surface area to be coated with magnesium stearate. However, the flow properties of milled isomalt were too bad for use as filler-binder in direct compaction. Just as could be expected, agglomeration of milled isomalt by fluid bed agglomeration improved flowability. The good compaction properties and the low lubricant sensitivity were maintained. This effect is caused by an early fragmentation of the agglomerated material during the compaction process, producing clean, lubricant-free particles and a high surface for bonding. The different GPS/GPM ratios of the agglomerated isomalt types studied had no significant effect on the compaction properties.

  16. Gravitational waves from compact objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Antonio de Freitas Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    Large ground-based laser beam interferometers are presently in operation both in the USA (LIGO) and in Europe (VIRGO) and potential sources that might be detected by these instruments are revisited. The present generation of detectors does not have a sensitivity high enough to probe a significant volume of the universe and,consequently, predicted event rates are very low. The planned advanced generation of interferometers will probably be able to detect, for the first time, a gravitational signal. Advanced LIGO and EGO instruments are expected to detect few (some): binary coalescences consisting of either two neutron stars, two black holes or a neutron star and a black hole. In space, the sensitivity of the planned LISA spacecraft constellation will allow the detection of the gravitational signals, even within a "pessimistic" range of possible signals, produced during the capture of compact objects by supermassive black holes, at a rate of a few tens per year.

  17. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  18. Accelerator applications in energy and security

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2015-01-01

    As accelerator science and technology progressed over the past several decades, the accelerators themselves have undergone major improvements in multiple performance factors: beam energy, beam power, and beam brightness. As a consequence, accelerators have found applications in a wide range of fields in our life and in our society. The current volume is dedicated to applications in energy and security, two of the most important and urgent topics in today's world. This volume makes an effort to provide a review as complete and up to date as possible of this broad and challenging subject. It contains overviews on each of the two topics and a series of articles for in-depth discussions including heavy ion accelerator driven inertial fusion, linear accelerator-based ADS systems, circular accelerator-based ADS systems, accelerator-reactor interface, accelerators for fusion material testing, cargo inspection, proton radiography, compact neutron generators and detectors. It also has a review article on accelerator ...

  19. Concurrent hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with 5-FU and once weekly cisplatin in locally advanced head and neck cancer. The 10-year results of a prospective phase II trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budach, V.; Boehmer, D.; Badakhshi, H.; Jahn, U.; Stromberger, C. [Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department for Radiooncology, Clinic for Radiooncology, Berlin (Germany); Becker, E.T. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Berlin (Germany); Wernecke, K.D. [Sostana Statistics GmbH, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    In this study, the acute toxicity and long-term outcome of a hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiation regimen with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck were evaluated. From 2000-2002, 38 patients with stage III (5.3 %) and stage IV (94.7 %) head and neck cancer were enrolled in a phase II study. Patients received hyperfractionated-accelerated radiotherapy with 72 Gy in 15 fractions of 2 Gy followed by 1.4 Gy twice daily with concurrent, continuous infusion 5-FU of 600 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1-5 and 6 cycles of weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m{sup 2}). Acute toxicities (CTCAEv2.0), locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed and exploratively compared with the ARO 95-06 trial. Median follow-up was 11.4 years (95 % CI 8.6-14.2) and mean dose 71.6 Gy. Of the patients, 82 % had 6 (n = 15) or 5 (n = 16) cycles of cisplatin, 5 and 2 patients received 4 and 3 cycles, respectively. Grade 3 anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were observed in 15.8, 15.8, and 2.6 %, respectively. Grade 3 mucositis in 50 %, grade 3 and 4 dysphagia in 55 and 13 %. The 2-, 5-, and 10-year LRC was 65, 53.6, and 48.2 %, the MFS was 77.5, 66.7, and 57.2 % and the OS 59.6, 29.2, and 15 %, respectively. Chemoradiation with 5-FU and cisplatin seems feasible and superior in terms of LRC and OS to the ARO 95-06C-HART arm at 2 years. However, this did not persist at the 5- and 10-year follow-ups. (orig.) [German] Untersuchung der Akuttoxizitaet und des Langzeitueberlebens einer hyperfraktioniert-akzelerierten simultanen Radiochemotherapie mit Cisplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) bei Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenen Kopf-Hals-Tumoren. Von 2000 bis 2002 wurden 38 Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region im Stadium III (5,3 %) und IV (94,7 %) eingeschlossen. Es erfolgte eine simultane hyperfraktionierte akzelerierte Radiochemotherapie mit 72 Gy in 15 Fraktionen a 2 Gy

  20. Compact, Efficient, and Reliable Ventilation Fan for EVA Suits Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced EVA suits for space exploration will need a portable life support system (PLSS) that is compact, lightweight, and highly reliable. A key component is a...

  1. Compact, Efficient, and Reliable Ventilation Fan for EVA Suits Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced EVA suits for space exploration will need a portable life support system (PLSS) that is compact, lightweight, highly reliable, and meets stringent...

  2. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    2004-10-01

    We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6-7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years. We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within 20-30% of the maximum possible values.

  3. Technology Selections for Cylindrical Compact Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey A. Phillips

    2010-10-01

    A variety of process approaches are available and have been used historically for manufacture of cylindrical fuel compacts. The jet milling, fluid bed overcoating, and hot press compacting approach being adopted in the U.S. AGR Fuel Development Program for scale-up of the compacting process involves significant paradigm shifts from historical approaches. New methods are being pursued because of distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of process mixed waste. Recent advances in jet milling technology allow simplified dry matrix powder preparation. The matrix preparation method is well matched with patented fluid bed powder overcoating technology recently developed for the pharmaceutical industry and directly usable for high density fuel particle matrix overcoating. High density overcoating places fuel particles as close as possible to their final position in the compact and is matched with hot press compacting which fully fluidizes matrix resin to achieve die fill at low compacting pressures and without matrix end caps. Overall the revised methodology provides a simpler process that should provide very high yields, improve homogeneity, further reduce defect fractions, eliminate intermediate grading and QC steps, and allow further increases in fuel packing fractions.

  4. Small Valdivia compact spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kubi's, W; Kubi\\'s, Wieslaw; Michalewski, Henryk

    2005-01-01

    We prove a preservation theorem for the class of Valdivia compact spaces, which involves inverse sequences of ``simple'' retractions. Consequently, a compact space of weight $\\loe\\aleph_1$ is Valdivia compact iff it is the limit of an inverse sequence of metric compacta whose bonding maps are retractions. As a corollary, we show that the class of Valdivia compacta of weight at most $\\aleph_1$ is preserved both under retractions and under open 0-dimensional images. Finally, we characterize the class of all Valdivia compacta in the language of category theory, which implies that this class is preserved under all continuous weight preserving functors.

  5. Dielectric laser accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  6. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  7. Time-dependent compaction band formation in sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Michael J.; Brantut, Nicolas; Baud, Patrick; Meredith, Philip G.

    2015-07-01

    Compaction bands in sandstone are laterally extensive planar deformation features that are characterized by lower porosity and permeability than the surrounding host rock. As a result, this form of localization has important implications for both strain partitioning and fluid flow in the Earth's upper crust. To better understand the time dependency of compaction band growth, we performed triaxial deformation experiments on water-saturated Bleurswiller sandstone (initial porosity = 0.24) under constant stress (creep) conditions in the compactant regime. Our experiments show that inelastic strain accumulates at a constant stress in the compactant regime, manifest as compaction bands. While creep in the dilatant regime is characterized by an increase in porosity and, ultimately, an acceleration in axial strain rate to shear failure, compaction creep is characterized by a reduction in porosity and a gradual deceleration in axial strain rate. The global decrease in the rates of axial strain, acoustic emission energy, and porosity change during creep compaction is punctuated at intervals by higher rate excursions, interpreted as the formation of compaction bands. The growth rate of compaction bands formed during creep is lower as the applied differential stress, and hence, background creep strain rate, is decreased. However, the inelastic strain associated with the growth of a compaction band remains constant over strain rates spanning several orders of magnitude (from 10-8 to 10-5 s-1). We find that despite the large differences in strain rate and growth rate (from both creep and constant strain rate experiments), the characteristics (geometry and thickness) of the compaction bands remain essentially the same. Several lines of evidence, notably the similarity between the differential stress dependence of creep strain rate in the dilatant and compactant regimes, suggest that as for dilatant creep, subcritical stress corrosion cracking is the mechanism responsible for

  8. Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility (formerly LOASIS) develops advanced accelerators and radiation sources. High gradient (1-100 GV/m) laser-plasma...

  9. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Home Contact Us Search form Search Connect Volunteer ... is to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  10. Compact microchannel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stewart

    2003-09-30

    The present invention provides compact geometries for the layout of microchannel columns through the use of turns and straight channel segments. These compact geometries permit the use of long separation or reaction columns on a small microchannel substrate or, equivalently, permit columns of a fixed length to occupy a smaller substrate area. The new geometries are based in part on mathematical analyses that provide the minimum turn radius for which column performance in not degraded. In particular, we find that straight channel segments of sufficient length reduce the required minimum turn radius, enabling compact channel layout when turns and straight segments are combined. The compact geometries are obtained by using turns and straight segments in overlapped or nested arrangements to form pleated or coiled columns.

  11. Towards the final BSA modeling for the accelerator-driven BNCT facility at INFN LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos, C. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnlogicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, 5ta y30, Miramar, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; Moro, D. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Some remarkable advances have been made in the last years on the SPES-BNCT project of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) towards the development of the accelerator-driven thermal neutron beam facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL), aimed at the BNCT experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma. The compact neutron source will be produced via the {sup 9}Be(p,xn) reactions using the 5 MeV, 30 mA beam driven by the RFQ accelerator, whose modules construction has been recently completed, into a thick beryllium target prototype already available. The Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) final modeling, using both neutron converter and the new, detailed, Be(p,xn) neutron yield spectra at 5 MeV energy recently measured at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator at LNL, is summarized here.

  12. Towards the final BSA modeling for the accelerator-driven BNCT facility at INFN LNL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, C; Esposito, J; Agosteo, S; Colautti, P; Conte, V; Moro, D; Pola, A

    2011-12-01

    Some remarkable advances have been made in the last years on the SPES-BNCT project of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) towards the development of the accelerator-driven thermal neutron beam facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL), aimed at the BNCT experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma. The compact neutron source will be produced via the (9)Be(p,xn) reactions using the 5 MeV, 30 mA beam driven by the RFQ accelerator, whose modules construction has been recently completed, into a thick beryllium target prototype already available. The Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) final modeling, using both neutron converter and the new, detailed, Be(p,xn) neutron yield spectra at 5 MeV energy recently measured at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator at LNL, is summarized here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation on laser accelerators. Plasma beat wave accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Akihiko; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Hagiwara, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Sudo, Osamu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-04-01

    Laser accelerator technology has characteristics of high energy, compact, short pulse and high luminescence{center_dot}low emittance. This means potential many applications in wide ranges of fields as well as high energy and nuclear physics. High power short laser pulses are injected to a plasma in the typical example of laser accelerators. Large electric fields are induced in the plasma. Electrons in the plasma are accelerated with the ponderomotive force of the electric field. The principles of interaction on beat wave, wakefield accelerators, inverse free electron laser and inverse Cherenkov radiation are briefly introduced. The overview of plasma beat wave accelerator study is briefly described on the programs at Chalk River Laboratories(Canada), UCLA(USA), Osaka Univ. (Japan) and Ecole Polytechnique (France). Issues of the plasma beat wave accelerator are discussed from the viewpoint of application. Existing laser technologies of CO{sub 2}, YAG and YFL are available for the present day accelerator technology. An acceleration length of beat wave interaction is limited due to its phase condition. Ideas on multi-staged acceleration using the phasing plasma fiber are introduced. (Y. Tanaka)

  14. Magnetic Bunch Compression for a Compact Compton Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamage, B. [ODU; Satogata, Todd J. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    A compact electron accelerator suitable for Compton source applications is in design at the Center for Accelerator Science at Old Dominion University and Jefferson Lab. Here we discuss two options for transverse magnetic bunch compression and final focus, each involving a 4-dipole chicane with M_{56} tunable over a range of 1.5-2.0m with independent tuning of final focus to interaction point $\\beta$*=5mm. One design has no net bending, while the other has net bending of 90 degrees and is suitable for compact corner placement.

  15. Seventh International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Organizers of the Seventh International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders

    2012-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the Seventh International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders. This school is a continuation of the series of schools which began six years ago.  The first school was held in 2006 in Sokendai, Japan, the second in 2007 in Erice, Italy, the third in 2008 in Oakbrook Hills, USA, the fourth in 2009 in Huairou, China, the fifth in 2010 in Villars-sur-Ollon, Switzerland, and the sixth in 2011 in Pacific Grove, USA.   The school is organized by the International Linear Collider (ILC) Global Design Effort (GDE), the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) Beam Dynamics Panel. The school this year will take place at the Radisson Blu Hotel, Indore, India from November 27 to December 8, 2012. It is hosted by the Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) and sponsored by a number of funding agencies and institutions around the world including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. National Science...

  16. EM Structure Based and Vacuum Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, E.R.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The importance of particle acceleration may be judged from the number of applications which require some sort of accelerated beam. In addition to accelerator-based high energy physics research, non-academic applications include medical imaging and treatment, structural biology by x-ray diffraction, pulse radiography, cargo inspection, material processing, food and medical instrument sterilization, and so on. Many of these applications are already well served by existing technologies and will profit only marginally from developments in accelerator technology. Other applications are poorly served, such as structural biology, which is conducted at synchrotron radiation facilities, and medical treatment using proton accelerators, the machines for which are rare because they are complex and costly. Developments in very compact, high brightness and high gradient accelerators will change how accelerators are used for such applications, and potentially enable new ones. Physical and technical issues governing structure-based and vacuum acceleration of charged particles are reviewed, with emphasis on practical aspects.

  17. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  18. Thomas Edison Accelerated Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Henry M.; Chasin, Gene

    This paper describes early outcomes of a Sacramento, California, elementary school that participated in the Accelerated Schools Project. The school, which serves many minority and poor students, began training for the project in 1992. Accelerated Schools were designed to advance the learning rate of students through a gifted and talented approach,…

  19. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored accelera......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...... an approach to facilitate implementation and realization of business ideas and is a lucrative approach to transform research into ventures and to revitalize regions and industries in transition. Investors have noticed that the accelerator approach is a way to increase the possibility of success by funnelling...

  20. Compactness theorems of fuzzy semantics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship among diverse fuzzy semantics vs. the corresponding logic consequence operators has been analyzed systematically. The results that compactness and logical compactness of fuzzy semantics are equivalent to compactness and continuity of the logic consequence operator induced by the semantics respectively have been proved under certain conditions. A general compactness theorem of fuzzy semantics have been established which says that every fuzzy semantics defined on a free algebra with members corresponding to continuous functions is compact.

  1. Ion acceleration from relativistic laser nano-target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Daniel

    2012-01-06

    Laser-ion acceleration has been of particular interest over the last decade for fundamental as well as applied sciences. Remarkable progress has been made in realizing laser-driven accelerators that are cheap and very compact compared with conventional rf-accelerators. Proton and ion beams have been produced with particle energies of up to 50 MeV and several MeV/u, respectively, with outstanding properties in terms of transverse emittance and current. These beams typically exhibit an exponentially decaying energy distribution, but almost all advanced applications, such as oncology, proton imaging or fast ignition, require quasimonoenergetic beams with a low energy spread. The majority of the experiments investigated ion acceleration in the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) regime with comparably thick targets in the {mu}m range. In this thesis ion acceleration is investigated from nm-scaled targets, which are partially produced at the University of Munich with thickness as low as 3 nm. Experiments have been carried out at LANL's Trident high-power and high-contrast laser (80 J, 500 fs, {lambda}=1054 nm), where ion acceleration with these nano-targets occurs during the relativistic transparency of the target, in the so-called Breakout afterburner (BOA) regime. With a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola and ion wide angle spectrometer, thickness dependencies of the ions angular distribution, particle number, average and maximum energy have been measured. Carbon C{sup 6+} energies reached 650 MeV and 1 GeV for unheated and heated targets, respectively, and proton energies peaked at 75 MeV and 120 MeV for diamond and CH{sub 2} targets. Experimental data is presented, where the conversion efficiency into carbon C{sup 6+} (protons) is investigated and found to have an up to 10fold (5fold) increase over the TNSA regime. With circularly polarized laser light, quasi-monoenergetic carbon ions have been generated from the same nm-scaled foil

  2. Die wall lubricated warm compaction behavior of non-lubricant admixed iron powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Tu-ming; YI Jian-hong; CHEN Shi-jin; PENG Yuan-dong; LI Li-ya; XIA Qing-lin

    2005-01-01

    The phenomena of die wall lubricated warm compaction of non-lubricant admixed iron powders were researched, and its mechanism of densification was discussed. Water atomized powder obtained from the Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation was used. With compacting and sintering, compared with cold compaction, the density of warm compacted samples increases by 0.07-0.22 g/cm 3 at the same pressed pressure. The maximum achievable green density of warm compacted samples is 7.12 g/cm 3 at 120 ℃, and the maximum sintered density is 7.18 g/cm 3 at 80 ℃. Compared with cold compaction, the ejection force of warm compaction is smaller; the maximum discrepancy is about 7 kN. The warm compacted mechanism of densification of iron powders can be obtained: heating the powder contributes to improving plastic deformation of powder particles, and accelerating the mutual filling and rearrangement of powder particles.

  3. Intelligent compaction theory of high roller compacted concrete dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Donghai

    2012-01-01

    The concept and realization process of intelligent compaction for the construction of high roller compacted concrete dam were presented, as well as the theory of monitoring and intelligent feedback control. Based on the real-time analysis of the compaction index, a multiple regression model of the dam compactness was established and a realime estimation method of compaction quality for the entire work area of roller compacted concrete dam was proposed finally. The adaptive adjustment of the roiling process parameters was achieved, with the speed, the exciting force, the roller pass and the compaction thickness meeting the standards during the whole construction process. As a result, the compaction quality and construction efficiency can be improved. The research provides a new way for the construction quality control of roller compacted concrete dam.

  4. [Projects to accelerate the practical use of innovative medical devices to collaborate with TWIns, Center for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Waseda University and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Shingo; Umezu, Mitsuo; Iseki, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi Kasanuki Noboru; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Kitamori, Takehiko; Tei, Yuichi; Nakaoka, Ryusuke; Haishima, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Division of Medical Devices has been conducting the projects to accelerate the practical use of innovative medical devices to collaborate with TWIns, Center for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Waseda University and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. The TWIns has been studying to aim at establishment of preclinical evaluation methods by "Engineering Based Medicine", and established Regulatory Science Institute for Medical Devices. School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo has been studying to aim at establishment of assessment methodology for innovative minimally invasive therapeutic devices, materials, and nanobio diagnostic devices. This report reviews the exchanges of personnel, the implement systems and the research progress of these projects.

  5. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.; GARREN,A.A.; JOHNSTONE,C.

    2000-04-07

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous.

  6. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  7. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  8. Physical exercise accelerates reentrainment of human sleep-wake cycle but not of plasma melatonin rhythm to 8-h phase-advanced sleep schedule

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Hashimoto, Satoko; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Nishide, Shin-Ya; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2010-01-01

    ...). The sleep schedule was phase-advanced by 8 h from their habitual sleep times for 4 days, which was followed by a free-run session for 6 days, during which the subjects were deprived of time cues...

  9. Limestone compaction: an enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Halley, Robert B.; Hudson, J. Harold; Lidz, Barbara H.

    1977-01-01

    Compression of an undisturbed carbonate sediment core under a pressure of 556 kg/cm2 produced a “rock” with sedimentary structures similar to typical ancient fine-grained limestones. Surprisingly, shells, foraminifera, and other fossils were not noticeably crushed, which indicates that absence of crushed fossils in ancient limestones can no longer be considered evidence that limestones do not compact.

  10. Compact rotating cup anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Compact, collapsible rotating cup anemometer is used in remote locations where portability and durability are factors in the choice of equipment. This lightweight instrument has a low wind-velocity threshold, is capable of withstanding large mechanical shocks while in its stowed configuration, and has fast response to wind fluctuations.

  11. Design of an X-band accelerating structure using a newly developed structural optimization procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Fang, Wencheng; Gu, Qiang; Zhao, Zhentang

    2017-05-01

    An X-band high gradient accelerating structure is a challenging technology for implementation in advanced electron linear accelerator facilities. The present work discusses the design of an X-band accelerating structure for dedicated application to a compact hard X-ray free electron laser facility at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, and numerous design optimizations are conducted with consideration for radio frequency (RF) breakdown, RF efficiency, short-range wakefields, and dipole/quadrupole field modes, to ensure good beam quality and a high accelerating gradient. The designed X-band accelerating structure is a constant gradient structure with a 4π/5 operating mode and input and output dual-feed couplers in a racetrack shape. The design process employs a newly developed effective optimization procedure for optimization of the X-band accelerating structure. In addition, the specific design of couplers providing high beam quality by eliminating dipole field components and reducing quadrupole field components is discussed in detail.

  12. Improving the compaction properties of roller compacted calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, C; Olsen, P M; Bertelsen, P; Kristensen, J; Sonnergaard, J M

    2007-09-05

    The effects of roller compaction process parameters, morphological forms of calcium carbonate and particle size of sorbitol on flow, compaction and compression properties were investigated. The morphology of the calcium carbonate and the sorbitol particle size were more influential on the compaction properties than the settings of the roller compactor. The roller compaction process was demonstrated to be robust and stable in regard to flowability and compactibility. The flowability of the granules was improved adequately to facilitate compression in a production scale rotary tablet press. By adding sorbitol to the calcium carbonate, the compressibility - characterized by the Walker coefficient W(ID) - and the compactibility C(P) were improved considerably. A correlation between the consolidation characteristics was demonstrated. Compactibility data from the compaction simulator correlated with the tablet press for two of the calcium carbonates, the cubic form and the ground quality.

  13. Laser Plasma Particle Accelerators: Large Fields for Smaller Facility Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Esarey, Eric H.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Leemans, Wim P.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Cowan, Ben; Durant, Marc; Hamill, Paul; Messmer, Peter; Mullowney, Paul; Nieter, Chet; Paul, Kevin; Shasharina, Svetlana; Veitzer, Seth; Weber, Gunther; Rubel, Oliver; Ushizima, Daniela; Bethel, Wes; Wu, John

    2009-03-20

    Compared to conventional particle accelerators, plasmas can sustain accelerating fields that are thousands of times higher. To exploit this ability, massively parallel SciDAC particle simulations provide physical insight into the development of next-generation accelerators that use laser-driven plasma waves. These plasma-based accelerators offer a path to more compact, ultra-fast particle and radiation sources for probing the subatomic world, for studying new materials and new technologies, and for medical applications.

  14. A compact tritium AMS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa, M L; Dingley, K H; Hamm, R W; Love, A H; Roberts, M L

    1999-09-23

    Tritium ({sup 3}H) is a radioisotope that is extensively utilized in biological and environmental research. For biological research, {sup 3}H is generally quantified by liquid scintillation counting requiring gram-sized samples and counting times of several hours. For environmental research, {sup 3}H is usually quantified by {sup 3}He in-growth which requires gram-sized samples and in-growth times of several months. In contrast, provisional studies at LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have demonstrated that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can be used to quantify {sup 3}H in milligram-sized biological samples with a 100 to 1000-fold improvement in detection limits when compared to scintillation counting. This increased sensitivity is expected to have great impact in the biological and environmental research community. However in order to make the {sup 3}H AMS technique more broadly accessible, smaller, simpler, and less expensive AMS instrumentation must be developed. To meet this need, a compact, relatively low cost prototype {sup 3}H AMS system has been designed and built based on a LLNL ion source/sample changer and an AccSys Technology, Inc. Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac. With the prototype system, {sup 3}/{sup 1}H ratios ranging from 1 x 10{sup -10} to 1 x 10{sup -13} have to be measured from milligram sized samples. With improvements in system operation and sample preparation methodology, the sensitivity limit of the system is expected to increase to approximately 1 x 10{sup -15}.

  15. 75 FR 67122 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... reduce poverty and accelerate economic growth. The Compact is intended to support: (a) Rehabilitation of... Evaluation Plan Annex IV: Conditions to Disbursement of Compact Implementation Funding Annex V: Definitions... achieve lasting economic growth and poverty reduction; and Recognizing that MCC wishes to help Jordan...

  16. Spin supplementary conditions for spinning compact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Mikóczi, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the different spin supplementary conditions (SSC) for a spinning compact binary with the leading-order spin-orbit (SO) interaction. The Lagrangian of the binary system can be constructed but it is acceleration-dependent in two cases of SSC. We rewrite the generalized Hamiltonian formalism proposed by Ostrogradsky and compute the conservative quantities and the dissipative part of relative motion during the gravitational radiation of each SSCs. We give the orbital elements and observed quantities of the SO dynamics, for instance the energy and the orbital angular momentum losses and waveforms and discuss their SSC dependence.

  17. Progress in Compact Toroid Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2002-09-01

    The term "compact toroids" as used here means spherical tokamaks, spheromaks, and field reversed configurations, but not reversed field pinches. There are about 17 compact toroid experiments under construction or operating, with approximate parameters listed in Table 1.

  18. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Particle Accelerator Physics is an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. Part I gathers the basic tools, recalling the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part II is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed in Part III by the introduction and description of the main beam parameters. Part IV is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part V discusses the details of charged particle accleration. Part VI and Part VII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and the description of very intense beams. Part VIII is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. Part IX collects the appendices gathering useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are give...

  19. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  20. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  1. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...

  2. Future accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hübner, K

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the various schemes for electron-positron linear colliders is given and the status of the development of key components and the various test facilities is given. The present studies of muon-muon colliders and very large hadron colliders are summarized including the plans for component development and tests. Accelerator research and development to achieve highest gradients in linear accelerators is outlined. (44 refs).

  3. The United Nations Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra; McIntosh, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the interdisciplinary literature on the UN Global Compact. The review identifies three research perspectives, which scholars have used to study the UN Global Compact so far: a historical perspective discussing the Global Compact in the context of UN-business relations...

  4. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on High-Brightness Accelerators Held in Pitlochry, Scotland on 13-25 July 1986. Series B. Volume 178

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-25

    particle accelerators, Phys. Rev., 103:1837. Thomas, L.H., 1938 The paths of ions in the cyclotron, Phys. Rev., 54:580. TRIUMP , 1985 KAON factory...2assumptions that $* scales with energy as y and that at least approxi- mately az - Xrf - y in order to keep the total AC wall plug power for a collider with...efficiency with which it converts average input AC power into the electromagnetic power delivered to the structure. A figure of merit for the structure

  5. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  6. Collective Deceleration: Toward a Compact Beam Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.-C.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt. /Munich U.; Chao, A.W.; /SLAC; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.

    2011-11-28

    With the increasing development of laser accelerators, the electron energy is already beyond GeV and even higher in near future. Conventional beam dump based on ionization or radiation loss mechanism is cumbersome and costly, also has radiological hazards. We revisit the stopping power of high-energy charged particles in matter and discuss the associated problem of beam dump from the point of view of collective deceleration. The collective stopping length in an ionized gas can be several orders of magnitude shorter than the Bethe-Bloch and multiple electromagnetic cascades stopping length in solid. At the mean time, the tenuous density of the gas makes the radioactivation negligible. Such a compact and non-radioactivating beam dump works well for short and dense bunches, which is typically generated from laser wakefield accelerator.

  7. Analysis of laboratory compaction methods of roller compacted concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtík, Tomáš; Chylík, Roman; Bílý, Petr; Fládr, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is an ordinary concrete poured and compacted with machines typically used for laying of asphalt road layers. One of the problems connected with this technology is preparation of representative samples in the laboratory. The aim of this work was to analyse two methods of preparation of RCC laboratory samples with bulk density as the comparative parameter. The first method used dynamic compaction by pneumatic hammer. The second method of compaction had a static character. The specimens were loaded by precisely defined force in laboratory loading machine to create the same conditions as during static rolling (in the Czech Republic, only static rolling is commonly used). Bulk densities obtained by the two compaction methods were compared with core drills extracted from real RCC structure. The results have shown that the samples produced by pneumatic hammer tend to overestimate the bulk density of the material. For both compaction methods, immediate bearing index test was performed to verify the quality of compaction. A fundamental difference between static and dynamic compaction was identified. In static compaction, initial resistance to penetration of the mandrel was higher, after exceeding certain limit the resistance was constant. This means that the samples were well compacted just on the surface. Specimens made by pneumatic hammer actively resisted throughout the test, the whole volume was uniformly compacted.

  8. Mechanical compaction directly modulates the dynamics of bile canaliculi formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Toh, Yi-Chin; Li, Qiushi; Nugraha, Bramasta; Zheng, Baixue; Lu, Thong Beng; Gao, Yi; Ng, Mary Mah Lee; Yu, Hanry

    2013-02-01

    Homeostatic pressure-driven compaction is a ubiquitous mechanical force in multicellular organisms and is proposed to be important in the maintenance of multicellular tissue integrity and function. Previous cell-free biochemical models have demonstrated that there are cross-talks between compaction forces and tissue structural functions, such as cell-cell adhesion. However, its involvement in physiological tissue function has yet to be directly demonstrated. Here, we use the bile canaliculus (BC) as a physiological example of a multicellular functional structure in the liver, and employ a novel 3D microfluidic hepatocyte culture system to provide an unprecedented opportunity to experimentally modulate the compaction states of primary hepatocyte aggregates in a 3D physiological-mimicking environment. Mechanical compaction alters the physical attributes of the hepatocyte aggregates, including cell shape, cell packing density and cell-cell contact area, but does not impair the hepatocytes' remodeling and functional capabilities. Characterization of structural and functional polarity shows that BC formation in compact hepatocyte aggregates is accelerated to as early as 12 hours post-seeding; whereas non-compact control requires 48 hours for functional BC formation. Further dynamic immunofluorescence imaging and gene expression profiling reveal that compaction accelerated BC formation is accompanied by changes in actin cytoskeleton remodeling dynamics and transcriptional levels of hepatic nuclear factor 4α and Annexin A2. Our report not only provides a novel strategy of modeling BC formation for in vitro hepatology research, but also shows a first instance that homeostatic pressure-driven compaction force is directly coupled to the higher-order multicellular functions.

  9. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2002-01-01

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Compact Dielectric Wakefield Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The bunch is modelled has a superimposition of line of charges with finite extension in horizontal direction and with an offset y0 in the vertical...induced oscillating voltage behind the bunch can be obtained from V +(t) = aq2I0 ω2(1 + q2) ( π[q2(1− 2m)− 1] sin ( ωt q − πm ) + 2q2 cos ( ωt q − πm...3rd-harmonic module was installed to nominally correct for nonlinear distortions in the LPS and enhance the final peak current final report − HDTRA-1-10

  11. Penning neon plasma laser pumped by a compact accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzhiev, V.I.; Zhidkov, A.G.; Koval' , A.V.; Skakun, V.S.; Tarasenko, V.F.

    1988-01-01

    A study is made of the emission characteristics of a neon laser (wavelengths, 585.3, 724.5, and 703.2 nm) in the afterglow (50-120 ns) of a plasma generated by a short (less than 10 ns) electron beam pulse (20-100 A/sq cm) during the longitudinal and transverse pumping of dense (0.5-3 atm) He-Ne-Ar(Kr) and Ne-H2 mixtures. It is shown experimentally that preheating has a negative effect on the lasing characteristics. The relaxation kinetics of the He-Ne-Ar mixture and the emission characteristics of the neon yellow line are calculated; the results are in good agreement with measured lasing characteristics. 7 references.

  12. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Sabine

    2012-08-08

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure ({<=} ns) and high intensity ({>=}10{sup 7} p/cm{sup 2}) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are

  13. Do technological advances in linear accelerators improve dosimetric outcomes in stereotaxy? A head-on comparison of seven linear accelerators using volumetric modulated arc therapy-based stereotactic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linear accelerator (Linac based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT has been used for treating small intracranial lesions. Recent development in the Linacs such as inbuilt micro multileaf collimator (MLC and flattening filter free (FFF beam are intended to provide a better dose conformity and faster delivery when using VMAT technique. This study was aimed to compare the dosimetric outcomes and monitor units (MUs of the stereotactic treatment plans for different commercially available MLC models and beam profiles. Materials and Methods: Ten patients having 12 planning target volume (PTV/gross target volume's (GTVs who received the SRS/SRT treatment in our clinic using Axesse Linac (considered reference arm gold standard were considered for this study. The test arms comprised of plans using Elekta Agility with FFF, Elekta Agility with the plane beam, Elekta APEX, Varian Millennium 120, Varian Millennium 120HD, and Elekta Synergy in Monaco treatment planning system. Planning constraints and calculation grid spacing were not altered in the test plans. To objectively evaluate the efficacy of MLC-beam model, the resultant dosimetric outcomes were subtracted from the reference arm parameters. Results: V95%, V100%, V105%, D1%, maximum dose, and mean dose of PTV/GTV showed a maximum inter MLC - beam model variation of 1.5% and 2% for PTV and GTV, respectively. Average PTV conformity index and heterogeneity index shows a variation in the range 0.56–0.63 and 1.08–1.11, respectively. Mean dose difference (excluding Axesse for all organs varied between 1.1 cGy and 74.8 cGy (mean dose = 6.1 cGy standard deviation [SD] = 26.9 cGy and 1.7 cGy–194.5 cGy (mean dose 16.1 cGy SD = 57.2 cGy for single and multiple fraction, respectively. Conclusion: The dosimetry of VMAT-based SRS/SRT treatment plan had minimal dependence on MLC and beam model variations. All tested MLC

  14. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  15. Direct acceleration of electrons by a CO2 laser in a curved plasma waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing; Shen, Baifei

    2016-01-01

    Laser plasma interaction with micro-engineered targets at relativistic intensities has been greatly promoted by recent progress in the high contrast lasers and the manufacture of advanced micro- and nano-structures. This opens new possibilities for the physics of laser-matter interaction. Here we propose a novel approach that leverages the advantages of high-pressure CO 2 laser, laser-waveguide interaction, as well as micro-engineered plasma structure to accelerate electrons to peak energy greater than 1 GeV with narrow slice energy spread (~1%) and high overall efficiency. The acceleration gradient is 26 GV/m for a 1.3 TW CO2 laser system. The micro-bunching of a long electron beam leads to the generation of a chain of ultrashort electron bunches with the duration roughly equal to half-laser-cycle. These results open a way for developing a compact and economic electron source for diverse applications.

  16. Direct acceleration of electrons by a CO$_{2}$ laser in a curved plasma waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing; Shen, Baifei

    2016-01-01

    Laser plasma interaction with micro-engineered targets at relativistic intensities has been greatly promoted by recent progress in the high contrast lasers and the manufacture of advanced micro- and nano-structures. This opens new possibilities for the physics of laser-matter interaction. Here we propose a novel approach that leverages the advantages of high-pressure CO$_{2}$ laser, laser-waveguide interaction, as well as micro-engineered plasma structure to accelerate electrons to peak energy greater than 1 GeV with narrow slice energy spread ($\\sim1\\%$) and high overall efficiency. The acceleration gradient is 26 GV/m for a 1.3 TW CO$_{2}$ laser system. The micro-bunching of a long electron beam leads to the generation of a chain of ultrashort electron bunches with the duration roughly equal to half-laser-cycle. These results open a way for developing a compact and economic electron source for diverse applications.

  17. Roll compaction of mannitol: compactability study of crystalline and spray-dried grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carl Moritz; Pein, Miriam; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-09-10

    Purpose of this project was to investigate the roll compaction behavior of various mannitol grades. Therefore, five spray-dried grades as well as unprocessed β-d-mannitol were roll compacted with different compaction forces. The resulting granules were characterized with regard to their particle size distribution, flow properties, and BET surface area and compressed to tablets. Granules of unprocessed mannitol, even when applying high compaction forces during dry granulation, were characterized by a high amount of fines (about 21%), a small surface area (0.83 m(2)/g), and solely fair flowability (ffc=7.2). Tablets revealed either high friability or insufficient disintegration behavior. However, the use of spray-dried mannitol led to better results. Granules showed improved flow properties and a reduced amount of fines. Robust tablets with low friability were produced. Within the various spray-dried grades huge differences concerning the compactability were observed. Large BET surface areas of the granules resulted in advanced tensile strengths of the tablets, but acceptable disintegration behavior was maintained. These findings are relevant for the development of mannitol based drug formulations, in particular (oro)dispersible tablets containing a low dose or poor flowing active pharmaceutical ingredient, where direct compression is inappropriate and a granulation process prior to tableting is mandatory.

  18. Five-Year Follow-Up of Concomitant Accelerated Hypofractionated Radiation in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In resource limited settings, induction chemotherapy with Gemcitabine and Cisplatinum and concurrent hypofractionated chemoradiation for locally advanced carcinoma of buccal mucosa (BMSCC are a cost effective option but remain under reported. The objective of this study was to report long term survival outcome after concurrent hypofractionated radiotherapy in locally advanced BMSCC. Between February 2005 and 2009, 63 patients received treatment. Induction chemotherapy (IC regimen consisted of two drugs: Gemcitabine and Cisplatin. All patients received 55 Gy of radiation in 20 fractions with concurrent single agent Cisplatin (75 mg/m2. Five-year overall survival (OS, disease-free survival (DFS, and progression-free survival (PFS were determined. Based on AJCC staging, 7 (11% patients were stage III, 31 (49% stage IV a, and 25 (40% stage IVb at presentation. After IC, 8 (18% patients had complete radiological response, 33 (73% had partial response, and 4 (9% had stable disease. After concurrent hypofractionated chemoradiation, thirty-nine (62% patients were complete responders and 24 (38% had stable disease. With a minimum follow-up of 60 months, 5-year OS, DFS, and PFS were 30%, 49%, and 30%, respectively. In locally advanced buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma, concurrent hypofractionated chemoradiation results in acceptable survival and regimen related toxicity.

  19. Advanced metal artifact reduction MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty implants: compressed sensing acceleration enables the time-neutral use of SEMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Jan; Thawait, Gaurav K. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fritz, Benjamin [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Raithel, Esther; Nittka, Mathias [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Gilson, Wesley D. [Siemens Healthcare USA, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States); Mont, Michael A. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Compressed sensing (CS) acceleration has been theorized for slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), but has not been shown to be feasible. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CS-SEMAC is feasible for MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants. Following prospective institutional review board approval, 22 subjects with metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants underwent 1.5 T MRI. We compared CS-SEMAC prototype, high-bandwidth TSE, and SEMAC sequences with acquisition times of 4-5, 4-5 and 10-12 min, respectively. Outcome measures included bone-implant interfaces, image quality, periprosthetic structures, artifact size, and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR). Using Friedman, repeated measures analysis of variances, and Cohen's weighted kappa tests, Bonferroni-corrected p-values of 0.005 and less were considered statistically significant. There was no statistical difference of outcomes measures of SEMAC and CS-SEMAC images. Visibility of implant-bone interfaces and pseudocapsule as well as fat suppression and metal reduction were ''adequate'' to ''good'' on CS-SEMAC and ''non-diagnostic'' to ''adequate'' on high-BW TSE (p < 0.001, respectively). SEMAC and CS-SEMAC showed mild blur and ripple artifacts. The metal artifact size was 63 % larger for high-BW TSE as compared to SEMAC and CS-SEMAC (p < 0.0001, respectively). CNRs were sufficiently high and statistically similar, with the exception of CNR of fluid and muscle and CNR of fluid and tendon, which were higher on intermediate-weighted high-BW TSE (p < 0.005, respectively). Compressed sensing acceleration enables the time-neutral use of SEMAC for MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants when compared to high-BW TSE and image quality similar to conventional SEMAC. (orig.)

  20. SINBAD—The accelerator R&D facility under construction at DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorda, U., E-mail: ulrich.dorda@desy.de [DESY, Hamburg & Zeuthen (Germany); Assmann, R.; Brinkmann, R.; Flöttmann, K.; Hartl, I.; Hüning, M.; Kärtner, F.; Fallahi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Nie, Y.; Osterhoff, J.; Schlarb, H.; Zhu, J. [DESY, Hamburg & Zeuthen (Germany); Maier, A.R. [University Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    The SINBAD facility (Short INnovative Bunches and Accelerators at DESY) is a long-term dedicated accelerator research and development facility currently under construction at DESY. It will be located in the premises of the old DORIS accelerator complex and host multiple independent experiments cost-effectively accessing the same central infrastructure like a central high power laser. With the removal of the old DORIS accelerator being completed, the refurbishment of the technical infrastructure is currently starting up. The presently ongoing conversion of the area into the SINBAD facility and the currently foreseen layout is described. The first experiment will use a compact S-band linac for the production of ultra-short bunches at hundred MeV. Once established, one of the main usages will be to externally inject electrons into a laser-driven plasma wakefield accelerator to boost the energy to GeV-level while maintaining a usable beam quality, ultimately aiming to drive an FEL. The second experiment already under planning is the setup of an attosecond radiation source with advanced technology. Further usage of the available space and infrastructure is revised and national and international collaborations are being established.

  1. SINBAD-The accelerator R&D facility under construction at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorda, U.; Assmann, R.; Brinkmann, R.; Flöttmann, K.; Hartl, I.; Hüning, M.; Kärtner, F.; Fallahi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Nie, Y.; Osterhoff, J.; Schlarb, H.; Zhu, J.; Maier, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    The SINBAD facility (Short INnovative Bunches and Accelerators at DESY) is a long-term dedicated accelerator research and development facility currently under construction at DESY. It will be located in the premises of the old DORIS accelerator complex and host multiple independent experiments cost-effectively accessing the same central infrastructure like a central high power laser. With the removal of the old DORIS accelerator being completed, the refurbishment of the technical infrastructure is currently starting up. The presently ongoing conversion of the area into the SINBAD facility and the currently foreseen layout is described. The first experiment will use a compact S-band linac for the production of ultra-short bunches at hundred MeV. Once established, one of the main usages will be to externally inject electrons into a laser-driven plasma wakefield accelerator to boost the energy to GeV-level while maintaining a usable beam quality, ultimately aiming to drive an FEL. The second experiment already under planning is the setup of an attosecond radiation source with advanced technology. Further usage of the available space and infrastructure is revised and national and international collaborations are being established.

  2. Summary Report of Working Group 1: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Clayton, C.; Lu, W.; Thomas, A.G.R.

    2010-06-01

    Advances in and physics of the acceleration of particles using underdense plasma structures driven by lasers were the topics of presentations and discussions in Working Group 1 of the 2010 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop. Such accelerators have demonstrated gradients several orders beyond conventional machines, with quasi-monoenergetic beams at MeV-GeV energies, making them attractive candidates for next generation accelerators. Workshop discussions included advances in control over injection and laser propagation to further improve beam quality and stability, detailed diagnostics and physics models of the acceleration process, radiation generation as a source and diagnostic, and technological tools and upcoming facilities to extend the reach of laser-plasma accelerators.

  3. Compact Q-balls

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Marques, M A; Menezes, R; da Rocha, R

    2016-01-01

    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space-time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  4. Research and Design on Detection System of Soil Compaction Degree Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanyuan Tan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes detection methods of vehicular soil compaction degree based on a series of ideal conditions and GIS, which is to reflect the soil compaction degree and soil moisture through measuring the variation of acceleration amplitude of vibrating compaction wheels, in combination with the mathematical model of “vibrating drum-soil” two-degree-of-freedom vibrating system based on the analysis of the operating principle of vehicle; designs an embedded system based on ARM and modules such as the collection, processing and transmission of acceleration signals; writes application programs of system software in μC/OS-II environment; and develops a new detector of soil compaction degree. Experimental results show that this detection system can meet the requirement of comprehensive real-time monitoring for the soil compaction degree and soil moisture.

  5. Laser ion acceleration for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Wilkens, J. J.; Esirkepov, T. Zh; Korn, G.; Kraft, G.; Kraft, S. D.; Molls, M.; Khoroshkov, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    The paper examines the prospects of using laser plasma as a source of high-energy ions for the purpose of hadron beam therapy — an approach which is based on both theory and experimental results (ions are routinely observed to be accelerated in the interaction of high-power laser radiation with matter). Compared to therapy accelerators like synchrotrons and cyclotrons, laser technology is advantageous in that it is more compact and is simpler in delivering ions from the accelerator to the treatment room. Special target designs allow radiation therapy requirements for ion beam quality to be satisfied.

  6. Accelerated Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew; Georgi, Howard

    2001-01-01

    We construct four dimensional gauge theories in which the successful supersymmetric unification of gauge couplings is preserved but accelerated by N-fold replication of the MSSM gauge and Higgs structure. This results in a low unification scale of $10^{13/N}$ TeV.

  7. Dissolution and compaction instabilities in geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanou, I.; Sulem, J.; de Sauvage, J.

    2014-12-01

    Compaction bands play an important role in reservoir engineering and geological storage. Their presence in geological formations may also provide useful information on various geological processes. Several mechanisms can be involved at different scales and may be responsible for compaction band instabilities [1]. Compaction bands can be seen as a particular instability of the governing mathematical system leading to localization of deformation [2-4]. In a saturated porous rock, the progressive mechanical damage of the solid skeleton during compaction, results in the increase of the interface area of the reactants and consequently in the acceleration of the dissolution rate of the solid phase [2,5]. Thus, the solid skeleton is degraded more rapidly (mass removal because of dissolution), the overall mechanical properties of the system diminish (contraction of the elastic domain - chemical softening), deformations increase and the solid skeleton is further damaged (intergranular fractures, debonding, breakage of the porous network etc.). The stability of this positive feedback process is investigated analytically through linear stability analysis by considering the strong chemo-poro-mechanical coupling due to chemical dissolution. The post bifurcation behavior is then studied analytically and numerically revealing the compaction band thickness and periodicity. The effect of various parameters is studied as for instance the influence of the hydraulic diffusivity on the compaction band thickness. [1] P. Baud, S. Vinciguerra, C. David, A. Cavallo, E. Walker and T. Reuschlé (2009), Pure Appl. Geophys., 166(5-7), 869-898 [2] I. Stefanou and J. Sulem (2014), JGR: Solid Earth, 119(2), 880-899. doi:10.1002/2013JB010342I [3] J.W. Rudnicki and J.R. Rice (1975), Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 23(6),: 371-394 [4] K.A. Issen and J.W. Rudnicki (2000), JGR, 105(B9), 21529. doi:10.1029/2000JB900185 [5] R. Nova, R. Castellanza and C. Tamagnini (2003), International

  8. Lacunarity for compact groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R E; Hewitt, E; Ross, K A

    1971-01-01

    Let G be a compact Abelian group with character group X. A subset Delta of X is called a [unk](q) set (1 < q < infinity) if for all trigonometric polynomials f = [unk](k=1) (n) alpha(k)chi(k) (chi(1),...,chi(n) [unk] Delta) an inequality parallelf parallel(q) [unk] [unk] parallelf parallel(1) obtains, where [unk] is a positive constant depending only on Delta. The subset Delta is called a Sidon set if every bounded function on Delta can be matched by a Fourier-Stieltjes transform. It is known that every Sidon set is a [unk](q) set for all q. For G = T, X = Z, Rudin (J. Math. Mech., 9, 203 (1960)) has found a set that is [unk](q) for all q but not Sidon. We extend this result to all infinite compact Abelian groups G: the character group X contains a subset Delta that is [unk](q) for all q, 1 < q < infinity, but Delta is not a Sidon set.

  9. A compact SADM family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet, Vincent; Le Quintrec, Cyrille; Jeandot, Xavier; Chaix, Alain; Grain, Eric; Roux, Jerome

    2005-07-01

    Alcatel Space has developed a new SADM family driven by cost, modularity, mass and performances. The modularity concept is based on separating the rotation drive function from the electrical transfer function. The drive actuator has been designed for various applications where pointing and reliability is needed. It can be associated with high dissipative rotary devices (SA collectors, RF joints..). The design goal was to minimize the number of parts in order to reach the most simple and compact mechanism. Mass reduction was achieved by reducing as much as possible the load path between the Solar Array interface and the spacecraft interface. Following these guidelines, the drive actuator was developed and qualified on ATV SADM (part od Alcatel Space Solar Array Drive Sub System for ATV). Further more a high power integrated collector was qualified inside the SADM for Geo-stationary telecom satellite (SPACEBUS platforms). Fine thermal and mechanical modeling was necessary to predict SADM behaviors for the numerous thermal environments over the missions (steady and transient cases). These modeling were well correlated through mechanical and thermal balances qualification tests. The challenging approach of thermal dissipation in a compact design leads to a family of 3 SADM capabilities form 2kW up to 15kW per SADM weighing less than 4.5 kg each.

  10. Compact electrostatic comb actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    A compact electrostatic comb actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator is based upon a plurality of meshed electrostatic combs, some of which are stationary and others of which are moveable. One or more restoring springs are fabricated within an outline of the electrostatic combs (i.e. superposed with the moveable electrostatic combs) to considerably reduce the space required for the actuator. Additionally, a truss structure is provided to support the moveable electrostatic combs and prevent bending or distortion of these combs due to unbalanced electrostatic forces or external loading. The truss structure formed about the moveable electrostatic combs allows the spacing between the interdigitated fingers of the combs to be reduced to about one micron or less, thereby substantially increasing the number of active fingers which can be provided in a given area. Finally, electrostatic shields can be used in the actuator to substantially reduce unwanted electrostatic fields to further improve performance of the device. As a result, the compact electrostatic comb actuator of the present invention occupies only a fraction of the space required for conventional electrostatic comb actuators, while providing a substantial increase in the available drive force (up to one-hundred times).

  11. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdemann, Stephen,J; Jablonski, Paul, J

    2011-05-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines<150 {micro}m,<75 {micro}m, and<45 {micro}m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH]<75 {micro}m and<45 {micro}m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  12. On stable compact minimal submanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Torralbo, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Stable compact minimal submanifolds of the product of a sphere and any Riemannian manifold are classified whenever the dimension of the sphere is at least three. The complete classification of the stable compact minimal submanifolds of the product of two spheres is obtained. Also, it is proved that the only stable compact minimal surfaces of the product of a 2-sphere and any Riemann surface are the complex ones.

  13. Surface modification of nano-silica on the ligament advanced reinforcement system for accelerated bone formation: primary human osteoblasts testing in vitro and animal testing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiwen; Jiang, Jia; Sun, Jiashu; Li, Yuzhuo; Huang, Deyong; Long, Yun-Ze; Zheng, Wenfu; Chen, Shiyi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-05-07

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ∼21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction.

  14. Self-shielded electron linear accelerators designed for radiation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belugin, V. M.; Rozanov, N. E.; Pirozhenko, V. M.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes self-shielded high-intensity electron linear accelerators designed for radiation technologies. The specific property of the accelerators is that they do not apply an external magnetic field; acceleration and focusing of electron beams are performed by radio-frequency fields in the accelerating structures. The main characteristics of the accelerators are high current and beam power, but also reliable operation and a long service life. To obtain these characteristics, a number of problems have been solved, including a particular optimization of the accelerator components and the application of a variety of specific means. The paper describes features of the electron beam dynamics, accelerating structure, and radio-frequency power supply. Several compact self-shielded accelerators for radiation sterilization and x-ray cargo inspection have been created. The introduced methods made it possible to obtain a high intensity of the electron beam and good performance of the accelerators.

  15. Predicting drowsy driving in real-time situations: Using an advanced driving simulator, accelerated failure time model, and virtual location-based services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Sun, Shuaiyi; Fang, Shouen; Fu, Ting; Stipancic, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to both identify the factors affecting driver drowsiness and to develop a real-time drowsy driving probability model based on virtual Location-Based Services (LBS) data obtained using a driving simulator. A driving simulation experiment was designed and conducted using 32 participant drivers. Collected data included the continuous driving time before detection of drowsiness and virtual LBS data related to temperature, time of day, lane width, average travel speed, driving time in heavy traffic, and driving time on different roadway types. Demographic information, such as nap habit, age, gender, and driving experience was also collected through questionnaires distributed to the participants. An Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) model was developed to estimate the driving time before detection of drowsiness. The results of the AFT model showed driving time before drowsiness was longer during the day than at night, and was longer at lower temperatures. Additionally, drivers who identified as having a nap habit were more vulnerable to drowsiness. Generally, higher average travel speeds were correlated to a higher risk of drowsy driving, as were longer periods of low-speed driving in traffic jam conditions. Considering different road types, drivers felt drowsy more quickly on freeways compared to other facilities. The proposed model provides a better understanding of how driver drowsiness is influenced by different environmental and demographic factors. The model can be used to provide real-time data for the LBS-based drowsy driving warning system, improving past methods based only on a fixed driving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical research and multidisciplinary applications with laser-accelerated beams: the ELIMED netwotk at ELI-Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, A.; Anzalone, A.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.; Licciardello, T.; Maggiore, M.; Manti, L.; Margarone, D.; Musumarra, A.; Perozziello, F.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Stancampiano, C.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Torrisi, L.; Tudisco, S.

    2014-04-01

    Laser accelerated proton beams represent nowadays an attractive alternative to the conventional ones and they have been proposed in different research fields. In particular, the interest has been focused in the possibility of replacing conventional accelerating machines with laser-based accelerators in order to develop a new concept of hadrontherapy facilities, which could result more compact and less expensive. With this background the ELIMED (ELIMED: ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) research project has been launched by LNS-INFN researchers (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, IT) and ASCR-FZU researchers (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic-Fyzikální ústar, Prague, Cz), within the pan-European ELI-Beamlines facility framework. Its main purposes are the demonstration of future applications in hadrontherapy of optically accelerated protons and the realization of a laser-accelerated ion transport beamline for multidisciplinary applications. Several challenges, starting from laser-target interaction and beam transport development, up to dosimetric and radiobiological issues, need to be overcome in order to reach the final goals. The design and the realization of a preliminary beam handling and dosimetric system and of an advanced spectrometer for high energy (multi-MeV) laser-accelerated ion beams will be shortly presented in this work.

  17. Low-voltage Electromagnetic Compaction of Metal and Ceramic Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Low-voltage electromagnetic compaction (EMC) was used to compact metal powders(Cu) and ceramic powders (TiO2) in the indirect way. It was found that the density of the metal powder parts compacted by low-voltage EMC varied linearly with the discharging voltage in the range investigated. But for ceramic powders, the discharging voltage has an optimal value. Under the value, the density increases as discharging voltage rises, but beyond the value the trend is reverse. The experimental results show that the density of the metal parts decreases gradually along press direction. And the density of the ceramic parts decreases with the advancement of the aspect ratio h/d (height/diameter). In addition, repetitive compaction can improve the density of both metal and ceramic parts and reduce the effects of aspect ratio on the density.

  18. Atacama Compact Array Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Masao; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Naoi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masumi; Saito, Hiro; Ikenoue, Bungo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Morita, Kou-ichiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Iguchi, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report major performance test results of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) 7-m and 12-m antennas of ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array). The four major performances of the ACA antennas are all-sky pointing (to be not more than 2.0 arcsec), offset pointing (to be < 0.6 arcsec) surface accuracy (< 25(20) micrometer for 12(7)m-antenna), stability of path-length (15 micrometer over 3 min), and high servo capability (6 degrees/s for Azimuth and 3 degrees/s for Elevation). The high performance of the ACA antenna has been extensively evaluated at the Site Erection Facility area at an altitude of about 2900 meters. Test results of pointing performance, surface performance, and fast motion capability are demonstrated.

  19. Electrical Compact Modeling of Graphene Base Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Frégonèse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent development of the Graphene Base Transistor (GBT, a new electrical compact model for GBT devices is proposed. The transistor model includes the quantum capacitance model to obtain a self-consistent base potential. It also uses a versatile transfer current equation to be compatible with the different possible GBT configurations and it account for high injection conditions thanks to a transit time based charge model. Finally, the developed large signal model has been implemented in Verilog-A code and can be used for simulation in a standard circuit design environment such as Cadence or ADS. This model has been verified using advanced numerical simulation.

  20. MUON ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  1. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  2. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  3. Accelerator Technology Division progress report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriber, S.O.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Heighway, E.A.

    1993-07-01

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; Defense Free-Electron Lasers; AXY Programs; A Next Generation High-Power Neutron-Scattering Facility; JAERI OMEGA Project and Intense Neutron Sources for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Supercollider; The High-Power Microwave (HPM) Program; Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Power Systems Highlights; Industrial Partnering; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Accelerator Theory and Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  4. Evaluation of a new method of RF power coupling to acceleration cavity of charged particles accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Poursaleh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the feasibility studty of a new method of RF power coupling to acceleration cavity of charged particles accelerator will be evaluated. In this method a slit is created around the accelerator cavity, and RF power amplifier modules is connected directly to the acceleration cavity. In fact, in this design, the cavity in addition to acting as an acceleration cavity, acts as a RF power combiner. The benefits of this method are avoiding the use of RF vacuum tubes, transmission lines, high power combiner and coupler. In this research, cylindrical and coaxial cavities were studied, and a small sample coaxial cavity is build by this method. The results of the resarch showed that compact, economical and safe RF accelerators can be achieved by the proposed method

  5. Secondary electron emission from plasma processed accelerating cavity grade niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basovic, Milos

    Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for higher energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were treated

  6. Secondary Electron Emission from Plasma Processed Accelerating Cavity Grade Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basovic, Milos [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for higher energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were treated

  7. The Finslerian compact star model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook; Paul, Nupur [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); De, S.S. [University of Calcutta, Department of Applied Mathematics, Kolkata (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Jafry, M.A.K. [Shibpur Dinobundhoo Institution, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2015-11-15

    We construct a toy model for compact stars based on the Finslerian structure of spacetime. By assuming a particular mass function, we find an exact solution of the Finsler-Einstein field equations with an anisotropic matter distribution. The solutions are revealed to be physically interesting and pertinent for the explanation of compact stars. (orig.)

  8. Warm compacting behavior of stainless steel powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志瑜; 柯美元; 陈维平; 召明; 李元元

    2004-01-01

    The warm compacting behaviors of four different kinds of stainless steel powders, 304L, 316L, 410L and 430L, were studied. The results show that warm compaction can be applied to stainless steel powders. The green densities and strengths of compacts obtained through warm compaction are generally higher than those obtained through cold compaction. The compacting behaviors in warm compaction and cold compaction are similar.Under the compacting pressure of 700 MPa, the warm compacted densities are 0. 10 - 0.22 g/cm3 higher than the cold compacted ones, and the green strengths are 11.5 %-50 % higher. The optimal warm compacting temperature is 100 - 110 ℃. In the die wall lubricated warm compaction, the optimum internal lubricant content is 0.2%.

  9. Aggressive simultaneous radiochemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel in combination with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck tumors. Results of a phase I-II trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnt, T.; Pigorsch, S.; Pelz, T.; Haensgen, G.; Dunst, J. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Becker, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Municipial Hospital, Dessau (Germany); Bloching, M.; Passmann, M. [Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Lotterer, E. [Dept. of Internal Medicine I, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    We have tested a very aggressive combination protocol with cisplatin and escalated paclitaxel in combination with accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy to assess the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), overall toxicity, and response rate. Patients and Methods: The trial recruited 24 patients (21 males, three females, mean age 57 years) treated at our department from 1998 through 2001. Irradiation was administered in daily doses of 2 Gy up to 30 Gy followed by 1.4 Gy twice daily up to 70.6 Gy to the primary tumor and involved nodes and 51 Gy to the clinically negative regional nodes. The chemotherapy schedule included cisplatin in a fixed dose of 20 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1-5 and 29-33 and paclitaxel at increasing dose levels of 20, 25, 30 mg/m{sup 2} twice weekly over the whole treatment time. Patients were recruited in cohorts of three to six, and the MTD was reached if two out of six patients in one cohort developed DLT. DLT was defined as any grade 4 toxicity or any grade 3 toxicity requiring treatment interruption or unplanned hospitalization or any grade 3 neurotoxicity. We recruited mainly patients with large tumors for this protocol; all patients were stage IV, and the mean tumor volume (primary + metastases) amounted to 72 {+-} 61 cm{sup 3}. The mean follow-up was 30 months (range 4-39 months). Results: One early death (peritonitis and sepsis a t day 10) occurred, and 23 patients were evaluable for acute toxicity and response. The MTD of paclitaxel was reached at the third dose level (30 mg/m{sup 2} paclitaxel twice weekly). The DLT was severe mucositis grade 3 (n = 1) and skin erythema grade 4 (n = 2). After determining the MTD, another 14 patients were treated at the recommended dose level of paclitaxel with 25 mg/m{sup 2} twice weekly. In summary, 13/23 patients (57%) developed grade 3 and 10/23 (43%) grade 2 mucositis. Two patients (9%) had grade 4, five (22%) grade 3, and 16 (69%) grade 2 dermatitis. One patient died at day 30

  10. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  11. Expected Bounds on Compact Binary Coalescence Rates from LIGO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Laura; LIGO Scientific Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced LIGO detectors have recently completed their first observing run, with a sensitive spacetime volume over 27 times larger than the initial LIGO configuration. In this talk we will examine the expected bounds on compact binary coalescence rates from O1 observations, and discuss the corresponding impact on astrophysical models.

  12. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  13. Long-Term Outcome and Morbidity After Treatment With Accelerated Radiotherapy and Weekly Cisplatin for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: Results of a Multidisciplinary Late Morbidity Clinic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruetten, Heidi, E-mail: h.rutten@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Pop, Lucas A.M.; Janssens, Geert O.R.J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Takes, Robert P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Knuijt, Simone [Department of Rehabilitation/Speech Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rooijakkers, Antoinette F. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Berg, Manon van den [Department of Gastroenterology-Dietetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Merkx, Matthias A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Herpen, Carla M.L. van [Department of Medical Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome and morbidity after intensified treatment for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2003 and December 2007, 77 patients with Stage III to IV head-and-neck cancer were treated with curative intent. Treatment consisted of accelerated radiotherapy to a dose of 68 Gy and concurrent cisplatin. Long-term survivors were invited to a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for a comprehensive assessment of late morbidity with special emphasis on dysphagia, including radiological evaluation of swallowing function in all patients. Results: Compliance with the treatment protocol was high, with 87% of the patients receiving at least five cycles of cisplatin and all but 1 patient completing the radiotherapy as planned. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 40% and 47%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 61%. The 5-year actuarial rates of overall late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Grade 3 and Grade 4 toxicity were 52% and 25% respectively. Radiologic evaluation after a median follow-up of 44 months demonstrated impaired swallowing in 57% of the patients, including 23% with silent aspiration. Subjective assessment using a systematic scoring system indicated normalcy of diet in only 15.6% of the patients. Conclusion: This regimen of accelerated radiotherapy with weekly cisplatin produced favorable tumor control rates and survival rates while compliance was high. However, comprehensive assessment by a multidisciplinary team of medical and paramedical specialists revealed significant long-term morbidity in the majority of the patients, with dysphagia being a major concern.

  14. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omelyan, Igor, E-mail: omelyan@ualberta.ca, E-mail: omelyan@icmp.lviv.ua [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, Lviv 79011 (Ukraine); Kovalenko, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.kovalenko@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada)

    2013-12-28

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics

  15. Mechanical Compaction of Porous Sandstone Compaction mécanique des grès poreux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong T. F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In many reservoir engineering and tectonic problems, the ability to predict both the occurrence and extent of inelastic deformation and failure hinges upon a fundamental understanding of the phenomenology and micromechanics of compaction in reservoir rock. This paper reviews recent research advances on mechanical compaction of porous sandstone, with focus on the synthesis of laboratory data, quantitative microstructural characterization of damage, and theoretical models based on elastic contact and fracture mechanics. The mechanical attributes of compaction in nominally dry and saturated samples have been studied under hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic loadings over a broad range of pressure conditions. Specific topics reviewed herein include: comparison of mechanical and acoustic emission data with continuum plasticity theory; microstructural control of onset and development of compaction; strain hardening and spatial evolution of damage during compaction; and the weakening effect of water on compactive yield and porosity change. Pour de nombreux problèmes de tectonique et d'ingénierie de réservoir, la capacité à prévoir à la fois la fréquence, l'ampleur de la déformation inélastique et les ruptures repose sur une compréhension fondamentale de la phénoménologie et de la micromécanique de compaction dans les roches-réservoirs. Cet article présente les résultats de recherches récentes sur la compaction mécanique des grès poreux. On insiste plus particulièrement sur la synthèse des données de laboratoire, la caractérisation microstructurale quantitative de l'endommagement, ainsi que sur les modèles théoriques basés sur un contact élastique et sur la mécanique de la rupture. Les attributs mécaniques de la compaction sur des échantillons initialement secs et saturés ont été étudiés sous des chargements hydrostatiques et non hydrostatiques dans une large gamme de pression. Les sujets spécifiques étudiés ici

  16. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  17. Impact accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

  18. Beam trajectory control of the future Compact Linear Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Balik, G.; Badel, A.; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L.; Caron, B.; Deleglise, G.; Jérémie, A.; Le Breton, R.; Lottin, J.; Pacquet, L.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The future Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) currently under design at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) would create high-energy particle collisions between electrons and positrons, and provide a tool for scientists to address many of the most compelling questions about the fundamental nature of matter, energy, space and time. In accelerating structure, it is well-established that vibrations generated by the ground motion constitute the main limiting fact...

  19. On intrinsic nonlinear particle motion in compact synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung Ryun

    Due to the low energy and small curvature characteristics of compact synchrotrons, there can be unexpected features that were not present or negligible in high energy accelerators. Nonlinear kinetics, fringe field effect, and space charge effect are those features which become important for low energy and small curvature accelerators. Nonlinear kinematics can limit the dynamics aperture for compact machine even if it consists of all linear elements. The contribution of the nonlinear kinematics on nonlinear optics parameters are first derived. As the dipole bending radius become smaller, the dipole fringe field effect become stronger. Calculation of the Lie map generator and corresponding mapping equation of dipole fringe field is presented. It is found that the higher order nonlinear potential is inverse proportional to powers of fringe field extent and correction to focusing and low order nonlinear potential is proportional to powers of fringe field extent. The fringe field also found to cause large closed orbit deviation for compact synchrotrons. The 2:1 and 4:1 space charge resonances are known to cause beam loss, emittance growth and halo formation for low energy high intensity beams. By numerical simulations, we observe a higher order 6:2 space charge resonance, which can successfully be understood by the concatenation of 2:1 and 4:1 resonances via canonical perturbation. We also develop an explicit symplectic tracking method for compact electrostatic storage rings and explore the feasibility of electric dipole moment (EDM) measurements.

  20. Gravitational Radiation from Compact Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, John

    2014-01-01

    An outstanding question in modern Physics is whether general relativity (GR) is a complete description of gravity among bodies at macroscopic scales. Currently, the best experiments supporting this hypothesis are based on high-precision timing of radio pulsars. This chapter reviews recent advances in the field with a focus on compact binary millisecond pulsars with white-dwarf (WD) companions. These systems - if modeled properly - provide an unparalleled test ground for physically motivated alternatives to GR that deviate significantly in the strong-field regime. Recent improvements in observational techniques and advances in our understanding of WD interiors have enabled a series of precise mass measurements in such systems. These masses, combined with high-precision radio timing of the pulsars, result to stringent constraints on the radiative properties of gravity, qualitatively very different from what was available in the past.

  1. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. Annual report, October 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    Research is reported for the combined groups consisting of the Accelerator Division and the Magnetic Fusion Energy Group. Major topics reported include accelerator operations, magnetic fusion energy, and advanced accelerator development. (GHT)

  2. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  3. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  4. Dilution jet experiments in compact combustor configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, I.; Zizelman, J.

    1984-01-01

    This project concerns the effects of cooling jets on the velocity and temperature fields in a compact reverse flow combustor. The work is motivated by the need to limit the temperatures of post combustion gases in jet engines to values within the endurance capabilities of turbine blades. The application requires not only that the temperature be kept sufficiently low but also that a suitably tailored temperature profile be provided at the combustor exit, with higher temperatures generally permissible at the blade tip than at the blade root because of higher centrifugal loads at the root. Flows in reverse flow combustor accelerate both longitudinally because of area changes and transversely because of flow turning. The current project started with flow visualization experiments in water, using aqueous solutions of zinc bromide to model the relatively higher density of cooling jets.

  5. New Results on Charged Compact Boson Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kulshreshtha, Daya Shankar

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present some new results which we have obtained in a study of the phase diagram of charged compact boson stars in the theory involving massive complex scalar fields coupled to the U(1) gauge field and gravity in a conical potential in the presence of a cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ which we treat as a free parameter taking positive and negative values and thereby allowing us to study the theory in the de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces respectively. In our studies, we obtain four bifurcation points (possibility of more bifurcation points being not ruled out) in the de Sitter region. We present a detailed discussion of the various regions in our phase diagram with respect to four bifurcation points. Our theory is seen to have rich physics in a particular domain for positive values of $\\Lambda$ which is consistent with the accelerated expansion of the universe.

  6. High Impact Technology Compact Combustion (HITCC) Compact Core Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the CO and CO2 net reaction rates from the FGM. This, in turn, provides another benefit . That is, the source term in YC is not just now dependent on...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0010 HIGH IMPACT TECHNOLOGY COMPACT COMBUSTION (HITCC) COMPACT CORE TECHNOLOGIES Andrew W. Caswell Combustion...information exchange, and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings. *Disseminated

  7. R and D toward a compact high-brilliance X-ray source based on channeling radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, P.; Brau, C. A.; Gabella, W. E.; Choi, B. K.; Jarvis, J. D.; Lewellen, J. W.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Mihalcea, D. [Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States) and Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States) and Vanderbilt Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Physics Department and Combat Systems, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    X-rays have been valuable to a large number of fields including Science, Medicine, and Security. Yet, the availability of a compact high-spectral brilliance X-ray sources is limited. A technique to produce X-rays with spectral brilliance B{approx} 10{sup 12} photons.(mm-mrd){sup -2}. (0.1% BW){sup -1}.s{sup -1} is discussed. The method is based on the generation and acceleration of a low-emittance field-emitted electron bunches. The bunches are then focused on a diamond crystal thereby producing channeling radiation. In this paper, after presenting the overarching concept, we discuss the generation, acceleration and transport of the low-emittance bunches with parameters consistent with the production of high-brilliance X-rays through channeling radiation. We especially consider the example of the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in construction at Fermilab where a proof-of-principle experiment is in preparation.

  8. The time-dependence of compaction localization in a porous sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, M. J.; Brantut, N.; Baud, P.; Meredith, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Compaction bands in sandstone are laterally-extensive planar deformation features that are characterized by lower porosity and permeability than the surrounding host rock. As a result, this form of localization has important implications for both strain partitioning and fluid flow in the Earth's upper crust. To better understand the time-dependency of compaction band growth, we performed triaxial deformation experiments on water-saturated Bleurswiller sandstone (initial porosity = 0.24) under constant stress (creep) conditions in the compactant regime. Our experiments show that inelastic strain accumulates at a constant stress in the compactant regime, manifest as compaction bands. While creep in the dilatant regime is characterized by an increase in porosity and, ultimately, an acceleration in axial strain rate to shear failure, compaction creep is characterized by a reduction in porosity and a gradual deceleration in axial strain rate. The global decrease in the rates of axial strain, acoustic emission energy, and porosity change during creep compaction is punctuated at intervals by higher rate excursions, interpreted as the formation of compaction bands. The growth rate of compaction bands formed during creep is lower as the applied differential stress, and hence background creep strain rate, is decreased. However, the inelastic strain associated with the growth of a compaction band remains constant over strain rates spanning several orders of magnitude (from 10-8 to 10-5 s-1). We find that, despite the large differences in strain rate and growth rate (from both creep and constant strain rate experiments), the characteristics (geometry, thickness) of the compaction bands remain essentially the same. Several lines of evidence, notably the similarity between the differential stress dependence of creep strain rate in the dilatant and compactant regimes, suggest that, as for dilatant creep, subcritical stress corrosion cracking is the mechanism responsible for

  9. Compact Grism Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teare, S. W.

    2003-05-01

    Many observatories and instrument builders are retrofitting visible and near-infrared spectrometers into their existing imaging cameras. Camera designs that reimage the focal plane and have the optical filters located in a pseudo collimated beam are ideal candidates for the addition of a spectrometer. One device commonly used as the dispersing element for such spectrometers is a grism. The traditional grism is constructed from a prism that has had a diffraction grating applied on one surface. The objective of such a design is to use the prism wedge angle to select the desired "in-line" or "zero-deviation" wavelength that passes through on axis. The grating on the surface of the prism provides much of the dispersion for the spectrometer. A grism can also be used in a "constant-dispersion" design which provides an almost linear spatial scale across the spectrum. In this paper we provide an overview of the development of a grism spectrometer for use in a near infrared camera and demonstrate that a compact grism spectrometer can be developed on a very modest budget that can be afforded at almost any facility. The grism design was prototyped using visible light and then a final device was constructed which provides partial coverage in the near infrared I, J, H and K astronomical bands using the appropriate band pass filter for order sorting. The near infrared grism presented here provides a spectral resolution of about 650 and velocity resolution of about 450 km/s. The design of this grism relied on a computer code called Xspect, developed by the author, to determine the various critical parameters of the grism. This work was supported by a small equipment grant from NASA and administered by the AAS.

  10. Beam Envelope, Injection and Acceleration in a Compact, High Current, Strong Focused Recirculating Accelerator Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    fixed vertical (berding) magnetic field, the insensitivity to energy i tdh poses a problem for ban trqaing and injectin. It is shoam that a ber trapping...Institute for Acetor and Plasma Beam Technology University of New Mexico A~xxpierque, N 87131 1 Dr. C. L. Hanner De e of Physics Iowa State University

  11. Future HEP Accelerators: The US Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, Pushpalatha

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator technology has advanced tremendously since the introduction of accelerators in the 1930s, and particle accelerators have become indispensable instruments in high energy physics (HEP) research to probe Nature at smaller and smaller distances. At present, accelerator facilities can be classified into Energy Frontier colliders that enable direct discoveries and studies of high mass scale particles and Intensity Frontier accelerators for exploration of extremely rare processes, usually at relatively low energies. The near term strategies of the global energy frontier particle physics community are centered on fully exploiting the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), while the intensity frontier HEP research is focused on studies of neutrinos at the MW-scale beam power accelerator facilities, such as Fermilab Main Injector with the planned PIP-II SRF linac project. A number of next generation accelerator facilities have been proposed...

  12. Compact, Ultrasensitive Formaldehyde Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a compact UV laser ?based sensor for Earth science and planetary atmosphere exploration....

  13. Countably determined compact abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Dikranjan, Dikran

    2008-01-01

    For an abelian topological group G let G^* be the dual group of all continuous characters endowed with the compact open topology. A subgroup D of G determines G if the restriction homomorphism G^* --> D^* of the dual groups is a topological isomorphism. Given a scattered compact subset X of an infinite compact abelian group G such that |X|compact abelian group determined by its countable subgroup must be metrizable. This gives a negative answer to questions of Comfort, Hernandez, Macario, Raczkowski and Trigos-Arrieta, as well as provides short proofs of main results established in three manuscripts by these authors.

  14. Compact energy conversion module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  15. What Is Business's Social Compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Under the "new" social compact, businesses must focus on continuous learning and thus have both an obligation to support teaching and an opportunity to profit from it. Learning organizations must also be teaching organizations. (SK)

  16. What Is Business's Social Compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Under the "new" social compact, businesses must focus on continuous learning and thus have both an obligation to support teaching and an opportunity to profit from it. Learning organizations must also be teaching organizations. (SK)

  17. Compact, Airborne Multispecies Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer to benefit Earth science research activities. To...

  18. EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Robert

    2009-02-01

    This special issue on laser and plasma accelerators illustrates the rapid advancement and diverse applications of laser and plasma accelerators. Plasma is an attractive medium for particle acceleration because of the high electric field it can sustain, with studies of acceleration processes remaining one of the most important areas of research in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The rapid advance in laser and accelerator technology has led to the development of terawatt and petawatt laser systems with ultra-high intensities and short sub-picosecond pulses, which are used to generate wakefields in plasma. Recent successes include the demonstration by several groups in 2004 of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams by wakefields in the bubble regime with the GeV energy barrier being reached in 2006, and the energy doubling of the SLAC high-energy electron beam from 42 to 85 GeV. The electron beams generated by the laser plasma driven wakefields have good spatial quality with energies ranging from MeV to GeV. A unique feature is that they are ultra-short bunches with simulations showing that they can be as short as a few femtoseconds with low-energy spread, making these beams ideal for a variety of applications ranging from novel high-brightness radiation sources for medicine, material science and ultrafast time-resolved radiobiology or chemistry. Laser driven ion acceleration experiments have also made significant advances over the last few years with applications in laser fusion, nuclear physics and medicine. Attention is focused on the possibility of producing quasi-mono-energetic ions with energies ranging from hundreds of MeV to GeV per nucleon. New acceleration mechanisms are being studied, including ion acceleration from ultra-thin foils and direct laser acceleration. The application of wakefields or beat waves in other areas of science such as astrophysics and particle physics is beginning to take off, such as the study of cosmic accelerators considered

  19. A Standard FODO Lattice with Adjustable Momentum Compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbojevic, D.; Courant, E. D.

    1997-05-01

    An exisisting lattice made of identical FODO cells can be modified to have adjustable momentum compaction. The modified lattice consists of repeating superperiods of four FODO cells where every two cells have different horizontal phase advance. In exisiting FODO cell rings an additional quad bus is required for every two consecutive cells. This allows tuning of the momentum compaction or γt (transition) to any desired value. A value of the γt could be an imaginary number. A drawback of this modification is relatively large values of the dispersion function (two or three times larger than in the regular FODO cell design).

  20. A complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Eliu; Agarwal, Bhanu; George, Daniel; Kumar, Prayush

    2016-03-01

    The detection of compact binaries with significant eccentricity in the sensitivity band of gravitational wave detectors will provide critical insights on the dynamics and formation channels of these events. In order to search for these systems and place constraints on their rates, we present an inspiral-merger-ringdown time domain waveform model that describes the GW emission from compact binaries on orbits with low to moderate values of eccentricity. We use this model to explore the detectability of these events in the context of advanced LIGO.

  1. DESIGN CRITERIA OF A PROTON FFAG ACCELERATOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUGGIERO, A.G.

    2004-10-13

    There are two major issues that are to be confronted in the design of a Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator, namely: (1) the stability of motion over the large momentum range needed for the beam acceleration, and (2) the compactness of the trajectories over the same momentum range to limit the dimensions of the magnets. There are a numbers of rules that need to be followed to resolve these issues. In particular, the magnet arrangement in the accelerator lattice and the distribution of the bending and focusing fields are to be set properly in accordance with these rules. In this report they describe four of these rules that ought to be applied for the optimum design of a FFAG accelerator, especially in the case of proton beams.

  2. Measuring the Acceleration of a Rigid Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Martin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods to measure the six-degree-of-freedom acceleration of a point on a rigid body are presented. The first, referred to as the periphery scheme, makes use of three clusters of accelerometers mounted orthogonal to each other and coincident with the axes of the point. One of the clusters consists of the three accelerometers attached to a cube-shaped triaxial angular rate sensor (ARS. The second method, called the compact cube scheme, uses a single 3-accelerometer/ARS cluster that may be mounted anywhere on the rigid body. During impact tests with an instrumented rigid body, both methods produced measurements that were highly correlated near the time of peak acceleration. Whereas the compact cube scheme was more economical and easier to implement, the periphery scheme produced results that were less disrupted by instrument signal errors and noisy environments.

  3. Cosmology on Compact and Stable Supergravity Background

    CERN Document Server

    Hailu, Girma

    2012-01-01

    We propose a cosmological model of D3-brane universe on compact and stable supergravity background of wrapped D7-branes in type IIB string theory previously argued to be dual to pure N=1 SU(N) gauge theory in four dimensions. A model universe of order Planck size near the UV boundary dynamically flows toward the IR with constant total energy density and accelerating expansion followed by smooth transition to decelerating expansion and collides with the wrapped D7-branes at the IR boundary. The model addresses the horizon and flatness problems with most of the expansion produced during the decelerating expansion phase. The inflationary scenario is used to generate sources of inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background radiation and seeds for large scale structure formation from quantum fluctuations which exit the Hubble radius early during the accelerating expansion phase and the model addresses the inhomogeneity problem with red tilt in the power spectrum. We propose that the kinetic energy of the mode...

  4. Collective deceleration: Toward a compact beam dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-C. Wu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing development of laser electron accelerators, electron energies beyond a GeV have been reached and higher values are expected in the near future. A conventional beam dump based on ionization or radiation loss mechanisms is cumbersome and costly, not to mention the radiological hazards. We revisit the stopping power theory of high-energy charged particles in matter and discuss the associated problem of beam dumping from the point of view of collective deceleration. The collective stopping length in an ionized gas can be several orders of magnitude shorter than that described by the Bethe-Bloch formulas and associated with multiple electromagnetic cascades in solids. At the same time, the tenuous density of the gas makes the radioactivation negligible. Such a compact beam dump without radioactivation works well for short and dense bunches, as they are typically generated from a laser wakefield accelerator. In addition, the nonuniform transverse wakefield can induce microbunching of the electron bunch by betatron oscillation. The microstructure could serve as a prebunched source for coherent radiation or feeding a free electron laser.

  5. Vacuum Insulator Development for the Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J R; Blackfield, D; Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Hawkins, S; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Krogh, M; Managan, J E

    2008-03-17

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a new type of accelerator, known as a Dielectric Wall Accelerator, in which compact pulse forming lines directly apply an accelerating field to the beam through an insulating vacuum boundary. The electrical strength of this insulator may define the maximum gradient achievable in these machines. To increase the system gradient, we are using 'High Gradient Insulators' composed of alternating layers of dielectric and metal for the vacuum insulator. In this paper, we present our recent results from experiment and simulation, including the first test of a High Gradient Insulator in a functioning Dielectric Wall Accelerator cell.

  6. Directional Oscillations, Concentrations, and Compensated Compactness via Microlocal Compactness Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Filip

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces microlocal compactness forms (MCFs) as a new tool to study oscillations and concentrations in L p -bounded sequences of functions. Decisively, MCFs retain information about the location, value distribution, and direction of oscillations and concentrations, thus extending at the same time the theories of (generalized) Young measures and H-measures. In L p -spaces oscillations and concentrations precisely discriminate between weak and strong compactness, and thus MCFs allow one to quantify the difference in compactness. The definition of MCFs involves a Fourier variable, whereby differential constraints on the functions in the sequence can also be investigated easily—a distinct advantage over Young measure theory. Furthermore, pointwise restrictions are reflected in the MCF as well, paving the way for applications to Tartar's framework of compensated compactness; consequently, we establish a new weak-to-strong compactness theorem in a "geometric" way. After developing several aspects of the abstract theory, we consider three applications; for lamination microstructures, the hierarchy of oscillations is reflected in the MCF. The directional information retained in an MCF is harnessed in the relaxation theory for anisotropic integral functionals. Finally, we indicate how the theory pertains to the study of propagation of singularities in certain systems of PDEs. The proofs combine measure theory, Young measures, and harmonic analysis.

  7. Beam dynamics analysis in pulse compression using electron beam compact simulator for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a final stage of an accelerator system for heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF, pulse shaping and beam current increase by bunch compression are required for effective pellet implosion. A compact simulator with an electron beam was constructed to understand the beam dynamics. In this study, we investigate theoretically and numerically the beam dynamics for the extreme bunch compression in the final stage of HIF accelerator complex. The theoretical and numerical results implied that the compact experimental device simulates the beam dynamics around the stagnation point for initial low temperature condition.

  8. idaho Accelerator Center Advanced Fuel Cycle Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Douglas; Dale, Dan

    2011-10-20

    The technical effort has been in two parts called; Materials Science and Instrumentation Development. The Materials Science technical program has been based on a series of research and development achievements in Positron-Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) for defect detection in structural materials. This work is of particular importance in nuclear power and its supporting systems as the work included detection of defects introduced by mechanical and thermal phenomena as well as those caused by irradiation damage. The second part of the program has focused on instrumentation development using active interrogation techniques supporting proliferation resistant recycling methodologies and nuclear material safeguards. This effort has also lead to basic physics studies of various phenomena relating to photo-fission. Highlights of accomplishments and facility improvement legacies in these areas over the program period include

  9. New Trends in Induction Accelerator Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J

    2002-12-05

    Recent advances in solid-state modulators now permit the design of a new class of high current accelerators. These new accelerators will be able to operate in burst mode at frequencies of several MHz with unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format. These new modulators can drive accelerators to high average powers that far exceed those of any other technology and can be used to enable precision beam manipulations. New insulator technology combined with novel pulse forming lines and switching may enable the construction of a new type of high gradient, high current accelerator. Recent developments in these areas will be reviewed.

  10. Development of high quality electron beam accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kando, Masaki; Dewa, Hideki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kondo, Shuji; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhisa [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A design study on a high quality electron beam accelerator is described. This accelerator will be used for second generation experiments of laser wakefield acceleration, short x-ray generation, and other experiments of interaction of high intensity laser with an electron beam at Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The system consists of a photocathode rf gun and a race-track microtron (RTM). To combine these two components, injection and extraction beamlines are designed employing transfer matrix and compute codes. A present status of the accelerator system is also presented. (author)

  11. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  12. Injection and acceleration system of pulsed racetrack microtron

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakov, A N; Ishkhanov, B S

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes a pulsed racetrack microtron (RM) with 70 MeV beam maximal power. For this project one designed rare-earth permanent magnet base bending magnets, pattern to inject a bunched electron bean through a compact alpha-magnet and prismatic biperiodic accelerating structure (PBAS) characterized by compact transverse dimensions ensuring bar-free passing of electron beam through the first orbit. Besides, the PBAS has a high-frequency quadrupole focusing. These features facilitate essentially RM design and adjustment. Paper describes tests, technique of adjustment and of measuring of systems to inject and to accelerate a pulsed racetrack microtron

  13. Compactness in intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Abbas

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce fuzzy almost continuous mapping, fuzzy weakly continuous mapping, fuzzy compactness, fuzzy almost compactness, and fuzzy near compactness in intuitionistic fuzzy topological space in view of the definition of Å ostak, and study some of their properties. Also, we investigate the behavior of fuzzy compactness under several types of fuzzy continuous mappings.

  14. Chemically induced compaction bands in geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Compaction bands play an important role in oil production and may provide useful information on various geological processes. Various mechanisms can be involved at different scales: the micro scale (e.g. the grain scale), the meso scale (e.g. the Representative Element Volume) and the macro scale (e.g. the structure). Moreover, hydro-chemo-mechanical couplings might play an important role in triggering instabilities in the form of compaction bands. Compaction bands can be seen as an instability of the underneath mathematical problem leading to localization of deformation [1,2,3]. Here we explore the conditions of compaction banding in quartz-based geomaterials by considering the effect of chemical dissolution and precipitation [4,5]. In due course of the loading process grain crushing affects the residual strength, the porosity and the permeability of the material. Moreover, at the micro-level, grain crushing results in an increase of the grain specific surface, which accelerates the dissolution [6]. Consequently, the silica is removed more rapidly from the grain skeleton and the overall mechanical properties are degraded due to chemical factors. The proposed model accounts for these phenomena. In particular, the diffusion of the diluted in the water silica is considered through the mass balance equation of the porous medium. The reduction of the mechanical strength of the material is described through a macroscopic failure criterion with chemical softening. The grain size reduction is related to the total energy input [7]. A grain size and porosity dependent permeability law is adopted. These degradation mechanisms are coupled with the dissolution/precipitation reaction kinetics. The obtained hydro-chemo-mechanical model is used to investigate the conditions, the material parameters and the chemical factors inducing compaction bands formation. References [1] J.W. Rudnicki, and J.R. Rice. "Conditions for the Localization of Deformation in Pressure

  15. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  16. The Construction of Finer Compact Topologies

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that each locally compact strongly sober topology is contained in a compact Hausdorff topology; just take the supremum of its topology with its dual topology. On the other hand, examples of compact topologies are known that do not have a finer compact Hausdorff topology. This led to the question (first explicitly formulated by D.E. Cameron) whether each compact topology is contained in a compact topology with respect to which all compact sets are closed. (For the obvious r...

  17. Compactly convex sets in linear topological spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banakh, T; Ravsky, O

    2012-01-01

    A convex subset X of a linear topological space is called compactly convex if there is a continuous compact-valued map $\\Phi:X\\to exp(X)$ such that $[x,y]\\subset\\Phi(x)\\cup \\Phi(y)$ for all $x,y\\in X$. We prove that each convex subset of the plane is compactly convex. On the other hand, the space $R^3$ contains a convex set that is not compactly convex. Each compactly convex subset $X$ of a linear topological space $L$ has locally compact closure $\\bar X$ which is metrizable if and only if each compact subset of $X$ is metrizable.

  18. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  19. Lasers techniques Improvement of classical accelerators by lasers. Laser accelerators with and without plasmas. Lasers accelerators in vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Heinrich

    1991-01-01

    Of the unconventional accelerator techniques those including lasers are reported. After explaining the advances by lasers for classical accelerator techniques, as FELs and other methods for 100 GHz generation of GW pulses, a survey is given of far field and near field laser acceleration. Problems of the beat-wave accelerator are discussed and schemes for particle interaction in vacuum without plasma are elaborated. One scheme is the Boreham experiment and another is the acceleration of "standing" wave fields where charged particles are trapped in the intensity minima. Another scheme uses the relativistic acceleration by half waves where the now available petawatt-picosecond laser pulses should produce GeV electron pulses of high luminosity. Increase of these electron enrgies would need very large lasers in the future.

  20. High-efficiency acceleration of an electron beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litos, M; Adli, E; An, W; Clarke, C I; Clayton, C E; Corde, S; Delahaye, J P; England, R J; Fisher, A S; Frederico, J; Gessner, S; Green, S Z; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Lu, W; Marsh, K A; Mori, W B; Muggli, P; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N; Walz, D; White, G; Wu, Z; Yakimenko, V; Yocky, G

    2014-11-06

    High-efficiency acceleration of charged particle beams at high gradients of energy gain per unit length is necessary to achieve an affordable and compact high-energy collider. The plasma wakefield accelerator is one concept being developed for this purpose. In plasma wakefield acceleration, a charge-density wake with high accelerating fields is driven by the passage of an ultra-relativistic bunch of charged particles (the drive bunch) through a plasma. If a second bunch of relativistic electrons (the trailing bunch) with sufficient charge follows in the wake of the drive bunch at an appropriate distance, it can be efficiently accelerated to high energy. Previous experiments using just a single 42-gigaelectronvolt drive bunch have accelerated electrons with a continuous energy spectrum and a maximum energy of up to 85 gigaelectronvolts from the tail of the same bunch in less than a metre of plasma. However, the total charge of these accelerated electrons was insufficient to extract a substantial amount of energy from the wake. Here we report high-efficiency acceleration of a discrete trailing bunch of electrons that contains sufficient charge to extract a substantial amount of energy from the high-gradient, nonlinear plasma wakefield accelerator. Specifically, we show the acceleration of about 74 picocoulombs of charge contained in the core of the trailing bunch in an accelerating gradient of about 4.4 gigavolts per metre. These core particles gain about 1.6 gigaelectronvolts of energy per particle, with a final energy spread as low as 0.7 per cent (2.0 per cent on average), and an energy-transfer efficiency from the wake to the bunch that can exceed 30 per cent (17.7 per cent on average). This acceleration of a distinct bunch of electrons containing a substantial charge and having a small energy spread with both a high accelerating gradient and a high energy-transfer efficiency represents a milestone in the development of plasma wakefield acceleration into a

  1. Compact magnetic confinement fusion: Spherical torus and compact torus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The spherical torus (ST and compact torus (CT are two kinds of alternative magnetic confinement fusion concepts with compact geometry. The ST is actually a sub-category of tokamak with a low aspect ratio; while the CT is a toroidal magnetic configuration with a simply-connected geometry including spheromak and field reversed pinch. The ST and CT have potential advantages for ultimate fusion reactor; while at present they can also provide unique fusion science and technology contributions for mainstream fusion research. However, some critical scientific and technology issues should be extensively investigated.

  2. Viral RNAs are unusually compact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaykumar Gopal

    Full Text Available A majority of viruses are composed of long single-stranded genomic RNA molecules encapsulated by protein shells with diameters of just a few tens of nanometers. We examine the extent to which these viral RNAs have evolved to be physically compact molecules to facilitate encapsulation. Measurements of equal-length viral, non-viral, coding and non-coding RNAs show viral RNAs to have among the smallest sizes in solution, i.e., the highest gel-electrophoretic mobilities and the smallest hydrodynamic radii. Using graph-theoretical analyses we demonstrate that their sizes correlate with the compactness of branching patterns in predicted secondary structure ensembles. The density of branching is determined by the number and relative positions of 3-helix junctions, and is highly sensitive to the presence of rare higher-order junctions with 4 or more helices. Compact branching arises from a preponderance of base pairing between nucleotides close to each other in the primary sequence. The density of branching represents a degree of freedom optimized by viral RNA genomes in response to the evolutionary pressure to be packaged reliably. Several families of viruses are analyzed to delineate the effects of capsid geometry, size and charge stabilization on the selective pressure for RNA compactness. Compact branching has important implications for RNA folding and viral assembly.

  3. Broadband electromagnetic analysis of compacted kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Cai, Caifang; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical compaction of soil influences not only the mechanical strength and compressibility but also the hydraulic behavior in terms of hydraulic conductivity and soil suction. At the same time, electric and dielectric parameters are increasingly used to characterize soil and to relate them with mechanic and hydraulic parameters. In the presented study electromagnetic soil properties and suction were measured under defined conditions of standardized compaction tests. The impact of external mechanical stress conditions of nearly pure kaolinite was analyzed on soil suction and broadband electromagnetic soil properties. An experimental procedure was developed and validated to simultaneously determine mechanical, hydraulic and broadband (1 MHz-3 GHz) electromagnetic properties of the porous material. The frequency dependent electromagnetic properties were modeled with a classical mixture equation (advanced Lichtenecker and Rother model, ALRM) and a hydraulic-mechanical-electromagnetic coupling approach was introduced considering water saturation, soil structure (bulk density, porosity), soil suction (pore size distribution, water sorption) as well as electrical conductivity of the aqueous pore solution. Moreover, the relaxation behavior was analyzed with a generalized fractional relaxation model concerning a high-frequency water process and two interface processes extended with an apparent direct current conductivity contribution. The different modeling approaches provide a satisfactory agreement with experimental data for the real part. These results show the potential of broadband electromagnetic approaches for quantitative estimation of the hydraulic state of the soil during densification.

  4. A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jebaraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation technique with different shapes of slot in the orthogonal direction. A single feed configuration based symmetric slotted microstrip antenna is adapted to realize the compact circularly polarized microstrip antennas. Based on the perimeter, the size of the slot on microstrip slot antenna are studied and compared. The Operating frequency of the antenna is 912MHz that can be tuned by varying the perimeter of the slot while the keeping the circularly polarized radiation unchanged. The schematic and layout are configured by using Advanced Design System (ADS. Return loss, Resonant Frequency, Axial Ratio (AR, and Gain were determined for the proposed system using ADS. A measured 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth around 6MHz with 16MHz impedance bandwidth has been achieved for the antenna on a RO3004C substrate with dielectric constant 3.38.

  5. CLIC accelerator modules under construction at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2012-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) study is dedicated to the design of an electron-positron (e- e+) linear accelerator, colliding particle beams at the energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC required luminosity can be reached with powerful particle beams (14 MW each) colliding with extremely small dimensions and high beam stability at the interaction point. The accelerated particle beams must have dimensions of 45 nm in the horizontal plane and 1 nm in the vertical plane. CLIC relies upon a novel two-beam acceleration concept in which the Radio Frequency (RF) power is extracted from a low energy but high-intensity particle beam, called Drive Beam (DB), and transferred to a parallel high energy accelerating particle beam, called Main Beam (MB). The extraction and transfer of the RF power is achieved by the Power Extraction and Transfer Structures (PETS) and the particle beam acceleration is achieved with high precision RF-Accelerating Structures (AS), operating at 11.9942 GHz with an accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m, whi...

  6. Natural and Laboratory-Induced Compaction Bands in Aztec Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimson, B. C.; Lee, H.

    2002-12-01

    zone ahead of the fracture-like breakout tip and the natural compaction band provides strong evidence and reinforces earlier contentions that the former is itself a compaction band, resulting from the stress concentration transferred to it as the breakout advances along the \\sigmah springline. The development of the narrow tabular breakout supports our previous assertions that high porosity sandstones possessing mainly quartz grains held together primarily by suturing tend to form compaction bands upon drilling, which are then emptied by the circulating drilling fluid. The Aztec sandstone is the weakest and least cemented natural sandstone that we have successfully tested, and it is perhaps the closest to the poorly consolidated sandstones encountered in some oil reservoirs.

  7. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source.

  8. Compact orthogonal NMR field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL

    2009-02-03

    A Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor for emitting two orthogonal electro-magnetic fields in a common space. More particularly, a replacement inductor for existing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) sensors to allow for NMR imaging. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor has a conductive coil and a central conductor electrically connected in series. The central conductor is at least partially surrounded by the coil. The coil and central conductor are electrically or electro-magnetically connected to a device having a means for producing or inducing a current through the coil and central conductor. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor can be used in NMR imaging applications to determine the position and the associated NMR spectrum of a sample within the electro-magnetic field of the central conductor.

  9. Compact and Thermosensitive Nature-inspired Micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-10-01

    Liquid transportation without employing a bulky power source, often observed in nature, has been an essential prerequisite for smart applications of microfluidic devices. In this report, a leaf-inspired micropump (LIM) which is composed of thermo-responsive stomata-inspired membrane (SIM) and mesophyll-inspired agarose cryogel (MAC) is proposed. The LIM provides a durable flow rate of 30 μl/h · cm2 for more than 30 h at room temperature without external mechanical power source. By adapting a thermo-responsive polymer, the LIM can smartly adjust the delivery rate of a therapeutic liquid in response to temperature changes. In addition, as the LIM is compact, portable, and easily integrated into any liquid, it might be utilized as an essential component in advanced hand-held drug delivery devices.

  10. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  11. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  12. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillard François

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  13. Consequences of bounds on longitudinal emittance growth for the design of recirculating linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    Recirculating linear accelerators (RLAs) are a cost-effective method for the acceleration of muons for a muon collider in energy ranges from a couple GeV to a few 10s of GeV. Muon beams generally have longitudinal emittances that are large for the RF frequency that is used, and it is important to limit the growth of that longitudinal emittance. This has particular consequences for the arc design of the RLAs. I estimate the longitudinal emittance growth in an RLA arising from the RF nonlinearity. Given an emittance growth limitation and other design parameters, one can then compute the maximum momentum compaction in the arcs. I describe how to obtain an approximate arc design satisfying these requirements based on the deisgn in [1]. Longitudinal dynamics also determine the energy spread in the beam, and this has consequences on the transverse phase advance in the linac. This in turn has consequences for the arc design due to the need to match beta functions. I combine these considerations to discuss design parameters for the acceleration of muons for a collider in an RLA from 5 to 63 GeV.

  14. Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John

    2016-01-01

    The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations t...

  15. The Compact Project: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The National Alliance of Business (NAB) surveyed the 12 sites that participated in the Compact Project to develop and implement programs of business-education collaboration. NAB studied start-up activities, key players, conditions for collaboration, accomplishments, challenges, and future plans. Program outcomes indicated that building successful…

  16. JACKSON'S THEOREM FOR COMPACT GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Vaezi; S. F. Rzaev

    2002-01-01

    In this article we consider the generalized shift operator defined by(Sh.f)(g) = ∫Gf (tut-1g)dton compact group G and by help of this operator we define "Spherical" modulus of continuity. So we proveStechkin and Jackson type theorems.

  17. Compact Photon Source Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degtyarenko, Pavel V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We describe options for the production of an intense photon beam at the CEBAF Hall D Tagger facility, needed for creating a high-quality secondary K 0 L delivered to the Hall D detector. The conceptual design for the Compact Photon Source apparatus is presented.

  18. DNA compaction by nonbinding macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Compaction of DNA by nonbinding macromolecules such as uncharged flexible polymer chains and negatively charged globular proteins is thought to have various applications in biophysics, for example in the formation of a nucleoid structure in bacteria. A simple experimental model that has been very

  19. Dynamics of a compact operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Teck-Cheong

    2010-01-01

    Let $T:X\\to X$ be a compact linear (or more generally affine) operator from a Banach space into itself. For each $x\\in X$, the sequence of iterates $T^nx, n=0,1,...$ and its averages $\\frac{1}{k}\\sum_{k=0}^nT^{k-1}x, n=0,1,...$ are either bounded or approach infinity.

  20. DNA compaction by nonbinding macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Compaction of DNA by nonbinding macromolecules such as uncharged flexible polymer chains and negatively charged globular proteins is thought to have various applications in biophysics, for example in the formation of a nucleoid structure in bacteria. A simple experimental model that has been very we

  1. Fuzzy Soft Compact Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied compactness in fuzzy soft topological spaces which is a generalization of the corresponding concept by R. Lowen in the case of fuzzy topological spaces. Several basic desirable results have been established. In particular, we have proved the counterparts of Alexander’s subbase lemma and Tychonoff theorem for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  2. On sequential countably compact topological semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Gutik, Oleg V; Repovš, Dušan

    2008-01-01

    We study topological and algebraic properties of sequential countably compact topological semigroups similar to compact topological semigroups. We prove that a sequential countably compact topological semigroup does not contain the bicyclic semigroup. Also we show that the closure of a subgroup in a sequential countably compact topological semigroup is a topological group, that the inversion in a Clifford sequential countably compact topological semigroup is continuous and we prove the analogue of the Rees-Suschkewitsch Theorem for simple regular sequential countably compact topological semigroups.

  3. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  4. Direct laser acceleration of electrons in free-space

    CERN Document Server

    Carbajo, Sergio; Wong, Liang Jie; Miller, R J Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X

    2015-01-01

    Compact laser-driven accelerators are versatile and powerful tools of unarguable relevance on societal grounds for the diverse purposes of science, health, security, and technology because they bring enormous practicality to state-of-the-art achievements of conventional radio-frequency accelerators. Current benchmarking laser-based technologies rely on a medium to assist the light-matter interaction, which impose material limitations or strongly inhomogeneous fields. The advent of few cycle ultra-intense radially polarized lasers has materialized an extensively studied novel accelerator that adopts the simplest form of laser acceleration and is unique in requiring no medium to achieve strong longitudinal energy transfer directly from laser to particle. Here we present the first observation of direct longitudinal laser acceleration of non-relativistic electrons that undergo highly-directional multi-GeV/m accelerating gradients. This demonstration opens a new frontier for direct laser-driven particle accelerati...

  5. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  6. 75 FR 61197 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Republic of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... (``Compact'') will provide up to $433,910,000 million to reduce poverty and accelerate economic growth. The... welfare in rural areas by targeting communities where poverty incidence exceeds the national average for... developed by GRP's Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) in collaboration with the World...

  7. Wavelet Domain Image Reconstruction by Compactly-Supported Radial Basis Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago, Luis A.; Kitago, Masaki; Hagiwara, Ichiro

    In this paper we propose the use of wavelets to accelerate the solution of the System of Linear Algebraic Equations that arise from the formulation of the problem of image interpolation from scattered data by means of Compactly-Supported Radial Basis Functions. Examples demonstrate the superiority of the solution in the wavelet domain using preconditioned iterative Krylov methods.

  8. Laser Wakefield Acceleration: Structural and Dynamic Studies. Final Technical Report ER40954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, Michael

    2014-12-19

    Particle accelerators enable scientists to study the fundamental structure of the universe, but have become the largest and most expensive of scientific instruments. In this project, we advanced the science and technology of laser-plasma accelerators, which are thousands of times smaller and less expensive than their conventional counterparts. In a laser-plasma accelerator, a powerful laser pulse exerts light pressure on an ionized gas, or plasma, thereby driving an electron density wave, which resembles the wake behind a boat. Electrostatic fields within this plasma wake reach tens of billions of volts per meter, fields far stronger than ordinary non-plasma matter (such as the matter that a conventional accelerator is made of) can withstand. Under the right conditions, stray electrons from the surrounding plasma become trapped within these “wake-fields”, surf them, and acquire energy much faster than is possible in a conventional accelerator. Laser-plasma accelerators thus might herald a new generation of compact, low-cost accelerators for future particle physics, x-ray and medical research. In this project, we made two major advances in the science of laser-plasma accelerators. The first of these was to accelerate electrons beyond 1 gigaelectronvolt (1 GeV) for the first time. In experimental results reported in Nature Communications in 2013, about 1 billion electrons were captured from a tenuous plasma (about 1/100 of atmosphere density) and accelerated to 2 GeV within about one inch, while maintaining less than 5% energy spread, and spreading out less than ½ milliradian (i.e. ½ millimeter per meter of travel). Low energy spread and high beam collimation are important for applications of accelerators as coherent x-ray sources or particle colliders. This advance was made possible by exploiting unique properties of the Texas Petawatt Laser, a powerful laser at the University of Texas at Austin that produces pulses of 150 femtoseconds (1 femtosecond is 10

  9. Fermi Acceleration in Magnetic Reconnection Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Kowal, G.; Lazarian, A.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms that accelerate cosmic relativistic particles are not fully understood yet. A variety of processes has been investigated and the acceleration in magnetic reconnection sites has lately gained increasing attention from researchers not only for its potential importance in the solar system, but also beyond it, in astrophysical environments like compact stellar sources, AGNs and GRBs, and even in diffusive magnetized media as the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM). In this talk we review this process and, supported by three-dimensional MHD simulations with the injection of thousands of test particles, we show that they can be efficiently accelerated by magnetic reconnection through a first-order Fermi process within large scale magnetic current sheets, even in a collisional fluid (contrary to what was previously believed), especially when local turbulence is present which makes reconnection fast, the acceleration layer thicker and the overall process naturally three-dimensional. Tests of particle acceleration in pure MHD turbulent environments (i.e., without the presence of large scale current sheets), on the other hand, indicate that the dominant acceleration process is a second-order Fermi.

  10. Permanent magnets in accelerators can save energy, space and cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, F.; Baandrup, L.O.; Hauge, N.

    2013-01-01

    Green Magnet® technology with close to zero electrical power consumption without the need for cooling water saves costs, space and natural resources. A compact dipole based on permanent magnets has been developed at Danfysik in collaboration with Sintex and Aarhus University. Our first Green Magnet...... Magnet technology in other accelerator systems like synchrotron light sources and transfer beamlines....

  11. Piezoelectric particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jongewaard, Erik N.; Haase, Andrew A.; Franzi, Matthew

    2017-08-29

    A particle accelerator is provided that includes a piezoelectric accelerator element, where the piezoelectric accelerator element includes a hollow cylindrical shape, and an input transducer, where the input transducer is disposed to provide an input signal to the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the input signal induces a mechanical excitation of the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the mechanical excitation is capable of generating a piezoelectric electric field proximal to an axis of the cylindrical shape, where the piezoelectric accelerator is configured to accelerate a charged particle longitudinally along the axis of the cylindrical shape according to the piezoelectric electric field.

  12. Acceleration without Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Alaric

    2015-01-01

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} < c$. The motion of the accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  13. The antipodal sets of compact symmetric spaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Xingda; Deng, Shaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    We study the antipodal set of a point in a compact Riemannian symmetric space. It turns out that we can give an explicit description of the antipodal set of a point in any connected simply connected compact Riemannian symmetric space...

  14. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and

  15. Warm compaction powder metallurgy of Cu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGAI Tungwai Leo; WANG Shang-lin; LI Yuan-yuan; ZHOU Zho-yao; CHEN Wei-ping

    2005-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out using different admixed lubricant contents,different compaction pressures and temperatures in order to study the warm compaction of copper powder.Results show that too much admixed lubricant will lead to the squeeze out of the lubricant from the compact during the warm compaction processing of Cu powder.Results also show that blisters can be found in sintered samples that contain lubricant less than 0.15% (mass fraction).Optimal warm compaction parameters for producing high density powder metallurgy copper material are obtained.Compacts with green density of 8.6 g/cm3 and a sintered density of 8.83 g/cm3 can be produced by warm compacting the Cu powder,which contains 0.2% admixed lubricant,and is compacted at 145 ℃ with a pressure of 700 Mpa.

  16. Robust parameter estimation for compact binaries with ground-based gravitational-wave observations using LALInference

    CERN Document Server

    Veitch, John; Farr, Benjamin; Farr, Will M; Graff, Philip; Vitale, Salvatore; Aylott, Ben; Blackburn, Kent; Christensen, Nelson; Coughlin, Michael; Del Pozzo, Walter; Feroz, Farhan; Gair, Jonathan; Haster, Carl-Johan; Kalogera, Vicky; Littenberg, Tyson; Mandel, Ilya; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Pitkin, Matthew; Rodriguez, Carl; Röver, Christian; Sidery, Trevor; Smith, Rory; Van Der Sluys, Marc; Vecchio, Alberto; Vousden, Will; Wade, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational wave (GW) detectors will begin operation in the coming years, with compact binary coalescence events a likely source for the first detections. The gravitational waveforms emitted directly encode information about the sources, including the masses and spins of the compact objects. Recovering the physical parameters of the sources from the GW observations is a key analysis task. This work describes the LALInference software library for Bayesian parameter estimation of compact binary coalescence (CBC) signals, which builds on several previous methods to provide a well-tested toolkit which has already been used for several studies. We are able to show using three independent sampling algorithms that our implementation consistently converges on the same results, giving confidence in the parameter estimates thus obtained. We demonstrate this with a detailed comparison on three compact binary systems: a binary neutron star, a neutron star-black hole binary and a bin...

  17. Accelerating flight: Edge with arbitrary acceleration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ? temporal scales ? Euler ? convection ? Reynolds ? translational viscous ? Ekman ? rotational viscous ? Translational acceleration ? related to g ? Rotational accleration ? Rossby ? Coriolis ? Centrifugal ? Gravitational ? CSIR 2009...

  18. Future HEP Accelerators: The US Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-11-02

    Accelerator technology has advanced tremendously since the introduction of accelerators in the 1930s, and particle accelerators have become indispensable instruments in high energy physics (HEP) research to probe Nature at smaller and smaller distances. At present, accelerator facilities can be classified into Energy Frontier colliders that enable direct discoveries and studies of high mass scale particles and Intensity Frontier accelerators for exploration of extremely rare processes, usually at relatively low energies. The near term strategies of the global energy frontier particle physics community are centered on fully exploiting the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), while the intensity frontier HEP research is focused on studies of neutrinos at the MW-scale beam power accelerator facilities, such as Fermilab Main Injector with the planned PIP-II SRF linac project. A number of next generation accelerator facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium- and long-term future programs of accelerator-based HEP research. In this paper, we briefly review the post-LHC energy frontier options, both for lepton and hadron colliders in various regions of the world, as well as possible future intensity frontier accelerator facilities.

  19. Proton acceleration by RF TE{sub 11} mode in a cylindrical cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajima, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Ohnishi, Masami; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Masuda, Kai [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy

    1997-03-01

    We found that protons are accelerated significantly by RF TE{sub 11} mode in a cylindrical cavity. In this method, protons get the perpendicular kinetic energy, so we thought it might be a compact accelerator, and studied the feasibility by numerical simulation. (author)

  20. High Intensity Accelerator and Neutron Source in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xialing; Wei, J.; Loong, Chun

    2011-06-01

    High intensity Accelerator is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. The R/D activities of the technology of High intensity accelerator are also developed in China for some year, and have some good facilities around China. This paper will reports the status of some high intensity accelerators and neutron source in China, which including ADS/RFQ; CARR; CSNS; PKUNIFTY & CPHS. This paper will emphatically report the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) led by the Department of Engineering Physics of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China.