Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS
Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed.Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty.
Shogbon, Angela O.; Lundquist, Lisa M.
Objective. To assess student pharmacists’ clinical interventions in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) at a community nonteaching hospital and evaluate completed interventions based on the type of documentation method used.
Wiryanto; Harahap, Urip; Karsono; Mawengkang, Herman
Majority of community pharmacy practice in Indonesia was described as practices that have not been standard fulfilling. This research have an aim to design a model of community pharmacy practice as instrument for fulfilling standard. Design of model of community pharmacy practice comprised practice standard, model of determining practice criteria, and model of improving practice criteria. Model of improving practice criteria used Nolan model, consisting of Plan, Do, Check, and ...
Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.
Wright DJ; Twigg MJ
David John Wright, Michael James Twigg School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Abstract: As community pharmacy services become more patient centered, they will be increasingly reliant on access to good quality patient information. This review describes how the information that is currently available in community pharmacies can be used to enhance service delivery and patient care. With integration of community pharmacy and medical practice records on the horizon, the opport...
This thesis deals with the development of patient education in the community pharmacy. The research questions concentrate on the determinants of technicians patient education behavior and the effects of a one-year lasting intervention program on the patient education activities in the pharmacy. This summary reports about the research methodology and the results. Research methodology The studied patient education behavior concerned the provision of verbal drug information to pharmacy visitors...
Full Text Available David John Wright, Michael James Twigg School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Abstract: As community pharmacy services become more patient centered, they will be increasingly reliant on access to good quality patient information. This review describes how the information that is currently available in community pharmacies can be used to enhance service delivery and patient care. With integration of community pharmacy and medical practice records on the horizon, the opportunities this will provide are also considered. The community pharmacy held patient medication record, which is the central information repository and has been used to identify non-adherence, prompts the pharmacist to clinically review prescriptions, identify patients for additional services, and identify those patients at greater risk of adverse drug events. While active recording of patient consultations for treatment over the counter may improve the quality of consultations and information held, the lost benefits of anonymity afforded by community pharmacies need to be considered. Recording of pharmacy staff activities enables the workload to be monitored, remuneration to be justified, critical incidents to be learned from, but is not routine practice. Centralization of records between community pharmacies enables practices to be compared and consistent problems to be identified. By integrating pharmacy and medical practice records, patient behavior with respect to medicines can be more closely monitored and should prevent duplication of effort. When using patient information stored in a community pharmacy, it is, however, important to consider the reason why the information was recorded in the first instance and whether it is appropriate to use it for a different purpose without additional patient consent. Currently, community pharmacies have access to large amounts of information, which, if stored and used appropriately, can significantly enhance the
Max Joseph Herman
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional
Calomo, Joseph M.
Students need strong interpersonal skills to ensure application of their clinical skills and knowledge. Pharmacy schools across the nation must assess the quantity and quality of management skills instruction within their curriculums, including experiential education. The purpose of this article is to describe the importance of the development and utilization of business and people management skills within a community pharmacy, as well as how to incorporate these skills into a student's advan...
Oliver, Brittany A
Community service provides pharmacy students with invaluable opportunities for professional growth in communication, organization, and practice skills. Furthermore, students develop relationships with practicing pharmacists, which leads to influential mentoring and networking opportunities. While building students’ confidence and skills, these endeavors can have significant impact on community members’ lives.
Full Text Available Rosemin Kassam1, John B Collins2, Jonathan Berkowitz31School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Education, 3Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaBackground: The purpose of this study was to validate previously published satisfaction scales in larger and more diversified patient populations; to expand the number of community pharmacies represented; to test the robustness of satisfaction measures across a broader demographic spectrum and a variety of health conditions; to confirm the three-factor scale structure; to test the relationships between satisfaction and consultation practices involving pharmacists and pharmacy students; and to examine service gaps and establish plausible norms.Methods: Patients completed a 15-question survey about their expectations regarding pharmaceutical care-related activities while shopping in any pharmacy and a parallel 15 questions about their experiences while shopping in this particular pharmacy. The survey also collected information regarding pharmaceutical care consultation received by the patients and brief demographic data.Results: A total of 628 patients from 55 pharmacies completed the survey. The pilot study’s three-factor satisfaction structure was confirmed. Overall, satisfaction measures did not differ by demographics or medical condition, but there were strong and significant store-to-store differences and consultation practice advantages when pharmacists or pharmacists-plus-students participated, but not for consultations with students alone.Conclusion: Patient satisfaction can be reliably measured by surveys structured around pharmaceutical care activities. The introduction of pharmaceutical care in pharmacies improves patient satisfaction. Service gap details indicated that pharmacy managers need to pay closer attention to various consultative activities involving patients
Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina
Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety. PMID:20959726
Ploylearmsang, Chanuttha; Sookaneknun, Phayom; Poophalee, Thanapong; Pongruea, Piyatida
Objective. To integrate pharmacy education into a diabetes and hypertension screening program to improve pharmacy student disease knowledge and screening skills and provide a valuable service to the community.
Christensen, Søren Troels; Søndergaard, Birthe; Honoré, Per Hartvig;
of pharmacists in ADR reporting, although varies significantly among countries. Pharmacists in community pharmacies are in a unique position for detection of experienced ADRs by the drug users. The study reports from a study on community pharmacy internship students' proactive role in ADR detection through...... direct encountering and questioning with drug users. METHOD: Pharmacy students undertaking internship in a community pharmacy were approached. Thirteen students from nine community pharmacies participated in the project as data collectors. Prior to the study students attended an educational seminar...... focusing on ADR detection and reporting in general. Ibuprofen was chosen as the drug of study. Pharmacy students approached recurrent drug users purchasing the drug. Participating users were asked about experienced ADRs linked to ibuprofen use. Reported ADRs were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Hundred...
In this thesis, several studies are presented providing information about frequency, nature and determinants of drug therapy related problems as they occur in daily pharmaceutical practice, including unavailability, drug-drug interactions and heavy use of psychotropic medicines. These studies especially focused on the pharmacist and his contribution and quality to the 'solution' of these problems. - In 2001 Dutch community pharmacies still compound more than 13,000 medicines per day (2.3% of ...
Frankel, Grace; Louizos, Christopher; Austin, Zubin
Canadian faculties (schools) of pharmacy are actively engaged in the advancement and restructuring of their programs in response to the shift in pharmacy to pharmacists having/assuming an advanced practitioner role. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of evidence outlining optimal strategies for accomplishing this task. This review explores several educational changes proposed in the literature to aid in the advancement of pharmacy education such as program admission requirements, critical-thin...
Herborg, Hanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Frøkjaer, Bente
OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of Danish community pharmacy in both practice and research and discuss future trends. FINDINGS: Denmark has a social welfare system that provides health care, social services, and pensions to its population. Medical care and surgery are free. Prescription...... medicines are reimbursed by an average of 56%. Community pharmacies are privately owned, but the health authorities regulate drug prices and the number of pharmacies. At present, Denmark has 322 pharmacies, corresponding to 1 pharmacy per 16,700 inhabitants. All pharmacies provide prescription and over......-the-counter products, advice about medicine use, dose dispensing, generic substitutions, and administration of individual reimbursement registers. Except for very simple processes, compounding is centralized at 3 pharmacies. Many pharmacies offer measurement of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and 60...
Sobota, Kristen Finley; Barnes, Jeremiah; Fitzpatrick, Alyse; Sobota, Micah J
The Ohio Northern University American Society of Consultant Pharmacists chapter provides students the opportunity to apply classroom knowledge with learning through community service. One such program took place at the Lima Towers Apartment Community from September 18, 2014, to October 2, 2014, in Lima, Ohio. Three evening educational sessions focused on a different health topic: 1) mental health, 2) medication adherence/brown bag, and 3) healthy lifestyle choices/nutrition/smoking cessation. All three programs were structured identically, starting with dinner, followed by educational intervention, survey, blood pressure checks, and medication reviews. Two pharmacists and 16 pharmacy students implemented the program. Participants completed a total of 76 satisfaction surveys for the three programs, which were included in the data analysis. The average age of the participants was 65 years; 82% (n = 63) were female. Data demonstrated that 94% (n = 72) "learned something new," while 96% (n = 74) would "recommend the program to a friend/family member." The collected data showed the vast majority of participants from the surrounding community found value in the presentations performed by students, especially with regard to the new information they received and its perceived benefits. In light of such successes, we encourage other student chapters to implement similar community outreach events. ASCP student members can make a strong, positive impact in the community while learning in a nontraditional environment. PMID:26173194
Rex O. Brown
Full Text Available The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE provides standards for colleges of pharmacy to assist in the provision of pharmacy education to student pharmacists. An integral part of all college educational programs includes the provision of experiential learning. Experiential learning allows students to gain real-world experience in direct patient care during completion of the curriculum. All college of pharmacy programs provide several Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs, which include a balance between the four required experiences and a number of other required or elective APPEs. Required APPEs include advanced community, advanced institutional, ambulatory care, and general medicine. The elective APPEs include a myriad of opportunities to help provide a balanced education in experiential learning for student pharmacists. These unique opportunities help to expose student pharmacists to different career tracks that they may not have been able to experience otherwise. Not all colleges offer enough elective APPEs to enable the student pharmacist to obtain experiences in a defined area. Such an approach is required to produce skilled pharmacy graduates that are capable to enter practice in various settings. Elective APPEs are scheduled logically and are based upon student career interest and site availability. This article describes the offering, scheduling and maintenance of different elective APPEs offered by The University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy.
Timothy McPherson, PhD, RPh
Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers’ view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.
Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban;
of prescribed medicines at Swedish community pharmacies. METHOD: Non-participant observations and audio recordings were used as data-collecting methods. The content of the dialog was categorized into 2 deductively decided main categories-medicinal and non-medicinal issues-and 12 inductively decided...... subcategories. RESULTS: A total of 282 pharmacy encounters were observed and recorded, of which 259 fully coincided with the inclusion criteria. After categorizing the content of each encounter the results showed that there was little or no dialog regarding medicinal issues during the pharmacy encounter...... in Swedish community pharmacies. Forty percent of the dialog concerns non-medical issues and almost half of the encounter was silent. CONCLUSION: Medicines are an essential treatment method in healthcare, and pharmaceutical expertise is available to patients who enter a community pharmacy. The results...
Whitley, Heather P.
Objective. To develop and integrate an active-learning diabetes simulation into an advanced pharmacy practice experience to improve pharmacy students’ empathy toward patients with diabetes mellitus.
Brown, Charles H.
A preliminary study that seeks to determine, quantitatively and qualitatively, the effectiveness of externship preceptors in training Purdue University students to practice pharmacy in community and hospital environments is described. Variables that can effect externships are appended. (JMD)
BackgroundViolence in community pharmacies in Ireland is thought to be common but underreported. The frequency and consequences of violence has not been studied previously.AimsTo establish the frequency and nature of violence in community pharmacies over 12 months, and to investigate the impact of violence on employees and possible consequence for the industry.MethodsA two-part survey was distributed to community pharmacies in Ireland in 2011 (n = 200). The first part related to pharmacy demographics, the frequency of various violent events (verbal abuse, threats etc.), the respondents\\' worry regarding violence and its impact on their co-workers. The second part concerned individual employees\\' subjective response to a violent event, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).ResultsFifty-seven per cent of the pharmacies responded, with 77% reporting some violent event (verbal or physical), over the past year. Eighteen per cent reported physical assault, and 63% were worried about workplace violence. There was no association between late night opening hours or pharmacy size and violence frequency. Positive statistically significant correlations were present between all types of violence and absenteeism and employee fear levels. An IES-R score could be calculated for 75 respondents; the median IES-R score was 8 with 19% reporting clinically significant scores.ConclusionsViolence is common in Irish community pharmacies and impacts on employees and the industry.
Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika
Background: All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. Objective: To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community...... pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Methods: Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects...... no significant differences. Conclusions: The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation...
Hamoudi, N. M.; Shirwaikar, A. A.; Ali, H. S.; Al Ayoubi, E. I.
In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage...
Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi
Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine. PMID:19420889
Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...
Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita; Macedo, Marina; Machado, Rita M; Pacheco, Ana Filipa; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Duarte, Paulo
A study of compounding practices among Portuguese community pharmacies from 2008 to 2011 and pharmacists' perspectives concerning compounding was conducted. The retrospective study was based on an online questionnaire developed to gather information on pharmacies characteristics frequency, and type of compounded preparations. Additionally, difficulties, motivations, and pharmacist's perspectives regarding compounding were assessed. Up to 1,450 Portuguese pharmacies were contacted, and 250 completed questionnaires obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 21. Frequency and cross-tab analysis was used to describe data. Chi-square test was used to assess statistical significant differences between compounding and non-compounding pharmacies' characteristics. Among all pharmacies, 75.2% reported compounding practices, although the majority prepared less than 50 preparations per year, corresponding to less than 10 different formulations. Those pharmacies' with a higher lifetime activity, number of customers, and team members were associated to compounding practices. Dermatological preparations were the most frequently prepared formulations, followed by oral solutions, and otorhinolaryngological preparations. Dermatologists and pediatricians were the most frequent prescribers of compounded medicines. Regarding future perspectives, 51.4% of pharmacists believed that compounding will decrease. However, 79.1% indicated that they will continue to compound, and 70.7% considered that compounded prescriptions should be encouraged. Patient satisfaction (66.1%) and improvement of the pharmacy image (63.8%) were considered the main advantages of compounding services. Compounded medicines are still prepared in the community pharmacy setting to fulfill special patients' therapeutic needs, especially following dermatologists' and pediatricians' prescriptions. Offering compounding services is perceived by pharmacists as an important factor for high
Kaae, Susanne; Aarup, Kristine Hallberg Friis; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
BACKGROUND: The value of counseling in community pharmacy depends on its ability to help patients improve their use of medicine and thereby health status, by their adherence to recommendations. Studies showing how patients respond to daily pharmacy counseling are, however, scarce. The aim...... of this study was therefore to investigate how patients respond to medical advice given by pharmacy staff. METHODS: A heterogeneous sample of patients who received the 'Inhaler Technique Assessment Service' (ITAS) in Denmark were interviewed, using a semi-structured schedule. Meaning condensation...... proposed by pharmacy staff. CONCLUSIONS: ITAS recommendations seemed important to adhere with for patients despite experiencing difficulties when doing so and secondly not feeling an immediate improvement of health. Reasons for this appear to be connected with the concept of meaningfulness. Hence...
Smith, Megan G; Ferreri, Stefanie P
Value-driven health care and team-based care are gaining momentum from policymakers, payers, and providers. An important facet to examine is the health care team, especially in outpatient care. Community pharmacy is a significant aspect of the patient's health experience and a valuable component of outpatient care. An in-depth look into how community pharmacy can participate in the outpatient care team is described. To function as a team, it is crucial to address collaboration among outpatient practices, while making it easier for patients to navigate the outpatient health system. Previously published characteristics, principles, and values of effective health care teams within primary care can aid in establishing teams across practice settings including community pharmacy. PMID:26314920
Monge, Ana Catarina
The aim of this study is to understand if it is possible to predict health crisis based on biochemical and physiological measurements made at the pharmacy, and, if needed, refer patients to the doctor. This would avoid emergency services and increase pharmacies’ income. Three pharmaceutical consultations were made, where these parameters were measured and the therapeutics registered. The short duration of the study (three months) and the small sample (57 patients) did not allow...
N M Hamoudi
Full Text Available In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage and frequency of medications and rarely adverse reactions and drug interactions with other medications. Therefore we decided to perform quantitative questionnaires study to explore the role of pharmacist in patient counseling in UAE, the evaluation of pharmacist′s opinion on patient counseling and the potential determinants of personal consultation. Results show the frequency and nature of inquiries received by pharmacist. Five to twenty inquires per month are received from patient, most of them related to drug prescription and dose recommendation. Thirty nine percent of pharmacists received inquiries from doctors, most of them related to the dose and mode of action. Ninty two percent of the pharmacists agreed that patient counseling is their professional responsibility. About 82% of pharmacists agreed that counseling will increase their sales and enhance the reputation of their pharmacies. Seventy percent of pharmacists mentioned that they need to undergo training for effective counseling while 46% of pharmacists felt that more staff in the pharmacies would have a positive influence on patient compliance to medication therapies and patient safety. The potential determinants of personal consultation show that 52% of participants trusted pharmacist and 55% considered the pharmacist as a friend. Forty eight percent of participants visited the pharmacy for medical recommendation while 30% for drug compounding, 72% agreed that pharmacist conducts full
Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.
This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…
Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea C; Overmars, Craig; MacMaster, Kaleigh; Mahaffey, Thomas; Zwicker, Bev; MacKinnon, Neil J
Quality-related events (QREs), including medication errors and near misses, are an inevitable part of community pharmacy practice. As QREs have significant implications for patient safety, pharmacy regulatory authorities across North America are increasing their expectations regarding QRE reporting and learning. Such expectations, commonly encapsulated as standards of practice (SoP), vary greatly between pharmacy jurisdictions and may range from the simple requirement to document QREs occurring within the pharmacy, all the way to requiring that quality improvement plans have been put in place. This research explores the uptake of QRE reporting and learning SoP and how this uptake varies based on pharmacy characteristics including location, prescription volume, and pharmacy type. Secondary data analysis of 91 community pharmacy assessments in Nova Scotia, Canada, was used to explore uptake of QRE standards. Overall, pharmacies are performing relatively well on reporting QREs. However, despite initial success with basic QRE reporting, community pharmacy uptake of QRE learning activities is lagging. PMID:24532822
Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
Background Challenges in recruiting patients at the pharmacy counter for cognitive services have been observed, hampering development in this area. To overcome this barrier, insight into the patient perspective is crucial to understanding their lack of appreciation of the services. However, very...... few studies have been conducted so far to explore why patients accept or decline offers of cognitive services at the pharmacy counter. Objective To explore patients’ reasons for accepting a particular cognitive service (the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service) a service intended to detect inhalation...... technique errors. The service is reimbursed by the Danish state and takes approximately 10 min. Setting Ten community pharmacies located in different regions of Denmark, including the center and suburbs of Copenhagen. Method Two types of interviews were conducted: long and short semi-structured interviews...
Cough is a common symptom, often experienced as troublesome. The cough reflex is a physiological defense of the respiratory tract, most often triggered by irritation or obstruction of the airways. Productive cough can expel bronchial secretions. This cough is certainly useful. An irritating, dry cough however, has no purpose and can justify the temporary use of a cough suppressant to relieve symptoms. The pharmacist is often the first person to whom the patient turns. Persistent cough generally indicates an underlying condition that requires a causal treatment. In this case, the pharmacist should refer the patient to the doctor. This article aims to provide guidelines for dealing with dry cough in the pharmacy. PMID:23350209
Do, Xuan Thang
Supplying safe, appropriate and effective non-prescription medicines for customers in community pharmacies is a key role of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants in every country. However, in low and middle-income countries, including Vietnam, the quality of professional services from pharmacies is limited, unclear and has often been questioned. There is limited research about the real situation surrounding non-prescription medicine supply in community pharmacies in Vietnam. The factors that in...
Full Text Available Understanding the public's view of professional competency is extremely important; however little has been reported on the public’s perception of community pharmacists in PalestineObjectives: To determine the perception of Palestinian consumers of the community pharmacist and the services they offerMethod: This project used the survey methodology administered by structured interviews to consumers who attended the 39 randomly selected pharmacies, in six main cities in Palestine. The questionnaire had range of structured questions covering: Consumers’ patronage patterns, consumers’ interaction with community pharmacists, consumers’ views on how the pharmacist dealt with personal health issues, procedure with regard to handling private consultations.Results: Of 1,017 consumers approached, 790 consumers completed the questionnaire (77.7 %. Proximity to home and presence of knowledgeable pharmacist were the main reasons for patients to visit the same pharmacy. Physicians were identified as the preferred source of advice by 57.2% and pharmacists by 23.8%. Only 17% of respondents considered pharmacists as health professionals who know a lot about drugs and are concerned about and committed to caring for the public. In addition, 49% indicated that pharmacists spoke more quietly cross the counter during counseling and almost one third reported that the pharmacist used a private area within the pharmacy. The majority of respondents would be happy to receive different extended services in the community pharmacy like blood pressure monitoring.Conclusions: Palestinian consumers have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and the services they offer. Awareness should be created amongst the public about the role of pharmacist and the added value they can provide as health care professional. There is a need to consider privacy when giving patient counseling to increase user satisfaction.
Thomas L. Lenz, PharmD; Jessica Skradski, PharmD; Maryann Z. Skrabal, PharmD, CDE; Liz Ferguson, MA; Michael S. Monaghan, PharmD, BCPS
Chronic diseases continue to be a significant burden to the health care system. Pharmacists have been able to show that drugtherapy for patients with chronic diseases can be improved through medication therapy management (MTM) services but have yet to become significantly involved in implementing lifestyle modification programs to further control and prevent chronic conditions. A novel and innovative lifestyle medicine program was started by pharmacists in a community pharmacy in 2008 to mo...
There are different kinds of arthritis, widely spread among the population, that make them a clinical problem with social, psychological and economic burden. Different education programs have been developed in order to improve patients’ disease management, medication compliance and from there patients’ quality of life. Objective: To develop and implement a community pharmacy-based educational program for patients with arthritis. Improvements in pain, medication compliance, decrease in general...
Olufunmilola K. Odukoya, BPharm, MS; Michelle A. Chui, PharmD, PhD
Introduction: Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies.Purpose: The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems.Methods: Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seve...
Qato, Dima M; Daviglus, Martha L; Wilder, Jocelyn; Lee, Todd; Qato, Danya; Lambert, Bruce
Attempts to explain and address disparities in the use of prescription medications have focused almost exclusively on their affordability. However, the segregation of residential neighborhoods by race or ethnicity also may influence access to the pharmacies that, in turn, provide access to prescription medications within a community. We examined whether trends in the availability of pharmacies varied across communities in Chicago with different racial or ethnic compositions. We also examined the geographic accessibility of pharmacies to determine whether "pharmacy deserts," or low-access neighborhoods, were more common in segregated black and Hispanic communities than elsewhere. We found that throughout the period 2000-2012 the number of pharmacies was lower in segregated minority communities than in segregated white communities and integrated communities. In 2012 there were disproportionately more pharmacy deserts in segregated black communities, as well as in low-income communities and federally designated Medically Underserved Areas. Our findings suggest that public policies aimed at improving access to prescription medications may need to address factors beyond insurance coverage and medication affordability. Such policies could include financial incentives to locate pharmacies in pharmacy deserts or the incorporation of pharmacies into community health centers in Medically Underserved Areas. PMID:25367990
Rogers, S N; Lowe, D; Catleugh, M; Edwards, D
We investigated the impact on 95 community pharmacies of an educational package on awareness of oral cancer, which consisted of a training evening, pharmacy protocol, and information for patients. Results of a questionnaire and the experience of a mystery shopper before the intervention and 6 months later were used to evaluate its effectiveness. Before the intervention 29% of pharmacies advised "my 60-year-old friend who has had an ulcer in his mouth for 4 weeks" to see a doctor or a dentist. Afterwards this rose to 45% with advice being confined to seeing a doctor. There was also a substantial reduction in advice being given to buy a product. The questionnaire showed that although responses between the baseline and follow up were similar regarding health behaviours and signs and symptoms in relation to oral cancer, more (74-89%) thought that drinking alcohol, and less (46-36%) thought that passive smoking increased the risk of oral cancer. There was also an increase in the number who thought that burning sensations (42-57%), white patches (52-76%), red patches (57-76%), speckled patches (46-68%), and a persistent ulcer (82-91%) might be signs or symptoms of oral cancer. The intervention was well received, and changes in knowledge and practice were evident, but the study showed that there is potential for much greater awareness of oral cancer amongst pharmacists and their staff. PMID:19959266
Nielsen, Suzanne; Van Hout, Marie Claire
There is growing evidence that expanded supply of take-home naloxone to prevent opioid overdose deaths is needed. Potential routes for expansion of naloxone provision include through community pharmacies. The aim of this scoping review is to establish what is known about community pharmacy supply of naloxone, in light of unique challenges and opportunities present in pharmacy settings. A scoping review methodology was employed using the six stage iterative process advocated by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and Levac et al. (2010). Searches used key words and terms such as 'naloxone'; 'overdose prevention/drug overdose/opiate overdose'; 'community/retail pharmacy'; 'pharmacist/pharmacy/community pharmacy/pharmaceutical services'; 'professional practice/role'; 'community care'; attitude of health personnel'; 'training/supply/cost'. Appropriate search terms were selected for each database. After initial exploratory searches, comprehensive searches were conducted with Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL. Eligibility criteria centered on whether studies broadly described supply of naloxone in community pharmacy or had content relating to community pharmacy supply. The search identified 95 articles, of which 16 were related to pharmacy supply of naloxone. Five themes were presented after initial review of the data and consultation with the project Expert Group, and are; 'Pharmacists Perceptions of Naloxone: Facilitators and Barriers', 'Patient Populations: Identification and Recruitment', 'Supply Systems and Cost', 'Legal Issues', and 'Training of Pharmacists and Community Pharmacy Naloxone Recipients'. Findings from this scoping review suggest that community pharmacy based supply of take-home naloxone warrants the community pharmacy based route for distribution of take home naloxone provision warrants further consideration and development. Existing strengths include a range of established supply models, and
Full Text Available There are different kinds of arthritis, widely spread among the population, that make them a clinical problem with social, psychological and economic burden. Different education programs have been developed in order to improve patients’ disease management, medication compliance and from there patients’ quality of life.Objective: To develop and implement a community pharmacy-based educational program for patients with arthritis. Improvements in pain, medication compliance, decrease in general practitioner’s visits and hospitalizations are expected.Methods: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. The sample consisted of 43 individuals, with different stages of arthritis (aged 15 - 71, attending pharmacies – intervention group; and 43 individuals – control group. A 4-month education was conducted on the following topics: what causes arthritis and what are the factors that can intensify it; pain management and physical activities; self-management and prevention; pharmacotherapy and possible adverse drug reactions. Patient's health-related quality of life was assessed in the beginning and at the end of the survey. Results: Parameters assessed during the four stages of the program were: frequency of severe pain, frequency of general practitioner’s visits, frequency of urgent medical aid calls, compliance with therapy, satisfaction with pharmacy services. Improvement in patients’ health-related quality of life was observed and also: decrease in the severity of patients’ pain, decrease in the physician’s visits, and increase in satisfaction overall care.Conclusions: Positive results from the educational approach in pharmacy conditions were demonstrated. These consequences have a potential to increase arthritis patient’s quality of life.
Rapport, F L; Doel, M A; Jerzembek, G S
This paper presents a novel, qualitative, bio-photographic study with intertextual analysis highlighting the relationship between community pharmacy workspace and practice. Sixteen pharmacists working across pharmacy types such as independent shops, large and small pharmacy chains and multiple pharmacies such as those in supermarkets participated in data capture and feedback consultation. Findings disclosed workspaces unfit for purpose and a workforce ill at ease with their new professional identity, involving increasingly complex tasks in health provision and retail. There was conflict between delegating to others and taking personal responsibility, and there were pressures from a demanding public within the context of a target-driven, litigious society. The study highlights that innovative, mixed methods in this context reveal nuanced, rich data. PMID:23674709
Kaae, Susanne; Mygind, Anna; Saleem, Sahdia
Community pharmacies have been trying to expand their core function by counseling customers at the counter. This has been challenging given that customers' interest in receiving counseling may be limited.......Community pharmacies have been trying to expand their core function by counseling customers at the counter. This has been challenging given that customers' interest in receiving counseling may be limited....
Magarian, Edward O.; And Others
An interdisciplinary project provided ambulatory care clinical training for pharmacy and nursing students in community-based pharmacies, promoting early detection and medical follow-up of common health problems within the community. Students learned new clinical skills in patient health assessment, new diagnostic technologies, patient education…
Wallman, A.; Lindblad, A.K.; Gustavsson, Maria; Ring, L.
Objective. To identify individual and social factors associated with pharmacy students level of reflection in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Methods. A postal questionnaire, including a reflective assignment, was sent to all pharmacy interns (n=262) at Uppsala University, Sweden, for 4 semesters in 2005-2007. Results. In a univariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be associated with students level of reflection. After controlling for covariates, 3 social factors were foun...
Ward, Kim; Sanders, David; Leng, Henry; Pollock, Allyson M
Objective To investigate equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa and assess whether regulatory reforms have furthered such equity. Methods Data on community pharmacies from the national department of health and the South African pharmacy council were used to analyse the change in community pharmacy ownership and density (number per 10 000 residents) between 1994 and 2012 in all nine provinces and 15 selected districts. In addition, the density of pub...
Sawalha, A F; Sweileh, W M; Zyoud, S H; Al-Jabi, S W; Shamseh, F F Bni; Odah, A
We investigated the prescription quality and prescribing trends of private clinicians in Nablus governorate, Palestine. A total of 363 prescriptions were collected from a random sample of 36 community pharmacies over a study period of 288 working hours. Data regarding elements in the prescription and the types of drugs prescribed were analysed. Physician-related variables were mostly noted, however, patient's address and weight were absent in all prescriptions and less than half included age and sex. Information regarding strength of the medications prescribed was missing in over 70% of prescriptions. Other drug-related variables like frequency and instruction of use were present in over 80% of prescriptions. Antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed followed by NSAIDs/analgesics. Amoxicillin alone or in combination was the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents followed by cefuroxime. Prescription writing quality in Nablus is deficient in certain aspects and improvement is required. PMID:20799538
Muhammad Amir, B.Pharmacy, MSc. MBA, Assistant Professor/Clinical Pharmacist
Full Text Available Provision of pharmaceutical care services in community pharmacies is a new trend in pharmacy practice worldwide. Published literature from developed countries is available showing benefits of pharmaceutical care services provided in community pharmacies. However, relatively little published literature is available from developing countries in which unique market environments are encountered. This study was conducted to assess the acceptability of community pharmacy based pharmaceutical care services in Karachi. Pharmaceutical care services were developed and offered to pharmacy customers for a period of two months. Acceptability was evaluated with respect to enrollment of participants in the program, discontinuation, and complaints registered. The findings provide a better understanding of pharmaceutical care marketing strategies and are discussed within the context of the health care environment in Karachi.
Full Text Available Albert T Bach, Jeffery A Goad School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, Irvine, California, USA Abstract: Community pharmacy-based provision of immunizations in the USA has become commonplace in the last few decades, with success in increasing rates of immunizations. Community pharmacy-based vaccination services are provided by pharmacists educated in the practice of immunization delivery and provide a convenient and accessible option for receiving immunizations. The pharmacist's role in immunization practice has been described as serving in the roles of educator, facilitator, and immunizer. With a majority of pharmacist-provided vaccinations occurring in the community pharmacy setting, there are many examples of community pharmacists serving in these immunization roles with successful outcomes. Different community pharmacies employ a number of different models and workflow practices that usually consist of a year-round in-house service staffed by their own immunizing pharmacist. Challenges that currently exist in this setting are variability in scopes of immunization practice for pharmacists across states, inconsistent reimbursement mechanisms, and barriers in technology. Many of these challenges can be alleviated by continual education; working with legislators, state boards of pharmacy, stakeholders, and payers to standardize laws; and reimbursement design. Other challenges that may need to be addressed are improvements in communication and continuity of care between community pharmacists and the patient centered medical home. Keywords: immunization, pharmacy practice, pharmacists, continuity of care
Jayaprakash G; Rajan ML; Shivam P
Objective: The opinion about pharmacy services was studied using an instrument which measured satisfaction with pharmacy services. The main focus of the instrument was to assess patients’ opinion and expectation of the present pharmacy services. Method: The instrument contained 20 items, which were grouped based on their similarity into eight dimensions, namely, General satisfaction, Interpersonal Skill, Evaluation, Gathering non-medical information, Trust, Helping Patients, Explanation, and ...
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Søndergaard, Birthe;
BACKGROUND: Studies of cognitive services implementation in the pharmacy sector traditionally focus on individual and/or organizational factors to explain why some pharmacies are successful and others are not. The social and political context of the origins of these services is rarely part...... of the analysis. Researchers and practitioners in the field of pharmacy practice research are increasingly being encouraged to take into account the specific political and societal climate which often plays a defining role in the success or failure of cognitive services implementation in community pharmacies....... OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to argue for the inclusion of political pre-studies as part of the study design for implementation studies on reimbursed services in community pharmacy. METHODS: A political pre-study of the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service (ITAS) introduced in Denmark in 2004...
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of training of dispensers on knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in context to storage temperature, prescription terminologies and status of medicines in Islamabad, Pakistan.Method: A randomized, controlled, blinded intervention study was designed and implemented. Before the implementation of intervention, a baseline study was performed to assess the knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies. The study population included all community pharmacy outlets in Islamabad. Pharmacies of Islamabad which were visited in pre intervention phase (n=118 were divided into two geographical regions: A (intervention and B (control. Thirty pharmacies were randomly selected from each region. Keeping in view the results of the baseline study an educational intervention was designed to improve the knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan.Results: A significant difference in the overall knowledge of dispensers was observed between the pre-post intervention groups. Knowledge of dispensers regarding storage of drugs, prescription terminologies and status of drugs was improved after the training. On the other hand no significant difference was observed between the pre-post control groups.Conclusion: The study has highlighted that improvements in knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies are possible through suitable interventions. But, results of interventions can only be sustainable through continuous monitoring and reinforcement of the training.
Mugo, Peter M.; Prins, Henrieke A B; Wahome, Elizabeth W; Mwashigadi, Grace M; Thiong'o, Alexander N; Gichuru, Evanson; Omar, Anisa; GRAHAM, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.
Background Adults in developing countries frequently use community pharmacies as the first and often only source of care. The objective of this study was to assess the success of pharmacy referrals and uptake of HIV testing by young adult clients of community pharmacies in the context of a screening programme for acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). Methods We requested five pharmacies to refer clients meeting predefined criteria (ie, 18–29 years of age and requesting treatment for fever, diarrhoea, ...
Full Text Available Demand for health services continues to rise. Greater use of community pharmacy services instead of medical services for minor ailments could help relieve pressure on healthcare providers in high-cost settings. Community pharmacies are recognised sources of treatment and advice for people wishing to manage these ailments. However, increasing the public's use of pharmacy services may depend on attributes of pharmacies and their staff. This study aimed to determine the general public's relative preferences for community pharmacy attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE.A UK-wide DCE survey of the general public was conducted using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Attributes and levels for the DCE were informed by a literature review and a cohort study of community pharmacy customers. The context for the experiment was a minor ailment scenario describing flu-like symptoms. The DCE choice sets described two hypothetical community pharmacy services; respondents were asked to choose which (if either of the two pharmacies they would prefer to help them manage symptoms. Data from 1,049 interviews were analysed using an error components logit model. Willingness to pay (WTP, a monetary measure of benefit, was estimated for the different attribute levels.When seeking help or treatment for flu-like symptoms, respondents most valued a pharmacy service that would improve their understanding and management of symptoms (WTP = £6.28, provided by staff who are trained (WTP (pharmacist = £2.63: WTP(trained assistant = £3.22, friendly and approachable (WTP = £3.38. Waiting time, pharmacy location and availability of parking also contributed to respondents' preferences. WTP for a service comprising the best possible combination of attributes and levels was calculated as £55.43.Attributes of a community pharmacy and its staff may influence people's decisions about which pharmacy they would visit to access treatment and advice for
Gebretekle, Gebremedhin Beedemariam; Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba
Background Over the counter sale of antibiotics is a global problem and it is increasingly recognized as a source of antibiotic misuse and is believed to increase treatment costs, adverse effects of treatment and emergence of resistance. The increasing trend of over the counter sale of antibiotics in Ethiopia calls for exploration of why such dispensing is practiced. This study aims to explore reasons for over the counter sale of antibiotics in the community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopi...
Martínez Sánchez, Alina de las Mercedes
People of 65 years and above now comprise a greater share of the world's population than ever before, and this proportion will increase during the 21st century. In Spain, between 55 and 90% of the elderly consume a drug. This study characterizes the use of drugs by elderly through dispensing data at the community pharmacy. This study was conducted at a community pharmacy in Madrid, Spain in 2011. A retrospective and descriptive consumption study was conducted using computerized ph...
Stefanie Ferreri, PharmD, BCACP, CDE, FAPhA; Debbie Pruss Hiller, PharmD2; Macary Weck Marciniak, PharmD, BCACP, BCPS, FAPhA; Jennifer Waitzman, PharmD1
Objective: To assess patient perceptions of a North Carolina community pharmacy-based warfarin monitoring service. Methods: Prospective study of patients 18 years of age and older, who filled a prescription for warfarin, in one of five Raleigh area community pharmacies, between May 1, 2010 and October 31, 2010. A 14 item survey, along with a self-addressed stamped envelope, was mailed to 330 identified patients. The survey inquired about details of current anticoagulation monitoring services,...
Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel
Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of q...
Mohamed N. Al-Arifi
In Saudi Arabia community pharmacies by law, be owned and managed by pharmacists. Although these two functions seemed to be the same but in reality, they are not. Some studies showed that in community pharmacy managerial functions account for more than 50% of total routine and critical activity for all managerial position surveyed while other study showed that only 13.6% of the pharmacist’s time spent in administrative activities. This article addressed the role of the pharmacist as manager a...
Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel
Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of quality indicators for community pharmacies and to report their scores over 2012. In subanalyses the score development over 5 years was described for those indicators, that have been surveyed before and remained unchanged. Methods Community pharmacists in the Netherlands were invited in 2013 to provide information for the set of 2012. Quality indicators were mapped by categories relevant for pharmaceutical care and defined for structures, processes and dispensing outcomes. Scores for categorically-measured quality indicators were presented as the percentage of pharmacies reporting the presence of a quality aspect. For numerical quality indicators, the mean of all reported scores was expressed. In subanalyses for those indicators that had been questioned previously, scores were collected from earlier measurements for pharmacies providing their scores in 2012. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the consistency of scores within one pharmacy over time by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the set in 2012, 1739 Dutch community pharmacies (88 % of the total) provided information for 66 quality indicators in 10 categories. Indicator scores on the presence of quality structures showed relatively high quality levels. Scores for processes and dispensing outcomes were lower. Subanalyses showed that overall indicators scores improved within pharmacies, but this development differed between pharmacies. Conclusions A set of validated quality indicators provided
Stefanie Ferreri, PharmD, CDE, BCACP, FAPhA1
Full Text Available Objective: To assess patient perceptions of a North Carolina community pharmacy-based warfarin monitoring service. Methods: Prospective study of patients 18 years of age and older, who filled a prescription for warfarin, in one of five Raleigh area community pharmacies, between May 1, 2010 and October 31, 2010. A 14 item survey, along with a self-addressed stamped envelope, was mailed to 330 identified patients. The survey inquired about details of current anticoagulation monitoring services, interest in utilizing a local community pharmacy for this service, and confidence in a pharmacist-managed program. Results: 26% of surveys were returned. 48% of surveyed individuals responded that they would be interested in having their warfarin monitoring performed by a trained pharmacist in a community pharmacy setting. Conclusion: Many participants responded that the community pharmacy would be more convenient than or as convenient as their current location. This may be a new clinical service that could be offered in certain community pharmacies.
Nazar, Hamde; Nazar, Zachariah; Simpson, Jill; Yeung, Andre; Whittlesea, Cate
OBJECTIVES: Service and stakeholder evaluation of an NHS-funded service providing out-ofhours (OOH) emergency repeat medications to patients self-presenting at community pharmacies. SETTING: Community pharmacies across the North East of England accredited to provide this service. PARTICIPANTS: Patients self-presenting to community pharmacies during OOH periods with emergency repeat medication supply requests. INTERVENTION: Community pharmacists assessed each request for clinical appropriatene...
Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A
This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn....... Previous participation in a study or activity on drug-related problems and the size of the pharmacy also had statistically significant effects on the problem detection rate. The use of open-ended questions to create a dialogue with the patient seemed to be a successful means to discover problems....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturopaths and Western herbal medicine (WHM practitioners were surveyed to identify their extent, experience and roles within the community pharmacy setting and to explore their attitudes to integration of complementary medicine (CM practitioners within the pharmacy setting. Method Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations. Results 479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n = 111 reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n = 15 did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future. Conclusions The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmacies
Full Text Available Objective: The opinion about pharmacy services was studied using an instrument which measured satisfaction with pharmacy services. The main focus of the instrument was to assess patients’ opinion and expectation of the present pharmacy services. Method: The instrument contained 20 items, which were grouped based on their similarity into eight dimensions, namely, General satisfaction, Interpersonal Skill, Evaluation, Gathering non-medical information, Trust, Helping Patients, Explanation, and Finance. Chance random sampling was done and the participants were the general public above the age of 18 years. The main outcome measure was to study participants’ opinion regarding the current and desired pharmacy services. Descriptive statistics are presented for the satisfaction dimension score. The level of satisfaction with the different dimensions was compared across the different demographic characteristics.Result: The study results revealed significant difference in the General satisfaction and Interpersonal skill amongst the gender. Significant difference was seen in the Helping patients, Evaluation and Explanation skill among the various age groups. Education background showed significant difference in evaluation, Gathering-non-medical information, Helping patients and Explanation skills of the pharmacist. There was an overall satisfaction dimension score of 56.83% in the current practice and 68.83% in the desired practice. Conclusion: Awareness about pharmacy service continuing education programme for practicing pharmacist will heighten the pharmacy profession in our country.
Sriram, Deepa; McManus, Alexandra; Emmerton, Lynne M; Parsons, Richard W; Jiwa, Moyez
Background To expedite diagnosis of serious bowel disease, efforts are required to signpost patients with high-risk symptoms to appropriate care. Community pharmacies are a recognized source of health advice regarding bowel symptoms. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a validated self-administered questionnaire, Jodi Lee Test (JLT), for detection, triage, and referral of bowel symptoms suggestive of carcinoma, in pharmacies. Method 'Usual Practice' was monitored for 12 weeks in 21 pharmacies in Western Australia, documenting outcomes for 84 clients presenting with bowel symptoms. Outcome measures were: acceptance of verbal advice from the pharmacist; general practitioner consultation; and diagnosis. Trial of the JLT involved staff training in the research protocol and monitoring of outcomes for 80 recruited clients over 20 weeks. Utility of the JLT was assessed by post-trial survey of pharmacy staff. Results Significantly more referrals were made by staff using the JLT than during Usual Practice: 30 (38%) vs 17 (20%). Clients' acceptance of referrals was also higher for the intervention group (40% vs 6%). Two-thirds of pharmacy staff agreed that the JLT could be incorporated into pharmacy practice, and 70% indicated they would use the JLT in the future. Conclusion A pre-post design was considered more appropriate than a randomized control trial due to an inability to match pharmacies. Limitations of this study were: lack of control over adherence to the study protocol by pharmacy staff; no direct measure of client feedback on the JLT; and loss to follow-up. The JLT was effective in prompting decision-making by pharmacy staff and inter-professional care between pharmacies and general practice, in triage of clients at risk of bowel cancer. PMID:26700973
Brown, Dana A; Ferrill, Mary J
With an increasing number of new pharmacy schools/colleges and expansion of existing ones, pharmacy schools/colleges are often in need of elective rotation experiences as part of the final year advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) program. Offering a medical missions elective APPE in either a domestic or international setting is a unique opportunity to expose pharmacy students to direct patient care. APPE students can be involved in triaging patients, compounding and dispensing medications, and providing patient education. As part of this APPE, pharmacy students are expected to complete projects such as formulary development, case presentations, book club discussions, journal reflections, manuscript preparations, and trip logistics planning. An elective APPE focused on medical missions facilitates the learning process and promotes the emergence of team leaders and leadership skills in general. PMID:22739719
SHARMA, H; Jindal, D.; Aqil, M.; Alam, M. S.; Karim, S.; Kapur, P.
Objective : To assess the role of a pharmacist in a community setting and the consumer′s perception in the National Capital Region. Setting : The study was conducted in the National Capital Region of India during the year 2003 - 2004. Materials and Methods : Four pharmacies were selected for this study, which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy-seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and interviewed just after they v...
Community pharmacy practice is moving towards patient care and away from the mere dispensing of medicines. In this movement, which is guided by the philosophy of Pharmaceutical care (PC), new counselling services emerge. The purpose of the thesis was to add knowledge about the real-world provision of PC services by studying a defined PC service in Swedish pharmacies. Specific aims of this thesis were to investigate the experiences of professionals working with or close to the service and to d...
Olufunmilola K. Odukoya, BPharm, MS
Full Text Available Introduction: Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies.Purpose: The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems.Methods: Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Data were collected using direct observation alongside think aloud protocol. Direct observations and think aloud protocols took place between January-February, 2011. Participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they process electronic prescriptions.Results: Participants identified weaknesses in e-prescribing that they had previously not conceived. This created heightened awareness for vigilance when processing e-prescriptions. The main challenge with using think aloud protocols was due to interruptions in the pharmacies. Also, a few participants found it challenging to remember to continue verbalizing their thought process during think aloud sessions.Conclusion: The use of think aloud protocols as method of data collection is a new way for understanding the issues related to technology use in community pharmacy practice. Think aloud protocol was beneficial in providing objective information on e-prescribing use not solely based on pharmacist’s or technician’s opinion of the technology. This method provided detailed information on a wide variety of real time challenges with e-prescribing technology use in community pharmacies. Using this data collection method can help identify potential patient safety issues when using e-prescribing and suggestions for redesign.
Full Text Available Erika L Abramson Departments of Pediatrics and Healthcare Policy and Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Major national policy forces are promoting the adoption and use of health information technology (health IT to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of health care delivery. One such health IT is electronic prescribing (e-prescribing, which is the direct transmission of prescription information from a provider to a pharmacy. Given research showing that handwritten prescriptions are unsafe and associated errors can lead to tremendous inefficiency for patients and pharmacists, e-prescribing has many potential benefits. However, as with the introduction of any new technology, unintended, adverse consequences may result. The purpose of this review is to explore the causes and consequences of e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies, which are pharmacies not affiliated with a hospital or clinic. Many new types of errors – including provider order entry errors, transcription errors, and dispensing errors – appear to result from e-prescribing. These lead to important consequences for pharmacies, including safety threats to patients, reduced efficiency for pharmacists, processing delays, and increased pharmacy cost. Increased attention to system design and pharmacist training, as well as additional research in this area, will be critical to realize the full benefits of e-prescribing. Keywords: electronic prescribing, medication errors, community pharmacies
Full Text Available Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization. This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector.
Full Text Available Background: Drug-related problems are known to be a major problem associated with pharmacotherapy. A broad range of studies, mainly in the area of prescription-only medicines, supports this fact. Only a few studies have evaluated drug-related problems with over-the-counter medicine and the role of community pharmacies in this.Purpose: To quantify drug-related problems in self-medication (use of over-the-counter medicine identified by community pharmacies in Denmark and to document the interventions by pharmacy staff in relation to the identified drug-related problems.Method: A descriptive study mapping drug-related problems in self-medication registered at the counter at a selected number of Danish community pharmacies.Results: Data for 3,868 consecutive customers with requests for over-the-counter (OTC medicines were registered at 39 community pharmacies. The pharmacies registered a total number of 4,324 OTC medicines requests, illustrating that a customer requested 1.1 OTC medicines on average. Drug-related problems (DRPs were identified for 813 customers, equivalent to DRPs for 21.0 % of all customers, presenting symptoms or requesting OTC medicines, and for 20 % of all over-the-counter medicines requests. 1,239 DRPs were registered, corresponding to an average of 1.5 DRPs per customer requesting OTC medicines.Community pharmacies estimated that they solved or partly solved 76.2 % of the detected DRPs; 73 % were solved without involving a general practitioner.Conclusions: DRPs were identified for 21.0 % of the pharmacy customers presenting a symptom or asking for an OTC medicine. The community pharmacy counselled the customers with DRPs more thoroughly than other customers by giving 2.4 pieces of professional advice, compared to an average of 2.1 to customers in general. It is not possible to determine the magnitude of the safety risk involved. Based on the most frequent categories of DRPs, there were risks of insufficient effect, unintended
Weber, Natalie C; Klepser, Michael E; Akers, Julie M; Klepser, Donald G; Adams, Alex J
Review of point-of-care (POC) testing in community pharmacies, availability and specifications of CLIA-waived infectious disease POC tests, and provide recommendations for future community pharmacy POC models in an effort to improve patient outcomes while reducing antibiotic resistance. PubMed and Medscape were searched for the following keywords: infectious disease, community pharmacy, rapid diagnostic tests, rapid assay, and POC tests. All studies utilizing POC tests in community pharmacies for infectious disease were included. Studies, articles, recommendations, and posters were reviewed and information categorized into general implementation of POC testing in community pharmacies, CLIA-waived tests available, Influenza, Group A Streptococcus pharyngitis, Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Hepatitis C. POC testing provides a unique opportunity for community pharmacists to implement collaborative disease management programmes for infectious diseases and reduce over-prescribing of antibiotics and improve patient outcomes through early detection, treatment and/or referral to a specialist. PMID:26560318
Banh, Hoan Linh; Chow, Sheldon; Li, Shuai; Letassy, Nancy; Cox, Cheryl; Cave, Andrew
Purpose: Type 2 diabetes is a major condition impacting morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in Canada. Pharmacists are very accessible and are in an ideal position to promote public health education. The primary goal of this study was to incorporate public health promotion and education into a community pharmacy experiential education rotation for fourth year pharmacy students to screen for the risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults. A secondary goal was to determine the frequency of...
Charlotte Rossing; Hanne Herborg; Nina Griese; Tina Bolvig; Bente Frøkjær
Background: Drug-related problems are known to be a major problem associated with pharmacotherapy. A broad range of studies, mainly in the area of prescription-only medicines, supports this fact. Only a few studies have evaluated drug-related problems with over-the-counter medicine and the role of community pharmacies in this.Purpose: To quantify drug-related problems in self-medication (use of over-the-counter medicine) identified by community pharmacies in Denmark and to document the interv...
Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gony, Mireille; Carvajal, Alfonso; Macias, Diego; Conforti, Anita; D'incau, Paola; Heerdink, Rob; Van Der Stichele, Robert; Bergman, Ulf
Aim: To identify prescription drugs involved in falsified prescriptions in community pharmacies in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among 2,105 community pharmacies in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden was carried out to collect all suspect prescription
Karapinar-Çarkıt, Fatma; van Breukelen, Ben R L; Borgsteede, Sander D; Janssen, Marjo J A; Egberts, Antoine C G; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A
BACKGROUND: Transfer of discharge medication related information to community pharmacies could improve continuity of care. This requires for community pharmacies to accurately update their patient records when new information is transferred. An instruction manual that specifies how to document infor
Wallman, Andy; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Gustavsson, Maria; Kettis Lindblad, Åsa; Johansson, Markus; Ring, Lena
Objective. To identify what pharmacy students learn during the 6-month advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 pharmacy APPE students and 17 pharmacist preceptors and analyzed in a qualitative directed content analysis using a defined workplace learning typology for categories. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. The Swedish APPE provides students with ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Outpatient drugs are dispensed through both community and mail order pharmacies. There is no empirical evidence that substitution of community pharmacy with mail order reduces overall drug expenditures. The need for evaluating the potential effects on utilization and costs of the possible extension of mail order services in Medicaid provides the rationale for conducting this study. This study compares drug utilization and drug product cost in community vs. mail order pharmacy dispensing services in a Medicaid population. Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study comparing utilization and cost patterns in community vs. mail order pharmacy. A simulation model was employed to assess drug utilization and cost in mail order pharmacy using community pharmacy claim data. The model assumed that courses of drug therapy (CDT in mail order pharmacy would have utilization patterns similar to those found in community pharmacy. A 95% confidence interval surrounding changes in average utilization and average cost were estimated using bootstrap analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed by varying drug selection criteria and supply, fill point, and medication possession ratio (MPR. Sub-analyses were performed to address differences between mail order and community pharmacy related to therapeutic class and dual-eligible patients. Data for the study derived from pharmacy claims database of Ohio Medicaid State program for the period January 2000-September 2004. Drug claims were aggregated to obtain a set of CDTs representing unique patient IDs and unique drug products. Drug product cost estimates excluded dispensing fees and were used to estimate the cost reduction required in mail order to become cost neutral in comparison with community pharmacy. Results The baseline model revealed that the use of mail order vs. community pharmacy would result in a 5.5% increase in drug utilization and a 5.4% cost reduction required in mail order
Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta
Background Community pharmacies have an increasing role in self-medication and community health is dependent on the quality of counselling services provided to patients. Some studies show that pharmacists' job satisfaction affects their work quality; other studies found that higher involvement in clinical services increases pharmacists' job satisfaction. Objective To test the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling practice at community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacies in Lithuania. Method A convenience sample (n = 305) of community pharmacists participated in the cross-sectional survey where they expressed satisfaction with job and reported on their over-the-counter counselling behaviour on self-report scales. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling approach was employed for data analysis. Main outcome measure The strength of the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service. Results A bidirectional relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service was found. In addition, job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling quality depended on pharmacists' age. Conclusion Organizations were recommended to create a counselling friendly environment that would increase pharmacists' job satisfaction and, in return, counselling quality. Also, additional motivation of the retired pharmacists, as well as development of counselling skills of the younger pharmacy workforce, were seen as a means to improve both organizational climate and counselling quality over the counter. PMID:26666908
Boyle, Todd A; Ho, Certina; Mackinnon, Neil J; Mahaffey, Thomas; Taylor, Jeffrey M
Standardized continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs combine Web-based technologies and standardized improvement processes, tools, and expectations to enable quality-related events (QREs) occurring in individual pharmacies to be shared with pharmacies in other jurisdictions. Because standardized CQI programs are still new to community pharmacy, little is known about how they impact medication safety. This research identifies key aspects of medication safety that change as a result of implementing a standardized CQI program. Fifty-three community pharmacies in Nova Scotia, Canada, adopted the SafetyNET-Rx standardized CQI program in April 2010. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Canada's Medication Safety Self-Assessment (MSSA) survey was administered to these pharmacies before and 1 year into their use of the SafetyNET-Rx program. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to explore where changes in patient safety occurred as a result of SafetyNETRx use. Significant improvements occurred with quality processes and risk management, staff competence, and education, and communication of drug orders and other information. Patient education, environmental factors, and the use of devices did not show statistically significant changes. As CQI programs are designed to share learning from QREs, it is reassuring to see that the largest improvements are related to quality processes, risk management, staff competence, and education. PMID:22842505
Triplett, John W.; And Others
This paper describes the development and evolution of a modular pharmacy practice course that uses practitioners as role-model instructors in prepared and impromptu scenarios. The course reviews the top 200 drug products while introducing students to both community and institutional practice settings. Appendices include a summary of the…
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate diabetes patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose using a community pharmacy-based quality assurance procedure, to investigate whether the procedure improved the quality of the patient performance of self monitoring of blood glucose, and to examine the opinions of the patients taking part in the study. Methods: The results of patient blood glucose measurements were compared to the results obtained with HemoCue Glucose 201+ by pharmacy employees in 16 Norwegian community pharmacies. Patient performance was monitored using an eight item checklist. Patients whose blood glucose measurements differed from pharmacy measurements by more than 20% were instructed in the correct use of their glucometer. The patients then re-measured their blood glucose. If the results were still outside the set limits, the control procedure was repeated with a new lot of glucometer strips, and then with a new glucometer. The patients returned for a follow-up visit after three months. Results: During the first visit, 5% of the 338 patients had measurements that deviated from pharmacy blood glucose values by more than 20% and user errors were observed for 50% of the patients. At the second visit, there was no significant change in the analytical quality of patient measurements, but the percentage of patients who made user errors had decreased to 29% (p < 0.001. Eighty-five percent of the patients reported that they used their blood glucose results to adjust medication, exercise or meals. Fifty-one percent of the patients reported a greater trust in their measurements after the second visit. Eighty percent of patients wished to have their measurements assessed yearly. Of these patients, 83% preferred to have the assessment done at the community pharmacy. Conclusion: A community pharmacy-based quality assessment procedure of patients’ self monitoring of blood glucose significantly reduced the number of user errors. The analytical quality of the
Full Text Available Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists’ current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. Results: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90 agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104 felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94 of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession’s malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128 stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252 found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124 disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134 gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Conclusions: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost.
Full Text Available Background: Counter counseling is an important part of community pharmacies service delivery. Difficulties arise because customers appear less interested than the staff in discussing their medicine. It is unclear how individual pharmacies differ with regard to overcoming these obstacles. Objective: This study explores differences in the communication practices of pharmacies with regard to engaging customers in medicine dialogues. Methods: The work of Stevenson et al. describing five types of interaction scenarios at the counter was used for structured overt non-participant observations of 100 encounters in each of five Danish pharmacies. Variation in pharmacies success in engaging customers in medicine dialogues were calculated using descriptive statistics, and the statistical significance of observed differences across pharmacies was analyzed using odds ratios (OR. Results: Considerable differences between the pharmacies were identified. Differences exist in how often pharmacy staff attempts to encourage customers to participate in medication dialogues and how often they succeed. The pharmacies serving the most customers per day were the most successful. A possible link between a low number of refill customers offered counseling and ‘success rate’ was identified. Conclusions: The pharmacies showed considerable variation in attempts to engage customers in medication dialogues at the counter and success in doing so. The reasons for the identified patterns are unclear.
Emmeline Tran, Pharm.D. Candidate; Brandon T. Jennings, Pharm.D.
Partnerships between community free clinics and academic medical centers improve patient outcomes and enhance learning opportunities for students. A community-academic partnership between the Maliheh Free Clinic and the University of Utah College of Pharmacy was formed to fulfill a community need for pharmacy services, to promote interdisciplinary patient care, and to provide an experiential opportunity for students. The Maliheh Free Clinic based in Salt Lake City, Utah provides free primary ...
Full Text Available Implementing cognitive services in community pharmacies faces certain obstacles. One approach aimed at improving long-term implementation is to consider the implementation process as consisting of different stages, all of which require tailored initiatives. Taking this approach into account, there is a marked need for increased knowledge regarding the initiatives necessary to support especially the later phases of the implementation process. Objective: The aim of this project was to develop insight into factors pertaining to the later phases of implementing cognitive services in community pharmacies.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted, consisting of semi-structured interviews with 12 Danish pharmacy staff members, who were all in charge of improving the implementation of the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service (ITAS in the 5 years following its introduction. The interviews were used to explore which implementation barriers had been identified by the staff and how they had sought to overcome them. The interviews were analyzed by combining content and critical common sense analysis with theoretical interpretations based on Rogers “Diffusion of innovation” theory.Results: The most predominant long-term barrier was the staff members’ adoption of the ITAS at very different rates. The problem of laggards was not lack of competencies, but a lack of self-efficacy in believing that their actual competencies were sufficient to provide the service. Lack of time and attention to the service and obtaining support from the more senior members of the pharmacy were also problematic. Both individual and group activities were launched to overcome the identified challenges belonging to different phases of the implementation process. Conclusion: Those in charge of ensuring long term implementation of cognitive services in community pharmacies should consider the necessity to handle several simultaneous actions of both an individual and collective kind
Full Text Available Risk factors for cardiovascular disease including diabetes have seen a large rise in prevalence in recent years. This has prompted interest in prevention through the identifying individuals at risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease and has seen increased investment in screening interventions taking place in primary care. Community pharmacies have become increasingly involved in the provision of such interventions and this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to gather and analyse the existing literature assessing community pharmacy based screening for risk factors for diabetes and those with a high cardiovascular disease risk.We conducted systematic searches of electronic databases using MeSH and free text terms from 1950 to March 2012. For our analysis two outcomes were assessed. They were the percentage of those screened who were referred for further assessment by primary care and the uptake of this referral.Sixteen studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria comprising 108,414 participants screened. There was significant heterogeneity for all included outcomes. Consequently we have not presented summary statistics and present forest plots with I2 and p values to describe heterogeneity. We found that all included studies suffered from high rates of attrition between pharmacy screening and follow up. We have also identified a strong trend towards higher rates for referral in more recent studies.Our results show that pharmacies are feasible sites for screening for diabetes and those at risk of cardiovascular disease. A significant number of previously unknown cases of cardiovascular disease risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes are identified, however a significant number of referred participants at high risk do not attend their practitioner for follow up. Research priorities should include methods of increasing uptake to follow up testing and early intervention, to maximise the efficacy of screening
Rivey, Michael P.; And Others
The University of Montana School of Pharmacy has included a miniexternship experience in a required introductory course. Goals of a survey of 67 first year students and 17 preceptors included students' demographic profile and prior exposure to pharmacy practice, assessment of the influence of the externship on career goals, etc. (MLW)
Ryan, Mandy; Bond, Christine; Watson, Margaret
Background Demand for health services continues to rise. Greater use of community pharmacy services instead of medical services for minor ailments could help relieve pressure on healthcare providers in high-cost settings. Community pharmacies are recognised sources of treatment and advice for people wishing to manage these ailments. However, increasing the public’s use of pharmacy services may depend on attributes of pharmacies and their staff. This study aimed to determine the general public’s relative preferences for community pharmacy attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Method A UK-wide DCE survey of the general public was conducted using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Attributes and levels for the DCE were informed by a literature review and a cohort study of community pharmacy customers. The context for the experiment was a minor ailment scenario describing flu-like symptoms. The DCE choice sets described two hypothetical community pharmacy services; respondents were asked to choose which (if either) of the two pharmacies they would prefer to help them manage symptoms. Data from 1,049 interviews were analysed using an error components logit model. Willingness to pay (WTP), a monetary measure of benefit, was estimated for the different attribute levels. Results When seeking help or treatment for flu-like symptoms, respondents most valued a pharmacy service that would improve their understanding and management of symptoms (WTP = £6.28), provided by staff who are trained (WTP (pharmacist) = £2.63: WTP(trained assistant) = £3.22), friendly and approachable (WTP = £3.38). Waiting time, pharmacy location and availability of parking also contributed to respondents’ preferences. WTP for a service comprising the best possible combination of attributes and levels was calculated as £55.43. Conclusion Attributes of a community pharmacy and its staff may influence people’s decisions about which pharmacy they would visit to
Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Schleiden, Loren J.; Chui, Michelle A.
Objectives It has been reported that supportive personnel, such as pharmacy technicians, are key participants in the use of health information technology. The purpose of this study was to describe how pharmacy technicians use e-prescribing and to explore the characteristics of technicians that support pharmacists in ensuring patient safety. Methods This was a qualitative study that used observations, interviews, and focus groups to understand the role of pharmacy technicians in e-prescribing. Fourteen pharmacy technicians and 13 pharmacists from five community pharmacies participated. Observations lasted about nine hours in each pharmacy. Follow-up interviews and two separate focus groups were later conducted. Observation field notes and audio recordings were transcribed and thematically analyzed. Results Pharmacy technicians were primarily responsible for all steps leading up to pharmacist review of the e-prescription and dispensing of medications to the patient. Technician characteristics, including experience, certification status, and knowledge of appropriate medication use, were reported as important factors in supporting a pharmacist’s role in ensuring patient safety with the use of e-prescribing. Conclusion Study findings indicate that pharmacy technicians have an important role in supporting pharmacists to prevent medication errors. Certain characteristics of pharmacy technicians were identified with the potential to improve the e-prescription medication dispensing process and decrease patient harm through the identification and resolution of errors.
Olufunmilola K. Odukoya
Full Text Available Objectives: It has been reported that supportive personnel, such as pharmacy technicians, are key participants in the use of health information technology. The purpose of this study was to describe how pharmacy technicians use e-prescribing and to explore the characteristics of technicians that support pharmacists in ensuring patient safety. Methods: This was a qualitative study that used observations, interviews, and focus groups to understand the role of pharmacy technicians in e-prescribing. Fourteen pharmacy technicians and 13 pharmacists from five community pharmacies participated. Observations lasted about nine hours in each pharmacy. Follow-up interviews and two separate focus groups were later conducted. Observation field notes and audio recordings were transcribed and thematically analyzed. Results: Pharmacy technicians were primarily responsible for all steps leading up to pharmacist review of the e-prescription and dispensing of medications to the patient. Technician characteristics, including experience, certification status, and knowledge of appropriate medication use, were reported as important factors in supporting a pharmacist’s role in ensuring patient safety with the use of e-prescribing. Conclusion: Study findings indicate that pharmacy technicians have an important role in supporting pharmacists to prevent medication errors. Certain characteristics of pharmacy technicians were identified with the potential to improve the e-prescription medication dispensing process and decrease patient harm through the identification and resolution of errors.
Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Yeh, Ying-Chen; Lin, Wen-Hung
This study examines the relationship between job characteristics and job outcomes of pharmacists in hospital, clinic, and community pharmacies in Taiwan. The structured questionnaires covered the items of job characteristics, job outcomes, and demographics of pharmacists, and were distributed between Feb 2004 and April 2004. Two hundred and ninety-eight pharmacists responded. Data were analyzed descriptively, and univariate analyses, factor analysis, and multiple regression analyses were used. It found the more enriched the job, the greater the job satisfaction and less intention to leave. And community pharmacists reported greater job enrichment and job satisfaction and less intention to leave than did hospital and clinic pharmacists. It suggests pharmacy managers could recognize the needs of pharmacists to redesign and enrich their work arrangements. PMID:17622026
Phillips, J H
Each stage of a product's life cycle requires marketing strategy modifications in response to changing demand levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in ambulatory care center (ACC) operational characteristics indicative of product, market, and distribution channel adjustments that could have a competitive impact upon community pharmacy practice. A questionnaire was mailed to a national sample of 325 ACC managers. Evidence of new product feature additions includes increased emphasis on continued care and increased prevalence of prescription drug dispensing. Expansion into new market segments and distribution channels was demonstrated by increased participation in HMO and employer relationships. The observed adjustments in ACC marketing strategies present obvious challenges as well as less obvious opportunities for community pharmacy practice. PMID:10295634
Seel, Lindsey V.; Hultgren, Kyle E.; Snyder, Margie E
The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to determine community pharmacy employee research project priorities and assess interest levels, barriers, and facilitators to joining a new community pharmacy practice-based research network (PBRN) and use this information in subsequent PBRN development. One hundred forty pharmacists and 40 support staff responded. The majority (72%) of respondents were somewhat interested or needed more information to determine their level o...
Teply, Robyn; Spangler, Mikayla; Klug, Laura; Tilleman, Jennifer; Coover, Kelli
Objective. To investigate whether instruction and feedback on reflective responses are beneficial in developing pharmacy students to become more reflective practitioners. Methods. Students on an advanced pharmacy practice experience answered weekly reflection questions and were randomly assigned to either an intervention (received instruction and feedback on reflection) or control group. The final week's responses were de-identified and two blinded faculty members independently categorized them as reflective or nonreflective. The primary outcome measure was comparing the number of "reflective" responses in each group. Results. The responses were classified as reflective in 83.3% of students in the intervention group (n=18) compared to 37.5% of the control group (n=16). The odds that the response was categorized as reflective were 8.3 times higher in the intervention group. Conclusion. Providing instruction and feedback to students improved the likelihood that their work was reflective. PMID:27402984
McHenry Martin, Caren
Increasingly, care for elderly individuals with chronic diseases who take multiple medications is being provided in community-based settings. Pharmacists and other health care providers are responding to this trend by collaborating in new, innovative ways such as practicing in physicians' offices or partnering with community pharmacies. The goal is to care for these elderly patients and help them effectively manage their medications where they live. These changes are having another result-they are transforming what patients, insurers, and other health providers expect from pharmacists who are helping to manage the medications and health care of older adults. PMID:26803083
Lenell, Amy; Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura
Well Babies at Walgreens is a unique community-based corporate partnership program that offers breastfeeding support by a lactation professional in a private room at the pharmacy. Walgreens is a community pharmacy chain with more than 8000 locations in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The primary goal of Well Babies is to support breastfeeding women using a model that is expandable to other Walgreens pharmacy sites. The Well Babies program offers drop-in services, with a professional consultation by a lactation consultant and baby weight check, if desired. Well Babies creators are developing a business plan for Walgreens and a toolkit that would help other stores implement the program. An additional goal is to improve continuity of care for breastfeeding by engaging pharmacists as vital members of the health care team. Offering breastfeeding support at a pharmacy improves access and encourages support persons to attend while simultaneously allowing the family to complete other errands. This initiative included education for pharmacists to improve the recommendations they make for breastfeeding mothers and to improve awareness among pharmacists of the benefits associated with breastfeeding and the need to preserve the breastfeeding relationship. The first drop-in location opened in April 2012. Grant funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, awarded to the Indiana State Department of Health, made it possible to open a second drop-in location in June 2013. Future plans include developing an employee lactation program and expanding Well Babies at Walgreens at other store locations. PMID:25829476
Heywood Peter J
Full Text Available Abstract Background In England and Wales, the Department of Health introduced a primary prevention programme, NHS Health Checks, to provide screening for cardiovascular risk amongst people aged 40-74. The aim of this programme is to offer treatment and advice to those identified with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The North East of England has some of the highest rates of CVD in the UK and prevention is therefore a priority. NHS Tees funded this programme of work under the local branding of Healthy Heart Checks (HHC. These were initially implemented principally through GP practices from October 2008 but, in order to mitigate the possibility that some hard to reach communities would be reluctant to engage with some primary care settings, plans were also developed to deliver the programme through workplace settings and through community pharmacies. This paper reports specifically on the findings from the evaluation in respect of the setting up of HHCs in community pharmacies and aims to offer some lessons for other service settings where this option is seen as a way of providing low threshold services which will minimise inequalities in intervention uptake. Methods In assessing the community pharmacy component of HHCs, a selection of staff having direct involvement in the process was invited to take part in the evaluation. Interviews were carried out with representatives from community pharmacy, staff members from the commissioning Primary Care Trusts and with Local Pharmaceutical Committee members. Results Evaluation and analysis identified challenges which should be anticipated and addressed in initiating HHC in community pharmacies. These have been categorised into four main themes for discussion in this paper: (1 establishing and maintaining pharmacy Healthy Heart Checks, (2 overcoming IT barriers, (3 developing confident, competent staff and (4 ensuring volume and through flow in pharmacy. Conclusions Delivering NHS health
Banack, Hailey R.; Grover, Samuel; Kaouche, Mohammed; Marchand, Sylvie; Lowensteyn, Ilka
Background: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite this fact and the development of effective antihypertensive drug therapy, hypertension is often poorly controlled. Community pharmacies are an ideal site for the management of hypertension and other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of the current study was to develop and assess a pharmacy-based cardiovascular risk screening program implemented by graduate students.
Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.
Reed-Kane, Dana; Vasquez, Kellie; Pavlik, Aaron; Peragine, Johanna; Sandberg, Michelle
Despite apparent benefits, electronic prescribing systems still face numerous challenges. Errors associated with electronic prescriptions can often lead to workflow disruptions. This may be particularly disruptive in smaller, independent community pharmacies that may not have the staffing resources to adequately cope with an increase in required correspondence with prescriber offices. The objective of this study was to follow-up on a 2012 quality-improvement project evaluating electronic prescription error type, error rate, and time between error discovery and resolution in an independent compounding pharmacy. The study design was quality improvement with descriptive data. Data were collected over a four-week period during which time the pharmacists completed a data collection form for each electronic prescription received that contained an error. Percentages were calculated for error type, error rate, and error resolution type. Using range, mean, and standard deviation, time until error resolution was reported. In the four-week study period an e-prescribing error rate of 23.2% was identified (32 errors identified in 138 e-prescriptions). The most frequent error was an invalid electronic prescription signature for a controlled substance (31.3%, n = 10). The most commonly used error resolution method was a phone call to the physician (59%, n = 19). The average time to resolve the most frequent error type was 10.30 hours with a standard deviation of 18.18 hours. The results show a 40% decrease in the number of e-prescription errors identified compared to the quality-improvement evaluation done in the same pharmacy one year ago. E-prescription errors continue to disrupt workflow and impede patient care but perhaps at a lower rate. Pharmacies should implement a quality-improvement review process to help identify solutions to systems issues. PMID:24881120
Full Text Available Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite this, patients often cannot or inaccurately estimate their risk factors.Objectives: In order to improve pharmacist interventions, we sought to: 1 find out patients’ knowledge about blood pressure (BP and their self- monitoring behaviors and 2 identify the relationships between these two elements. Specifically, if evaluation of BP control were related to knowledge of one’s BP level and self-monitoring habits, and if knowledge of one’s target and BP level varied with monitoring habits. Methods: Final year pharmacy students were trained and interviewed patients in community pharmacies as a required exercise in their pharmacy clerkship. Each student recruited a convenience sample of 5-10 patients who were on hypertension medication, and surveyed them regarding their BP targets, recent BP levels as well as monthly and home BP monitoring practices. Results: One third of the 449 patients interviewed were able to report a blood pressure target with 26% reporting a JNC 7 recognized target. Three quarters of patients who reported a blood pressure target were able to report a blood pressure level, with 12% being at their self- reported target. Roughly two thirds of patients perceived their BP to be “about right”, and slightly less than a third thought it to be “high”. Sixty percent of patients monitor their BP monthly, but less than 50% of patients practice home BP monitoring. Conclusions: This study along with others before it point to the knowledge and self-management gaps in patients with chronic conditions. Furthermore, pharmacy students were able to use a brief intervention to screen patients during routine care. Pharmacists can help improve patient understanding and promote increased self-management through regular BP monitoring.
McDonough, Randy P.; Bennett, Marialice S
Pharmacy students should be given opportunities to learn and practice interpersonal communication skills during their community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Preceptors have the responsibility of setting the stage for the pharmacy students during their initial encounter. During this orientation to the site, students should become familiar with the history of the practice, the types of services provided, and the staff members. Once the orientation is completed, preceptors can d...
Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
Full Text Available Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Tadic, Ivana; Stojkov, Svetlana; Savic, Mirko
Many problems that arise when providing pharmacy services may contain some ethical components and the aims of this study were to develop and validate a scale that could assess difficulties of ethical issues, as well as the frequency of those occurrences in everyday practice of community pharmacists. Development and validation of the scale was conducted in three phases: (1) generating items for the initial survey instrument after qualitative analysis; (2) defining the design and format of the instrument; (3) validation of the instrument. The constructed Ethical Issue scale for community pharmacy setting has two parts containing the same 16 items for assessing the difficulty and frequency thereof. The results of the 171 completely filled out scales were analyzed (response rate 74.89%). The Cronbach's α value of the part of the instrument that examines difficulties of the ethical situations was 0.83 and for the part of the instrument that examined frequency of the ethical situations was 0.84. Test-retest reliability for both parts of the instrument was satisfactory with all Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values above 0.6, (for the part that examines severity ICC = 0.809, for the part that examines frequency ICC = 0.929). The 16-item scale, as a self assessment tool, demonstrated a high degree of content, criterion, and construct validity and test-retest reliability. The results support its use as a research tool to asses difficulty and frequency of ethical issues in community pharmacy setting. The validated scale needs to be further employed on a larger sample of pharmacists. PMID:25577229
Validation of a questionnaire on patient awareness about hypercholesterolemia in community pharmacy / Validación de un cuestionario de conocimientos sobre hipercolesterolemia en la farmacia comunitaria
Andres Iglesias JC; Andres Rodriguez NF; Fornos Perez JA
Interventions on health education in community pharmacy are very important to achieve a better compliance and a higher patient awareness about the illness.Objective: To design and validate a questionnaire on hypercholesterolemia awareness, which can be used in community pharmacy.Methods: A 16 items questionnaire grouped in 5 factors was designed and then administrated in 14 pharmacies in Pontevedra (Spain). Content validity was assessed through an expert panel, and construct validity was eval...
Cranor, Carole W; Christensen, Dale B
OBJECTIVE To assess the importance of environment, patient characteristics, and health behavior in explaining differences in clinical, economic, and humanistic outcomes of pharmaceutical care services (PCS) for patients with diabetes. DESIGN Quasi-experimental, pre-post cohort-with-comparison group study using multivariate logistic regression. SETTING Twelve community pharmacies in Asheville, N.C. PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS Eighty-five patients with diabetes who were employees, dependents, or retirees from two self-insured employers; community pharmacists who completed a diabetes certificate program and received reimbursement for PCS. INTERVENTIONS Scheduled consultations with pharmacists involving education and training, assessment, monitoring, follow-up, and referral. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Change in glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) value, diabetes diagnosis and all-diagnosis utilization and cost of medical care, quality of life, and satisfaction with pharmacy services. RESULTS The strongest predictors of improvement in A1c following PCS were the patient characteristics baseline glycémie control and type 1 diabetes. All patients with type 1 diabetes had reduced their A1c concentrations at follow-up. Patients in one employer group (an environmental characteristic) were significantly more likely to have a 10% reduction in diabetes diagnosis costs, compared with employees in the other group. They were also more likely to report improved satisfaction with pharmacy services. No other statistically significant relationships were found. CONCLUSION The greatest improvement in A1c occurred among patients with type 1 diabetes and/or higher baseline A1c concentrations. When controlling for other factors, PCS did not emerge as a significant factor in lowering A1c, but it was imprecisely measured, and our proxy measure did not capture the full complement of PCS provided to patients. Success in terms of cost savings and patient satisfaction differed by employer group. PMID
Okuda, J; Okuda, R
Doctoral thesis (in French) by Monika Debska-Donnet, entitled "History of pharmacy and pharmaceutical art collections in Poland" which was presented to Paris XI University (Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences) in 1991, was translated into Japanese and summarized. In this report, histories of pharmacy education, pharmacists, community pharmacies, pharmacopoeiae, pharmaceutical industries in Poland were described, and four representative Polish museums of history of pharmacy were also explained. PMID:11639718
Full Text Available Abstract Background While much research has been conducted on medication safety, few of these studies have addressed primary care, despite the high volume of prescribing and dispensing of medicines that occurs in this setting. Those studies that have examined primary care dispensing emphasised the need to understand the role of sociotechnical factors (that is, the interactions between people, tasks, equipment and organisational structures in promoting or preventing medication incidents. The aim of this study was to identify sociotechnical factors that community pharmacy staff encounter in practice, and suggest how these factors might impact on medication safety. Methods Sixty-seven practitioners, working in the North West of England, took part in ten focus groups on risk management in community pharmacy. The data obtained from these groups was subjected to a qualitative analysis to identify recurrent themes pertaining to sociotechnical aspects of medication safety. Results The findings indicated several characteristics of participants' work settings that were potentially related to medication safety. These were broadly classified as relationships involving the pharmacist, demands on the pharmacist and management and governance of pharmacists. Conclusion It is recommended that the issues raised in this study be considered in future work examining medication safety in primary care.
Norose, Takahiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Furuta, Seiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro
Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. The pharmacy is located near the Sapporo station; it is operated by six pharmacists and four clerks, and supported by three faculty members who are engaged in providing HPU student education such as on-site clinical training, in addition to their pharmacy duties such as home care pharmaceutics. For the first two years it was open, the pharmacy focused on the establishment of pharmacy administration and fiscal consolidation. In April 2015, the Pharmacy Management Committee set the pharmacy's future vision, as well as its mid-term strategy, which consists of the four main components of pharmacy practices, education, research, and social contribution, in order for the pharmacy to serve as a model of community pharmacy. PMID:27150928
Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E
Background There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. Objective To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. Methods A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. Results As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. Conclusions The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to
Rudisill, Celeste N.; Bickley, A. Rebecca; McAbee, Catherine; Miller, April D.; Piro, Christina C.; Schulz, Richard
Objective To implement and evaluate the impact of an elective evidence-based medicine (EBM) course on student performance during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design A 2-hour elective course was implemented using active-learning techniques including case studies and problem-based learning, journal club simulations, and student-driven wiki pages. The small class size (15 students) encouraged independent student learning, allowing students to serve as the instructors and guest faculty members from a variety of disciplines to facilitate discussions. Assessment Pre- and posttests found that students improved on 83% of the core evidence-based medicine concepts evaluated. Fifty-four APPE preceptors were surveyed to compare the performance of students who had completed the EBM course prior to starting their APPEs with students who had not. Of the 38 (70%) who responded, the majority (86.9%) agreed that students who had completed the course had stronger skills in applying evidence-based medicine to patient care than other students. The 14 students who completed the elective also were surveyed after completing their APPEs and the 11 who responded agreed the class had improved their skills and provided confidence in using the medical literature. Conclusions The skill set acquired from this EBM course improved students' performance in APPEs. Evidence-based medicine and literature search skills should receive more emphasis in the pharmacy curriculum. PMID:21451761
Boyle, Todd A.; Bishop, Andrea C.; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil J.; Ashcroft, Darren; Zwicker, Bev; Reid, Carolyn
Background Given the demanding nature of providing pharmacy services, coupled with the expanded scope of practice of the professions in jurisdictions around the world, greater commitment to continuous quality improvement through adoption of quality related event (QRE) reporting is necessary to ensure patient safety. Pharmacy regulatory authorities (PRAs) are in a unique position to enhance QRE reporting and learning through the standardization of expected practice Objective This study aims to better understand the perceived roles of PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies and identifying regulatory best practices to execute such roles. Methods A purposive case sampling approach was used to identify PRA staff members from two groups (deputy registrars and pharmacy inspectors) in 10 Canadian jurisdictions to participate in focus groups in the fall of 2011. Focus groups were used to explore perceptions of the role of PRAs in enhancing and promoting QRE reporting and learning, and perceived barriers to effective implementation in practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Results Two focus groups were conducted, one with seven deputy registrars/practice managers and one with nine pharmacy inspectors. Five themes were identified, including (1) defining QRE reporting and compliance, (2) navigating role conflict, (3) educating for enhanced QRE reporting and learning, (4) promoting the positive/removing the fear of QREs, and (5) tailoring QRE reporting and learning consistency. Conclusions Overall, participants perceived a strong role for PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning and providing education for pharmacies to support their compliance with reporting standards. However, PRAs must navigate the conflict inherent in both educating and promoting a process for achieving a standard while simultaneously inspecting compliance to that standard. Ensuring pharmacies have autonomy in operationalizing standards may
Petkova, Valentina B
Asthma is a clinical problem with social, psychological, and economic burdens. To improve patient disease management and quality of life (QOL), different education programs have been developed. The purpose of this study is to adapt and implement a community-based educational program for patients with asthma. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed. Fifty individuals with mild asthma (aged 18-40 years) that have been attending pharmacies were included in the sample. The duration of the disease was 9 +/- 4.21 years. A 4-month study was conducted on essence of asthma and factors that can intensify it; nourishing facts, allergens, and physical activities; self-management and use of tobacco; and pharmacotherapy, inhalation technique, and possible adverse drug reactions. Patient's health-related QOL was assessed in the beginning and at the end of the survey. Parameters assessed during the four stages of the program were patients' peak expiratory flow (PEF); inhaler technique; severe asthma symptoms, including breathlessness, hospitalization rates, frequency of urgent medical aid calls, and frequency of general practitioner visits; compliance with therapy; and satisfaction with pharmacy services. Health-related QOL of the intervention patients was improved at 4 months and there was improvement in the PEF rate, decrease in patients' breathlessness and wheezing rate, decrease in the reported hospitalizations rate because of the disease, decrease in the physician's visits, and increase in satisfaction with pharmacist-provided information. The positive results from the educational approach show a potential to decrease asthma disease complications and show a positive impact on patients' inhaler technique, patients' opinions about the pharmacy services, and information obtained. PMID:18302840
Ferguson Jill S
conducted nearly 10 years previously. In order to improve the public health services provided in community pharmacy, training must aim to increase pharmacists' confidence in providing these services. Confident, well trained pharmacists should be able to offer public health service more proactively which is likely to have a positive impact on customer attitudes and health.
Twigg, M J; Thornley, T; Scobie, N
Background Many patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are asymptomatic and diagnosed via opportunistic screening. Community pharmacy has been advocated as a potential resource for opportunistic screening and lifestyle interventions. Objective The objective of this evaluation is to describe the outcomes from an AF service, in terms of referrals and interventions provided to patients identified as not at risk. Methods Eligibility was assessed from pharmacy records and the completion of a short questionnaire. Once consented, patients were screened for AF and their blood pressure was measured. Results Of 594 patients screened, nine were identified as at risk of having AF and were referred to their GP. The service also identified 109 patients with undiagnosed hypertension, 176 patients with a Body Mass Index >30, 131 with an Audit-C score >5 and 59 smokers. Pharmacists provided 413 interventions in 326 patients aimed at weight reduction (239), alcohol consumption (123) and smoking cessation (51). Conclusion This evaluation characterises the interventions provided to, not only those identified with the target condition-in this case AF-but also those without it. The true outcome of these additional interventions, along with appropriate follow-up, should be the focus of future studies. PMID:27107584
Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N.; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O’Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily
International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education. PMID:27170809
Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily
International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education. PMID:27170809
Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman
Objectives To assess community pharmacists'/pharmacy technicians' knowledge and perceptions about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and barriers towards the reporting of such reactions in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Method A cross-sectional study was planned to approach potential respondents for the study. A self-administered questionnaire was delivered to community pharmacists/pharmacy technicians (N=292) practising in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Results The overall response to the survey was 69.5% (n=203). The majority of the sample was comprised of pharmacy technicians (152, 74.9%) who possessed a diploma in pharmacy, followed by pharmacists (37, 18.2%) and others (12, 5.9%). Overall, 72 (35.5%) of the respondents disclosed that they had experienced an ADR at their pharmacy, yet more than half (105, 51.7%) were not familiar with the existence of an ADR reporting body in Bangladesh. Exploring the barriers to the reporting of ADRs, it was revealed that the top four barriers to ADR reporting were ‘I do not know how to report (Relative Importance Index (RII)=0.998)’, ‘reporting forms are not available (0.996)’, ‘I am not motivated to report (0.997)’ and ‘Unavailability of professional environment to discuss about ADR (RII=0.939)’. In addition to these, a majority (141, 69.46%) were not confident about the classification of ADRs (RII=0.889) and were afraid of legal liabilities associated with reporting ADRs (RII=0.806). Moreover, a lack of knowledge about pharmacotherapy and the detection of ADRs was another major factor hindering their reporting (RII=0.731). Conclusions The Directorate of Drug Administration in Bangladesh needs to consider the results of this study to help it improve and simplify ADR reporting in Bangladeshi community pharmacy settings. PMID:27489151
Full Text Available Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia.Methods: A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance.Results: Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69% of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90
Full Text Available Krishneeta C Kashyap,1 Lisa M Nissen,1 Simon S Smith,2 James A Douglas,3 Greg J Kyle41School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Accident Research and Road Safety, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia; 3The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, Queensland, Australia; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Canberra, Bruce, Canberra, AustraliaBackground: When experiencing sleep problems for the first time, consumers may often approach community pharmacists for advice as they are easily accessible health care professionals in the community. In Australian community pharmacies there are no specific tools available for use by pharmacists to assist with the assessment and handling of consumers with sleep enquiries.Objective: To assess the feasibility of improving the detection of sleep disorders within the community through the pilot of a newly developed Community Pharmacy Sleep Assessment Tool (COP-SAT.Method: The COP-SAT was designed to incorporate elements from a number of existing, standardized, and validated clinical screening measures. The COP-SAT was trialed in four Australian community pharmacies over a 4-week period.Key findings: A total of 241 community pharmacy consumers were assessed using the COP-SAT. A total of 74 (30.7% were assessed as being at risk of insomnia, 26 (10.7% were at risk of daytime sleepiness, 19 (7.9% were at risk of obstructive sleep apnea, and 121 (50.2% were regular snorers. A total of 116 (48.1% participants indicated that they consume caffeine before bedtime, of which 55 (47% had associated symptoms of sleep onset insomnia. Moreover, 85 (35% consumed alcohol before bedtime, of which 50 (58% experienced fragmented sleep, 50 (58% were regular snorers, and nine (10.6% had apnea symptoms. The COP-SAT was feasible in the community pharmacy setting. The prevalence of sleep disorders in the sampled population was high, but generally
Emmeline Tran, Pharm.D. Candidate
Full Text Available Partnerships between community free clinics and academic medical centers improve patient outcomes and enhance learning opportunities for students. A community-academic partnership between the Maliheh Free Clinic and the University of Utah College of Pharmacy was formed to fulfill a community need for pharmacy services, to promote interdisciplinary patient care, and to provide an experiential opportunity for students. The Maliheh Free Clinic based in Salt Lake City, Utah provides free primary health care to uninsured individuals who live 150% below federal poverty guidelines. Three pharmacy services were developed and implemented. These include: 1 clinic chart reviews which involve written recommendations following a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s chart examining his or her disease states and the appropriateness of his or her medications; 2 medication reconciliations and discussion of pharmacy-related recommendations with patients during Diabetes Day, an inclusive interdisciplinary patient appointment that addresses important aspects of diabetes care; and 3 an insulin dose adjustment service through a collaborative practice agreement with the clinic to monitor a patient’s blood glucose levels and adjust his or her medications accordingly on a weekly basis.
Cooper, R J; Bissell, P; Wingfield, J
Empirical ethics research is increasingly valued in offering insights into how ethical problems and decision-making occur in healthcare. In this article, the findings of a qualitative study of the ethical problems and decision-making of UK community pharmacists are presented, and it is argued that the identified themes of pharmacists' relative isolation from others and their subordination to doctors are ethically significant. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 community pharmacists in England, UK. Analysis of interviews revealed that isolation involved separation of pharmacists from their peers, other healthcare professionals, patients and customers. Such isolation is argued to be inimical to ethical practice - impeding ethical discourse as understood by Habermas, resulting in a form of anomie that inhibits the transmission of professional values, leading to a lack of proximity between pharmacist and patient or customer that may impede ethical relationships and resulting, psychologically, in less ethical concern for those who are less close. Pharmacists' subordination to doctors not only precipitated some ethical problems but also allowed some pharmacists to shift ethical responsibility to a prescribing doctor, as in the case of emergency hormonal contraception. The emergence of atrocity stories further supports a culture of subordination that may cause ethical problems. The study has implications for community pharmacy practice in terms of supervision issues, developments such as prescribing responsibilities and how ethical values can be taught and communicated. The potential for isolation and subordination in other healthcare professions, and resultant ethical problems, may also need to be addressed and researched. PMID:19366838
Myers, T; Cockerill, R; Millson, M; Rankin, J; Worthington, C
The response rate to this survey reflects the salience of the topic and the professional concern about and interest in issues presented by HIV. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has presented pharmacists with one of the greatest challenges to their professional training, ethics, and practice. It further expedites a current re-examination that is occurring among community pharmacies concerning their roles in community health practices. In response to HIV there have been dramatic and unprecedented changes in pharmacy policy and practices. Clearly, some community pharmacies have led the way and influenced policy and practices. In view of the recent introduction of many of these policies and practices, it is likely that change will continue. Survey respondents were, in general, very comfortable with an expanded role involving counseling, health promotion, and disease prevention, consistent with a broader role for community pharmacies in general that has been recently advocated. Community pharmacies serve all areas of the country, in communities large and small; many are open seven days a week, and some provide extended hours of service. Community pharmacies may provide an important complement to community outreach programs as a source of clean needles and syringes for IDUs in most communities, and as an alternative service in some communities where more elaborate programs are not feasible. Safer needle use, as part of a health-promotion approach, is divergent from conventional practice. While major changes have occurred, it appears that there has been some polarization of attitudes and response. The explanation for this is not simple, and further analysis is required to determine the full impact from several ethical perspectives that include professional, business, and public health viewpoints. We have highlighted the role that policy has in moving toward preventive and harm-reduction approaches. From a policy perspective, we have found that support from the federal government
Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of patients using antihypertensive medications fail to achieve their recommended target blood pressure. Poor daily adherence with medication regimens and a lack of persistence with medication use are two of the major reasons for failure to reach target blood pressure. There is no single intervention to improve adherence with antihypertensives that is consistently effective. Community pharmacists are in an ideal position to promote adherence to chronic medications. This study aims to test a specific intervention package that could be integrated into the community pharmacy workflow to enable pharmacists to improve patient adherence and/or persistence with antihypertensive medications - Hypertension Adherence Program in Pharmacy (HAPPY. Methods/Design The HAPPY trial is a multi-centre prospective randomised controlled trial. Fifty-six pharmacies have been recruited from three Australian states. To identify potential patients, a software application (MedeMine CVD extracted data from a community pharmacy dispensing software system (FRED Dispense®. The pharmacies have been randomised to either 'Pharmacist Care Group' (PCG or 'Usual Care Group' (UCG. To check for 'Hawthorne effect' in the UCG, a third group of patients 'Hidden Control Group' (HCG will be identified in the UCG pharmacies, which will be made known to the pharmacists at the end of six months. Each study group requires 182 patients. Data will be collected at baseline, three and six months in the PCG and at baseline and six months in the UCG. Changes in patient adherence and persistence at the end of six months will be measured using the self-reported Morisky score, the Tool for Adherence Behaviour Screening and medication refill data. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first research testing a comprehensive package of evidence-based interventions that could be integrated into the community pharmacy workflow to enable pharmacists to improve patient
Barnes, Kelli D; Maguire, Michelle; Bennett, Marialice S
Objective. To determine the impact of an elective course on students' perception of opportunities and of their preparedness for patient care in community and ambulatory pharmacy settings. Design. Each course meeting included a lecture and discussion to introduce concepts and active-learning activities to apply concepts to patient care or practice development in a community or ambulatory pharmacy setting. Assessment. A survey was administered to students before and after the course. Descriptive statistics were used to assess student responses to survey questions, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze the improvement in student responses with an alpha level set at 0.05. Students felt more prepared to provide patient care, develop or improve a clinical service, and effectively communicate recommendations to other health care providers after course completion. Conclusion. This elective course equipped students with the skills necessary to increase their confidence in providing patient care services in community and ambulatory settings. PMID:27168617
Vogel, Wendy H
Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring. PMID:27249776
Polack, Alan E.; Travers, Terry J.
The approach taken by an Australian college of pharmacy to provide its students with a working knowledge of pharmacy computer systems is described. Hands-on experience with a microcomputer and a program developed within the college are discussed. (Author/MLW)
Full Text Available Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education.
Sheridan, J.; Strang, J.; Barber, N; Glanz, A
Objectives: To establish activity levels of community (high street) pharmacies in the provision of HIV prevention services to drug misusers and to compare these findings with the levels identified in 1988. Design: Self completion questionnaire (four mailings) to a random 1 in 4 sample of all community pharmacies, stratified by family health services authority. Setting: England and Wales. Subjects: Data provided by pharmacist in charge of the dispensary, on service provision at the...
Twigg, Michael; Bhattacharya, Debi; Desborough, James; Wright, David
Background Preparatory work suggests that there may be a role for the pharmacist in managing sub-optimal medication adherence and dose titration of prescribed medicines in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients have reported that they are receptive towards pharmacists becoming involved in their care providing that this is integrated into the care received from their medical practice. Objective To determine whether a community pharmacy diabetes drop-in clinic is feasible and acceptable to pat...
Wibowo, Yosi; Parsons, Richard; Sunderland, Bruce; Hughes, Jeffery
Background. Diabetes is an emerging chronic disease in developing countries. Its management in developing countries is mainly hospital/clinic based. The increasing diabetes burden in developing countries provides opportunities for community pharmacists to deliver a range of services. Since the management of diabetes requires the patient’s own involvement, it is important to gain their views in order to develop pharmacy-based diabetes services. Studies on diabetes patients’ views have been lim...
Shimwela, Grace Mng’ong’o
Under reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by healthcare personnel is a common problem of many Pharmacovigilence programs. Lack of involvement of healthcare professionals such as pharmacists and other pharmaceutical dispensers has been cited as one of the reasons for under reporting. Pharmaceutical dispensers in the community pharmacies are in unique position by virtue of their training and profession to observe ADRs in patients, as many patients often try to avoid doctor consultation f...
Van de Steeg-van Gompel Caroline HPA
Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the previous part of this trial, many patients with cardiovascular disease were expected to receive a statin for the first time. In order to provide these patients with comprehensive information on statins, as recommended by professional guidance, education at first and second dispensing of statins had to be implemented. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of an intensive implementation program targeted at pharmacy project assistants on the frequency of providing education at first dispensing (EAFD and education at second dispensing (EASD of statins in community pharmacies. Methods The participating community pharmacies were clustered on the basis of local collaboration, were numbered by a research assistant and subsequently an independent statistician performed a block randomization, in which the cluster size (number of pharmacies in each cluster was balanced. The pharmacies in the control group received a written manual on the implementation of EAFD and EASD; the pharmacies in the intervention group received intensive support for the implementation. The impact of the intensive implementation program on the implementation process and on the primary outcomes was examined in a random coefficient logistic regression model, which took into account that patients were grouped within pharmacy clusters. Results Of the 37 pharmacies in the intervention group, 17 pharmacies (50% provided EAFD and 12 pharmacies (35.3% provided EASD compared to 14 pharmacies (45.2%, P = 0.715 and 12 pharmacies (38.7%, P = 0.899, respectively, of the 34 pharmacies in the control group. In the intervention group a total of 72 of 469 new statin users (15.4% received education and 49 of 393 patients with a second statin prescription (12.5% compared to 78 of 402 new users (19.4%, P = 0.944 and 35 of 342 patients with a second prescription (10.2%, P = 0.579 in the control group. Conclusion The intensive implementation program
Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu; Gebresilassie, Begashaw Melaku; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Woldie, Habtamu Gebremeskel
Background Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia. Methods A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance. Results Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69%) of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90.3%), whereas “chief complaint” was the least to be taken (23%), for patients presenting with diarrhea. Approximately 96 (85.0%) cases were provided with one or more medications. The remaining 17 (15%) cases did not receive any medication. A total of six pharmacologic groups of medications were given to alleviate acute diarrheal symptoms. Majority (66, 29.6%) of the medications were oral rehydration salts with zinc. The mean number of medications was 1.99 per visit. Components of advice
Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.
Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Marques Dos Reis, Tiago; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Girotto, Edmarlon; Guerra, Marisabelle Lima; de Oliveira Baldoni, André; Leira Pereira, Leonardo Régis
Objective. To summarize the effects of media methods used in continuing education (CE) programs on providing clinical community pharmacy services and the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods. A systematic review was performed using Medline, SciELO, and Scopus databases. The timeline of the search was 1990 to 2013. Searches were conducted in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Nineteen articles of 3990 were included. Fourteen studies used only one media method, and the live method (n=11) was the most frequent (alone or in combination). Only two studies found that the CE program was ineffective or partially effective; these studies used only the live method. Most studies used nonrobust, nonvalidated, and nonstandardized methods to measure effectiveness. The majority of studies focused on the effect of the CE program on modifying the knowledge and skills of the pharmacists. One study assessed the CE program's benefits to patients or clients. Conclusion. No evidence was obtained regarding which media methods are the most effective. Robust and validated methods, as well as assessment standardization, are required to clearly determine whether a particular media method is effective. PMID:27402991
Full Text Available Context: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is the most widely used treatment for controlling the effects of menopause. This type of therapy causes some drug-related problems (DRP, which requires monitoring to control the negative effects and ensure patient adherence to therapy. Aims: Perform a pharmacotherapeutic monitoring and educate to menopausal patients in HRT of a community pharmacy from the city of Antofagasta. Methods: A 98-menopausal patients underwent a pharmaceutical intervention to identify the PRM and its resolution. It was applied to them a survey before and after educational activities about this disease and HRT to determine the knowledge on the subject. Results: During the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring was determined that 55% of patients using combined HRT. 62 DRPs were detected, of which 43 were resolved (69%; the most were Patient-Pharmacist (73%. The better resolution DRP were DRP 4(b “frequency of inadequate administration” and DRP 2(a “no medical indication”. At baseline, 90% had an inadequate level of knowledge about the disease and THR, 8% intermediate, and only 2% adequate. After the implementation of the education strategy, the level of knowledge increased, achieving at the end of the study only intermediate (10% and adequate (90% levels. Conclusions: The results confirm the importance of pharmaceutical intervention for the identification and resolution of DRP and the requirement to establish educational strategies to increase the knowledge about menopause and HRT in menopausal patients.
Benrimoj, Shalom I; Werner, Joel B; Raffaele, Catherine; Roberts, Alison S
There is a growing trend, globally, for consumers to self-medicate with non-prescription medications for common ailments. Pharmacists and pharmacy assistants are thought to be in a unique position to support consumers' purchases of these medicines through the application of knowledge and skills, in an environment in which safety and quality remains paramount. Standards of practice have been developed by the profession to address the provision of these medicines, using a consumer-focused and risk management approach. The application of these standards has been monitored since 2002, by the Quality Care Pharmacy Support Centre (QCPSC), created as a joint venture between the University and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The establishment of the QCPSC has allowed the development of a system to monitor and improve the application of standards for the provision of non-prescription medicines to consumers in community pharmacies in Australia. This system is unique in two aspects. The first is the use of pseudo-patient methodology, also called "mystery shoppers", "pseudo-customers" and "simulated patients", for the purpose of both assessment and quality improvement. The second unique aspect is the capturing of data based on assessments of behaviour in practice environments. To date, the centre has conducted 14,738 standards maintenance assessment (SMA) visits, involving over 4,200 pharmacies across all states and territories in Australia. The data generated by such a system create a feedback mechanism for policy decision-making in the area of Quality Use of Medicines (QUM) for non-prescription medicines, which is of critical importance to the health and safety of consumers. PMID:17939057
According to the "Japan Revitalization Strategy" established in June 2013, "the government will promote better contributions of local pharmacies and pharmacists in encouraging self-medication of citizens by making pharmacies the community-based hub for providing information, giving advice on the proper use of non-prescription drugs, etc. and offering consultation and information service concerning health". In addition, the "Demanded Function and Ideal Form of Pharmacy," published in January 2014, requested a change, from pharmacies that specialized in dispensing medicines to pharmacies that serve as whole healthcare stations, providing pharmaceutical care based on patients' medical history, including the intake of dietary supplements. The medication fee was revised in April 2014 to enhance family pharmacy services and the management of pharmaceutical care. At that time, blood testing at a registered pharmacy was officially allowed under strict regulation. Revision of the "Pharmacist Law" in June 2014 included a request to pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical advice in addition to information. For the mitigation of drug-induced tragedies, the "Pharmaceutical Affairs Law" was amended to the "Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Act (PMD Act)" in November 2014, and proper use of medicines was imposed on healthcare professionals and other stakeholders. Patients were also requested to learn and understand the safety and harmful effects of medicines, and were requested to use medicines appropriately. As mentioned above, the status of pharmacies and pharmacists has dramatically changed in the past 2 years, and such changes over time are required. PMID:26831801
Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Yousefi, Nazila; Hashemian, Farshad; Maleksabet, Hanieh
The present study aimed to evaluate pharmacy practice regarding dietary supplements in Tehran (I.R. Iran). So, the factors affecting on pharmacists' practice including their knowledge, attitude, and some underlying factors were evaluated. This is an observational knowledge; attitude and practice (KAP) study. The unit of analysis include pharmacies practice located in Tehran. The data was collected in 2013 via an anonymous, self-administered; postal questionnaire consisted of demographic infor...
Hendrie, Delia; Miller, Ted R; Woodman, Richard J; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeff
Accessibility, availability and frequent public contact place community pharmacists in an ideal position to provide medically necessary, intensive health education and preventive health services to diabetes patients, thus reducing physician burden. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of reducing glycaemic episodes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus through a pharmacist-led Diabetes Management Education Program (DMEP) compared to standard care. We recruited eight metropolitan community pharmacies in Perth, Western Australia for the study. We paired them based on geographical location and the socioeconomic status of the population served, and then randomly selected one pharmacy in each pair to be in the intervention group, with the other assigned to the control group. We conducted an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis to compare the costs and effectiveness of DMEP with standard pharmacy care. Cost per patient of implementing DMEP was AU$394 (US$356) for the 6-month intervention period. Significantly greater reductions in number of hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic episodes occurred in the intervention relative to the control group [OR 0.34 (95 % CI 0.22, 0.52), p = 0.001; OR 0.54 (95 % CI 0.34, 0.86), p = 0.009], respectively, with a net reduction of 1.86 days with glycaemic episodes per patient per month. The cost-effectiveness of DMEP relative to standard pharmacy care was AU$43 (US$39) per day of glycaemic symptoms avoided. Patients with type 2 diabetes in three surveys were willing to pay an average of 1.9 times that amount to avoid a hypoglycaemic day. We conclude that DMEP decreased days with glycaemic symptoms at a reasonable cost. If a larger-scale replication study confirms these findings, widespread adoption of this approach would improve diabetes health without burdening general practitioners. PMID:25257687
Full Text Available The use of multivitamins within a pharmaceutical setting has been the subject of considerable debate.Objective: This research aimed to provide a platform for assessing and evaluating knowledge, attitudes and professional practices of Jordaninan community pharmacists in counselling patients about the safe consumption of vitamins.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and May 2010. Data collection was carried out using a 44-item semi-structured self-administrated questionnaire. Setting: Community pharmacies in Amman with target sample of 400 pharmacists.Results: A total of 388 pharmacists participated in this study. The majority (77.8% of pharmacists believed that a balanced diet is more achievable by eating healthily than by vitamins supplements. 78.1% of participants believed that vitamins deficiency would not shorten life spans, while 80.7% agreed that vitamin supplements could be toxic or might contain unlabelled harmful ingredients. Less than half of pharmacists were aware that some antioxidant vitamins have been verified to be of unproven value, or may even cause cancer. While over 80% of pharmacists would recommend vitamins on a regular basis without prescription, the majority agreed that counselling on vitamin supplements is part of their role in pharmaceutical care (93.3%, in addition to providing relevant information to other healthcare professionals (78.4%. Moreover, responses to specific knowledge questions, such as the interactions of vitamins with drugs or the recommended dietary allowance of vitamins for infants, children, and pregnant women, were negative. Furthermore, only a minority of pharmacists would recheck the accuracy of dose regimens in prescriptions and symptoms of true vitamins deficiency or would follow up patients to record any consequences of vitamins consumption.Conclusion: The questionnaire revealed satisfactory awareness of community pharmacists about their role in counselling; however
Kapadia, Mufiza Zia
Genital chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. In August 2008, the Scottish government directed its health boards to involve community pharmacies in providing chlamydia testing and treatment for young people. Lothian Health Board envisaged a pharmacy-based chlamydia testing and treatment (CT&T) service to be able to reach deprived population. This research project set out to evaluate the implementation of the CT&T in Lothian, Scotland. Howev...
Full Text Available Piotr Merks,1 Justyna Kazmierczak,2 Aleksandra Elzbieta Olszewska,3 Maria Koltowska-Häggström4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Hygiene, Bioanalysis and Environmental Studies, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 3Department of Pharmacy, Ashford and St Peter’s Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Guildford Road, Chertsey, Surrey, United Kingdom; 4Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SwedenBackground: Several factors, which are components of pharmaceutical care, can influence a patient’s choice of a community pharmacy store and contribute to frequent visits to the same pharmacy.Objectives: To compare factors that influence a patient’s choice of pharmacy in Poland and in the UK, to identify which of them are components of pharmaceutical care, and to relate them to patient loyalty to the same pharmacy.Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to clients visiting pharmacies in Poland and the UK January–August 2011. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0.Results: The response rate was 55.6% (n=417/750; 36 pharmacies and 54.0% (n=405/750; 56 pharmacies in Poland and in the UK, respectively. The most frequently reported factors, as defined by a percentage of responders, were in Poland: 1 location (84%; 2 professional and high-quality of service (82%; 3 good price of medicines (78%; and 4 promotions on medicines (66%. In the UK, the most commonly reported factors were: 1 professional and high quality of service (90%; 2 location (89%; 3 good advice received from the pharmacist (86%; and 4 option of discussing and consulting all health issues in a consultation room (80%. Good advice and an option of discussing personal concerns with a pharmacist are components of pharmaceutical care. Thirty
Tiago Marques dos Reis
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists and check their conduct in relation to dispensing of drugs. This is a cross-sectional study performed in four municipalities from South and Southeast of Brazil, which are reference in health national scenario and concentrate 73.6% of national economic activity. Pharmacists who works in community pharmacies were invited to answer a questionnaire prepared by the authors of this study and validated. The main outcome measured was the pharmaceutical knowledge, rated according to the number of correct answers on that questionnaire prepared by the researchers, and professional conduct in relation to dispensing of drugs. The data collection occurred from September to December 2012 and the information obtained were tabulated in duplicate by two independent researchers for later analysis. 486 community pharmacies were visited but only 112 professionals participated in the study. Among the participants, 78.6% (n = 88 did not have adequate knowledge to perform the dispensing of drugs, despite this same number of pharmacists claiming to have participated in conferences and courses after graduation. The main sources of information on drugs used by participants have a low level of scientific evidence. The performance of non-employment related tasks reduces the time available for the care of medication users. In addition, the indiscriminate sale of antimicrobials and the sale of products other than health, mischaracterize the role of the pharmacist in the community pharmacy. There are gaps in the knowledge of professionals, limiting the satisfactory completion of dispensing of drugs. In addition, the excess of other duties and inadequate professional conduct compromise the promotion of the rational use of drugs.
Hilt, Robert; Wolf, Christine; Koprowicz, Kent; Thomas, Elizabeth; Chandler, Mary; Hao, Xiao Lei; Russell, Matthew; Le, Tung; Hooks, Lee; King, Bryan
One thousand five hundred parents filling a psychiatric prescription for their 6-18 year old child with a multi-state retail pharmacy chain received a single mailed invitation to complete a detailed online survey. 276 parents responded (18.4%). 60% of children on medications had a parent rated CBCL scale score in the clinically significant range at enrollment (T score ≥65), with a similar frequency of clinically significant CBCL scores through 15 months of survey followup. 47% of medication regimens were noted to be causing persistent side effects. This simple community based data collection method can offer a unique way to investigate naturalistic treatment outcomes. PMID:24323138
Abegaz TM; Belachew SA; Abebe TB; Gebresilassie BM; Teni FS; Woldie HG
Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarr...
Nordén-Hägg, Annika; Sexton, J Bryan; Kälvemark-Sporrong, Sofia; Ring, Lena; Kettis-Lindblad, Åsa
Background Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented Methods The original English language version of the SAQ was translate...
Cooper, Loren-Ashley; Vellurattil, Rosalyn Padiyara; Quiñones-Boex, Ana
Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ perceptions regarding cultural competence training, cross-cultural experiences during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and perceived comfort levels with various cultural encounters.
Full Text Available Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG is clearly correlated with increased life expectancy and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients. Objective: The objective of our study was to record and assess the errors patients make in preparing, performing, and processing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG. Furthermore, the study aimed to determine to what extent a single standardized SMBG instruction session in a community pharmacy might reduce the number of patients making errors or the number of errors per patient. Methods: Between May and October 2005, SMBG of 462 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes was monitored in 32 pharmacies specialized in diabetes care. The patients performed blood glucose self-tests using their own blood glucose meters. Self-testing was monitored using a standardized documentation sheet on which any error made during the performance of the test was recorded. If necessary, patients were instructed in the accurate operation of their meter and the use of the necessary equipment. Additionally, patients obtained written instructions. Six weeks later, assessment of the quality of patient’s SMBG was repeated.Results: During the first observation, 383 patients (83% made at least one mistake performing SMBG. By the time of the second observation, this frequency had fallen to 189 (41% (p<0.001. The average number of mistakes fell from 3.1 to 0.8 per patient. Mistakes that may potentially have led to inaccurate readings were initially recorded for 283 (61% and at study end for 110 (24% patients (p<0.001. Conclusion: It is important to periodically instruct type 2 diabetic patients in the proper SMBG technique in order to ensure accurate measurements. In this study it was shown that community pharmacies specialized in diabetes care can provide this service effectively.
Full Text Available Objectives: ‘Self Care’ cards play a significant role in delivering health education via community pharmacies in Australia and New Zealand. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether such an initiative could have a similar impact in an Irish context. The secondary objective was to understand the importance of health literacy to this initiative.Methods: Ten cards were developed for the Irish healthcare setting and trialed as a proof of concept study. The pilot study ran in ten community pharmacies in the greater Cork area for a six-month period. Using a mixed methods approach (Questionnaires & focus group staff and patient reactions to the initiative were obtained. Concurrent to the pilot study, readability scores of cards (Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, SMOG methods and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM health literacy screening tool was administered to a sample of patients.Results: 88.7% of patient respondents (n=53 liked the concept of the ‘Self Care’ cards and 83% of respondents agreed that the use of the card was beneficial to their understanding of their ailment. Focus groups with Pharmacy staff highlighted the importance of appropriate training for the future development of this initiative. An emerging theme from designing the cards was health literacy. The pilot ‘Self Care’ cards were pitched at too high a literacy level for the general Irish public to understand as determined by readability score methods. It was found that 19.1% of a sample population (n=199 was deemed to have low health literacy skills.Conclusion: The ‘Self Care’ initiative has the potential to be Pharmacy’s contribution to health education in Ireland. The initiative needs to be cognizant of the health literacy framework that equates the skills of individuals to the demands placed upon them.
Fittler, András; Bosze, Gergely; Botz, Lajos
As internet is now available to nearly everyone in Hungary, the accessibility of websites offering pharmaceutical products is also increasing. The national and international regulation of these sites is currently an unsolved problem worldwide, thus potentially harmful, counterfeit and prescription only medicines are easily accessible on the market. We aimed to measure and estimate the current situation of the ordering of online medicines. In 5 Hungarian cities 434 self-administered questionnaires were collected in community pharmacies. Our results show that 6.2% of the respondents have already ordered drugs or dietary supplements online and approximately same amount of people are considering this option in the near future. Based on our survey mostly the educated, the 30-49 year old people and women are likely to buy drugs online. Every fifth respondent reported willingness to buy drugs online from abroad if lower prices were offered. Most people do not know that the quality of medicines purchased online could be different from the ones purchased from community pharmacies. We would like to draw attention of healthcare professionals to the rising popularity and potential risks of drugs available online. PMID:21084250
Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Liu, Juan; Li, Lei
The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration among pharmacy students in order to develop an interprofessional education (IPE) opportunity through integrating cooperative learning (CL) into a team-based student-supported community service event. The study also aimed to assess the change in students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the event. A bilingual version of the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration (SATP(2)C) in English and Chinese was completed by pharmacy students enrolled in Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China. Sixty-four students (32 pharmacy students and 32 medical students) in the third year of their degree volunteered to participate in the IPE opportunity for community-based diabetes and hypertension self-management education. We found the mean score of SATP(2)C among 235 Chinese pharmacy students was 51.44. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90. Our key finding was a significant increase in positive attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the IPE activity. These data suggest that there is an opportunity to deliver IPE in Chinese pharmacy education. It appears that the integration of CL into an interprofessional team-based community service offers a useful approach for IPE. PMID:27310204
Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was established in front of Gifu University Hospital (GUH) as a pharmacy attached to the university, the first in Japan in 1998. When GUH moved in 2004, Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was built in its current location. One of the priorities of the design of the new facility was easy access to those with disabilities. For example, ramps, wheelchair accessible restrooms, and handicap-friendly waiting-room chairs were installed. In cooperation with GUH, we introduced a two-dimensional bar code system for prescriptions. This promoted the efficiency of compounding medicines. In addition, starting in 2006, we introduced digital drug-history records at Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy. We also increased the staff of the affiliated pharmacy in 2006. We designed the system of the affiliated pharmacy for long-term pharmacy practice. Currently, we accept pharmacy students visiting pharmacy of early exposure and long-term pharmacy practice. Today, the pharmacy fills an average of 80 prescriptions a day, primarily from GUH. Our staff consists of six pharmacists, one full-time office manager, and three part-time office assistants. In keeping with our role as a community pharmacy, we hold regular lectures and an education forum for pharmacists. We also carry out clinical studies. PMID:27150929
Erika L Abramson Departments of Pediatrics and Healthcare Policy and Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Major national policy forces are promoting the adoption and use of health information technology (health IT) to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of health care delivery. One such health IT is electronic prescribing (e-prescribing), which is the direct transmission of prescription information from a provider to a pharmacy. Given research showing ...
Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre
Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; P<0.0001) and more surprisingly; (ii) the fact of having no children (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative. PMID:27235652
Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Schleiden, Loren J.; Chui, Michelle A.
Objectives: It has been reported that supportive personnel, such as pharmacy technicians, are key participants in the use of health information technology. The purpose of this study was to describe how pharmacy technicians use e-prescribing and to explore the characteristics of technicians that support pharmacists in ensuring patient safety. Methods: This was a qualitative study that used observations, interviews, and focus groups to understand the role of pharmacy technicians in e-prescribin...
Sunderland, V Bruce; Burrows, Suzanne D; Joyce, Andrew W
Background Recent attention has focused on access of communities to pharmacy services in rural areas. To increase access to pharmacy services in rural Western Australia some doctors have been granted a licence to dispense medication on the rationale that a pharmacy would not be economically viable in that community. However, there have been no studies conducted on whether a doctor dispensing service adequately provides a pharmacy service with respect to access and quality. Method Residents of...
Atkinson J; Rombaut B
The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students’ Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. The consortium surveyed pharmacies and pharmacists in different settings: community, hospital, industry ...
Full Text Available Background. Metoclopramide is a pharmacological agent frequently used in therapy against nausea and vomiting that can occur in indigestion, motion sickness, gastric ulcer, pyloric spasm and after surgery as a side effect of some anesthetics. Knowing the frequency and intensity of metoclopramide neurological side effects is essential for an efficient management of the dysfunctions it addresses. Material and method. Based on a standard questionnaire containing questions regarding metoclopramide therapy, we analyzed the answers given by 1000 patients or patient tutors in 20 open circuit pharmacies situated all over Bucharest. All subjects freely consented to participate in this study that was coordinated only by pharmacists. Results. Our study highlights the fact that in certain situations having to do with the age of patients, with the use of multiple drugs or with the tendency to self medicate, the neurological side effects of metoclopramide can reach dangerous levels. In some cases it might even be necessary to immediately interrupt metoclopramide therapy, despite its positive benefit/ risk ratio. Conclusions. Respecting the physician’s recommendations, avoiding self medication and reporting side effects as quickly as possible, are essential elements for minimizing the consequences of metoclopramide side effects.
Macquart de Terline, Diane; Hejblum, Gilles; Fernandez, Christine; Cohen, Ariel; Antignac, Marie
Background Oral anticoagulation therapy is increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in various clinical situations. Nowadays, education programs for patients treated with anticoagulants constitute an integrated component of their management. However, such programs are usually based on the healthcare providers’ perceptions of what patients should know, rather than on patients’ preferences. Objective To investigate patients’ viewpoints on educational needs and preferred modalities of information delivery. Methods We conducted an observational study based on a self-administered questionnaire. To explore several profiles of patients, the study was designed for enrolling patients in two settings: during outpatient consultations in a cardiology department (Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France) and in community pharmacies throughout France. Results Of the 371 patients who completed the questionnaire, 187 (50.4%) were recruited during an outpatient consultation and 184 (49.6%) were recruited in community pharmacies. 84.1% of patients were receiving a vitamin K antagonist and 15.6% a direct oral anticoagulant. Patients ranked 16 of 21 (76.2%) questionnaire items on information about their treatment as important or essential; information on adverse effects of treatment was the highest ranked domain (mean score 2.38, 95% CI 2.30–2.46). Pharmacists (1.69, 1.58–1.80), nurses (1.05, 0.95–1.16), and patient associations (0.36, 0.29–0.44), along with group sessions (0.85, 0.75–0.95), the internet (0.77, 0.67–0.88), and delivery of material at the patient’s home (1.26, 1.14–1.38), were ranked poorly in terms of delivering educational material. Conclusion This study revealed substantial discrepancies between patient preferences and current educational programs. These findings should be useful for tailoring future educational programs that are better adapted to patients, with a potential associated enhancement of their
Farris, Karen B.; Aquilino, Mary L.; Batra, Peter; Marshall, Vince; Losch, Mary E.
Background Almost 50% of pregnancies in the United States are unwanted or mistimed. Notably, just over one-half of unintended pregnancies occurred when birth control was being used, suggesting inappropriate or poor use or contraceptive failure. About two-thirds of all women who are of reproductive age use contraceptives, and oral hormonal contraceptives remain the most common contraceptive method. Often, contraceptive products are obtained in community pharmacies. The purpose of this study wa...
Adepu R; Rasheed A.; Nagavi B
This study was carried out to assess the influence of pharmacist provided patient counseling on patients′ perception about the disease management and quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The present study was a randomized, prospective controlled study conducted over a period of six months in two community pharmacies in Calicut, Kerala, India. A total of seventy (48 male and 22 female) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were enrolled and randomized into test and control ...
Background: Organisational culture refers to the way employees perceive, think and feel about their work and organisation, guiding their behaviours. The way community pharmacists perceive their work pressures, as well as organisational outcomes such as job satisfaction and commitment, turnover and performance may be influenced by organisational culture. However, there is little evidence of the link between organisational culture and community pharmacists’ perceptions of their workplace. Moreo...
McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.
Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…
Helling, Dennis K.; Walker, John A.
A clinical pharmacy training program for undergraduate students developed at the University of Iowa provides conjoint training of pharmacy and dental students in the clinic areas and pharmacy at the College of Dentistry. (LBH)
Kjome, Reidun Lisbet Skeide
Diabetes is a growing concern worldwide. Ideal management of the disease requires extensive self-care and broad follow-up by health care professionals. Considerable research has been done on involving the pharmacist in the healthcare of patients with diabetes, arguing that community pharmacists’ high availability to patients and specialized medication-focused education makes them a valuable asset to the diabetes team. This thesis consists of four papers. The work for these pape...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community Investment Cash Advance Programs. 952.5 Section 952.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 952.5 Community Investment Cash Advance Programs. (a) In general. (1) Each...
Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee
Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies. PMID:27118461
Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation
Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D
Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a
Background The Internet is increasingly used as a source of health-related information, and a vast majority of Internet users are performing health-related searches in the United States and Europe, with wide differences among countries. Health information searching behavior on the Internet is affected by multiple factors, including demographics, socioeconomic factors, education, employment, attitudes toward the Internet, and health conditions, and their knowledge may help to promote a safer use of the Internet. Limited information however exists so far about Internet use to search for medical information in Italy. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the Internet for searching for information on medicines and disease in adult subjects in Northern Italy. Methods Survey in randomly selected community pharmacies, using a self-administered questionnaire, with open and multiple choices questions, was conducted. Results A total of 1008 participants were enrolled (59.5% women; median age: 43 years; range: 14-88 years). Previous use of the Internet to search for information about medicines or dietary supplements was reported by 26.0% of respondents, more commonly by women (30.00% vs 20.10% men, PInternet to search for information about disease was reported by 59.1% of respondents, more commonly by women (64.5% vs 51.0% males, PInternet to search for disease and drugs. Conclusions The study provides detailed information on the use of the Internet for searching for information on medicines and disease in the Italian population. Gender, age, social status and level of education, and the previous use of medicines, affect searching behaviors and use patterns. Results can support educational interventions to promote the retrieval of high-quality information by Internet users and health professionals advising patients about appropriate use of Internet for health-related purposes. PMID:27417304
Mark, M. P.
Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six weeks
程伟杰; 储继志; 魏新萍; 鲍勇
目的：评价智能药房在我院门诊药房的应用效果。方法：对智能药房使用前后社区卫生服务中心药房的工作情况、医患的满意度等进行评价。结果：智能药房使用后门诊药房的工作性质较使用前更趋合理，药品盘点的账物相符率显著提高，配药差错、盘点操作错误、药物遗落柜底等不良事件发生率及月底盘点耗时均明显降低（P<0.05），医务人员对智能药房信息不易丢失，方便、快捷，数据及时更新、及时分析、动态管理，便于健康档案数据采集等优点得分以及满意度均高于传统药房（P<0.05）；结论：智能药房在我院的应用不仅提高了工作效率，而且对我院构建和谐医患关系具有积极的作用。%Objective: To evaluate the application effect of the intelligent armacy in our hospital outpatient pharmacy. Meth-ods: To evaluated the work situation of the community health service center pharmacy and the satisfaction degree of the patients before and after the intelligent pharmacy was used,Results: after the use of outpatient pharmacy the nature of the pharmacy work is more reasonable ,inventory account drugs significantly increased,the rate of the dispensing error,inventory,operat-ing errors,drug lost rate of adverse events such as the bottom of the cabinet and chassis point were significantly decreased on month time (P < 0.05),the medical staff of the intelligent pharmacy information can not be lost easily,convenient,fast,data update,timely analysis,dynamic management,to facilitate the health records data acquisition etc. score and the satisfaction was higher than that of traditional pharmacies (P < 0.05).Conclusion: The application of intelligent pharmacy in our hospital not only improves the work efficiency,but also accumulated to build a harmonious doctor-patient relationship in our hospital.
Education of nuclear pharmacists exists in many countries around the world. The approach and level of education varies between countries depending upon the expectations of the nuclear pharmacist, the work site and the economic environment. In Australia, training is provided through distance learning. In Europe and Canada, nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists receive postgraduate education in order to engage in the small-scale preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals as well as research and development. In the U.S.A., nuclear pharmacy practitioners obtain basic knowledge primarily through undergraduate programs taken when pursuit the first professional degree in pharmacy. Licensed practitioners in pharmacy enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy through distance learning programs or short courses. While different approaches to education exist, there is a basic core of knowledge and a level of competence required of all nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists providing radiopharmaceutical products and services. It was with this realization that efforts were initiated to develop harmonization concepts and documents pertaining to education in nuclear pharmacy. The benefits of international harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education are numerous. Assurance of the availability of quality professionals to provide optimal products and care to the patient is a principle benefit. Spanning national barriers through the demonstration of self governance and unification in education will enhance the goal of increased freedom of employment between countries. Harmonization endeavors will improve existing education programs through sharing of innovative concepts and knowledge between educators. Documents generated will benefit new educational programs especially in developing nations. A committee on harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education was formed consisting of educators and practitioners from the international community. A working document on education was
Sedlacek, Renee K.; Watson, Susan B.
Objective. To evaluate the impact of a simulation on pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty using the Attitude toward Poverty (ATP) Short Form scale. Methods. Second-year pharmacy students participated in the 3-hour Missouri Association for Community Action Poverty Simulation. Students completed a survey of the ATP Short Form scale prior to and following participation in the simulation. Results. Significant improvements in attitude were noted in 15 of 21 ATP Short Form items. Improvements in the stigma and structural domains were significant while improvement in the personal deficiency domain was not significant. Conclusions. This poverty simulation exercise positively altered pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty. When combined with didactic and experiential curriculum, this simulation may enhance student achievement of the 2013 Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcome subdomain of cultural sensitivity. PMID:27073274
Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.
Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural,…
Faruk Khan, M.O.; Deimling, Michael J.; Philip, Ashok
The origins and advancements of pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, and drug discovery are interwoven in nature. Medicinal chemistry provides pharmacy students with a thorough understanding of drug mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships (SAR), acid-base and physicochemical properties, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles. A comprehensive understanding of the chemical basis of drug action equips pharmacy students with the ability to answ...
Krishneeta C Kashyap,1 Lisa M Nissen,1 Simon S Smith,2 James A Douglas,3 Greg J Kyle41School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Accident Research and Road Safety, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia; 3The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, Queensland, Australia; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Canberra, Bruce, Canberra, AustraliaBackground: When experiencing sleep problems for the first time, consum...
Full Text Available AIM The study aimed to examine changes in some health indicators in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, namely: reported self-care activity, health related quality of life, and patient opinion of the services provided by three community pharmacies in Sharjah, UAE. METHOD A group of patients was followed over 24 months. Patients under investigation received reminders packages during the first three months of the study. No reminders were sent after 3 months after the study was underway. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to test differences between means over different periods. RESULTS All patients included in this study were found to have poor diet and exercise behavior at baseline. Three months into the study, more than 27% of the patients had acceptable diet, exercise, foot care and self-testing behavior. However, evaluation at six months and 24-months show that mean scores had almost returned to baseline levels. There were significant differences between the mean values of initial (baseline data and final (at the end of the study scores for general health (5.86, p=0.001, vitality (5.25, p<0.001, and role physical scales (3.81, p=0.02. There was a significant (p < 0.001 25% increase in the patients' perception of the ability of the pharmacist to assist in decreasing blood glucose level. CONCLUSION Ongoing reminder packages are needed for continued progress in self-care activities and for achieving lasting changes in the behavior. Implementation of such a strategy through community pharmacies could help to improve patients’ views of the quality of services received from these pharmacies and patient’s quality of life, which should improve patient’s drug therapy and reduce complications of diabetes.
Marcieli Maria Navarini
Full Text Available Obesity is defined as the excess adipose tissue in the body. Drugs responsible for inhibiting the appetite are called anorectics or appetite suppressants. Sibutramine, fenproporex and amfepramone belongs to this class, and are capable of causing physical or psychological dependence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of prescriptions for appetite suppressants in community pharmacies at Cruz Alta, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The sales of fenproporex, amfepramone and sibutramine in the months of September, October and November 2010 and April, May and June 2011 were compared. It was observed that the most commonly dispensed anorectic in the three community pharmacies analyzed was sibutramine. In the months of September, October and November 2010, consumption was higher, with sibutramine achieving 40.3% of overall sales, amfepramone 21% and, finally, fenproporex, 7.9%. The consumption of appetite suppressants was more prevalent in females, who represented 82% of total. The results suggested the existence of high consumption of anorectics, possibly related to the current concern with aesthetic standards, which emphasizes the importance of strict control over the marketing of these substances.
Zaswiza Mohamad Noor
Full Text Available Introduction: Community pharmacists are in a suitable position to give advice and provide appropriate services related to sleep disorders to individuals who are unable to easily access sleep clinics. An intervention with proper objective measure can be used by the pharmacist to assist in consultation. Objectives: The study objectives are to evaluate: (1 The effectiveness of a community pharmacy-based intervention in managing sleep disorders and (2 the role of actigraph as an objective measure to monitor and follow-up individuals with sleeping disorders. Methods and Instruments: The intervention care group (ICG completed questionnaires to assess sleep scale scores (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] and Insomnia Severity Index [ISI], wore a wrist actigraph, and completed a sleep diary. Sleep parameters (sleep efficiency in percentage [SE%], total sleep time, sleep onset latency, and number of nocturnal awakenings from actigraphy sleep report were used for consultation and to validate sleep diary. The usual care group (UCG completed similar questionnaires but received standard care. Results: Pre- and post-mean scores for sleep scales and sleep parameters were compared between and within groups. A significant difference was observed when comparing pre- and post-mean scores for ISI in the ICG, but not for ESS. For SE%, an increase was found in the number of subjects rated as “good sleepers” at post-assessment in the ICG. Conclusions: ISI scores offer insights into the development of a community pharmacy-based intervention for sleeping disorders, particularly in those with symptoms of insomnia. It also demonstrates that actigraph could provide objective sleep/wake data to assist community pharmacists during the consultation.
Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, RM; Mishra, DN.
In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and deg...
Shane, R R
Attributes of excellence in pharmacy management are described: big-picture thinking, the ability to exploit change, and willingness to take risks. Big-picture thinking means understanding trends that are shaping health care in order to determine where pharmacy fits. Health systems look beyond inpatient care and use case managers to maximize resource use; pharmacists might serve as case managers. Managed care has caused physicians to be more receptive to resource-management strategies, such as clinical pathways; pharmacists can collaborate in the development of clinical pathways. Pharmacists can serve as physician extenders; for example, by conducting anticoagulation or hypertension clinics. Pharmacists need flexibility to adapt to changes in the internal organization of acute care institutions; they will need to learn about the clinical, behavioral, operational, and fiscal aspects of managing the total patient. New reporting relationships give pharmacists the opportunity to demonstrate to other members of the health care team their role in preventing, managing, and resolving drug-related problems throughout the continuum of care. Risk-taking can mean setting ambitious goals. By setting and achieving ambitious goals for products and services, pharmacists can raise patients' and other health care providers' expectations for pharmacy services. Pharmacists' success will depend on their willingness to experiment with new services and discard services that do not substantially advance patient care. Pharmacists must monitor changes in the provision of health care, determine the implications for their practice and seek opportunities for participation outside the walls within which they have traditionally practiced. PMID:8673664
Muhammad Umair Khan
Full Text Available Purpose: In Pakistan, courses in pharmacy practice, which are an essential component of the PharmD curriculum, were launched with the aim of strengthening pharmacy practice overall and enabling pharmacy students to cope with the challenges involved in meeting real-world healthcare needs. Since very little research has assessed the efficacy of such courses, we aimed to evaluate students’ perceptions of pharmacy practice courses and their opinions about whether their current knowledge of the topics covered in pharmacy practice courses is adequate for future practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over two months among the senior pharmacy students of two pharmacy colleges. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then analysed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Research in pharmacy practice (30.2%, applied drug information (34.4%, health policy (38.1%, public health and epidemiology (39.5%, pharmacovigilance (45.6%, and pharmacoeconomics (47.9% were the major courses that were covered to the least extent in the PharmD curriculum. However, hospital pharmacy practice (94.4%, pharmacotherapeutics (88.8%, and community pharmacy practice (82.8% were covered well. Although 94% of students considered these courses important, only 37.2% considered themselves to be competent in the corresponding topics. Of the participants, 87.9% agreed that the pharmacy courses in the present curriculum should be redesigned. Conclusion: Our results showed that the pharmacy practice courses in the current PharmD curriculum do not encompass some important core subjects. A nationwide study is warranted to further establish the necessity for remodelling pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan.
Shen G; Fois R; Nissen L; Saini B
Background: In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession an...
Aranceta, Javier; Lobo, Félix; Viedma, Pilar; Salvador-Castell, Gemma; Martínez de Victoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M.; Bello, Luis; Tur-Marí, Josep A
Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front-line strategies in health promotion. Community nutrition in different regions of Spain has developed at an unequal pace. Early initiatives in the mid 1980s provided good-quality population data and established a basis for nutrition surveillance including individual body measurements, dietary intake data, information on physical activity, and biomarkers. The Nutrition and Physical Activity for Obesity Preventi...
Stopka, Thomas J.; Geraghty, Estella M.; Azari, Rahman; Gold, Ellen B.; DeRiemer, Kathryn
Community pharmacies serve as key locations for public health services including interventions to enhance the availability of syringes sold over-the-counter (OTC), an important strategy to prevent injection-mediated HIV transmission. Little is known about the community characteristics associated with the availability of pharmacies and pharmacies that sell syringes OTC. We conducted multivariable regression analyses to determine whether the sociodemographic characteristics of census tract resi...
Harshali K. Patel, MS
Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions are expensive to treat because of the ongoing prescription cost burden. Generic drug discount programs (GDDPs that offer generics at discounted price may prove beneficial to reduce pharmacy costs for the same.Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which GDDPs provide drug coverage for five common chronic conditions.Methods: A content analyses of preexisting information was conducted. Extent of coverage based on top 200 generic drugs prescribed during 2008 for the treatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension, mental disorders, arthritis, pulmonary/respiratory conditions, and diabetes were identified. Commonly prescribed medications for these diseases were identified using published peer reviewed clinical guidelines. List of drugs covered under a GDDP for stores, Wal-Mart, Walgreens, CVS, Kroger, HEB, Target, and Randalls were obtained and compared to assess drug coverage by retail dollar sales and sales volume. Descriptive statistics and frequency/percentage of coverage were reported using SAS 9.2.Results: GDDPs covered the highest number of drugs for hypertension (21-27 across different GDDPs and the least (3-5 across different GDDPs for pulmonary/respiratory conditions. Arthritis (5-11, mental disorders (6-11 and diabetes (5-7 had similar coverage. When compared to the top 200 drugs by retail dollars spent during 2008, hypertension (68%-87% and diabetes (63%-88% had the highest coverage followed by respiratory conditions (30%-50%, arthritis (22%-48%, and mental disorders (21%-38%. Similar result was obtained when GDDP coverage was compared with the top 200 generic drugs by sales volume, where diabetes (63-88% and hypertension (57%-74% had the highest coverage and mental disorders remained the lowest (23%-37%.Conclusion/Implications: Drug coverage in GDDPs varied by pharmacies across the five common chronic conditions evaluated which may limit accessibility of these programs for
Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Hussain, Azhar
Pharmacy profession has evolved from its conventional and traditional drug focused basis to an advanced patient focused basis over the years. In the past century the pharmacists were more involved in compounding and manufacturing of medicines, but this role has significantly reduced over time. This advancement in the role of pharmacist calls for them to be the part of the broader health care team working for providing better health care for the patients, thus contributing in achieving the global millennium development goals. To match up, the role of today's pharmacists needs to be expanded to include pharmaceutical care concepts, making the pharmacist a health care professional rather than a drug seller in a commercial enterprise. Therefore, pharmacy schools should prepare a program that has competence with the changing role of the pharmacist. The education should provide ability for critical thinking, improve problem-solving skills and decision making during pharmacotherapy. The student should be trained to create, transmit, and apply new knowledge based on cutting-edge research in the pharmaceutical, social, and clinical sciences; collaborate with other health professionals and learn to enhance the quality of life through improved health for the people of local society and as well as the global community. PMID:24023452
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M; Nørgaard, Lotte S
BACKGROUND: Despite pharmacists' extensive knowledge in the optimization of patients' medical treatments, community pharmacies are still fighting to earn patients' trust with respect to medicinal counselling at the counter. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate how patients perceive pharmacy...... counselling at the present time, in order to develop the patient-pharmacy relationship for the benefit of both patients and pharmacies. DESIGN: Short semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacy customers by pharmacy internship students. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and eight customers...... in 35 independent pharmacies across Denmark were interviewed during the spring of 2011. MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: Customers were interviewed about their expectations of pharmacies in general and their experiences with medical counselling in particular. RESULTS: Customers perceive community pharmacies very...
巢勤华; 巢柳荫; 巢凌云
The main significance of “separation of clinic from pharmacy”in medical reform is to make benefit to the people in medical services and promote the healthy development of community pharmacy. The analysis was made in this article on the current survival status of community pharmacy , and opinions were put forward for the survival and development of community pharmacy in medical reform so as to attract more attention of departments concerned and to promote further studies.%真正意义上“医药分开”的医疗卫生体制改革，是让百姓得到医药服务的实惠，促进社会药房健康发展。本文分析了社会药房的生存现状，并提出了社会药房在医疗改革中的生存和发展的看法，以引起有关方面的高度重视和进一步研讨。
Janeth de Oliveira Silva Naves
Full Text Available As DST se constituem num grave problema de saúde pública. Diante da baixa notificação de casos, a OMS estima que 70% dos portadores de DST no Brasil não busquem tratamento em unidades de saúde. Em todo o mundo a farmácia comunitária é um importante local de busca por atendimento primário de saúde e os farmacêuticos são numerosos e se constituem nos profissionais de saúde mais acessíveis para o público em geral. A dificuldade de acesso a serviços de saúde, a falta de orientação para o uso racional de medicamentos ao usuário e a automedicação são uma realidade no Brasil, onde se convive, de um lado, com a falta de acesso de grande parcela da população a medicamentos essenciais, e de outro, com o uso abusivo e irracional pelos segmentos que têm poder de compra. As farmácias devem, portanto, ser consideradas locais de intervenção para o estabelecimento de parcerias no sentido de divulgar e disseminar práticas educativas quando se pensa em campanhas educativas e prevenção de doenças como as DST. Propõe-se, então, uma sistematização da orientação farmacêutica com relação às DST, na tentativa de concretizar um melhor atendimento aos possíveis portadores que procuram a resolução de seu problema de saúde na farmácia e contribuir para o enfraquecimento da cadeia de transmissão dessas doenças.Sexually transmitted diseases (STD are a major public health issue. According to estimates of the WHO, 70% of those infected by STDs in Brazil do not seek treatment in health units due to the reduced notification of cases. Community pharmacies around the world are an important site where people seek primary health services. In addition, there are a great number of pharmacists, making them the most accessible health care professional for the general public. Difficult access to health services, lack of guidance in the rational use of drugs, and self-medication are a reality in Brazil. On one hand a great majority of the
Bekker Linda-Gail; Wood Robin; Kaplan Richard; Nglazi Mweete D; Lawn Stephen D
Abstract Background High rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) are undermining rapidly expanding antiretroviral treatment (ART) services in sub-Saharan Africa. The intelligent dispensing of ART (iDART) is an open-source electronic pharmacy system that provides an efficient means of generating lists of patients who have failed to pick-up medication. We determined the duration of pharmacy delay that optimally identified true LTFU. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of a comm...
Tommasello Anthony C
Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use
Robles, Janie; Gutierrez, Ashley; Seifert, Charles F.
Objectives: Childhood obesity continues to be a problem. Children in rural populations are more likely to be overweight or obese and a lack of resources in those areas may contribute to this problem. We aimed to assess the impact of a pilot pharmacy health-care professional out-of-school time vigorous physical activity and nutrition education program on fourth and fifth graders in a rural Texas community. Methods: We conducted a prospective 12-week cohort study from August to November 2012. T...
Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu's description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065
Full Text Available Objective: To describe consumer understanding of pharmacy quality measures and consumer preferences for pharmacy quality information. Methods: Semi-structured focus group design was combined with survey methods. Adults who filled prescription medications for self-reported chronic illnesses at community pharmacies discussed their understanding of Pharmacy Quality Alliance approved quality measures. Questions examined preference of pharmacy quality information rating systems (e.g. stars versus percentages and desired data display/formats. During the focus group, participants completed a survey examining their understanding of each pharmacy quality measure. All focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Thirty-four individuals participated (mean age= 62.85; SD=16.05. Participants were unfamiliar with quality measures information and their level of understanding differed for each quality measure. Surveys indicated 94.1% understood “Drug-Drug Interactions” and “Helping Patients Get Needed Medications” better than other measures (e.g., 76.5% understood “Suboptimal Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes”. Qualitative analysis indicated participants preferred an overall pharmacy rating for quick access and use. However, participants also wanted quality measures information displayed by health conditions. Participants favored comparison of their pharmacy to city data instead of state data. Most participants liked star ratings better than percentages, letter grades, or numerical ratings. Conclusions: Individuals who have a chronic illness and regularly use community pharmacies are interested in pharmacy quality measures. However, specific quality measures were not understood by some participants. Participants had specific preferences for the display of pharmacy quality information which will be helpful in the design of appropriate quality
Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the influence of pharmacist provided patient counseling on patients′ perception about the disease management and quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The present study was a randomized, prospective controlled study conducted over a period of six months in two community pharmacies in Calicut, Kerala, India. A total of seventy (48 male and 22 female type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were enrolled and randomized into test and control groups. Patients in the test group received patient counseling and patient information leaflets from the pharmacist, where as the control group patients received the counseling and patient information leaflets only at the end of the study. After the baseline, two follow-ups were made with sixty days interval between the follow-ups. During each visit patient′s random capillary blood glucose was measured by using a standard Glucometer. Suitably designed and validated knowledge, attitude and practices questionnaire was administered at baseline and final follow up for both test and control group patients to assess the disease management awareness. Audit of diabetes-dependent quality of life questionnaire was administered to measure the quality of life in both control and test group patients at each follow up. At the end of the study, knowledge, attitude and practices scores found markedly improved in test group patients. Mean capillary blood glucose levels were decreased in test group ( P < 0.05 and an improvement in mean quality of life scores ( P < 0.05 was observed. Where as a reduction of quality of life score ( P < 0.05 and a non-significant increase of capillary blood glucose levels ( P >0.05 was observed in the control group patients. The correlation between the capillary blood glucose levels and quality of life scores were also found to be highly significant in the test group (r= 0.955. The results of the study suggests that, pharmacist provided patient
Singleton, Judith A; Nissen, Lisa M
This paper highlights the hypercompetitive nature of the current pharmacy landscape in Australia and to suggest either a superior level of differentiation strategy or a focused differentiation strategy targeting a niche market as two viable, alternative business models to cost leadership for small, independent community pharmacies. A description of the Australian health care system is provided as well as background information on the current community pharmacy environment in Australia. The authors propose a differentiation or focused differentiation strategy based on cognitive professional services (CPS) which must be executed well and of a superior quality to competitors' services. Market research to determine the services valued by target customers and that they are willing to pay for is vital. To achieve the superior level of quality that will engender high patient satisfaction levels and loyalty, pharmacy owners and managers need to develop, maintain and clearly communicate service quality specifications to the staff delivering these services. Otherwise, there will be a proliferation of pharmacies offering the same professional services with no evident service differential. However, to sustain competitive advantage over the long-term, these smaller, independent community pharmacies will need to exploit a broad core competency base in order to be able to continuously introduce new sources of competitive advantage. With the right expertise, the authors argue that smaller, independent community pharmacies can successfully deliver CPS and sustain profitability in a hypercompetitive market. PMID:23820045
A survey of the state of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria is done, analyzing written records of various origin and content. Written documents are reviewed separately in chronological order. They all seem to lend support to the conclusion that realism is a characteristic feature of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria. Mysticism and superstition are relatively rarely resorted to, precedence is given to real treatment with suitable and not so suitable medical plants, minerals and animal products. Relatively weak is the impact of West-European medicine and pharmacy because of the different influence of the Eastern and the Western Orthodox religion, and partly because of the territorial remoteness. During the High Middle Ages Bulgarian pharmacy developed under the influence of Hellenic ancient culture. Later, after the 15 century, the influence of the Arabian culture and medicine is also felt as a result of the complex compilation between the Bulgarian and Ottoman culture during the 500-year Turkish yoke. PMID:17663197
Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the demand of oral antibiotics without prescription in an community pharmacy, and to compare this demand with 2000. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study in a community pharmacy at Benalmadena – Malaga Spain. From March to September 2004, all patients requesting an antibiotic without prescription were surveyed, gathering data about: age, gender, requested antibiotic, who is the antibiotic for, who advised the antibiotic, requesting cause (health problem, and pharmacist intervention result. Results: 279 requests for oral antibiotics without prescription were recorded. Age group more frequently requesting antibiotics is 31-45 years old (41.2%. Someone different from the user did 46.6% of requests. Self-medication reached 57.0% of total antibiotics, and medical prescription without a prescription form was 43.0%. Total antibiotics request by therapeutic group was: penicillins (49.1%, macrolides (17.2%, quinolones (6.8%, cefalosporins (6.1%, sulfamides (5.4%, and tetraciclins (3.2%. The main causes for requesting were throat problems (36.2% and teeth problems (23.3%. In 55.4% of self-medication requests pharmacist could not persuade the patient to use a different drug or to visit the physician. Conclusions: In our health-care area, there exist evidence of high percentages of self-medication with antibiotics, and of prescriptions without a prescription form.
Bereznicki Luke RE
testing, warfarin education and home visits by trained pharmacists. It faces several potential challenges, including the tight timeframe for patient follow-up in the post-discharge period. Its strengths lie in a strong multidisciplinary team and the utilisation of existing healthcare frameworks. It is hoped that this study will provide the evidence to support the national roll-out of the program as a new Australian professional community pharmacy service. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number 12608000334303.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los resultados de un programa piloto de cribado rápido del VIH en farmacias del País Vasco, las características sociodemográficas y el grado de aceptación. Métodos: Encuesta a usuarios del test rápido de detección del VIH en 20 farmacias durante el primer año. Muestra aleatoria simple de 3514 pruebas (n = 820. Análisis mediante métodos exactos. Resultados: 806 encuestas válidas, el test resultó positivo en siete ocasiones (0,85%; intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,34 a 1,75; cinco hombres. Edad media de 36,2 años (desviación estándar = 11,0, intervalo de 16 a 82 años, 70,7% hombres. Las prácticas de riesgo más frecuentes fueron heterosexuales y el 58,6% era la primera vez que se sometía a una prueba del VIH. La rapidez, la comodidad y la accesibilidad se valoran por la mitad de los usuarios como un motivo importante para realizarse el test en una farmacia. Conclusión: El cribado con la prueba rápida del VIH en las farmacias podría ser un complemento eficaz al resto de los sistemas de detección de VIH/sida implantados.Objectives: To describe the outcomes of the pilot program of a rapid HIV antibody screening test offered at Basque pharmacies, the socio-demographic characteristics of users and their acceptance of the test. Methods: Users of a rapid HIV antibody screening test (20 pharmacies were surveyed. A random sample of 3514 tests (N = 806 performed in 1 year was taken. Statistical analyses included exact tests. Results: There were 806 valid questionnaires. Seven tests were positive (0.85%; 95% confidence interval: 0.34-1.75; five of the users with positive tests were men. The mean age was 36.2 years (standard deviation = 11.0; range: 16-82 years; 70.7% men. Users´ risk behavior was predominantly heterosexual and half of the users (58.6% had no previous HIV tests. The main reasons for choosing this test were its speed, and the convenience and accessibility of community pharmacies. Conclusions: This
Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.
Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem
Filerman, Gary L; Komaridis, Kathryn L
The purpose of this paper is to inform the health administration community and its educators about the importance of pharmacy leadership, the competencies associated with the role, and a suggested path to achieve a greater number of pharmacy leaders. The role of the pharmacy leader is often unrecognized or undervalued, yet it has significant implications for many facets of the healthcare delivery organization, including the cost of care, patient safety and quality, the influence and potential involvement of the pharmacist in the hospital or health system. Hospitals and health systems should recognize the power of an effective pharmacy leader, and strive to fill those positions. Unfortunately, should care leaders demand high performing pharmacy leaders, they will find that such individuals are in short supply, and will become more rare with time because of an aging pharmacy workforce. The health administration education community must respond to the demand by marrying pharmacy management education with the Master's in Health Administration degree (MHA). This article proposes the creation of a PharmD/MHA dual degree program, giving clinically trained pharmacists the skills they need to be effective managers and leaders in hospitals and health systems. PMID:18214075
Ryan, Melody; Shao, Hong; Yang, Li; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Suo-Di; Shi, Lu-Wen; Lubawy, William C.
Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug disco...
Full Text Available Anandi V Law, Eric K Gupta, Micah Hata, Karl M Hess, Roger S Klotz, Quang A Le, Emmanuelle Schwartzman, Bik-Wai Bilvick Tai Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA Abstract: Collaborative practice among health professionals is slowly coming of age, given the global focus on efficiency and effectiveness of care to achieve positive patient outcomes and to reduce the economic burden of fragmented care. Collaborative pharmacy practice (CPP is accordingly evolving within different models including: disease management, medication therapy management, patient centered medical home, and accountable care organizations. Pharmacist roles in these models relate to drug therapy management and include therapy introduction, adjustment, or discontinuation, patient counseling and education, and identification, resolution, and prevention of problems leading to drug interactions and adverse reactions. Most forms of CPP occur with physicians in various settings. Collaborative practice agreements exist in many states in the US and are mentioned in the International Pharmaceutical Federation policy statement. Impetus for CPP comes from health system and economic concerns, as well as from a regulatory push. There are positive examples in community, ambulatory care, and inpatient settings that have well documented protocols, indicators of care, and measurement and reporting of clinical, economic, and patient reported outcomes; however, implementation of the practice is still not widespread. Conceptual and implementation challenges include health professional training, attitudes, confidence and comfort levels, power and communication issues, logistic barriers of time, workload, proximity, resistance to establish and adopt regulations, and importantly, payment models. Some of the attitudinal and perceptual challenges can be mitigated by incorporation of interprofessional concepts and
Full Text Available In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. Objectives: To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. Methods: A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted.Results: Three themes emerged around pharmacists’ attitudes towards research: pharmacists’ perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists’ motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists’ desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists’ mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff, and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested.Conclusions: Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research
Bell, Christopher,; Daniel, Sarah
The Director’s Forum column is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. Environmental disasters and terrorist attacks demonstrate that it is imperative for both a hospital and community to have an emergency preparedness plan. The goal of this article is to provide health-system pharmacy leaders with a practical approach in developing an emergency operations plan (EOP) that can be activated in the event of a disaster. Pharmac...
Ami A. Pratiwi
Full Text Available Off-label drug is a drug which is not prescribed in accordance with official drug information, including patient age, drug indications didn’t match with the marketing authorization, dosage and route of administration are not appropriate. This study was conducted to determine the percentage of patients pediatrician who prescribed with containing drugs off-label in pediatric patients aged 0 to 2 years at pharmacy in Bandung and determine the pattern of use through an observational study with retrospective data collection. Identification of medications that are prescribed off-label category or not based on the Pediatric Dosage Handbook 2007, Drug Information Handbook (DIH in 2012, the British National Formulary (BNF in 2009, MIMS USA 2013, MIMS Indonesia in 2013, and ISO 2012–2013. Based on the results obtained 542 pieces of off-label prescriptions (19.77% of the 2741 total pieces recipes, as well as 699 (7.89% of off-label drug items from 8861 drug, the percentage of off-label age category 70.53%, off-label doses of 19.74% and off-label contraindication 9.73%. The results of this study indicate that the uses of off-label drugs for children is high at Pharmacy in Bandung. This study is expected to be basic consideration in examining the efficacy and safety in off-label drug uses for children aged 0 to 2 years.
Full Text Available Background: In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce Objective: The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods: A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results: ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238. The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7% as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003 while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001. Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital
Características del uso de Sildenafil en una muestra de pacientes a nivel de farmacias comunitarias de Concepción, Chile Features of subjects purchasing Sildenafil at community pharmacies in Concepción, Chile
Sigrid Mennickent C
Full Text Available Background: Erectile dysfunction is a public health problem. Millions of men worldwide experience this condition, affecting their quality of life. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, is the treatment of choice for erectile dysfunction. Aim: To study the characteristics of Sildenafil use among costumers of community pharmacies in Concepcion Chile. Material and methods: A structured interview about Sildenafil use was applied to subjects purchasing the drug in community pharmacies and that consented to participate. Results: One hundred thirty eight males were studied. Forty six percent of patients were fifty years old or older. Most (47.1% used Sildenafil for one year or more and 60.5% had no adverse events. Among those experiencing side effects, headache was experienced by 38.9%, flushing by 16.6% and gastrointestinal effects by 16.7%. Ninety percent of patients had a good evaluation of the drug in terms of benefits and tolerance. Thirty two percent of the subjects, had diseases associated to erectile dysfunction. Among these, 45% had diabetes mellitus, 29.5% had hypertension, and 18.2% had prostatic diseases. In 54% of cases, the drug was prescribed by a physician. Twenty two percent of patients experienced changes in the effect of the drug when it was simultaneously used with other drugs or meals. Thirty four percent of patients used other drugs. Among these, 43.3% were using antihypertensives, and 26.7% were using antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: Considering the elevated age and the number of associated disease of patients using Sildenafil, the use of the drug under medical prescription must be emphasized to avoid untoward effects
Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists' roles are evolving from that of compounders and dispensers of medicines to that of experts on medicines within multidisciplinary health care teams. In the developing country context, the pharmacy is often the most accessible or even the sole point of access to health care advice and services. Because of their knowledge of medicines and clinical therapeutics, pharmacists are suitably placed for task shifting in health care and could be further trained to undertake functions such as clinical management and laboratory diagnostics. Indeed, pharmacists have been shown to be willing, competent, and cost-effective providers of what the professional literature calls "pharmaceutical care interventions"; however, internationally, there is an underuse of pharmacists for patient care and public health efforts. A coordinated and multifaceted effort to advance workforce planning, training and education is needed in order to prepare an adequate number of well-trained pharmacists for such roles. Acknowledging that health care needs can vary across geography and culture, an international group of key stakeholders in pharmacy education and global health has reached unanimous agreement that pharmacy education must be quality-driven and directed towards societal health care needs, the services required to meet those needs, the competences necessary to provide these services and the education needed to ensure those competences. Using that framework, this commentary describes the Pharmacy Education Taskforce of the World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Pharmaceutical Federation Global Pharmacy and the Education Action Plan 2008–2010, including the foundation, domains, objectives and outcome measures, and includes several examples of current activities within this scope.
Omar Saad Saleh Abrika
Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the perceptions among pharmacy practitioners in Libya on the importance of social pharmacy education. A qualitative methodology was employed to conduct this study. Using a purposive sampling technique, a total of ten Libyan registered pharmacists were interviewed. Based on the content analysis of the interviews, two major themes emerged, namely the understanding of social pharmacy education and the need for incorporating social pharmacy courses into the pharmacy education curriculum. The majority of the respondents knew about the concept. Of those that had no prior knowledge of this term, half of them expressed interest in knowing more about it. There was a positive perception of introducing social pharmacy into the undergraduate curricula among the respondents, and they believed that it is necessary for future pharmacists to know about social pharmacy components. The findings from the pharmacy practitioners??evaluation suggest the need to incorporate social pharmacy courses into the curricula of all pharmacy schools in Libya.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary medicines (CMs are popular amongst Australians and community pharmacy is a major supplier of these products. This study explores pharmacy customer use, attitudes and perceptions of complementary medicines, and their expectations of pharmacists as they relate to these products. Methods Pharmacy customers randomly selected from sixty large and small, metropolitan and rural pharmacies in three Australian states completed an anonymous, self administered questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. Results 1,121 customers participated (response rate 62%. 72% had used CMs within the previous 12 months, 61% used prescription medicines daily and 43% had used both concomitantly. Multivitamins, fish oils, vitamin C, glucosamine and probiotics were the five most popular CMs. 72% of people using CMs rated their products as 'very effective' or 'effective enough'. CMs were as frequently used by customers aged 60 years or older as younger customers (69% vs. 72% although the pattern of use shifted with older age. Most customers (92% thought pharmacists should provide safety information about CMs, 90% thought they should routinely check for interactions, 87% thought they should recommend effective CMs, 78% thought CMs should be recorded in customer's medication profile and 58% thought pharmacies stocking CMs should also employ a complementary medicine practitioner. Of those using CMs, 93% thought it important for pharmacists to be knowledgeable about CMs and 48% felt their pharmacist provides useful information about CMs. Conclusions CMs are widely used by pharmacy customers of all ages who want pharmacists to be more involved in providing advice about these products.
Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi
To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico. Cust
Todd, Kelli; Westfall, Katie; Doucette, Bill; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith
Local rural pharmacies provide essential pharmacy and clinical services to their communities. Pharmacists play a critical role in the continuum of care for rural residents, and the loss of a local pharmacy may impact access to prescription drugs and clinical care. This policy brief identifies factors that contributed to the closing of six pharmacies and describes how the affected communities adapted to losing locally based services. Key Findings. (1) Five out of the six pharmacies studied closed due to retirement and/or difficulties in recruiting a successor. (2) In five of the six communities, residents now either drive to the nearest pharmacy or use mail-order to receive their prescriptions and, in some instances, receive their prescriptions through a courier service from a pharmacy in a nearby town. (3) Access to pharmacy services in these communities is of most concern for individuals with limited mobility and those who lack a support system that can pick up and deliver their prescriptions (e.g., the elderly and people with acute conditions). PMID:25399462
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig
Challenges to engage pharmacy customers in medicine dialogues at the counter have been identified comprising a new and extended clinical role for pharmacists in the health care system. This article seeks to expand understanding of factors involved in successful interaction at the pharmacy counter...... between customers and pharmacy staff to develop their relationship further. Practical challenges to customer encounters experienced by community pharmacists are discussed using theory from the field of mainly inter-relational communication and particular studies on pharmacy communication. Preconceived...... expectation of customers, the type of question asked by pharmacy staff, and differences in perception of illness and medicines between staff and customers are discussed. Both staff and customer influence the outcome of attempts by pharmacy staff to engage customers in dialogue about their medicine use through...
Garst, William C.; Ried, L. Douglas
Evaluated the Education Participation Scale (EPS) in determining motivational orientations of nontraditional doctor of pharmacy students (n=17) compared to continuing education pharmacists (n=83). Nontraditional pharmacy students were significantly different from the continuing education pharmacists on the "professional advancement" and…
understand and advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also recognizing the barriers to its widespread adoption. The education and training provided at Kuwait University Faculty of Pharmacy is designed to develop students to be the change agents who can advance pharmacist-provided direct patient care.
Sorensen, Todd D; Shapiro, Nancy L; Benedict, Neal; Edwards, Krystal L; Chan, Alexandre; Covey, Douglas; Daniels, Charles; Hagemann, Tracy; Hemstreet, Brian; Miller, William; Musselman, Megan E
With the increased focus and anticipated growth in specialty training and certification within the profession of pharmacy, it is important for the profession to step back and evaluate the manner in which its adopted education and certification systems interface. As a result of specialty practice development, significant growth is occurring in both postgraduate year two (PGY2) pharmacy residency programs and individuals seeking certification by the Board of Pharmacy Specialties. As the profession continues to evolve its specialty training and credentialing systems, it is important to consider the inherent relationship between these systems. This paper considers the current landscape of specialty training and certification, including issues related to the quality of PGY2 training, consistent application of standards across and within PGY2 programs, credentialing of preceptors and program directors, and alignment of training with specialty certification examination content domains. We outline recommendations across three areas: (1) creating consistency between specialty training and certification, (2) aligning qualifications of PGY2 residency program directors and preceptors with the designated specialty area, and (3) assessing program quality in the context of the expectations of specialists established by the profession. The goal of this paper is to stimulate professional dialogue on these issues. Establishing both formal and informal connections between specialty training and certification can serve as the foundation for a rational approach to professional development and the credentialing that will be recognized by stakeholders outside the pharmacy profession. Establishing these connections will also support and advance the profession's mission of meeting the medication needs of patients. PMID:27062513
ADAMS, KATHERINE T.
At the dawn of the biologics age, specialty pharmacy is a business in transition. Consolidation is in full swing as the industry matures, but what is the endgame? Will specialty pharmacy play a tactical role – thus being reduced to commodity status – or a strategic role?
Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges
The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health. PMID:17384808
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M
Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...
Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.
... retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of a... number, that are authorized to fill prescriptions on its behalf. The retail pharmacy must also verify...
Full Text Available Introduction: After revision of pharmacy curriculum by, Iranian Health and Education Ministry reviewed in 2005, it was decided that pharmacy students need extra internship courses such as hospital internship course. Hospital internship course could provide students with the opportunity to acquire the knowledge and master the skills required for current pharmacy practices in community and hospital setting. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze pharmacy students’ experiences during hospital internship. Methods: Each student attended in 3 wards and provided a logbook for each ward. Students were asked to document at least one topic interesting for them on each day. The collected information was divided into sections and analyzed using SPSS ver 14. Results: Seventeen students enrolled in the course. Endocrinology and nephrology wards had the highest and neurology the lowest number of attended students. Seven hundred and one reported learning subjects were divided into 24 areas. The highest numbers of reported topics were the drugs indications, adverse drug reactions and diagnosis of diseases while the lowest number was pretreatment laboratory tests, pharmacoeconomy, counseling medical staffs and off label use of medications. Gastroenterology and endocrinology wards with 210 reports had the highest and neurology ward with 12 had the lowest number of reports. Conclusion: Completing the logbooks was an encouragement for students to seek and document and learn new topics and also a major feature of the clinical assessment scheme of the course. The majority of the reported topics were learning objectives but not the interventional ones. The present study showed us some areas of pharmacy education which need further attention.
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Sustainable Communities Planning Grant Program Advance Notice and Request for Comment... Housing and Communities, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Room 10180... decisions, and increase State, regional and local capacity to incorporate livability, sustainability,...
Full Text Available In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently.
Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko
The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887
Teng, Cheryl M.
This paper will analyze the growing problem â€œrogueâ€ Internet pharmaciesâ€”Internet pharmacies that conduct illegal or unsafe prescribing and dispensing practices that endanger the health of the customers they serve. SECTION I will describe the different categories of Internet pharmacies and distinguish the practice of legitimate Internet pharmacies from those of rogue Internet pharmacies. SECTION II will discuss the dangers customers face by ord...
Hartman, Rhea; Blustein, Leona; Morel, Diane; Davis, Lisa
Objective. To design and implement 2 pharmaceutical industry elective courses and assess their impact on students’ selection of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and pursuit of pharmaceutical industry fellowships.
Douglas, Charles Allen
The scope of pharmacy practice and the training of future pharmacists have undergone a strategic shift over the last few decades. The pharmacy profession recognizes greater pharmacist involvement in patient care activities. Towards this strategic objective, pharmacy schools are training future pharmacists to meet these new clinical demands. Pharmacy students have clerkships called Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), and these clerkships account for 30% of the professional curriculum. APPEs provide the only opportunity for students to refine clinical skills under the guidance of an experienced pharmacist. Nationwide, schools of pharmacy need to evaluate whether students have successfully completed APPEs and are ready treat patients. Schools are left to their own devices to develop assessment programs that demonstrate to the public and regulatory agencies, students are clinically competent prior to graduation. There is no widely accepted method to evaluate whether these assessment programs actually discriminate between the competent and non-competent students. The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate a rigorous method to evaluate the validity and reliability of APPE assessment programs. The method introduced in this study is applicable to a wide variety of assessment programs. To illustrate this method, the study evaluated new performance criteria with a novel rating scale. The study had two main phases. In the first phase, a Delphi panel was created to bring together expert opinions. Pharmacy schools nominated exceptional preceptors to join a Delphi panel. Delphi is a method to achieve agreement of complex issues among experts. The principal researcher recruited preceptors representing a variety of practice settings and geographical regions. The Delphi panel evaluated and refined the new performance criteria. In the second phase, the study produced a novel set of video vignettes that portrayed student performances based on recommendations of
Shepherd, Janet E; Bopp, Janice
Perimenopause and menopause represent a major physiologic and, often, psychosocial transition in the lives of women. During this time, women often experience disturbing new symptoms and develop an increased awareness of their risks for major chronic illnesses. Women in this stage of life are often highly motivated to improve their health and can benefit greatly from pharmacy-based preventive health care services. Although perimenopausal and menopausal women represent an important target market, some pharmacists may wish to offer more focused services within the broader arena of women's health. For example, a number of community pharmacies have developed niche services for these patients, such as osteoporosis screening, (46) breast cancer risk assessment, (50) or bioidentical HRT consulting and compounding. (59) Other pharmacy care services that may be targeted to women in midlife include smoking cessation, weight management, and dietary supplement consulting. Based on the experiences of the Mar-Main Pharmacy staff, a practical approach is to implement new services gradually, while focusing on providing high-quality, individualized service to a small number of patients. Using this strategy, Mar-Main Pharmacy has experienced tremendous growth in its bioidentical HRT services. This increase in demand for pharmacy services has arisen from word-of-mouth referrals from patients and physicians rather than formal marketing. Perimenopausal and menopausal women represent a growing and increasingly knowledgeable group of patients. Many of these women are seeking care that is individualized, responsive to their health beliefs, and designed to help them maintain a high quality of life. Providing pharmacy-based consulting services for these patients can be extremely rewarding, both professionally and personally. PMID:12269705
Irving, Paul W
In this paper we explore the theory of communities of practice in the context of a physics college course and in particular the classroom environment of an advanced laboratory. We introduce the idea of elements of a classroom community being able to provide students with the opportunity to have an accelerated trajectory towards being a more central participant of the community of practice of physicists. This opportunity is a result of structural features of the course and a primary instructional choice which result in the development of a learning community with several elements that encourage students to engage in more authentic practices of a physicist. A jump in accountable disciplinary knowledge is also explored as a motivation for enculturation into the community of practice of physicists. In the advanced laboratory what students are being assessed on as counting as physics is significantly different and so they need to assimilate in order to succeed.
... serious eye infections in the Miami area. A pharmacy had repackaged the Avastin from single-use vials into multiple single-use syringes, distributing them to multiple eye clinics, and infecting at least 12 patients. Some patients ...
Huntzinger, Paul E
The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process. PMID:21121504
Plaza, Cecilia M.
Interest in the use of the progress examination has grown in the current culture of accountability in higher education. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's (ACPE's) Standards 2007 calls for comprehensive, knowledge- and performance-based examinations as part of a school or college of pharmacy's evaluation and assessment of student learning. Progress examinations have been used primarily in medical education. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the litera...
Pick, S; Reyes, J; Alvarez, M; Cohen, S; Craige, J; Troya, A
Mexican pharmacies play an important adjunct health care role in sexually transmitted disease prevention and treatment. In light of the rapid spread of the AIDS pandemic, research was initiated in 1989 to investigate the feasibility of pharmacies assisting in AIDS and STD prevention and control through community education and condom promotion. This study was implemented in three stages: a needs assessment, development of a training course and complementary materials, and an evaluation of the course and materials. The instruments used in the needs assessment were a KAP questionnaire and 'mystery shopper' visits to pharmacies. The evaluation design utilized pre- and post-tests, condom sales tracking and 'mystery shopper' visits. The needs assessment found that pharmacy employees have some basic knowledge about AIDS and STDs, but lack important information and do not communicate effectively with clients in spite of client interest in these topics. Pharmacy workers expressed great in learning more about AIDS and STDs. The evaluation of the intensive 8-hour course and supporting materials showed that, when given together, the course and materials increased short term knowledge about AIDS and condom use. However, the interventions were less successful in achieving longer term information retention, transfer of knowledge to clients or in influencing condom sales. Adjustments in the training course content and in participant recruitment strategies are recommended. PMID:8664370
Ivey, M F
Changes occurring in the pharmacy profession and their effects on the paradigm for pharmacy practice are discussed. The paradigm of pharmacy, the pattern or model of pharmacy's structure, services, daily activities, and organization, is shifting, and if pharmacists do not shift with it, they will be left behind. Advances in technological capabilities often result in automation and centralization of services. Improvements in drug therapy have caused shifts in the performance of clinical functions. Philosophical changes about the way health care should be delivered have produced the concepts of pharmaceutical care, patient-focused care, and continuous quality improvement of care. Teams of caregivers whose primary concern is the patient have replaced caregiving based on technology, discipline, or employee needs. Pharmacists have focused on the patient as their primary customer instead of the nurse or practitioner, and they anticipate the patient's needs in a structured and documented fashion. The principles of continuous quality improvement have been applied to every aspect of providing pharmaceutical care. If pharmacists are to adjust to the shift in the pharmacy paradigm, they must recognize their strength as a group, make proper recommendations about pharmaceutical use, move horizontally to grow as professionals, consider themselves clinicians, be active in the making of pharmaceutical care decisions, and believe in themselves. PMID:8135232
Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Qingwei; Zhang, Xiangyi; Yang, Hongyu; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Xingguo
In many industrialized countries, clinical pharmacy has developed into a separate discipline and become a vital part of inpatient care in hospitals. However, as compared to many established branches of medicine, clinical pharmacy is still in its infancy, with much room for growth, improvement, and recognition by both the medical community and patients. In this study, a widely-recognized development strategy analysis tool, Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT), was used to systematically address several key issues to the development of clinical pharmacy in China. This analysis aims to provide feasible recommendations for the development of clinical pharmacy in China by identifying current problems and growth opportunities. Full development of clinical pharmacy as a mature clinical discipline will help promote the rational use of drugs by both clinicians and patients and lead to enhanced drug efficacy and safety. PMID:27087089
Breeden, Elizabeth A; Clauson, Kevin A
Standards requiring education in informatics in pharmacy curricula were introduced in the last 10 years by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Mirroring difficulties faced by other health professions educators, implementation of these requirements remains fragmented and somewhat limited across colleges of pharmacy in the US. Clinical practice and workforce metrics underline a pronounced need for clinicians with varying competencies in health informatics. In response to these challenges, a multitiered health informatics curriculum was developed and implemented at a college of pharmacy in the Southeast. The multitiered approach is structured to ensure that graduating pharmacists possess core competencies in health informatics, while providing specialized and advanced training opportunities for pharmacy students, health professions students, and working professionals interested in a career path in informatics. The approach described herein offers institutions, administrators, faculty, residents, and students an adaptable model for selected or comprehensive adoption and integration of a multitiered health informatics curriculum. PMID:27121611
Waldbauer, J.; Zhang, L.; Rizzo, A. I.
Quantitative measurements of gene expression are key to developing a mechanistic, predictive understanding of how microbial metabolism drives many biogeochemical fluxes and responds to environmental change. High-throughput RNA-sequencing can afford a wealth of information about transcript-level expression patterns, but it is becoming clear that expression dynamics are often very different at the protein level where biochemistry actually occurs. These divergent dynamics between levels of biological organization necessitate quantitative proteomic measurements to address many biogeochemical questions. The protein-level expression changes that underlie shifts in the magnitude, or even the direction, of metabolic and biogeochemical fluxes can be quite subtle and test the limits of current quantitative proteomics techniques. Here we describe methodologies for high-precision, whole-proteome quantification that are applicable to both model organisms of biogeochemical interest that may not be genetically tractable, and to complex community samples from natural environments. Employing chemical derivatization of peptides with multiple isotopically-coded tags, this strategy is rapid and inexpensive, can be implemented on a wide range of mass spectrometric instrumentation, and is relatively insensitive to chromatographic variability. We demonstrate the utility of this quantitative proteomics approach in application to both isolates and natural communities of sulfur-metabolizing and photosynthetic microbes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study Pharmacies as direct providers of medicine and pharmaceutical services to patients have an important role in the health status of a society. The assessment of their financial situations by healthcare policy makers is necessary to prevent any negative effects on population's health. In this study we aim to analyze the financial status of pharmacies in Tehran, Iran. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study based on a survey. Two-hundred and eighty-eight private community daytime pharmacies in Tehran were selected by random sampling. We used two questionnaires to collect data regarding cost, expense and income factors of private pharmacies and the significance of each of them from these selected pharmacies. The data was collected in 2011 from Tehran pharmacies. Profitability of pharmacies in Tehran, Iran was calculated in its current situation and then estimated for three defined scenarios: 1. The dispensing fee is omitted (ceteris paribus, 2. Pharmacies are prohibited from selling hygienic & cosmetic products (ceteris paribus, 3. Scenarios 1 and 2 together (ceteris paribus. These data were analyzed by using SPSS and descriptive-analytic statistics. Results About 68% of interviewees responded to our questionnaires. Our analysis indicated that the average annual costs (and expenses, income and profits of pharmacies are 73,181; 106,301; and 33,120 United States Dollar (USD, respectively. The analysis indicated that omission of dispensing fee (scenario 1 and prohibition of pharmacies from selling hygienic & cosmetic products (scenario 2 would decrease income of pharmacies to 18438 and 14034 USD/year, respectively. According to respondents, the cost (or expense of properties and buildings, energy, taxes, delays in reimbursement by insurance companies, and renting the place of pharmacy could be considered as cost factors and prescription medicines, OTC medicines, dispensing fees, hygienic & cosmetic
Omer Mohamed Adam Adlan
Full Text Available Dispensing medications in a community pharmacy was a time-consuming operation. The pharmacist dispensed most prescriptions that were in tablet or capsule form with a simple tray and spatula. Many new medications were being developed by pharmaceutical manufacturers at an ever-increasing pace, and the prices of those medications were rising steeply. A typical community pharmacist was working longer hours and often forced to hire additional staff to handle increased workloads. This extra workload did not allow the time to focus on safety issues. This new factor led to the concept of using a machine to count medications. This paper introduces a design based on using microcontrollers for counting tablets and capsules . A production flow is build to automate the whole operations
Davis, Ethan; Zender, Charlie; Arctur, David; Jelenak, Aleksandar; Santek, Dave; O'Brien, Kevin; Dixon, Mike
The Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata conventions for netCDF (netCDF-CF) are used widely by weather forecasters, climate scientists, and remote-sensing researchers to include auxiliary information along with scientific data. This auxiliary information, or metadata, describes where and how the data were collected, the units of measurement used, and other similar details. Numerous open source and commercial software tools are able to explore and analyze data sets that include netCDF-CF metadata. This presentation will introduce work to extend the existing netCDF-CF metadata conventions in ways that will broaden the range of earth science domains whose data can be represented. It will include discussion of the enhancements to netCDF-CF that are envisioned and information on how to participate in the community-based standards development process.
Full Text Available Mining engineering involves the design, planning and management of operations for the development, production and eventual rehabilitation of resource extraction. These activities draw on a diverse set of skills. University of British Columbia mining engineers have traditionally been highly regarded for their strengths in the technical aspects of mining and mineral process but also for their understanding of the application of principles of sustainability and social responsibility. The current view of the UBC Mining curriculum demands the integration of aspects of environmental and social sciences shaping the future of tertiary engineering education. The solution is developing a curriculum that is focused on key learning objectives that are a reflection of all these external pressures. This paper examines the challenge of curriculum reform and the emergence of learning communities at the Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering at the University of British Columbia, Canada.
Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna
In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...
Development of an instrument to assess the impact of an enhanced experiential model on pharmacy students' learning opportunities, skills and attitudes: A retrospective comparative-experimentalist study
Collins John B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacy schools across North America have been charged to ensure their students are adequately skilled in the principles and practices of pharmaceutical care. Despite this mandate, a large percentage of students experience insufficient opportunities to practice the activities, tasks and processes essential to pharmaceutical care. The objective of this retrospective study of pharmacy students was to: (1 as "proof of concept", test the overall educational impact of an enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiential (APPE model on student competencies; (2 develop an instrument to measure students' and preceptors' experiences; and (3 assess the psychometric properties of the instrument. Methods A comparative-experimental design, using student and preceptor surveys, was used to evaluate the impact of the enhanced community-based APPE over the traditional APPE model. The study was grounded in a 5-stage learning model: (1 an enhanced learning climate leads to (2 better utilization of learning opportunities, including (3 more frequent student/patient consultation, then to (4 improved skills acquisition, thence to (5 more favorable attitudes toward pharmaceutical care practice. The intervention included a one-day preceptor workshop, a comprehensive on-site student orientation and extending the experience from two four-week experiences in different pharmacies to one eight-week in one pharmacy. Results The 35 student and 38 preceptor survey results favored the enhanced model; with students conducting many more patient consultations and reporting greater skills improvement. In addition, the student self-assessment suggested changes in attitudes favoring pharmaceutical care principles. Psychometric testing showed the instrument to be sensitive, valid and reliable in ascertaining differences between the enhanced and traditional arms. Conclusion The enhanced experiential model positively affects learning opportunities and competency
Bess, D. Todd; Taylor, Jade; Schwab, Carol A.; Wang, Junling; Carter, Jason A.
A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course to meet the ACPE accreditation standards at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. Student participation in this interactive learning experience resulted in good understanding of the rules and regulations of pharmacy practice and the consequences associated with violating regulations. Such mock Board of Pharmacy meeting is recommended for future pharmacy law education.
This study explores the specific issue of supervision as an important administrative gate keeping function that facilitates or impedes women's career advancement, and promotes gender equity at the executive leadership level in community colleges. The very nature of supervision mirrors the historical purpose of higher education, employee learning…
Carringer, Paul T.
The purpose of this study was to examine how community college presidents successfully work with and through the media to advance their institutions. Four successful cases were studied. These success stories came from the list of Paragon Award winners selected annually by the National Council of Marketing and Public Relations (NCMPR) and be cross…
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie
Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...
Shelley Anne Diamond; Kenneth Ross Chapman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a nationally coordinated pharmacy-based educational intervention on self-management behaviour and markers of asthma control in self-referred patients with asthma.DESIGN: An asthma clinic day was set up by a national chain of community pharmacies whereby pharmacists used a structured questionnaire to assess asthma control and self-care among self-referred patients with doctor-diagnosed asthma. In a one-on-one counselling session, each patient's educational ne...
The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study
Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.
Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…
Maestre, Jose Maria; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos
This extended abstract addresses the preliminary results of applying uncertainty handling strategies and advanced control techniques to the inventary management of hospitality pharmacy. Inventory management is one of the main tasks that a pharmacy department has to carry out in a hospital. It is a complex problem because it requires to establish a tradeoff between contradictory optimization criteria. The final goal of the proposed research is to update the inventory management system of hospi...
Full Text Available Health is a human right. Equity in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Addressing the multi-faceted health needs of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in the United States is a complex issue that requires inventive strategies to reduce risk factors and buttress protective factors to promote greater well-being among individuals, families, and communities. With growing diversity concerning various ethnicities and nationalities; and with significant changes in the constellation of multiple of risk factors that can influence health outcomes, it is imperative that we delineate strategic efforts that encourage better access to primary care, focused community-based programs, multi-disciplinary clinical and translational research methodologies, and health policy advocacy initiatives that may improve individuals’ longevity and quality of life.
Svarstad, Bonnie L; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Shireman, Theresa I; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Palmer, Pamela A; Vivian, Eva M; Brown, Roger L
Recent studies suggest that involving pharmacists is an effective strategy for improving patient adherence and blood pressure (BP) control. To date, few controlled studies have tested the cost-effectiveness of specific models for improving patient adherence and BP control in community pharmacies, where most Americans obtain prescriptions. We hypothesized that a team model of adherence monitoring and intervention in corporately owned community pharmacies can improve patient adherence, prescribing, and BP control among hypertensive black patients. The Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) Trial is a randomized controlled trial testing a multistep intervention for improving adherence monitoring and intervention in 28 corporately owned community pharmacies. Patients in the 14 control pharmacies received "usual care," and patients in the 14 intervention pharmacies received TEAM Care by trained pharmacists and pharmacy technicians working with patients and physicians. Data collectors screened 1250 patients and enrolled 597 hypertensive black patients. The primary end points were the proportion of patients achieving BP control and reductions in systolic and diastolic BP measured after 6 and 12 months. Secondary end points were changes in adherence monitoring and intervention, patient adherence and barriers to adherence, prescribing, and cost-effectiveness. Researchers also will examine potential covariates and barriers to change. Involving pharmacists is a potentially powerful means of improving BP control in blacks. Pharmacists are in an excellent position to monitor patients between clinic visits and to provide useful information to patients and physicians. PMID:20031847
Full Text Available Pharmacists are the custodians of drugs; hence their education, training, behaviors and experiences would affect the future use of drugs at community and hospital pharmacies. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the self-prescribing antibiotic trends, knowledge and attitudes among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. We found that pharmacy students had higher risks of experiencing URIs related symptoms such as cough (RR; 1.7, p = 0.002, allergy (RR; 2.07, p = 0.03 and running nose (RR; 3.17, p<0.005, compared to non-pharmacy students -resulting in higher probabilities of selecting cough syrups (OR; 2.3, p<0.005, anti-histamines (OR; 1.8, p = 0.036 and anti-inflammatory/anti-pyretic (OR; 2.4, p<0.005 drugs. Likewise, bachelor's degree pupils (OR; 2, p = 0.045, urban area residents (OR; 2.44; p = 0.002 and pharmacy students (OR; 2.9, p<0.005 exhibited higher propensities of antibiotic self-use-notable classes include, b-lactams (45.9% followed by macrolides (26.5% and augmentin (28.94%, respectively. Surprisingly, pharmacy and non-pharmacy students had higher odds of using antibiotics in common cold (OR; 3.2, p<0.005 and pain (OR; 2.37, p = 0.015, respectively. Unlike non-pharmacy students, pharmacy students were likely to select alternative therapy, such as Joshanda (OR; 2.22, p = 0.011 and were well acquainted with antibiotic hazards, with 77% reduction in risk of antibiotics re-use. In conclusion, university students exhibited antibiotic self-prescribing trends in conditions that does not warrant their use, thus are irrational users. The pharmacy education confers very little benefit to rational self-prescribing practices among students, while non-pharmacy students are more vulnerable to repeated antibiotic usage. Thus, the educational and training modules should be designed for university students to disseminate targeted information regarding the potential hazards of antibiotic self-use and importance of consultation with qualified and registered
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh
-based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...
Kristin K. Janke, Ph.D.
Full Text Available The Clifton StrengthsFinder® is an online measure of personal talent that identifies where an individual’s greatest potential for building strengths exists. This paper describes a framework for strengths education in pharmacy which includes introductory, intermediate and advanced levels of learning. The use of the StrengthsFinder® assessment and supporting workshops aids student pharmacists, pharmacy residents and practitioners in identifying and refining their talents and connecting talents to roles in the profession. Additional learning strategies support a learner’s progression to intermediate and advanced levels of learning, which focus on the application of strengths in teams, leadership, and organizational development. By articulating and recognizing levels of learning around strengths-related content and skills, strong instructional design is fostered. Optimal design includes development of a sequence of learning opportunities delivered over time, a roll-out plan and consideration of the instructional resources required.
Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study:Pharmacies as direct providers of medicine and pharmaceutical services to patients have animportant role in the health status of a society. The assessment of their financial situations by healthcare policy makers is necessary to prevent any negative effects on population’s health.In this study we aim to analyze the financial status of pharmacies in Tehran, Iran.Methods:This study is a cross-sectional study based on a survey. Two-hundred and eighty-eight private community daytime pharmacies in Tehran were selected by random sampling. We used two questionnaires to collect data regarding cost, expense and income factors of private pharmacies and the significance of each of them from these selected pharmacies. The data was collected in 2011 from Tehran pharmacies. Profitability of pharmacies in Tehran, Iran was calculated in its current situation and then estimated for three defined scenarios: 1. The dispensing fee is omitted (ceteris paribus, 2. Pharmacies are prohibited from selling hygienic& cosmetic products (ceteris paribus, 3. Scenarios 1 and 2 together (ceteris paribus. These data were analyzed by using SPSS and descriptive-analytic statistics.Results:About 68% of interviewees responded to our questionnaires. Our analysis indicated that the average annual costs (and expenses, income and profits of pharmacies are 73,181; 106,301;and 33,120 United States Dollar (USD, respectively. The analysis indicated that omission of dispensing fee (scenario 1 and prohibition of pharmacies from selling hygienic & cosmetic products (scenario 2 would decrease income of pharmacies to 18438 and 14034 USD/year,respectively. According to respondents, the cost (or expense of properties and buildings,energy, taxes, delays in reimbursement by insurance companies, and renting the place of pharmacy could be considered as cost factors and prescription medicines, OTC medicines,dispensing fees, hygienic & cosmetic products, and long
The exploration was conducted of the undertaking mode of chain drugstores for the function of outpatient pharmacy of community medical institutions and the key points for the mode implementation were discussed so as to optimize and integrate the resources of chain drugstores and community medical institutions, and provide a reference for separation of prescribing and dispensing in public hospitals at grass-roots level.%对连锁药店承接社区医疗机构门诊药房职能进行模式规划，并探讨该模式实施的关键点，为连锁药店与社区医疗机构的资源优化整合，进一步推进基层公立医院医药分开提供借鉴。
Paul RutterSchool of Pharmacy, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UKAbstract: This review highlights the growing prominence of self-care and explores the contribution of community pharmacy. Firstly, background to self-care is discussed, followed by placing self-care in context with regard to the general public and accessing community pharmacy. From this perspective the contribution community pharmacy currently makes is assessed, paying particular attention to the factors that negativ...
Kennelty, Korey A.; Thorpe, Joshua M.; Chewning, Betty; Mott, David A.
Objective To characterize beneficiaries who used a pharmacy or pharmacist as a Medicare Part D information source. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study involved 4,724 Medicare Part D beneficiaries who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The main outcome measure was beneficiary self-reported use of a pharmacy or pharmacist as a Medicare Part D information source. Results Only 13% of the total sample and 15% of those with three or more medications used a pharmacy or pharmacist for Medicare Part D information. Adjusted logistic regression revealed that beneficiaries living in rural communities, compared with metropolitan areas, and with higher out-of-pocket prescription costs were more likely to use a pharmacy or pharmacist for Medicare Part D information. Beneficiaries with lower educational attainment were less likely to use a pharmacy or pharmacist for Medicare Part D information. Conclusion Pharmacists have the knowledge and are in the position in the community to effectively educate beneficiaries about the Medicare Part D program. However, this study suggests that few beneficiaries are using pharmacists or pharmacies for Medicare Part D information. PMID:23229982
Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R.; Smith, Lorraine
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232
Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232
Saleem, Zikria; Saeed, Hamid; Ahmad, Mobasher; Yousaf, Mahrukh; Hassan, Hafsa Binte; Javed, Ayesha; Anees, Nida; Maharjan, Sonu
Pharmacists are the custodians of drugs; hence their education, training, behaviors and experiences would affect the future use of drugs at community and hospital pharmacies. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the self-prescribing antibiotic trends, knowledge and attitudes among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. We found that pharmacy students had higher risks of experiencing URIs related symptoms such as cough (RR; 1.7, p = 0.002), allergy (RR; 2.07, p = 0.03) and running nose (RR; 3.17, pcough syrups (OR; 2.3, p<0.005), anti-histamines (OR; 1.8, p = 0.036) and anti-inflammatory/anti-pyretic (OR; 2.4, p<0.005) drugs. Likewise, bachelor’s degree pupils (OR; 2, p = 0.045), urban area residents (OR; 2.44; p = 0.002) and pharmacy students (OR; 2.9, p<0.005) exhibited higher propensities of antibiotic self-use–notable classes include, b-lactams (45.9%) followed by macrolides (26.5%) and augmentin (28.94%), respectively. Surprisingly, pharmacy and non-pharmacy students had higher odds of using antibiotics in common cold (OR; 3.2, p<0.005) and pain (OR; 2.37, p = 0.015), respectively. Unlike non-pharmacy students, pharmacy students were likely to select alternative therapy, such as Joshanda (OR; 2.22, p = 0.011) and were well acquainted with antibiotic hazards, with 77% reduction in risk of antibiotics re-use. In conclusion, university students exhibited antibiotic self-prescribing trends in conditions that does not warrant their use, thus are irrational users. The pharmacy education confers very little benefit to rational self-prescribing practices among students, while non-pharmacy students are more vulnerable to repeated antibiotic usage. Thus, the educational and training modules should be designed for university students to disseminate targeted information regarding the potential hazards of antibiotic self-use and importance of consultation with qualified and registered medical doctor/pharmacist before starting with antibiotics. PMID:26919465
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the
Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A
Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care. PMID:27170823
Brooks, John M; Doucette, William R; Wan, Shaowei; Klepser, Donald G
Substantial variation has been observed in the use of prescription drugs from retail pharmacies, the level of services provided by retail pharmacies, and the prices paid for prescriptions from retail pharmacies. It is not clear whether local area retail pharmacy market structures affect these pharmacy outcomes. The goal of this paper is to discuss the potential research avenues to address these issues. The discussion provides. 1) background on the retail pharmacy and its place within the pharmaceutical supply chain; 2) a discussion of the data that are available to address these issues and the measures that can be developed from these data; and 3) a review of existing research findings and gaps in knowledge. PMID:18524293
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; Dean, Meredith J.; Mumper, Russell J.; Blouin, Robert A.; Roth, Mary T.
Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educationa...
B Chourasia; R Chaurasia
This book provides a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the theory as well as the application there of in the field of forensic pharmacy. Every chapter gives the definitions, objectives, and offences under the respective Act. The systematic structure of the book is assigned to cover the major syllabi of forensic pharmacy in 25 chapters and includes all topics of syllabus proposed by AICTE. Largely, it covers the syllabi of diploma, undergraduate and postgraduate courses in pharmacy unde...
Scott, Mollie Ashe; McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Shepherd, Greene; Williams, Charlene; Zeeman, Jackie; Joyner, Pamela
Objective. To evaluate the structure and impact of student organizations on pharmacy school satellite campuses. Methods. Primary administrators from satellite campuses received a 20-question electronic survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted on survey responses. Results. The most common student organizations on satellite campuses were the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (93.1%), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (89.7%), Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) (60.0%), state organizations (51.7%), and local organizations (58.6%). Perceived benefits of satellite campus organizations included opportunities for professional development, student engagement, and service. Barriers to success included small enrollment, communication between campuses, finances, and travel. Conclusion. Student organizations were an important component of the educational experience on pharmacy satellite campuses and allowed students to develop professionally and engage with communities. Challenges included campus size, distance between campuses, and communication. PMID:27402981
Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah
Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students’ professional communication skills.
Brooks, J. M.; Doucette, W; Sorofman, B
OBJECTIVE: To model the bargaining power of pharmacies and insurers in price negotiations and test whether it varies with characteristics of the pharmacy, insurer, and pharmacy market. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data from four sources. Pharmacy/insurer transactions were taken from Medstat's universe of 6.8 million pharmacy claims in their 1994 Marketscan database. Sources Informatics, Inc. supplied a three-digit zip code-level summary database containing pharmacy payments and self-reported c...
Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.
Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Addition...
Sun, Shulei; Chen, Jing; Li, Weizhong; Altintas, Ilkay; Lin, Abel; Peltier, Steve; Stocks, Karen; Allen, Eric E; Ellisman, Mark; Grethe, Jeffrey; Wooley, John
The Community Cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis (CAMERA, http://camera.calit2.net/) is a database and associated computational infrastructure that provides a single system for depositing, locating, analyzing, visualizing and sharing data about microbial biology through an advanced web-based analysis portal. CAMERA collects and links metadata relevant to environmental metagenome data sets with annotation in a semantically-aware environment allowing users to write expressive semantic queries against the database. To meet the needs of the research community, users are able to query metadata categories such as habitat, sample type, time, location and other environmental physicochemical parameters. CAMERA is compliant with the standards promulgated by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), and sustains a role within the GSC in extending standards for content and format of the metagenomic data and metadata and its submission to the CAMERA repository. To ensure wide, ready access to data and annotation, CAMERA also provides data submission tools to allow researchers to share and forward data to other metagenomics sites and community data archives such as GenBank. It has multiple interfaces for easy submission of large or complex data sets, and supports pre-registration of samples for sequencing. CAMERA integrates a growing list of tools and viewers for querying, analyzing, annotating and comparing metagenome and genome data. PMID:21045053
Jones, Christopher M; Lurie, Peter G; Compton, Wilson M
Distribution of naloxone, traditionally through community-based naloxone programs, is a component of a comprehensive strategy to address the epidemic of prescription opioid and heroin overdose deaths in the United States. Recently, there has been increased focus on naloxone prescription in the outpatient setting, particularly through retail pharmacies, yet data on this practice are sparse. We found an 1170% increase in naloxone dispensing from US retail pharmacies between the fourth quarter of 2013 and the second quarter of 2015. These findings suggest that prescribing naloxone in the outpatient setting complements traditional community-based naloxone programs. PMID:26890174
Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To assess the impact of robotic dispensing machines in community pharmacies on staff efficiency and sales of over-the-counter drugs. Setting: The study was done on 253 community pharmacies in Germany that use a robotic dispensing machine manufactured by ROWA during 2008. Method: Data concerning the financial and economic impact of using a robotic dispensing machine in community pharmacies was gathered using a structured questionnaire and analysed in terms of its financial implications. Key findings: The response rate was 29%. In most pharmacies (79% the robotic dispensing machine was retrofitted. In 59% of the pharmacies additional space was gained for self-service and behind-the-counter display. As a result of using a robotic dispensing machine, personnel costs were reduced by an average of 4.6% during the first 12 months after start-up. Over-the-counter sales increased in the same period by an average of 6.8%. Despite average initial costs of 118,000 euros, total costs within the first 12 months fell in 50% of cases and at least remained the same in 44%. Conclusions: On average, robotic dispensing machines lead to modest savings in personnel costs and slight increases in sales of over-the-counter drugs. Substantial savings can be achieved only if the staffing level is adapted to the changed personnel requirements.
Lutnick, Alexandra; Case, Patricia; Kral, Alex H
In their role as a source of sterile syringes, pharmacies are ideally situated to provide additional services to injection drug users (IDUs). Expanding pharmacy services to IDUs may address the low utilization rates of healthcare services among this population. This qualitative study of active IDUs in San Francisco explored perspectives on proposed health services and interventions offered in pharmacy settings, as well as facilitators and barriers to service delivery. Eleven active IDUs participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews at a community field site and at a local syringe exchange site between February and May 2010. Results revealed that most had reservations about expanding services to pharmacy settings, with reasons ranging from concerns about anonymity to feeling that San Francisco already offers the proposed services in other venues. Of the proposed health services, this group of IDUs prioritized syringe access and disposal, clinical testing and vaccinations, and provision of methadone. Pharmacists' and pharmacy staff's attitudes were identified as a major barrier to IDUs' comfort with accessing services. The findings suggest that although IDUs would like to see some additional services offered within pharmacy settings, this is contingent upon pharmacists and their staff receiving professional development trainings that cultivate sensitivity towards the needs and experiences of IDUs. PMID:22231488
Full Text Available "nBackground: Health system pharmacies, like other health care professional, practice under a number of mandated standards. Basic concepts of quality assurance (QA standards should be applied to hospital pharmacy practice. The survey reported here is to assess QA system implementation and its standard indicators observation in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS hospitals' pharmacies in 2007 - 2008. "nMethods: A cross - sectional, descriptive analytical survey was accomplished. First, a checklist within the framework of QA standard indicators was made to assess TUMS hospitals pharmacies practice. Collected data was saved by Excel software for recording and analyzed by SPSS version-15. Observation rate of QA standard indicators was classified by inappropriate, relatively appropriate, and appropriate. "nResults: Characteristics of TUMS hospitals pharmacists organizational structure, size, equipment, safety facility and drug requirement were studied by QA standard indicators. "nConclusion: Many of QA standard indicators are observed and implemented in TUMS hospitals pharmacies, but several of these standards are not observed too. It is appropriate that all TUMS hospitals pharmacies are required to advance the profession, often with the same goal of increasing involvement in direct patient care.
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh
Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process...
The range of medicines available over the pharmacy counter is set to increase. The Medicines Control Agency has revised its procedures to speed up the reclassification from prescription only medicine (POM) status to pharmacy only (P) status. In addition, the Medicines Act has recently been revised to ensure, by five yearly review, that the prescription only status of a medicine continues to be justified.
Montoya, Isaac D; Jano, Elda
Sales of consumer products over the Internet have grown rapidly, including sales of pharmaceutical products. Online pharmacies mimic mail order pharmacies. To operate legally online, pharmacies must be licensed in every state in which sales occur. Although online pharmacies provide benefits to consumers, when compared with traditional pharmacies patients' safety may be compromised. Purchasing prescription drugs online may pose a risk to consumers because they cannot tell whether the site is offering drugs of the same quality offered by a retail pharmacy. There is also a possibility that prescription drugs purchased online may be counterfeit, illegal, or unapproved. A U.S. General Accounting Office study conducted in June 2004 showed that most counterfeit and unapproved drugs sold online are from non-U.S. pharmacies. The Food and Drug Administration and other government agencies have worked to enforce laws on drug sales over the Internet. The biggest challenge in regulating non-U.S. pharmacies is due to their off-shore location. Unfortunately, given the widespread anonymous and ever-changing nature of the Internet, it is very difficult to close down illegal websites. PMID:17665724
... must determine that the third-party auditor or certification organization has found that the pharmacy... signature, as provided in § 1311.210(c), where applicable. (b) If the third-party auditor or certification... prescription as void. (i) Nothing in this part relieves a pharmacy and pharmacist of the responsibility...
Buurma, H.; Bouvy, M.L.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Floor-Schreudering, A.; Leufkens, H.G.; Egberts, A.C.G.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Discontinuity of care bears the risk of medication errors and poor clinical outcomes. Little is known about the continuity of care related to pharmacies. Therefore, we studied the prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour in the Netherlands. METHODS: Benefi
Bouvy, M. L.; De Smet, P. A. G. M.; Floor-Schreudering, A.; Leufkens, H. G. M.; Egberts, A. C. G.; Buurma, H
Background and objective: Discontinuity of care bears the risk of medication errors and poor clinical outcomes. Little is known about the continuity of care related to pharmacies. Therefore, we studied the prevalence and determinants of pharmacy shopping behaviour in the Netherlands. Methods: Benefi
Sean Murphy, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the relationship between academic success and labor market outcomes among graduating pharmacy students. Unlike previous studies, this paper characterizes labor market outcome not only as an individual’s starting salary, but also whether or not the student had a position secured at the time of graduation, whether or not a signing bonus was received, and the setting in which (she will practice. Methods: A standard exit survey was administered to graduating Doctor of Pharmacy students at a Midwestern, public university within two weeks of graduation. The relationship between academic success and initial labor market outcome was assessed using cross-tabulations, chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: There were no significant relationships between grade point averages and signing bonuses, starting salaries or employment offers. Students with higher grade point averages were less likely to work in chain community pharmacies, and more likely to work in a hospital or other health-system setting. Conclusions: The relationships between academic and direct measures of labor market outcomes (salary and bonuses were not necessarily positive, as standard economic theory predicts. Rather, the relationship is indirect, as it appears that students with greater academic success obtained employment in more clinical settings, which carry a different mix of pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. Keywords: grade point average, exit survey, labor market outcome
Bailey, Lydia C.
The objective of this Review is to characterize content related to global health in didactic and experiential curricula of doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States. The review was completed through a systematic website search of 133 US PharmD programs accredited or currently in the process of obtaining accreditation to identify global health dual degrees, minors/concentrations, required and elective courses, and experiential opportunities. Programs’ course catalogs were referenced as needed to find more specific course listings/descriptions. More than 50 programs offered an elective course related to global health; eight had a required course; eight offered a minor or certification for global health; three offered dual degrees in pharmacy and global health. Fourteen institutions had a center for global health studies on campus. More than 50 programs offered experiential education opportunities in global health including international advanced pharmacy practice experiences or medical mission trips. Inclusion of and focus on global health-related topics in US PharmD programs was widely varied. PMID:27293238
Patricia A. Shane
Full Text Available This concept paper discusses the untapped promise of often overlooked humanistic skills to advance the practice of pharmacy. It highlights the seminal work that is, increasingly, integrated into medical and nursing education. The work of these educators and the growing empirical evidence that validates the importance of humanistic skills is raising questions for the future of pharmacy education and practice. To potentiate humanistic professional competencies, e.g., compassion, empathy, and emotional intelligence, how do we develop a more holistic model that integrates reflective and affective skills? There are many historical and current transitions in the profession and practice of pharmacy. If our education model is refocused with an emphasis on pharmacy’s therapeutic roots, the field has the opportunity to play a vital role in improving health outcomes and patient-centered care. Beyond the metrics of treatment effects, achieving greater patient-centeredness will require transformations that improve care processes and invest in patients’ experiences of the treatment and care they receive. Is layering on additional science sufficient to yield better health outcomes if we neglect the power of empathic interactions in the healing process?
Maulavizada, Husna; Emmerton, Lynne; Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia
Background The pressure on healthcare services worldwide has driven the incorporation of disease state management services within community pharmacies in developed countries. Pharmacists are recognised as the most accessible healthcare professionals, and the incorporation of these services facilitates patient care. In Australia, the opportunity to manage pharmacy patients with mental illness has been underutilised, despite the existence of service models for other chronic conditions. This pap...
-changing pharmacy environment continues to advance and become more complex in nature, a definition of health literacy specific to the pharmacy setting—thereby providing a name and a focus—may improve medication consumption, medication safety, and the patient-pharmacist relationship.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine doctor of pharmacy (PharmD students’ perceptions of a PharmD and master of public health (MPH dual degree program. Methods: A seven-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to students at a large metropolitan school of pharmacy during scheduled class time in April 2012. Results: Among the 611 students enrolled in the PharmD program, 447 (73% responded. Of those who responded, 72.3% were either “very likely” or “likely” to consider enrolling in such a PharmD/MPH dual degree program, and 77.4% believed that it would be attractive to future students. The most commonly identified potential limitations to pursuing the dual degree were time commitment (19.9%, increased workload and stress (11.2%, and tuition cost (10.3%. The most notable advantages documented were increased job opportunities for public health-related pharmacy positions (26.9%, increased ability to serve patients and the community (13.4%, and increased marketability for future jobs (8.7%. Conclusions: PharmD student participants demonstrated overall positive attitudes and interest towards a PharmD/MPH dual degree program.
Kelleher, C.; Wagener, T.; Gooseff, M. N.; Gregg, S.; McGlynn, B. L.; Sharma, P.; Meixner, T.; Marshall, L. A.; McGuire, K. J.; Weiler, M.
The field of hydrology encompasses a wide range of departments and disciplines, ranging from civil engineering to geography to geosciences. As a consequence, in-class hydrology education is often strongly biased towards the background of a single instructor, limiting the educational experience of the students and not allowing for a holistic approach to hydrology education. Recently established, the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA) creates an online community of hydrologists from a range of backgrounds and disciplines to define the boundaries of an unbiased hydrology education and to jointly develop resources to overcome previous instructional limitations (http://www.mocha.psu.edu/). Our first objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to, developed, evolved and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. On a larger scale, we hope to raise the standard of hydrology education and to foster international collaboration and exchange. Our work began with an initial survey including over 100 hydrology educators to assess the state of current hydrology education. Based on the survey results, the MOCHA project was designed and implemented, and initial teaching material and pedagogical guidelines for good practice in teaching were prepared. This past fall and spring, we piloted the website and teaching material across several universities. The web-based MOCHA project has recently been opened to solicit contributions from the global hydrology community. Our presentation will focus on the overall vision behind MOCHA, lessons learned from our initial piloting, and current steps to achieve our vision.
... by means of the Internet as an online pharmacy (but continue its business activity as a non-online... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Advance care planning (ACP is a process of discussion about goals of care and a means of setting on record preferences for care of patients who may lose capacity or communication ability in the future. Implementation of ACP is widely promoted by policy makers. This study examined how community palliative care nurses in England understand ACP and their roles within ACP. It sought to identify factors surrounding community nurses' implementation of ACP and nurses' educational needs. Methods An action research strategy was employed. 23 community nurses from two cancer networks in England were recruited to 6 focus group discussions and three follow up workshops. Data were analysed using a constant comparison approach. Findings Nurses understood ACP to be an important part of practice and to have the potential to be a celebration of good nursing care. Nurses saw their roles in ACP as engaging with patients to elicit care preferences, facilitate family communication and enable a shift of care focus towards palliative care. They perceived challenges to ACP including: timing, how to effect team working in ACP, the policy focus on instructional directives which related poorly to patients' concerns; managing differences in patients' and families' views. Perceived barriers included: lack of resources; lack of public awareness about ACP; difficulties in talking about death. Nurses recommended the following to be included in education programmes: design of realistic scenarios; design of a flow chart; practical advice about communication and documentation; insights into the need for clinical supervision for ACP practice. Conclusions Nurses working in the community are centrally involved with patients with palliative care needs who may wish to set on record their views about future care and treatment. This study reveals some important areas for practice and educational development to enhance nurses' use and understanding of ACP.
The Nuclear Pharmacy Certificate Program (NPCP) was developed to meet the need for licensed pharmacists wishing to change career paths and enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy. Additionally, the NPCP benefits employers that wish to employ a nuclear pharmacist in lieu of waiting for graduates that are available only at one time yearly from a college of pharmacy. The NPCP is not intended to replace traditional nuclear pharmacy education in academic institutions, but to offer an another option to pharmacists and potential employers. The NPCP is divided into two components. One component involves over 130 hours of instruction through videotapes and accompanying workbooks. This component is completed while working in a nuclear pharmacy and with the assistance of a nuclear pharmacist serving as a supervisor. The nuclear pharmacist is available to answer questions and to administer examinations over the videotape material. Examinations are prepared by Purdue faculty and returned for grading. Scores on exams must reflect learning to the same degree as in an academic environment. In the second component of the NPCP, the trainee attends a two-week session in the School of Pharmacy at Purdue University. the trainee must complete a significant portion of the videotape material before the on-campus session. In the on-campus component, videotape material is reinforced and expanded by laboratory exercises and lectures in dedicated, fully-equipped laboratories employed in the School of Pharmacy undergraduate program in nuclear pharmacy. Nuclear pharmacy faculty and consultants provide individualized instruction to each trainee. Assimilation of lecture and laboratory material is determined through several examinations. A comprehensive examination is administered which includes content from the videotape-workbook component of the NPCP. Certification is awarded to trainees who have completed the program and demonstrated their knowledge and competence by examination. Almost 200
Full Text Available Traditional medicine therapies are historically used worldwide for disease prevention and treatment purposes. Apitherapy is part of the traditional medicine based on bee product use. Complementary medicine practices which incorporate use of some traditional herbal, mineral, or animal kind substances very often are discussed with pharmacy professionals because these products are often sold in pharmacies as dietary supplements. This study is aimed at determining the attitude, knowledge, and practices of apitherapy among undergraduated pharmacy students (Master of Pharmacy who already have a pharmacy technician diploma and from 1 to 20 years of practice working in a community pharmacy as pharmacy assistants. A method of questionnaire was chosen. The questions about attitudes, experience, knowledge, and practices for disease prevention and treatment of different bee products, their safety, and informational sources were included. Respondents shared opinion that use of bee product is part of the traditional medicine. Most of them had experience on honey product use for treatment and disease prevention for themselves and their family members (62% although the need of more evidence based information was expressed. The most known bee products were honey, propolis, and royal jelly. They are widely used for enhancing the immune system and prevention of respiratory tract infection.
Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.
A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)
The aim of this project was to carry out a change model in one of Family Medicine Clinic’s Pharmacy in Abu Dhabi. While, the objectives of the project were to improve patient satisfaction through improving patient waiting time for medications collection, improving patient’s knowledge about the pharmacy services and then generalize the implemented change in all other six clinic’s pharmacies. The change was happened because of current system of dispensing patient’s prescription ‘in turn’, which...
Djukic, Ika; Moiseev, Pavel; Hagedorn, Frank
Climatic warming may affect microbial communities and their functions either directly through increased temperatures or indirectly by changes in vegetation. Treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries from tundra to forests. In unmanaged regions of the Ural mountains, there is evidence that the forest-tundra ecotone has shifted upward in response to climate warming during the 20th century. Little is known about the effects of the treeline advances on the microbial structure and function and hence they feedbacks on the belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling In our study, we aimed to estimate how ongoing upward shifts of the treeline ecotone might affect soil biodiversity and its function and hence soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in the Southern and Polar Ural mountains. Along altitudinal gradients reaching from the tundra to forests, we determined the soil microbial community composition (using Phospholipid Fatty Acids method) and quantified the activity of several extracellular enzymes involved in the C and nutrient cycling. In addition, we measured C pools in biomass and soils and quantified C and N mineralization. The results for the top soils, both in South Urals and in the Polar Ural, indicate a close link between climate change driven vegetation changes and soil microbial communities. The observed changes in microbial structure are induced through the resulting more favorable conditions than due to a shift in litter quality. The activities of chitinase were significantly higher under trees than under herbaceous plants, while activities of cellulase and protease declined with altitude from the tundra to the closed forest. In contrast to enzymatic activities, soil carbon stocks did not change significantly with altitude very likely as a result of a balancing out of increased C inputs from vegetation by an enhanced C output through mineralization with forest expansion. The accelerated organic matter turnover in the forest than in the tundra
Ma, Carolyn S; Nett, Blythe; Kishaba, Gregg; Gomez, Lara
A partnership was formed between the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) and the Department of Health to carry out the Hawai‘i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project (HAFPP), which utilizes pharmacy students as a workforce to administer Asthma Control Tests™ (ACT), and provide Asthma Action Plans (AAP) and inhaler technique education. Evaluation of data from a pilot project in 2008 with first and second year students prompted more intensive training in therape...
The quality of education offered by Pharmacy institutions in the country varies widely. There are only a few institutions which maintain internationally recognized standard. A survey was conducted on the one hundred and twenty four (124) undergraduate Pharmacy students to determine their awareness and inclination towards Pharmacy as a career choice. Students were evaluated for the perception on their education and to share ideas for its improvement. A questionnaire survey that explored their ...
Galato D; Alano GM; Trauthman SC; França TF
Objective: A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulati...
KHAN, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural ...
With this research the author aims to explore factors influencing the behaviour of pharmacy customers. The research strives to answer how consumers choose in which pharmacy to run their errands and how they choose between similarly priced generic over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The focus is on OTC medicines since they are available without prescription and are subject to public advertising. The quantitative research was conducted during fall 2011, mainly in four pharmacies in the Helsinki r...
Katoue, Maram Gamal; Al-Taweel, Dalal; Matar, Kamal Mohamed; Kombian, Samuel B
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore parenteral nutrition (PN) practices in hospital pharmacies of Kuwait and identify potential avenues for quality improvement in this service. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive, qualitative study about PN practices was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013 in Kuwait. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with the head total parenteral nutrition (TPN) pharmacists at seven hospitals using a developed questionnaire. The questionnaire obtained information about the PN service at each hospital including the existence of nutritional support teams (NSTs), PN preparation practices, quality controls and guidelines/protocols. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for content. Findings - Seven hospitals in Kuwait provided PN preparation service through TPN units within hospital pharmacies. Functional NSTs did not exist in any of these hospitals. All TPN units used paper-based standard PN order forms for requesting PN. The content of PN order forms and PN formulas labeling information were inconsistent across hospitals. Most of the prepared PN formulas were tailor-made and packed in single compartment bags. Quality controls used included gravimetric analysis and visual inspection of PN formulations, and less consistently reported periodic evaluation of the aseptic techniques. Six TPN units independently developed PN guidelines/protocols. Originality/value - This study revealed variations in many aspects of PN practices among the hospitals in Kuwait and provided recommendations to improve this service. Standardization of PN practices would enhance the quality of care provided to patients receiving PN and facilitate national monitoring. This can be accomplished through the involvement of healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition support working within proactive NSTs. PMID:27298063
Full Text Available This paper looks at the way in which industrial pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European industrial pharmacists (n = 135 ranked 68 competences for practice, arranged into 13 clusters of two types (personal and patient care. Results show that, compared to community pharmacists (n = 258, industrial pharmacists rank competences centering on research, development and production of drugs higher, and those centering on patient care lower. Competences centering on values, communication skills, etc. were ranked similarly by the two groups of pharmacists. These results are discussed in the light of the existence or not of an “industrial pharmacy” specialization.
Full Text Available Objectives: To (1 investigate the relationships between students’ characteristics and their (a perceptions of research in general and (b attitudes towards pharmacy practice research; (2 identify strategies that could be used by pharmacy educators to promote research interest in pharmacy practice; and (3 identify perceived barriers to the pursuit or completion of a pharmacy practice research degree. Methods: A survey was administered to all students enrolled in each year of the four-year pharmacy undergraduate program, University of Sydney, Australia. Perceptions of research in general were measured using 4 items on a five-point semantic-differential scale and attitudes towards pharmacy practice research were measured using 16 items on a five-point Likert scale. Student characteristics were also collected as were responses to open-ended questions which were analysed using content analysis. Results: In total 853 students participated and completed the survey (83% response rate. Participants’ characteristics were associated with some but not all aspects of research and pharmacy practice research. It appeared that positive attitudes and perspectives were influenced strongly by exposure to the ‘research’ process through projects, friends or mentors, previous degrees or having future intentions to pursue a research degree. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest positive attitudes and perceptions of research can be nurtured through the formal inclusion in research processes, particularly the utility of practice research in clinical practice across the four years of study. Participants indicated there was a lack of awareness of the needs, benefits and career opportunities associated with pharmacy practice research and voiced clear impediments in their career path with respect to the choice of practice research-related careers. Conclusions: Future research should investigate changes in perceptions and attitudes in a
Full Text Available Protection from hydrological extremes and the sustainable supply of hydrological services in the presence of climate change and increasing population pressure are the defining societal challenges for hydrology in the 21st century. A review of the existing literature shows that these challenges and their educational consequences for hydrology were foreseeable and were predicted by some. Surveys of the current educational basis, however, also clearly demonstrate that hydrology education is not yet prepared to deal with this challenge. We present our own vision of the necessary future evolution of hydrology education, which we implemented in the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA. The MOCHA project is directly aimed at developing a community-driven basis for hydrology education. In this paper we combine literature review, surveys, discussion and assessment to provide a holistic baseline for future hydrology education.
Full Text Available The quality of education offered by Pharmacy institutions in the country varies widely. There are only a few institutions which maintain internationally recognized standard. A survey was conducted on the one hundred and twenty four (124 undergraduate Pharmacy students to determine their awareness and inclination towards Pharmacy as a career choice. Students were evaluated for the perception on their education and to share ideas for its improvement. A questionnaire survey that explored their attitudes and views towards the Pharmacy profession was chosen for this study. Based on the evaluated data from questionnaire, the student’s perception towards Pharmacy education was seems to be very poor and survey also revealed poor inclination towards pharmacy as a profession. Student’s perception on scope and contribution was found to be unsatisfactory. Student’s learning tools, teaching methods and evaluation system were found unexpressive to the pharmacy students. Therefore, there is a need to change such a wrong perception and poor inclination from the minds of pharmacy students by providing professionalism through some educative seminars or programmes, or by including some education promotive, scope oriented and professional communicating subjects in course curriculum of Pharmacy education.
A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.
OBJECTIVES: to describe hospital pharmacy involvement in medication management in Ireland, both generally and at points of transfer of care, and to gain a broad perspective of the hospital pharmacy workforce. METHODS: a survey of all adult, acute, public hospitals with an accident and emergency (A&E) department (n = 36), using a semi-structured telephone interview. KEY FINDINGS: there was a 97% (n = 35) response rate. The majority (n = 25, 71.4%) of hospitals reported delivery of a clinical pharmacy service. On admission, pharmacists were involved in taking or verifying medication histories in a minority (n = 15, 42.9%) of hospitals, while few (n = 6,17.1%) deployed staff to the A&E\\/acute medical admissions unit. On discharge, the majority (n = 30,85.7%) did not supply any take-out medication, a minority (n =5,14.3%) checked the discharge prescription, 51.4% (n = 18) counselled patients, 42.9% (n = 15) provided medication compliance charts and one hospital (2.9%) communicated with the patient\\'s community pharmacy. The number of staff employed in the pharmacy department in each hospital was not proportionate to the number of inpatient beds, nor the volume of admissions from A&E. There were differences identified in service delivery between hospitals of different type: urban hospitals with a high volume of admissions from A&E were more likely to deliver clinical pharmacy. CONCLUSIONS: the frequency and consistency of delivering pharmacy services to facilitate medication reconciliation at admission and discharge could be improved. Workforce constraints may inhibit service expansion. Development of national standards of practice may help to eliminate variation between hospitals and support service development.
Shah Syed Shaukat Ali Muttaqi; Sumbul Shamim; Mustapha Omer
Pharmacy education has been an important and integral part of the education system of a country. Pharmacy education in Pakistan has grown significantly through the ages and there are quite a few number of pharmacy schools providing education to the students. The academia and practice had always been disjointed in the country. Dow College of Pharmacy (DCOP) at DUHS was established in the year 2008, with the vision to provide exemplary pharmacy education to the students and bridging the gap bet...
Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....
Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah
Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students' professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education. PMID:27073281
Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D
This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging information technology users on healthcare, understanding and responding to cultural and social disparities, implementing multidisciplinary initiatives to improve health care, medicines optimization and predictive risk analysis, and pharmacy as business and health care institution. Finally, implications of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. PMID:27209486
Soliman, Ahmed M.; Hussein, Mustafa; Abdulhalim, Abdulla M.
Objective. To investigate the status of pharmacoeconomics education in Egyptian schools of pharmacy and compile and construct recommendations on how Egypt and similar countries could improve their educational infrastructure in pharmacoeconomics.
Full Text Available Protection from hydrological extremes and the sustainable supply of hydrological services in the presence of changing climate and lifestyles as well as rocketing population pressure in many parts of the world are the defining societal challenges for hydrology in the 21st century. A review of the existing literature shows that these challenges and their educational consequences for hydrology were foreseeable and were even predicted by some. However, surveys of the current educational basis for hydrology also clearly demonstrate that hydrology education is not yet ready to prepare students to deal with these challenges. We present our own vision of the necessary evolution of hydrology education, which we implemented in the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA. The MOCHA project is directly aimed at developing a community-driven basis for hydrology education. In this paper we combine literature review, community survey, discussion and assessment to provide a holistic baseline for the future of hydrology education. The ultimate objective of our educational initiative is to enable educators to train a new generation of "renaissance hydrologists," who can master the holistic nature of our field and of the problems we encounter.
Wagener, T.; Kelleher, C.; Weiler, M.; McGlynn, B.; Gooseff, M.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Gregg, S.; Sharma, P.; Zappe, S.
Protection from hydrological extremes and the sustainable supply of hydrological services in the presence of changing climate and lifestyles as well as rocketing population pressure in many parts of the world are the defining societal challenges for hydrology in the 21st century. A review of the existing literature shows that these challenges and their educational consequences for hydrology were foreseeable and were even predicted by some. However, surveys of the current educational basis for hydrology also clearly demonstrate that hydrology education is not yet ready to prepare students to deal with these challenges. We present our own vision of the necessary evolution of hydrology education, which we implemented in the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). The MOCHA project is directly aimed at developing a community-driven basis for hydrology education. In this paper we combine literature review, community survey, discussion and assessment to provide a holistic baseline for the future of hydrology education. The ultimate objective of our educational initiative is to enable educators to train a new generation of "renaissance hydrologists," who can master the holistic nature of our field and of the problems we encounter.
Full Text Available Non-auditory effects of noise on humans have been intensively studied in the last four decades. The International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise has been following scientific advances in this field by organizing international congresses from the first one in 1968 in Washington, DC, to the 11th congress in Nara, Japan, in 2014. There is already a large scientific body of evidence on the effects of noise on annoyance, communication, performance and behavior, mental health, sleep, and cardiovascular functions including relationship with hypertension and ischemic heart disease. In the last five years new issues in this field have been tackled. Large epidemiological studies on community noise have reported its relationship with breast cancer, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. It seems that noise-induced sleep disturbance may be one of the mediating factors in these effects. Given a large public health importance of the above-mentioned diseases, future studies should more thoroughly address the mechanisms underlying the reported association with community noise exposure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175078
Belojević, Goran; Paunović, Katarina
Non-auditory effects of noise on humans have been intensively studied in the last four decades. The International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise has been following scientific advances in this field by organizing international congresses from the first one in 1968 in Washington, DC, to the 11th congress in Nara, Japan, in 2014. There is already a large scientific body of evidence on the effects of noise on annoyance, communication, performance and behavior, mental health, sleep, and cardiovascular functions including relationship with hypertension and ischemic heart disease. In the last five years new issues in this field have been tackled. Large epidemiological studies on community noise have reported its relationship with breast cancer, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. It seems that noise-induced sleep disturbance may be one of the mediating factors in these effects. Given a large public health importance of the above-mentioned diseases, future studies should more thoroughly address the mechanisms underlying the reported association with community noise exposure. Keywords: noise; cancer; stroke; diabetes mellitus type 2; obesity PMID:27276867
Van Amburgh, Jenny; Surratt, Christopher K.; Green, James S; Gallucci, Randle M; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L.; Blouin, Robert A.
The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves plannin...
This paper follows the rise of the Internet drug sale industry and the response to the trend by regulators, policymakers, and private companies. After discussing the existing laws and their enforcement to police rogue Internet pharmacies, the paper outlines in detail the 2008 Ryan Haight Act and its effect. Finally, the paper analyzes two of the ongoing efforts to tighten the regulation of Internet pharmacies further.
Smith, Robert E.; Olin, Bernie R.
The root cause of most chronic diseases in America is self-inflicted through an unhealthy lifestyle including poor diet, insufficient exercise, inability to maintain a healthy weight, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. Americans' ability to adhere to healthy lifestyles appears to be declining.1,2 The pharmacy profession, while positioned to provide an answer to this problem, has done little. In addition, academic pharmacy's primary focus is on drugs and diseases with limited inst...
MacKeigan, Linda D.; Nissen, Lisa M
Articles on clinical pharmacy services in the home began appearing 3 decades ago but numbers have greatly increased in the last decade. This overview of the English language literature identified 66 reports describing 57 home-based clinical pharmacy programs. Most programs were provided in the context of a time-limited research project. Medication reviews (defined as comprehensive assessment of the appropriateness of the medication regimen) and medication management (defined as assessment and...
Full Text Available Background New Zealand has been offering needle exchange services since 1987. Over 170 community pharmacies are involved in the provision of this service. However, no recent detailed review of New Zealand's pharmacy-based needle exchange has been published. This study aimed to explore service provision, identify problems faced by pharmacists, and look for improvements to services. Methods The study used a cross-sectional survey of all needle exchange pharmacies. Postal questionnaires were used with postal and telephone follow-up. Results A response rate of 88% was obtained overall. Pharmacists had been providing the service for a mean of 6 years. Pharmacies had given out an average of 130 injecting units, in a mean of 62 transactions to a mean of 17 clients in the 4 weeks prior to completing the questionnaire. The majority had not incurred problems such as violence or intoxicated clients in the last 12 months, although almost one third had experienced shoplifting which they associated with service provision. Training and improving return rates were identified as potential areas for further development. Conclusion New Zealand needle exchange pharmacies are providing services to a number of clients. The majority of service providers had been involved for a number of years, indicating the problems incurred had not caused them to withdraw their services – findings which echo those from the UK. Further training and support, including an exploration of improving return rates may be needed in the future.
Nakada, Akiko; Akagawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Kato, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Toshinori
A questionnaire survey was performed to obtain pharmacy students' impressions of pharmacists' behavior, to classify these based on professionalism, and to analyze the relationship between these experiences and students' satisfaction with their clinical practice in Japan. The questionnaire was answered by 327 5th-year pharmacy school students upon completing clinical practice at community pharmacies from 2011 to 2012. They rated their satisfaction with their clinical practice using a 6-point Likert scale, and provided descriptions of their experience such as, "This health provider is professional", or "What a great person he/she is as a health provider". We counted the words and then categorized the responses into 10 traits, as defined by the American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy-American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Council of Deans Task Force on Professionalism 1999, using text mining. We analyzed the relationship between their experiences with respectful persons, and satisfaction, using the Mann-Whitney U-test (significance leveltext mining analysis after excluding unsuitable responses. The word most used was "patient" (121 times). Many students noted their impression that the pharmacists had answered patients' questions. Of the 10 trait categories, "professional knowledge and skills" was mentioned most often (151 students). PMID:26831812
Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J
Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194
The feedback analytics of online software including Articulate and Bristol Online Surveys can be used to facilitate dialogic learning in a community of practice such as Pharmacy and, thereby, promote reflective learning by the creation of formative calibrated feedback loops. Based on work with medical, dental, nursing, osteopathic, and social work students, trainees, and registrants, the paper shows how an online learning community can be created along the continuum from undergraduate to regi...
Full Text Available Introduction: The Comprehensive Healthcare (CHC module was developed to introduce pre-clinical medical and pharmacy students to the concept of comprehensive healthcare. This study aims to explore their shared learning experiences within this module. Methodology: During this module, medical and pharmacy students conducted visits to patients’ homes and to related community-based organisations in small groups. They were required to write a reflective journal on their experiences regarding working with other professions as part of their module assessment. Highly scored reflective journals written by students from the 2011/2012 academic session were selected for analysis. Their shared learning experiences were identified via thematic analysis. We also analysed students’ feedback regarding the module. Results: Analysis of 25 selected reflective journals revealed several important themes: ‘Understanding of impact of illness and its relation to holistic care’, ‘Awareness of the role of various healthcare professions’ and ‘Generic or soft skills for inter-professional collaboration’. Although the primary objective of the module was to expose students to comprehensive healthcare, the students learnt skills required for future collaborative practice from their experiences. Discussion: The CHC module provided early clinical exposure to community-based health issues and incorporated some elements of inter-professional education. The students learnt about the roles of other healthcare professions and acquired soft skills required for future collaborative practice during this module.
Taylor, Gregrey M.; Killacky, Jim
Community colleges are facing a shortage in qualified individuals to fill the projected gaps in leadership roles, as the industry is facing an upcoming wave of vacancies due to the retirement of faculty and administrators. This phenomenological, qualitative study explored leadership readiness perspectives of graduates and advanced doctoral…
Cejda, Brent D.
Previous research has shown that there are not distinct career lines leading to the chief academic officer (CAO) position in community colleges.Rather, it appears that a variety of skills and experiences contribute to advancement to this position. This paper examines the perceptions of women CAOs as to the importance of professional development…
Smith Danielle M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacies are venues in which patients seek out products and professional advice in order to improve overall health. However, many pharmacies in the United States continue to sell tobacco products, which are widely known to cause detrimental health effects. This conflict presents a challenge to pharmacists, who are becoming increasingly more involved in patient health promotion activities. This study sought to assess Western New York (WNY area pharmacists’ opinions about the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies, and pharmacists’ opinions on their role in patient smoking cessation. Methods Participants responded to two parallel surveys; a web-based survey was completed by 148 university-affiliated pharmacist preceptors via a list based sample, and a mail-based survey was completed by the supervising pharmacist in 120 area pharmacies via a list-based sample. The combined response rate for both surveys was 31%. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to determine any significant differences between the preceptor and supervising pharmacist survey groups. Results Over 75% of respondents support legislation banning the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. Over 86% of respondents would prefer to work in a pharmacy that does not sell tobacco products. Differences between preceptor and supervising pharmacist groups were observed. Action regarding counseling patients was uncommon among both groups. Conclusions Pharmacists support initiatives that increase their role in cessation counseling and initiatives that restrict the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. These data could have important implications for communities and pharmacy practice.
Full Text Available In this era of science and technology, computer plays an important role in community. Today, computer is so ubiq-uitous in pharmaceutical research and development. The advent of the internet has had a significant impact on the formation of an information-driven, rapid-paced society. The number of internet users reached 150 million in only five years compared to 13 years for television and 38 years for radio. Consumer expectation for access, conven-ience, and speed has made the cyberspace superhighway a medium for knowledge exchange and for e-commerce. The internet offers a wide variety of health services and products to healthcare professionals as well as to the pub-lic. Online pharmaceutical sales have reached more than nearly $50 billion. This is a dramatic increase when com-pared to the $1.9 billion in 1999. At the click of the mouse, medications can be ordered and delivered conveniently to your door. Internet has evolved into a self-organizing media, capable of multiple interactions within. A large number of consumer products including drugs are being advertised and sold over the Internet. Though the market-ing of drugs over the Internet is an inevitable outcome of the booming e-economy, it poses unique ethical, legal and quality challenges- the prime cause being the anarchic structure of the Internet. These challenges are important from the consumer, physician and regulator perspectives. This paper begins with a summary of historical considera-tions and the shifting organization of internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of internet pharmacy practice are listed. Internet pharmacy is not only affordable but also can be source of easy availability of medicine.
Full Text Available
In this era of science and technology, computer plays an important role in community. Today, computer is so ubiquitous in pharmaceutical research and development. The advent of the internet has had a significant impact on the formation of an information-driven, rapid-paced society. The number of internet users reached 150 million in only five years compared to 13 years for television and 38 years for radio. Consumer expectation for access, convenience, and speed has made the cyberspace superhighway a medium for knowledge exchange and for e-commerce. The internet offers a wide variety of health services and products to healthcare professionals as well as to the public. Online pharmaceutical sales have reached more than nearly $50 billion. This is a dramatic increase when compared to the $1.9 billion in 1999. At the click of the mouse, medications can be ordered and delivered conveniently to your door. Internet has evolved into a self-organizing media, capable of multiple interactions within. A large number of consumer products including drugs are being advertised and sold over the Internet. Though the marketing of drugs over the Internet is an inevitable outcome of the booming e-economy, it poses unique ethical, legal and quality challenges- the prime cause being the anarchic structure of the Internet. These challenges are important from the consumer, physician and regulator perspectives.This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of internet pharmacy practice are listed. Internet pharmacy is not only affordable but also can be source of easy availability of medicine.
Howell, D; Pelton, B
Since 1996, Interlink Community Cancer Nurses have been using reflective practice as a team to share knowledge and experience amongst peers. The use of reflective practice enables the nurse to examine decision-making in patient situations and uncover the knowledge and artistry that is embedded in nursing practice. This article describes how reflection is practised by specialist cancer nurses to advance the quality of caregiving. The use of a structured framework for reflection which incorporates ways of knowing in nursing is an essential feature of the Interlink model for reflection. The development of a process for reflection within the Interlink program has at times been challenging. However, the Interlink nurses' experience with reflection is believed to be critical to the ongoing development of the program and the individual nurse. Interlink nurses have found that guided reflection, the creation of an environmental milieu for reflection and personal knowing, and self-evaluation are critical to the process of becoming a self-reflective practitioner. PMID:11842450
Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle
Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes. PMID:24877189
Awad, Nadia I.; Cocchio, Craig
A cross-sectional survey of hospital pharmacies in New Jersey demonstrates a lack of general consensus regarding hospital pharmacy preparedness for mass casualty scenarios despite individualized institutional protocols for disaster preparedness.
Stein, G L; Bonuck, K A
Gay men and lesbians have special interests in documenting their preferences regarding advance care planning and end-of-life care. A 64-item survey instrument was developed to ascertain the preferences of this community regarding approaches to end-of-life care, viewpoints on physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia, and practices regarding advance care planning. The survey was completed by 575 participants recruited through community-based health care and social service organizations serving the lesbian and gay community, primarily in the New York metropolitan area. Respondents represent a diverse group of women (36%) and men (63%) from various age, racial/ethnic, and religious/spiritual backgrounds; 10% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Respondents' perspectives on end-of-life care are generally consistent with findings from other attitudinal studies of U.S. adults: a majority supported legalization of PAS and preferred a palliative approach to end-of-life care. However, the gay community sample revealed even stronger support for assisted suicide and palliative care. Although respondents completed advance directives at a higher rate than adults generally, the legal importance for gay men and lesbians to execute directives should encourage health care providers and community organizations to assume a larger educational role on advance care planning. Results confirm other reports on the need to address provider communication skills. It is speculated that the HIV epidemic was a major influence behind these results because of the overwhelming personal impact of the epidemic on most gay men and lesbians during the past two decades. PMID:11441626
Cameron, Kathleen; Morris, Anne
This article describes components of a model senior-friendly pharmacy intended to provide information, expert advice, and products in an accessible environment that will allow older adults to remain as independent as possible. Creating a senior-friendly pharmacy is increasingly important because older adults have, and will continue to seek, more and better information and assistance concerning their prescription benefits and other products designed to help them "age in place." Many opportunities exist for pharmacists with an entrepreneurial spirit and a passion to serve a population in significant need of pharmacists' expertise. Collaboration with others in the aging network is a critical component of a successful senior-friendly pharmacy. PMID:19275465
Oakley, Robert S.; And Others
Hospital pharmacy directors ranked their academic needs as: personnel and financial management (greatest), computers, hospital organization, clinical pharmacy practice, traditional pharmacy practice, and statistics. Those with MBAs perceived themselves stronger in these areas than did those with other degrees. Only MBAs and MSs felt adequately…
Le guide pharmaceutique des Jeux Olympiques de la Jeunesse Singapour 2010 doit être lu conjointement avec le guide des services médicaux des Jeux Olympiques de la Jeunesse Singapour 2010. Ce guide, approuvé par la commission médicale du CIO, contient la liste définitive des médicaments disponibles à la pharmacie de la clinique médicale du village olympique de la jeunesse. The Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games pharmacy handbook is to be read in conjunction with the Singapore 2010 Youth Oly...
An operational profile for nuclear pharmacy practice is presented, and the technical and professional role of nuclear pharmacists is reviewed. Key aspects of nuclear pharmacy practice in hospitals discussed are the basic facilities and equipment for the preparation, quality control, and distribution of radioactive drug products. Standards for receiving, storing, and processing radioactive material are described. The elements of a radiopharmaceutical quality assurance program, including the working procedures, documentation systems, data analysis, and specific control tests, are presented. Details of dose preparation and administration and systems of inventory control for radioactive products are outlined
Klima, K.; Winkelman, S.
As the annual costs of severe weather events in the US grow into the billions of dollars, companies and communities are examining how best to plan ahead to protect their assets and bolster their bottom line. The Center for Clean Air Policy's Weathering Climate Risks program aims to help cities and companies enhance resilience to the economic impacts of severe weather and a changing climate. This presentation will highlight three communication techniques aimed at different types of audiences such as businesses, policymakers, the media, and society. First, we find that although planning for natural hazards now saves money later, stakeholders must fi¬nd their own self-interest if they are going to engage in a solution. Thus we research best practices and hold informational, off-the-record interviews to better understand the different stakeholders' perspectives, key concerns, and issues surrounding adaptation, resilience, and/or hazard mitigation. Diverse stakeholders find it attractive when a solution has multiple co-benefits such as climate resilience, greenhouse gas reduction, reduced costs, and social benefits. Second, we use off-the-record dialogues emphasizing candid public-private discussion to promote collaborative problem solving. Our high-level workshops typically consist of 30-40 scientists, companies, communities, and policymakers. We begin with presenting background material, such as geographic information systems (GIS) maps. Then we move to informal conservation. Topics include ideas such as "Ask the Climate Question": How will infrastructure, land development, and investment decisions affect GHG emissions and resilience to climate change impacts? We find these dialogues help stakeholders share their perspectives and advance public-private collaboration on climate resilience to protect critical urban infrastructure, ensure business continuity, and increase extreme weather resilience. Third, we find that communication to the general public must capture
医院药房主要负责审核调配处方和提供药学咨询服务，是医院的重要职能部门，是直接面对患者的窗口，如何保证药房质量管理、改变服务理念、提升服务层次、为患者提供高品质的药学服务，本文对此谈几点粗浅的认识。%With the development of the society, pharmacy management mechanism, the system will inevitably to the scientific management, standardized management, legal management transformation, truly for the masses to provide efficient, safe and cheap drugs. Outpatient pharmacy, ward pharmacy, pharmacy department of hospital pharmacy, such as integrating technology, management, management of comprehensive institutions. The stand or fall of pharmacy management not only affect their own work, also directly affect the curative effect of drugs, the patients' medical security, the hospital's image, and each patient's vital interest, relates to the reputation of the hospital in the community and the long-term development of hospital. The pharmacy is an important part of the work floor management, pharmacy staff sense of responsibility is the premise of providing high quality pharmaceutical care for patients, standardization, institutionalization, modernization and scientific management is the important guarantee to improve the quality of pharmaceutical care. Therefore, the standardized management of the hospital pharmacy has very important significance. The author combines the actual conditions of their own work, talk to a pharmacy management point of view.
Manunta, Michele; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Lanari, Riccardo; Pepe, Antonio; Zinno, Ivana; Casu, Francesco
The quantitative evaluation of ground deformation is traditionally based on in-situ surveying techniques that, through the intensive use of GPS stations, automatic total stations and levelling benchmarks, can measure up to sub-centimetre displacements. In the last decades, the extensive use of satellite remote sensing data, such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, has represented an important breakthrough in the context of non-invasive ground deformation analyses over large areas, thanks to their large spatial coverage and relatively short revisit time, as well as to their medium-high ground resolution. In such a context, the well-known Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique allows us to map and measure deformation phenomena due to both natural and man-made causes with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. The Earth Science community has a wide interest in the use of DInSAR displacement maps both for crisis management and risk mitigation activities, and for surveillance, monitoring and analysis of geophysical phenomena. In areas characterized by high level of hazards the availability of routinely generated advanced DInSAR products would allow a fast analysis of their current status, providing a near real time monitoring. Similarly, an on-demand service would allow the customization of the products by selecting the area of interest, the SAR data to be processed, and other processing parameters to be set by the users to edit/correct/improve the final products. In this work we discuss the Satellite Data Thematic Core Service of EPOS and we present the EPOSAR service. In particular, the EPOSAR service, based on the well-known DInSAR approach referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS), accomplishes a shared and synergic Earth Observation (EO) service aimed at designing, implementing and harmonizing efficient satellite data processing chains capable of ingesting the significantly increased data stream expected from the ESA Sentinel-1 satellites. EPOSAR
. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.
Seifer, Sarena D.; Blanchard, Lynn W.; Jordan, Catherine; Gelmon, Sherril; McGinley, Piper
Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH) is a national membership organization that promotes health equity and social justice through partnerships between communities and higher education institutions. In response to faculty concerns about the institutional barriers to community-engaged careers in the academy, CCPH embarked on a series of…
Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.
We use the theory of communities of practice and the concept of accountable disciplinary knowledge to describe how a learning community develops in the context of an upper-division physics laboratory course. The change in accountable disciplinary knowledge motivates students' enculturation into a community of practice. The enculturation…
Full Text Available The feedback analytics of online software including Articulate and Bristol Online Surveys can be used to facilitate dialogic learning in a community of practice such as Pharmacy and, thereby, promote reflective learning by the creation of formative calibrated feedback loops. Based on work with medical, dental, nursing, osteopathic, and social work students, trainees, and registrants, the paper shows how an online learning community can be created along the continuum from undergraduate to registrant to develop authentic dialogic e-learning around standards of Professionalism. The Dundee PolyProfessionalism inventories and Situational Judgement Scenarios (SJSs can be customised for Pharmacy Professionalism learning to support evidence-based curriculum design along benchmarked learning curves and to profile Professionalism learning in individuals and cohorts.
Brodie, Donald C.; And Others
Qualities that describe the performance of the clinical pharmacy preceptor are outlined, with particular concern for the personal and technical components of his role as a teacher. The guidelines were developed at an invitational workshop at the Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical Center. (LBH)
Full Text Available During patient care rounds with the medical team, pharmacy students have made positive contributions for the benefit of the patient. However, very little has been documented regarding the impact these future healthcare professionals are making while on clinical rotations.The objective of this study was to assess the impact that clinical interventions made by 6th year pharmacy students had on overall patient outcome. Using a special program for a personal digital assistant (PDA, the students daily recorded the pharmacotherapeutic interventions they made. The interventions ranged from dosage adjustments to providing drug information. Data was collected over a 12-week period from various hospitals and clinics in the Jacksonville, Florida area.In total, there were 89 pharmaceutical interventions performed and recorded by the students. Fifty interventions involved drug modification and fifty-four interventions were in regards to drug information and consulting. Of the drug information and consulting interventions, 15 were drug modification.This study shows the impact pharmacy students make in identifying, recommending, and documenting clinical pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Similar to pharmacists, pharmacy students can also have a positive contribution towards patient care.
Anderson, Claire; Thornley, Tracey
Background There is a need to increase influenza vaccination rates in England particularly among those who are under 65 years of age and at-risk because of other conditions and treatments. Objective To understand the profile of people accessing flu vaccination services within a large pharmacy chain. Method Pharmacists requested people who had been vaccinated in 2014/15 to complete a questionnaire. Data was captured electronically on vaccine delivery levels across 1201 pharmacies. Deprivation profiles were calculated using the Carstairs index. Results 1741 patients from a total of 55 pharmacies completed the survey. Convenience and accessibility remain the key reasons for attending pharmacy. Pharmacy services are accessed by people from all postcode areas, including some from the most deprived localities. Conclusion Pharmacy flu vaccination services complement those provided by general practitioners to help improve overall coverage and vaccination rates for patients in at-risk groups. These services are highly accessed by patients from all socio demographic areas, and seem to be particularly attractive to carers, frontline healthcare workers, and those of working age. PMID:26821372
Aim: (1) Increase the nuclear pharmacy education opportunities across the United States and the around the world. (2) Establish collaborative educational agreements between colleges of pharmacy and local nuclear pharmacy preceptors. (3) Decrease the shortage of radio pharmacists. 4) Provide nuclear education courses to supplement existing educational programs. Materials and Methods: Nuclear Education Online (www.nuclearonline.org) is an educational consortium between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the University of New Mexico. The faculty members from each institution have collaborated to design an online didactic curriculum and experiential training materials. The didactic portion is delivered via WebCT (www.webct.com) and involves interactive studies with faculty from UNM and UAMS. The student-centered curriculum is based on the APhA Syllabus for Nuclear Pharmacy Training and includes interactive web-based course materials, discussion groups, preceptor-led activities and problem-based learning (PBL) case studies based upon actual clinical studies and real-life pharmacy situations. Individual units of study include Nuclear Physics, Radiation Biology, Radiation Safety, Instrumentation, and Radiochemistry/Radiopharmacology. Students can begin the program at anytime. Once a cohort of students is established, the students proceed through the PBL cases, working interactively as a group. Results: Since June 2001, over 26 students have completed the 10-week certificate program. These students have been located across the U.S. and in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen students have completed individual courses in nuclear physics and instrumentation through colleges of pharmacy course offerings using the NEO faculty as instructors. Student evaluations revealed that 78% of the students thought that the NEO program was a 'great way to learn' (highest rating). When comparing PBL to a traditional classroom setting, two thirds of students preferred problem
Penicher's pharmacopeia (1695) was part of the Library of the "College de Pharmacie". The inventory of this Library was done in 1780 and is kept by the Library of the BIU Santé, Paris-Descartes University in Paris that digitized it recently. This copy contains handwritten texts that complete the original edition. The first main addition, at the beginning of the document, is three recipes of drugs, in Latin, one of them being well known at the early 18th century, the vulnerary balm of Leonardo Fioraventi (1517-1588), that is also known as Fioraventi's alcoholate. This product will still be present in the French Codex until 1949. The Penicher' book also includes, at the end, three handwritten pages in French which represent the equipment of apothecaries. These drawings are very close to the ones of Charas' Pharmacopeia. One can think that these additions are from the second part of the 18th century, but before the gift of the pharmacopeia to the College de Pharmacie by Fourcy en 1765. The author is unknown but he is probably one of the predecessor of Fourcy in Pharmacie de l'Ours (Bear's pharmacy). This gift done by Fourcy when joining the Community of Parisians pharmacists did not prevent the fact that Fourcy was sentenced by his colleagues pharmacists, a few years later, for the sales of "Chinese specialties" that someone called Jean-Daniel Smith, a physician installed in Paris, asked him to prepare. PMID:27281932
Weaver, L C
Health care is a business. Pharmacy is in the health business. The health care delivery system in the U.S. is rapidly becoming a managed system by corporations. Further, these corporations are moving toward international markets where some already have considerable experience. There are many parts of the world not participating in these developments in health care. Some are just off our shores in the Caribbean Basin. A review of activities occurring in recent years by various groups suggests that more could be done. Two modest approaches are presented. Support of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's "Pharmacy School Twinning Project" through which U.S. pharmacy schools would work with pharmacy schools in Central and South America is recommended. Also, national pharmacy associations jointly with pharmaceutical companies would work together using their expertise in continuing pharmacy education to develop new education models for the needy areas of the world. PMID:3757790
OBJECTIVE To investigate the medication knowledges and the demands for pharmacy services of the community resident sin order to explore suitable ways for pharmacists to participate in community pharmaceutical care.METHODS A total of 206 residents were randomly selected to answer the questionnaire,and the results of the investigation were analyzed statistically.RESULTS Medication under doctor's guidance constituted 68.93％,while that under pharmacist's guidance only constituted 5.83％ ;39.22％ of the families did not cleanup expired drugs regularly;the residents wanted to have different ways to get medication-related knowl edge.CONCLUSION There is an urgent need for pharmaceutical care in communities.Pharmacists should use their professional knowledge to provide pharmaceutical care in communities and make sure rational drug use by the public.%目的 了解社区居民的用药知识及对药学服务的需求,探索药师参与社区药学服务的途径和方法.方法 随机对206例社区居民进行问卷调查,并对调查结果进行统计、分析.结果 被调查者根据医生指导用药的为68.93％;根据药师指导用药的仅为5.83％;有39.22％的家庭未能定期清理过期药品;居民希望通过不同的途径获得药学相关知识.结论 社区迫切需要药学服务,医院药师应利用自身的专业优势开展社区药学服务,实现公众的安全合理用药.
Moreno Plantada, Javier; Garrigues, T M; Mart??n Villodre, A.M.; Muelas, J.A.
Currently there are several cases in the field of the European Union regarding Spanish legislation on private pharmacy planning. The first of these cases was initiated by issuing a reasoned opinion by the European Commission on 28 June 2006. The second approach has taken place through the various preliminary questions raised before the Court of Justice of the European Communities by certain Spanish courts. Although not all of the above procedures have been completed, certain Eu...
Eka K. Untari; Siti N. Nurbaeti; Esy Nansy
Self-medication practices is now considered as a component of self-care. Gastric ulcer is one of minor symptom that can be treated by self-medication. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, behavior, and appropriateness of self-medication practice for gastric ulcer or its related symptom amongst population. The population of this study attended community pharmacies in Pontianak of West Borneo province. This study was a cross sectional survey involving 98 adults who did se...
Murphy, Patricia; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Tang, Andrew; Pietrandoni, Glen; Hou, John; Guglielmo, B. Joseph
Patient adherence (the degree to which patients follow their therapeutic regimen as prescribed within a set period of time) and persistence (the time to treatment discontinuation, with a permissible gap) with drug therapy are essential components of HIV/AIDS treatment. Select community pharmacies offer specialized services for HIV/AIDS patients to help combat some of the barriers to adherence and persistence. We assessed adherence and persistence with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for patients...
Screening Education And Recognition in Community pHarmacies of Atrial Fibrillation to prevent stroke in an ambulant population aged ≥65 years (SEARCH-AF stroke prevention study): a cross-sectional study protocol
Lowres, Nicole; Freedman, Saul Benedict; Redfern, Julie; McLachlan, Andrew; Krass, Ines; Bennett, Alexandra; Briffa, Thomas; Bauman, Adrian; Neubeck, Lis
Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a high risk of stroke and may often be asymptomatic. AF is commonly undiagnosed until patients present with sequelae, such as heart failure and stroke. Stroke secondary to AF is highly preventable with the use of appropriate thromboprophylaxis. Therefore, early identification and appropriate evidence-based management of AF could lead to subsequent stroke prevention. This study aims to determine the feasibility and impact of a community ph...
Debackere, Koenraad; B. CLARYSSE
Organisational ecology and social network theory are used to explain entries in technological communities. Using bibliometric data on 411 organisations in the field of plant biotechnology, we test several hypotheses that entry is not only influenced by the density of the field, but also by the structure of the R&D network within the community. The empirical findings point to the usefulness of bibliometric data in mapping change and evolution in technological communities as well as to the ef...
Hughes, Carmel M; Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín A
The development of health interventions is receiving increasing attention within the scientific literature. In the past, interventions were often based on the ISLAGIATT principle: that is, 'It seemed like a good idea at the time'. However, such interventions were frequently ineffective because they were either delivered in part or not at all, demonstrating a lack of fidelity, or because little attention had been paid to their development, content, and mode of delivery. This commentary seeks to highlight the latest methodological advances in the field of intervention development, drawing on health psychology literature, together with guidance from key organisations and research consortia which are setting standards for development and reporting. Those working within pharmacy practice research can learn from the more systematic approach being advocated, and apply these methods to help generate evidence to support new services and professional roles. PMID:26297237
Whitman, K.; Kadooka, M.
In 2010, the Center for Advancing ystemic Heliophysics Education (CAHEd) was established at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy to promote public outreach and education of solar astronomy and heliophysics. The primary objectives of CAHEd are to increase public awareness of the significance of heliophysics and space weather through lectures, open houses, and online resources. In addition, CAHEd works to educate secondary teachers and students on physics concepts essential for understanding heliophysics ideas. For the first two years of the NASA sponsored grant, CAHEd has focused its efforts on teachers and students in Hawaii. Approaching its third year, CAHEd has begun to expand to a national level, partnering with teachers in locations across the United States. Two core goals of CAHEd will be discussed here: collaboration with a select group of Master Teachers and student mentoring in research projects. CAHEd has built a partnership with over a dozen Master Teachers that work with scientists to develop curriculum for the middle and high school classroom. These teachers come from diverse backgrounds with a variety of scientific experiences. Master Teachers play the important role of assessing and improving CAHEd curriculum and provide support for CAHEd activities. All Master Teachers participate in in-depth multi-day workshops that allow them to develop a deeper understanding of the science behind heliophysics. After building a strong background, Master Teachers organize workshops, growing a community of teachers who incorporate heliophysics into their curriculum. Scientists also work closely with middle school and high school students who wish to pursue study in heliophysics. Student research is a fundamental goal of CAHEd and scientists work with students to complete projects for school and state science fairs. Four students have completed award winning heliophysics projects to date and three of the four students have gone on to pursue a second
Theresa J. Schindel; Hughes, Christine A.; Sadowski, Cheryl A
Experiences with online learning in higher education have grown due to advancements in technology, technological savviness of students, changes in student expectations, and evolution of teaching approaches in higher education. Blended learning, the thoughtful fusion of face-to-face instruction with online learning, can enhance student learning and provide rewarding teaching experiences for faculty members. Pharmacy educators are beginning to employ blended learning across the continuum of pro...
Alaimo, Katherine; Beavers, Alyssa W; Crawford, Caroline; Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; Litt, Jill S
The article presents a framework for understanding the relationship between community garden participation, and the myriad ways gardens and participation lead to emotional, social, and health impacts. Existing empirical research relating community gardens to health behaviors, such as physical activity and diet, and longer-term chronic disease-related outcomes is summarized. The research areas discussed include the effects of community garden participation on individual, social, emotional, and environmental processes; health behaviors including diet and physical activity; and health outcomes such as self-rated health, obesity, and mental health. Other mechanisms through which community gardens may affect population health are described. Applying a multitheoretical lens to explore associations between community garden participation and health enables us to delineate key aspects of gardening that elicit positive health behaviors and multifactorial health assets that could be applied to designing other types of health interventions. PMID:27379424
Full Text Available Background: Over the past decade the profession of pharmacy has steadily evolved. The New Pharmacy Contract exposed pharmacists to a fundamental change in traditional pharmacy business models. Objective: This study will consider whether community pharmacists, pharmacy undergraduates and academic staff within the United Kingdom believe it would be beneficial to incorporate a business management module within the Master of Pharmacy (MPharm undergraduate degree along with potential mechanisms of delivery.Methods: Further to ethical approval, the questionnaire was distributed to UK registered pharmacists (n=600, MPharm undergraduates (n=441 and academic staff at Liverpool John Moores University (n=44. The questions were formatted as multiple choice questions, Likert scales or the open answer type. On questionnaire completion and return, data were analysed using simple frequencies, cross tabulations and non-parametric techniques in the SPSS (v18.Results: The majority of pharmacists (84.9% confirmed that business skills affect their everyday responsibilities to a considerable extent. A high proportion of undergraduate students (92.8% believed that business management skills will impact on their future role. In total, 64.3% of this cohort declared that if a module were introduced they would study it. The majority of staff (79% agreed that business skills are gaining increased importance within the field of pharmacy. Conclusions: Data suggest that business skills are of relevance to the practice of pharmacy. Appropriate staff to deliver the taught material would include business owners / lecturers and teaching practitioners covering topics including management, leadership, interpersonal skills and regulation. We suggest the inclusion of a business module with the MPharm degree would be of great value in preparing individuals for practice within a modern day healthcare setting.
the encounter. When using questionnaires to get insight into information provision, observations of encounters are very informative to validate the patient questionnaires and make necessary adjustments. Keywords: community pharmacy, CQI, patient–provider communication, pharmaceutical care, patient perspective, video observation
Instructors wanting to engage students in the classroom seek methods to augment the delivery of factual information and help students move from being passive recipients to active participants in their own learning. One such method that has gained interest is team-based learning. This method encourages students to be prepared before class and has students work in teams while in the classroom. Key benefits to this pedagogy are student engagement, improved communication skills, and enhanced critical-thinking abilities. In most cases, student satisfaction and academic performance are also noted. This paper reviews the fundamentals of team-based learning in pharmacy education and its implementation in the classroom. Literature reports from medical, nursing, and pharmacy programs are also discussed. PMID:23716738
Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.
We use the theory of communities of practice and the concept of accountable disciplinary knowledge to describe how a learning community develops in the context of an upper-division physics laboratory course. The change in accountable disciplinary knowledge motivates students' enculturation into a community of practice. The enculturation process is facilitated by four specific structural features of the course and supported by a primary instructional choice. The four structural features are "paucity of instructor time," "all in a room together," "long and difficult experiments," and "same experiments at different times." The instructional choice is the encouragement of the sharing and development of knowledge and understanding by the instructor. The combination of the instructional choice and structural features promotes the development of the learning community in which students engage in authentic practices of a physicist. This results in a classroom community that can provide students with the opportunity to have an accelerated trajectory towards being a more central participant of the community of a practice of physicists. We support our claims with video-based observations of laboratory classroom interactions and individual, semistructured interviews with students about their laboratory experiences and physics identity.
Neeta Shivakumar*, Pushpa Agrawal and Praveen Kumar Gupta
The people in India have an outstanding knowledge of medicinal plants acquired over centuries. A passion for studying medicinal plants is evident both in folk and scholarly traditions. The indigenous mode of understanding and using plants is different from the modern scientific way. It includes botanical, medical and astrological elements. This is the basis of green pharmacy. Indians obviously care for medicinal plants because they know so many of them, so much about them and have worked exte...
Batty, R; Barber, N
OBJECTIVES--To determine the extent and nature of prescription monitoring incidents by hospital pharmacists and to derive a performance indicator to allow prescription monitoring to be compared among hospitals in North West Thames region. DESIGN--Survey of all self recorded prescription monitoring incidents for one week in June 1990. SETTING--All (31) acute hospitals in the region with pharmacy departments on site, covering 10,337 beds. SUBJECTS--210 pharmacists. MAIN MEASURES--Number of pres...
Lesperance, Mary; Shannon, Robert; Phyllis K. Pumphrey; Dunbar, Erin; Genther, Renee; Coleman, C. Lynn; Tabano, Margaret; Maurer, Jennifer; Vazquez, Adrienne; Capp, Elizabeth; McMillan, Jessica; Wilkerson, Katie; Robbins, Gerald; Phillips, Dorothy Green; Howick, Priscilla
Palliative care services are not available in most outpatient oncology practices. A program training 11 mid-level providers from oncology practices on advanced directive discussions and supportive symptom assessment and management performed by palliative care specialists was completed. A follow-up session 9 months later identified barriers to implementation. Of the 11 mid-level providers, 8 participated in the follow-up session, and 9 of the 11 providers implemented advanced directive’s discu...
Haumschild, Ryan J; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J
Managing conflict among a variety of people and groups is a necessary part of creating a high performance pharmacy department. As new pharmacy managers enter the workforce, much of their success depends on how they manage conflict. The goal of this article is to provide a guide for the pharmacy director on conflict in the workplace. By evaluating each type of conflict, we can learn how to respond when it occurs. Resolving conflict requires a unique and individualized approach, and the strategy used may often be based on the situational context and the personality of the employee or manager. The more that pharmacy leaders can engage in conflict resolution with employees and external leaders, the more proactive they can be in achieving positive results. If pharmacy directors understand the source of conflicts and use management strategies to resolve them, they will ensure that conflicts result in a more effective patient-centered pharmacy service. PMID:26405347
Shin, Tiffany R.; Mehta, Bella H.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.
Objective. To describe pharmacy residents’ interest in and pursuit of academic positions. Methods. An electronic presurvey and postsurvey were sent to pharmacy residents during the 2011-2012 residency year. The initial survey evaluated residents’ job preferences and interest in academia at the beginning of residency, and the follow-up survey focused on job selection and reasons for pursuing or not pursuing positions in academia. Results. Nine hundred thirty-six residents responded to the initial survey and 630 participated in both the initial and follow-up survey. Forty-eight percent of those responding to both surveys strongly considered a career in academia in the initial survey, 28% applied for an academic position, and 7% accepted a position. Second-year postgraduate residents were more likely than first-year postgraduate residents to apply for and be offered a faculty position. Conclusion. Pharmacy residents are interested in academia. While increasing interest among residents is encouraging for faculty recruitment, the academy should also encourage and develop adequate training experiences to prepare residents to succeed in these positions. PMID:25995513
Shay, Blake; Louden, Les; Kirschenbaum, Bonnie
To deal with the changing health care landscape and the expanding growth of specialty pharmaceuticals, it is imperative that health systems evaluate their current structure of providing hospitalbased specialty pharmacy services. Specialty pharmacy services have rapidly expanded over the last decade, and this has affected a wide variety of disease states and in many cases has dramatically enhanced clinical outcomes. However, these medications come at a substantial cost, and a clear plan must be established at each institution to sustain financial viability. By focusing on developing a plan for specialty pharmaceuticals, the pharmacy director can help ensure the institution has prepared a strategy that is conservative, financially viable, and patient-centered. PMID:26912924
Emerson, Mitchell R.
The initial courses in didactic pharmacy curriculum are designed to provide core scientific knowledge and develop learning skills that are the basis for highly competent application and practice of pharmacy. Commonly, students interpret this scientific base as ancillary to the practice of pharmacy. Physiology courses present a natural opportunity for the instructor to introduce basic pharmaceutical principles that form the foundation of pharmacological application early in the professional cu...
Alam, Naznin; Saffoon, Nadia; Uddin, Riaz
Background This cross-sectional survey examined the pattern of self-medication and factors associated with this practice among medical and pharmacy students in context to Bangladesh. Methods The study used a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 500; 250 medical and 250 pharmacy, students participated in the study. As it is a comparative analysis between the medical and pharmacy students, we used independent t test and Chi square test. Results The findings indicated that the impact of s...
Y. V. Miroshnichenko; S. Z. Umarov
We considered a number of aspects of the development of hospital pharmacy abroad. It is revealed that the focus of professional pharmaceutical associations in the information and educational fields creates the basis for creation of strategy of development of hospital pharmacy. The analysis of population dynamics of pharmaceutical staff in hospital pharmaciesis held, and the detailed characteristics of activities of certain categories of specialists of hospital pharmacies is presented.
Salter, Sandra M.; Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M.
Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy edu...
Pretorius, Dewald Jacobus
Effective Medicine Control is the essence of pharmaceutical service delivery and of financial management in Platinum Health Pharmacies. Platinum Health Pharmacies implement medicine control measures to enhance and optimise service delivery. As Platinum Health Pharmacies deliver a pharmaceutical service as business associates of Anglo Platinum, it serves the same workforce. The requirement of the pharmaceutical service delivery for Anglo Platinum is timely, appropriate and available medicine. ...
Municipalities are giving greater consideration to the role of energy in the design, development, and operation of communities. Organizations and governments around the world are beginning to assess various energy risks beyond just the generation or delivery of energy. Municipalities planning for population growth no longer include only the potential increases in revenue from property taxes or the requirement to expand urban growth boundaries to accommodate new development. Energy planning requires an understanding of how communities can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and local energy consumption. This report presented the development of a process in order to assist decision makers, business leaders and local citizens in reviewing the role of energy in urban regions and how district energy (DE) can be part of the solution. The report presented an overview of the approach developed to identify 10 communities across Canada for the application of DE to assist with urban revitalization, brownfield remediation, community economic development, and sustainable energy conservation. The report outlined the development of an energy selection framework and how the framework could be replicated in urban regions to identify the interest in a community for DE. It was concluded that development of a DE system is complex and requires consideration for the interaction of land use policies and energy supply goals, the support of senior decision makers at the public and private level, an open dialogue between planners, engineers, utility operators and developers, as well as an informed and involved citizens. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 8 appendices
Avaliação da característica de personalização dos medicamentos magistrais manipulados pelas farmácias comunitárias com Autorização Especial quanto à individualização da dose | Evaluation of the compounding formula of compounding medicines by community pharmacies with Special Authorization for dosage individualization
Francisco Eduardo de Pontes
Order No. 344/98, and prepared by community pharmacies located in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro. Data were recorded in November 2006, from prescription books of pharmacies with Special Authorization issued by ANVISA (Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency. From the 12253 analyzed formulae, 22% met the inclusion criteria of this study. The results lead us to the conclusion that the prevalence of compounded medication for dosage individualization was low. On average, only 34% of the formulae presented a different dosage from the standard one in the available specialties on the Brazilian pharmaceutical market, which results in a diminution of personalized, compounded medications. This study therefore highlights the need of a more substantial risk assessment to justify the compounding of real compounded prescriptions.
Hansen, Jürgen; Andersen, Verner
A brief description is given of the attempts made between 1867 and 1911 to establish a pharmacy in the village of Broager. Broager is located in the middle of Broagerland peninsula in the south-eastern part of Sønderjylland, Denmark. After the war in 1864 between Denmark and Prussia/Austria the Duchy Schleswig was occupied and became part of the Province Schleswig-Holstein in 1867. Broagerland was part of the province until 1920. The first attempt, in 1867, was made by a pharmacist from Flensburg--before the administrative changes of 1867 were implemented--and his attempt was accepted by the authorities. However, the following administrative changes in Schleswig-Holstein in 1867 delayed the matter which finally was not approved. The authorities in Schleswig-Holstein--including the district medical officer--were not in favor of the idea of a pharmacy at Broager and, thus, could not recommend the applications from 1867, 1881, 1897, and 1901. Arguments by the "Landrath" to the 1901-application were partly related to the risk of getting similar applications from other villages in his district and partly to the negative effects on the income of the existing pharmacists at the nearest pharmacies in Gråsten and Sønderborg. The fact that ten local authorities (kommuneforstandere) supported the application in 1901, and that about half the population had signed the petition, did not affect the "Landrath". The fifth application in 1911 by the "amtsforstander" was successful, and a pharmacy was established at Broager June 6 1912. The first pharmacist was August Johannes Richard Kröger, born at Altona January 30 1869. His colleagues until 1920 are listed. Kröger died August 14 1920. The five attempts to establish the pharmacy in Broager are not described in De danske Apotekers Historie, where only information regarding the pharmacy and pharmacists in Broager after 1920 can be found. PMID:18350702
Sadowski, Cheryl A.; Li, Johnson Ching-hong; Pasay, Darren; C. Allyson Jones
Objective. To evaluate an interprofessional peer-teaching activity during which physical therapy students instructed undergraduate pharmacy students on 3 ambulatory devices (canes, crutches, walkers).
Bloemraad, Irene; Terriquez, Veronica
A rich civic infrastructure of community-based organizations (CBOs) can help generate, diffuse and maintain a culture of engagement and health that benefits marginalized populations most at risk for illness, disability, and poor health. Attention to CBOs advances "meso-level" frameworks for understanding health cultures and outcomes by going beyond attention to social networks and social identities. We focus on three mechanisms: CBOs can (1) empower individuals by developing civic capacity and personal efficacy; (2) foster solidarity by building networks, social identities and a shared commitment to collective well-being; and (3) mobilize people to have a voice in health-related policies and programming, thereby affecting community well-being. We draw on theory and research in sociology, political science and psychology, and we illustrate the utility of a CBO approach by examining survey and semi-structured interview data from participants in youth civic groups in 13 low-income, predominantly immigrant communities in California. Interview data illustrate the ways in which CBOs enhance members' civic capacities, provide a sense of empowerment and efficacy to engage in healthy behaviors, develop solidarity among diverse participants, and elaborate networks among those committed to community well-being. We also discuss CBO-led campaigns in which youth mobilized for change in policies and practices of local institutions to illustrate possible community-wide health consequences of CBO engagement. CBOs can thus generate individual-level well-being effects, and reduce structural barriers to good health through changes in the broader environment. PMID:26898114
Paiva, Maria; Black, Emily
Objective. To characterize preceptor and student views about and experiences with faculty liaison visits to practice sites during clinical internships. Methods. A survey was administered at the conclusion of each of the first 3 academic years of a new postbaccalaureate doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Results. Preceptors were satisfied overall with faculty liaison visits, while students initially were not; however, their perception increased in subsequent years. Students felt development of their patient care skills benefited, but less so their interpersonal communication skills. Each year, almost all preceptors indicated faculty liaison visits were helpful in developing and refining their mentorship skills. Conclusion. Faculty liaison visits provided a valuable opportunity to interact and support preceptors and students during advanced pharmacy internships in a nascent PharmD program. PMID:26839424
The diploma thesis is focused on marketing strategy plan of a private pharmacy using service blueprint as a marketing tool. At the beginning the thesis deals with characteristics of specifics and state regulations of pharmacy marketing. Then the thesis analyses Czech pharmacy market in particular with regard to the expansion of pharmacy chains and also puts emphasis on current pharmacy trends that influence management and marketing of private pharmacies. The main goal is firstly to describe t...
Keller, Jill Lenett
This research tested and evaluated how one method--Competency Points (CPs)--increased student success by enhancing engagement and motivation in community college English composition students. In 2005 I introduced Competency Points in my English Composition 1 classes, and began tracking how engaged and motivated students were to succeed as revealed…
Cassyano Januário Correr; Roberto Pontarolo; Rodrigo Augusto de Paula e Souza; Rafael Venson; Ana Carolina Melchiors; Astrid Wiens
The aim is to evaluate the humanistic outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients by the adoption of pharmacotherapy follow-up in community pharmacies. Controlled, non-randomized, 12-months trial; n=161 patients distributed into control and intervention groups; 6 community pharmacies involved, all in the Curitiba city region, in the state of Paraná were used. The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the satisfaction index were determined using both the DQOL assessment tool, which measures HRQo...
Wilson, Donna M.; Ross, Carolyn; Goodridge, Donna; Davis, Penny; Landreville, Alison; Roebuck, Kim
Aim: This study was undertaken to determine the care needs of Canadian seniors living at home with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Background: COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although hospitalizations for illness exacerbations and end-stage care may be common, most persons with COPD live out…
Pezzoli, Keith; Tukey, Robert; Sarabia, Hiram; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Suk, William A.; Lin, Abel; Ellisman, Mark
Background Two devastating hurricanes ripped across the Gulf Coast of the United States during 2005. The effects of Hurricane Katrina were especially severe: The human and environmental health impacts on New Orleans, Louisiana, and other Gulf Coast communities will be felt for decades to come. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) estimates that Katrina’s destruction disrupted the lives of roughly 650,000 Americans. Over 1,300 people died. The projected economic costs for recovery an...
Bratitsis, Tharrenos; Hlapanis, George Henry; Dimitrakopoulou, Angelique
In order to implement e-learning, quite often simple Internet technologies are used, usually without any clear pedagogical approach. Unfortunately this is not quite effective, it restricts learners' exchanges, while influence the quality of resulted knowledge construction. More sophisticated environments are needed when we vision e-learning as taken place in a rich and flexible Learning Community context, for young students or even for adults and professionals. Our proposal consists of an Ele...
Belojević Goran; Paunović Katarina
Non-auditory effects of noise on humans have been intensively studied in the last four decades. The International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise has been following scientific advances in this field by organizing international congresses from the first one in 1968 in Washington, DC, to the 11th congress in Nara, Japan, in 2014. There is already a large scientific body of evidence on the effects of noise on annoyance, communication, performance and...
Mobach, MP; van der Werf, JJ; Tromp, TFJ
In 1994, a Ph.D-study started regarding pharmacy, organization and management (APOM) in the Netherlands. The APOM-project deals with the structuring and steering of pharmacy organization. This article describes the summary of the empirical results of a survey in a relatively I ge sample (n = 169). G
Strandberg, L R; Stennett, D J; Simonson, W
Questionnaires were mailed to all (464) nongovernment, not-for-profit and investor owned for-profit hospital pharmacies in Washingon, Oregon and California. Responses were received from 350 institutions, a return rate of 75.4 percent. Pharmacists were asked to report data relating to the incidence of, the range of fees charged, and the extent of reimbursement received from third party carriers for the provision of nondistributive pharmacy services. The data received indicate that pharmacy consultation to physicians was provided by 77.9 percent of the respondents, drug therapy monitoring by 48.1 percent, generalized patient discharge consultation by 40.8 percent, CPR team participation by 27.2 percent, indepth patient discharge consultation by 17.5 percent and admitting medication history by 8.8 percent. Additionally, 12 institutions charged for providing 16 nondistributive pharmacy services. Directors of pharmacy from six hospitals indicated that they billed third party carriers for nondistributive pharmacy services as part of their total pharmacy charge via their usual billing procedure. All third party carriers billed in this manner paid for the nondistributive pharmacy service. PMID:10308024
Carter, Barry L.; Brunson, Beverly J.; Hatfield, Catherine L.; Valuck, Robert J.
Describes an introductory course at the University of Colorado School of Pharmacy designed to socialize first-year doctor of pharmacy students (n=91). The course, delivered 6-7 hours daily for two weeks, used small-team activities and large-group discussions to address such topics as roles of faculty, types of pharmacists, time management, and the…
Haumschild, Ryan J; Weber, Robert J
The Director's Forum is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems by providing practical information on various leadership topics. Pharmacists are bound to practice in the best interest of the patient and are obligated to act with integrity and in an ethical manner. Pharmacy directors and their leadership staff are additionally bound to manage their department with integrity. Staff often scrutinize the pharmacy director's actions, giving the director a feeling of "life in a fishbowl." Every action of the leader is judged in the context of personal integrity or their individual commitment to moral, spiritual, and ethical values. The objective of this article is to describe how a pharmacy leader manages this responsibility. This article addresses the pharmacy leader's obligations to act with integrity, reviews key integrity concerns in pharmacy leadership, and provides guidance for leading and managing in the context of ethics and integrity. Pharmacy directors must always be aware that they are open to both department and public scrutiny if they do not conduct themselves in a professional manner. Being accountable for their actions and maintaining a high standard of integrity, leaders can keep the focus of their departments on the goal of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25477587
Katoue MG; Awad AI; Schwinghammer TL; Kombian SB
Background: Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective: To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance...
Canales-Gonzales, Patricia L.; Kranz, Peter L.
This study evaluated stress levels experienced by students in a pharmacy curriculum. A survey was used to evaluate perceived levels of stress, factors that contribute to stress, and mechanisms used to cope with stress. Participants were first, second, and third year students enrolled in pharmacy school. Data were collected using an individual…
Tobi, H; van den Heuvel, N.-J.N.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina
Purpose When using pharmacy data as collected in the InterAction database (IADB) for pharmacoepidemiology studies, we tend to ignore the fact that filled prescriptions are not always collected by the patient. This study investigated whether unclaimed prescriptions pose a validity threat for pharmacy
Kamat, V R; Nichter, M
Studies of pharmaceutical practice have called attention to the role played by pharmacists and pharmacy attendants in fostering self-medication and medicine experimentation among the public. Left undocumented is the extent to which clients passively follow the advice of pharmacy personnel or question their motive or expertise. While research has focused on pharmacists and pharmacy attendants as agents encouraging self-medication and medicine experimentation, adequate attention has not been paid to pharmacist-client interactions that are sensitive to the social, cultural, and economic context in which medicine sales and advice occur. This paper highlights the context in which pharmacy attendants engage in "prescribing medicines" to the public in Bombay, India. An ethnographic description of pharmacies and pharmaceutical-related behavior in Bombay is provided to demonstrate how reciprocal relationships between pharmacy owners, medicine wholesalers and pharmaceutical sales representatives (medreps) influence the actions of pharmacy staff. Attention is focused on the role of the medicine marketing and distribution system in fostering prescription practice, pharmacy "counter-pushing" and self-medication. In documenting the profit motives of different players located on the drug sales continuum, it is argued that the economic rationale and the symbiotic relations that exist between doctors, medreps, medicine wholesalers and retailers, need to be more closely scrutinized by those advocating "rational drug use". PMID:9690824
The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research. PMID:11944656
Dominick Esposito; Eric Schone; Thomas Williams; Su Liu; Karen CyBulski; Rita Stapulonis; Nancy Clusen
Prescriptions ordered by physicians but not picked up by patients offer an opportunity for quality improvement in health systems. In the military system, prescriptions filled at military pharmacies are dispensed with no co-payment, providing an opportunity to examine factors other than out-of-pocket cost that contribute to unclaimed prescriptions. The authors noted an 8 percent self-reported rate for not picking up a prescriptionâ€”with previous research noting rates of between 0.45 and 22 pe...
Dominick Esposito Eric Schone Thomas V Williams Albert Yung-Hsu Liu Karen CyBulski Rita Stapulonis Nancy A Clusen
Prescriptions ordered by physicians but not picked up by patients offer an opportunity for quality improvement in health systems. In the military system, prescriptions filled at military pharmacies are dispensed with no co-payment, providing an opportunity to examine factors other than out-of-pocket cost that contribute to unclaimed prescriptions. The authors noted an 8 percent self-reported rate for not picking up a prescriptionâ€”with previous research noting rates of between 0.45 and 22 pe...
Andrew G. Slater
Full Text Available The Community Land Model is the land component of the Community Climate System Model. Here, we describe a broad set of model improvements and additions that have been provided through the CLM development community to create CLM4. The model is extended with a carbon-nitrogen (CN biogeochemical model that is prognostic with respect to vegetation, litter, and soil carbon and nitrogen states and vegetation phenology. An urban canyon model is added and a transient land cover and land use change (LCLUC capability, including wood harvest, is introduced, enabling study of historic and future LCLUC on energy, water, momentum, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes. The hydrology scheme is modified with a revised numerical solution of the Richards equation and a revised ground evaporation parameterization that accounts for litter and within-canopy stability. The new snow model incorporates the SNow and Ice Aerosol Radiation model (SNICAR - which includes aerosol deposition, grain-size dependent snow aging, and vertically-resolved snowpack heating – as well as new snow cover and snow burial fraction parameterizations. The thermal and hydrologic properties of organic soil are accounted for and the ground column is extended to ~50-m depth. Several other minor modifications to the land surface types dataset, grass and crop optical properties, atmospheric forcing height, roughness length and displacement height, and the disposition of snow-capped runoff are also incorporated.Taken together, these augmentations to CLM result in improved soil moisture dynamics, drier soils, and stronger soil moisture variability. The new model also exhibits higher snow cover, cooler soil temperatures in organic-rich soils, greater global river discharge, and lower albedos over forests and grasslands, all of which are improvements compared to CLM3.5. When CLM4 is run with CN, the mean biogeophysical simulation is slightly degraded because the vegetation structure is prognostic rather
Holdford, David A
Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient. PMID:24558271
Morales-Cosme, Alba Dolores; Viesca-Treviño, Carlos
From the second half of the 19th century, health disciplines went through an institutional and professional restructuring, which progressively altered the guild order that had characterized them to that point. In the case of Pharmacy, this process implied the generation of officially recognized spaces, as the chairs of Pharmacy and Medical Substance, founded during the Establecimiento de Ciencias Médicas (Establishment of Medical Sciences) (1833). In those spaces it was sought to institutionalize knowledge and modern practices related to Pharmacy. In this work we look over the first academic experience of the pharmaceutical community in that new space of instruction, based on the records belonging to the students enrolled in the Establecimiento de Ciencias Médicas from 1833 to 1865, year of the enrollment of the last generation. The information contained in those 163 records displays the way the pharmaceutical field was transformed, after the aforementioned restructuring. The reader will notice the diverse normativity, which regulated the joining of pharmacists to academic life (of which, until then, they were excluded). He will also realize how, among the first students enrolled in the Establecimiento de Ciencias Médicas, said normativity was broke in order to adapt it to the known ways of students and professors. Progressively, the guild instruction would be ousted by the institutional instruction (for example, the years of practice in the drugstores were rejected), so that the guild ways of teaching were changing to turn the pharmacist into an individual of institutional instruction. PMID:26820211
Full Text Available Compared to the nursing and medical professions, simulation-based pharmacy education is a relatively new mode of supporting learning, although one that is growing rapidly to meet the training needs of a new generation of healthcare professionals. Within the UK (and particularly Scotland, access to the clinical environment through the more traditional route of placement is limited, and simulation offers a partial solution to this problem. As is well-established, simulation—if used appropriately—also offers excellent opportunities for enhancing patient safety, including allowing the exploration of the science of human factors. Given the high incidence of medication errors, pharmacists need to be included in any intervention for improvement of patient safety. It is true, however, that the “clinical environment” experienced by the practising pharmacist (especially in community pharmacy is different from the typical nursing or medical situation. This, combined with a lack of understanding of the role of the pharmacist as a member of the wider healthcare team, means that there are additional considerations required when designing simulation-based learning activities. This commentary undertakes a narrative review of the current situation for pharmacy simulation, and considers how this may be developed to support the Scottish healthcare vision, whilst recognising that the issues raised are likely to be relevant across the sector.
Veronin, Michael A; Daniels, Lacy; Demps, Elaine
Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL), an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist's and patient's roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple active-learning assignments were successful in increasing students' knowledge, and provided additional practice in building the communication skills beneficial for students preparing for experiential clinical rotations. PMID:23762008
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST. Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know that narcotics, β-blockers and diuretics were used in sport as doping agents. Additionally, proportions between 60% and 80% considered vitamins, energy drinks and amino acids as substances that possess performance-enhancing effects. The main reason for doping, based on students’ response, was to improve muscular body appearance. The vast majority of students agreed that pharmacists should play a major role in promoting awareness about risks of doping. While students showed negative attitudes toward doping, approximately 15% of them, primarily males, had already tried a doping drug or might do so in the future. More than 60% of the students believed that sports-mates and friends are the most influential in encouraging them to take a doping agent. The study highlights the need to provide pharmacy students with advanced theoretical background and practical training concerning doping. This can be achieved by adopting simple, but essential, changes to the current curricula.
The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is to be a multi-purpose neutron research center, constructed around a high-flux reactor now being designed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Its primary purpose is to place the United States in the forefront of neutron scattering in the twenty-first century. Other research programs include nuclear and fundamental physics, isotopes production, materials irradiation, and analytical chemistry. The Advanced Neutron Source will be a unique and invaluable research tool because of the unprecedented neutron flux available from the high intensity research reactor. But that reactor would be ineffective without world-class research facilities that allow the fullest utilization of the available neutrons. And, in turn, those research facilities will not produce new and exciting science without a broad population of users coming from all parts of the nation, and the world, placed in a simulating environment in which experiments can be effectively conducted, and in which scientific exchange is encouraged. This paper discusses the measures being taken to ensure that the design of the ANS focuses not only on the reactor, but on providing the experiment and user support facilities needed to allow its effective use. 5 refs., 4 figs
Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.. They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future.
Langley, Christopher A
Pharmacy originates from a background of medication compounding and supply. More recently, this role has developed away from an absolute focus on the supply of pharmaceuticals with, for example, the advent of pharmacist prescribing. Nevertheless, for a majority of the profession, medication supply remains a core activity. Regulation of the pharmacy profession is now the responsibility of the General Pharmaceutical Council, although up until 27 September 2010, this role fell to the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB). Before this change, in one of the most high-profile legal cases involving a pharmacist in a professional capacity, R. v Lee, a pharmacist was prosecuted firstly for gross negligence manslaughter, later revised to offences under the Medicines Act 1968, for a single error relating to medication supply, and was given a suspended custodial sentence. Offences against sections 64 or 85 of the Medicines Act are absolute offences and there is no due diligence defence. Prosecution of a pharmacist for the supply of incorrect medication may seem a measured course of action to protect the public from the wrongful supply of potent pharmacotherapeutic agents; however, further analysis of Lee indicates that this approach may be counterproductive. An appeal of the original conviction in the Lee case has resulted in a clarification of the interpretation of section 85(5); however currently, prosecutions under section 64 are still a possibility. Owing to the seriousness of a criminal conviction under section 64, this continuation will potentially stifle the profession's ability to learn from dispensing errors. PMID:24327399
Full Text Available Many a child dreams of mixing chemicals and going on to become a renowned scientist. We enter college to pursue our favorite degree and have a lot of aspirations as we begin our academic journey. Inevitably, we are bombarded with organic chemistry in the very first year which brings with it a whole lot of anxiety and gives us sleepless nights. Over time, most students tend to stay away from chemistry and gradually develop an aversion towards the subject. This phenomenon occurs across disciplines and cultures. As one would expect, it is very much prevalent in our pharmacy colleges where organic chemistry is a terror at the undergraduate B. Pharm level. This situation has now escalated to such alarming proportions that there are no takers for the chemistry-based M. Pharm specializations at the postgraduate level all over India in many institutions. Many amongst the current crop of young teachers have trained in this environment and are afflicted by this phobia. As a result, effective chemistry teachers are few and far between. This opinion piece is intended to serve as a wake-up call for all those concerned with addressing the issue of undergraduate organic chemistry in the pharmacy educational setup in our country lest we completely lose touch with this fascinating stream of basic science.
Levaggi, Rosella; Orizio, Grazia; Domenighini, Serena; Bressanelli, Maura; Schulz, Peter J; Zani, Claudia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto
Internet and e-commerce have profoundly changed society, the economy, and the world of health care. The web offers opportunities to improve health, but it may also represent a big health hazard since it is a basically unregulated market with very low consumer protection. In this paper we analyze marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies (OPs). Our analysis shows that OPs use strategies that would be more suitable for a commodity market than for drugs. These strategies differentiate according to variety (brand or generic), quality, quantity, and target group. OPs are well aware that the vacuum in the legislation allows them to reach a target of consumers that pharmacies cannot normally reach, such as those who would like to use the drug without consulting a physician (or, even worse, against the physician's advice). In this case, they usually charge a higher price, reassure the users by minimizing on the side effects, and induce them to bulk purchase through sensible price discounts. This analysis suggests that the selling of drugs via the Internet can turn into a "public health risk", as has been pointed out by the US Food and Drug Administration. PMID:19394104
Smith, J E; Black, B L
Participation by hospital pharmacy departments in planning and development of diversified services is described. Diversification requires market planning. Seven basic marketing steps are identification of mission, goals, and objectives; identification of growth strategies (market penetration, market development, product development, and diversification); market analysis of external factors (size, growth, and logistics; reimbursement and financial considerations; competition; regulatory issues; and legal issues); market analysis of internal factors (departmental organization and reporting lines, demographics of the institution, and costs and productivity associated with the new service); program development and design; implementation; and evaluation. Hospitals can diversify by expanding acute-care services through management contracts and mergers; developing new services to include long-term-care, ambulatory-care, occupational-health, and wellness programs; starting other health-care ventures, such as consulting, continuing medical education, and continuing education for nurses; and expanding into non-health-care businesses. Vertical diversification is finding new markets for existing services; horizontal diversification is development of new services for new markets. To diversify, an institution may need to change its corporate structure; it may form a family of corporations that includes a university, nonprofit hospitals, holding companies, for-profit corporations, joint ventures, and service organizations. Through diversification, institutions and pharmacy departments can create alternative sources of funding and offer more comprehensive services to patients. PMID:3605115
Shireman, Theresa I.; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela
Objective To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students’ knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. Methods A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Results Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 ± 3.3, 9.6 ± 4.0, and 14.8 ± 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Conclusion Students’ awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups. PMID:20221356
Bigbee, Jeri L.; Abood, Richard; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Maderas, Nicole Monastersky; Foster, Diana Greene; Ravnan, Susan
Context: Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) has emerged as a major public health effort in the prevention of unintended pregnancies. The recent FDA decision to allow over-the-counter availability of emergency contraception for adult women presents important rural health implications. American women, especially those living in rural and…
Brownsell, S J; Bradley, D A; Bragg, R; Catling, P; Carlier, J
We have developed an attributable cost model for a city-based telecare scheme involving 11,618 community alarm users. The equipment was assumed to cost 500 Pounds-1000 Pounds per installation, compared with 175 Pounds for the current system. Because of the significant additional capital cost of the proposed system, it would be necessary to borrow to finance it. For example, if the home equipment cost 500 Pounds per unit, an additional 2.2 million Pounds would be required. Nonetheless, it would be possible to achieve a return on the investment after 10 years. The principal savings would arise from reduced hospital bed costs and reduced residential care. The model suggests that the financial benefits of the proposed system would occur in the ratio of 4% to the local authority housing department, 43% to the National Health Service and 53% to the residential care provider. PMID:11331043
Full Text Available Michael A Veronin,1,2 Lacy Daniels,1,2 Elaine Demps21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, 2Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, USAAbstract: Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL, an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple
笔者通过在德国进修学习和查阅文献,并参考德国药师协会(Bundesvereinigung Deutscher Apothekerverbände, ABDA)的调查数据,对德国药房的基本情况进行介绍。德国实行严格的医药分开,参考德国药房数量、药师密度、药师从业分布等情况,对我国药房今后的改革有一定借鉴意义。% The experience of advanced study in pharmacy in Germany, and the literatures,as well as the data from the German Pharmacists Association were studied and analyzed. In Germany, Pharmacy is strictly separated from the hospital.The number of pharmacy, as well as the density and distribution of pharmacist in Germany, etc., could be a reference for the reform of pharmacy in China.
Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A
E-prescribing, the health information technology (HIT) that enables prescribers to electronically transmit prescriptions to community pharmacies, has been touted as a solution for improving patient safety and overall quality of care. However, the impact of HIT, such as e-prescribing on medication errors in acute care settings, has been widely studied and shows that if poorly designed or implemented, HIT can pose a risk to patient safety by introducing a source of medication errors. Unlike acute care settings, safety issues related to e-prescribing in primary care settings (where e-prescriptions are generated and transmitted) and pharmacies (where e-prescriptions are received) have not received as much attention in the literature. This paper provides a focused review of patient safety issues related to using e-prescribing systems in primary care and pharmacies. In addition, the paper proposes using human factors engineering concepts to study e-prescribing safety in pharmacies and primary care settings to identify safety problems and possible mechanisms for improvement. PMID:23062769
Mirghani A. Yousif
Full Text Available Objective: The study was to determine the Sudanese pharmacy students′ opinions and to measure their satisfaction about education instructions and to reveal their impact on the future carrier. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted by using pretested self-administered questionnaire among final year pharmacy students in Sudan. Results: A total of 455 students from both public and private colleges were participated in the study. Combined one-way direct with interactive method was dominant (74.5% and was preferred by (74.3%. The English was the major instruction language (62.9%, which was preferred by (66.6% of the participants. More than 3-quarters of the students had chosen the pharmacy as first choice. Students believed that pharmacy provides good future career. There was a significant association between the students′ satisfaction about choosing pharmacy as career and current academic performance (P = 0.004. Conclusion: The obtained results provide an insight into students′ opinions on different issues concerning pharmacy education instructions. These data could be utilized as an indicator of the general trends and a guideline for improving pharmacy education in Sudan.
Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Chui, Michelle A.
E-prescribing, the health information technology (HIT) that enables prescribers to electronically transmit prescriptions to community pharmacies has been touted as a solution for improving patient safety and overall quality of care. However, the impact of HIT, such as e-prescribing on medication errors in acute care settings has been widely studied and show that if poorly designed or implemented, HIT can pose a risk to patient safety by introducing a source of medication errors. Unlike acute ...
Dittmar, J. H.
Advanced counter-rotation propellers have been indicated as possibly generating an unacceptable amount of noise for the people living near an airport. This report has explored ways to reduce this noise level, which is treated as being caused by the interaction of the upstream propeller wakes and vortices with the downstream propeller. The noise reduction techniques fall into two categories: (1) reducing the strength of the wakes and vortices, and (2) reducing the response of the downstream blades to them. The noise from the wake interaction was indicated as being reduced by increased propeller spacing and decreased blade drag coefficient. The vortex-interaction noise could be eliminated by having the vortex pass over the tips of the downstream blade, and it could be reduced by increased spacing or decreased initial circulation. The downstream blade response could be lessened by increasing the reduced frequency parameter omega or by phasing of the response from different sections to have a mutual cancellation effect. Uneven blade to blade spacing for the downstream blading was indicated as having a possible effect on the annoyance of counter-rotation propeller noise. Although there are undoubtedly additional methods of noise reduction not covered in this report, the inclusion of the design methods discussed would potentially result in a counter-rotation propeller that is acceptably quiet.
Full Text Available Abstract The importance of health workforce provision has gained significance and is now considered one of the most pressing issues worldwide, across all health professions. Against this background, the objectives of the work presented here were to systematically explore and identify contemporary issues surrounding expansion of the global pharmacy workforce in order to assist the International Pharmaceutical Federation working group on the workforce. International peer and non-peer-reviewed literature published between January 1998 and February 2008 was analysed. Articles were collated by performing searches of appropriate databases and reference lists of relevant articles; in addition, key informants were contacted. Information that met specific quality standards and pertained to the pharmacy workforce was extracted to matrices and assigned an evidence grade. Sixty-nine papers were identified for inclusion (48 peer reviewed and 21 non-peer-reviewed. Evaluation of evidence revealed the global pharmacy workforce to be composed of increasing numbers of females who were working fewer hours; this decreased their overall full-time equivalent contribution to the workforce, compared to male pharmacists. Distribution of pharmacists was uneven with respect to location (urban/rural, less-developed/more-developed countries and work sector (private/public. Graduates showed a preference for completing pre-registration training near where they studied as an undergraduate; this was of considerable importance to rural areas. Increases in the number of pharmacy student enrolments and pharmacy schools occurred alongside an expansion in the number and roles of pharmacy technicians. Increased international awareness and support existed for the certification, registration and regulation of pharmacy technicians and accreditation of training courses. The most common factors adding to the demand for pharmacists were increased feminization, clinical governance measures
Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Lonie, John M; Smith, Lorraine
OBJECTIVE. To research the literature and examine assessment strategies used in health education that measure reflection levels and to identify assessment strategies for use in pharmacy education. METHODS. A simple systematic review using a 5-step approach was employed to locate peer-reviewed articles addressing assessment strategies in health education from the last 20 years. RESULTS. The literature search identified assessment strategies and rubrics used in health education for assessing levels of reflection. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding reflective rubric use in pharmacy education. CONCLUSION. Two assessment strategies to assess levels of reflection, including a reflective rubric tailored for pharmacy education, are proposed. PMID:26690718
Vass, Caroline; Gray, Ewan; Payne, Katherine
Background Two previous systematic reviews have summarised the application of discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services. These reviews identified a total of twelve studies and described how discrete choice experiments have been used to value pharmacy services but did not describe or discuss the application of methods used in the design or analysis. Aims (1) To update the most recent systematic review and critically appraise current discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services in line with published reporting criteria and; (2) To provide an overview of key methodological developments in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments. Methods The review used a comprehensive strategy to identify eligible studies (published between 1990 and 2015) by searching electronic databases for key terms related to discrete choice and best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. All healthcare choice experiments were then hand-searched for key terms relating to pharmacy. Data were extracted using a published checklist. Results A total of 17 discrete choice experiments eliciting preferences for pharmacy services were identified for inclusion in the review. No BWS studies were identified. The studies elicited preferences from a variety of populations (pharmacists, patients, students) for a range of pharmacy services. Most studies were from a United Kingdom setting, although examples from Europe, Australia and North America were also identified. Discrete choice experiments for pharmacy services tended to include more attributes than non-pharmacy choice experiments. Few studies reported the use of qualitative research methods in the design and interpretation of the experiments (n = 9) or use of new methods of analysis to identify and quantify preference and scale heterogeneity (n = 4). No studies reported the use of Bayesian methods in their experimental design. Conclusion Incorporating more sophisticated methods in the design of pharmacy
Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619
Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.
Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.
Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V
Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614
Chen, Aleda M. H.; Kiersma, Mary E.; Keib, Carrie N.; Cailor, Stephanie
Objective. To evaluate pharmacy and nursing student self-perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, faculty member perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, and changes in those skills after increasing the interdisciplinary education content.
Objective. To develop and implement a solid organ transplant elective course for second- and third-year pharmacy students, and assess its impact on students’ knowledge in the management of medications, adverse effects, and complications in organ transplantation patients.
Darbishire, Patricia L.; Plake, Kimberly S.; Kiersma, Mary E.; White, Jessalynn K.
Objective. To evaluate the impact of a medication adherence activity on introductory pharmacy practice experience students’ perceptions of patient adherence as well as student development of empathy and confidence in patient counseling.
Salter, Sandra M; Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M
Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy education effectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels. PMID:24850945
Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto
As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their precise location. Ninety-six (81.4%) online pharmacies did not require a medical prescription from the customer's physician. Online pharmacies rise complex issues in terms of patient-doctor relationship, consumer empowerment, drug quality, regulation and public health implications. PMID:19151103
Guimarães Morais JA
Full Text Available A survey of quality assurance (QA systems in European faculties of pharmacy was carried out under the auspices of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy PHARMINE consortium. A questionnaire based on the quality criteria of the International Pharmaceutical Federation and the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (USA was sent out to European faculties. Replies were obtained from 28 countries. Just above half has a working QA system. QA scores were high concerning matters such as complete curriculum and training, use of European Credit Transfer System, students’ representation and promotion of professional behavior. QA scores were low concerning matters such as evaluation of achievement of mission and goals, and financial resources. The PHARMINE consortium now has a basis upon which to elaborate and promote QA in European pharmacy faculties.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These public use files contain formulary, pharmacy network, and pricing data for Medicare Prescription Drug Plans and Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plans...
Pinkerton, JoAnn V.; Constantine, Ginger D.
Abstract Objective: From a survey of compounding pharmacists, specific questions regarding compounded menopausal hormone therapy were used to estimate compounded hormone therapy (CHT) prescribing in the United States. Methods: A national online survey was conducted by Rose Research—a market research company consisting of 12,250 US pharmacists from independent community pharmacies (ICPs) and compounding pharmacies (CPs). Pharmacists who completed the survey and met the prespecified criteria were eligible. Data from the survey were extrapolated to estimate overall CHT prescription volume and annual costs of CHT prescriptions for the United States based upon industry data from the National Community Pharmacists Association and IBISWorld. Results: Surveys were completed by 483 pharmacies, including 365 ICPs and 118 CPs. On the basis of the survey responses and extrapolated industry data, an estimated 26 to 33 million CHT prescriptions were filled annually, with total sales estimated at $1.3 to $1.6 billion. CPs (vs ICPs) accounted for a higher proportion of CHT prescriptions. More than half of the ICPs (52%) and CPs (75%) expected continued compounding business growth, with most predicting 5% to 25% growth within 2 years, despite the potential effect of restrictive legislation regarding compounding. Conclusions: On the basis of extrapolated data from numbers of prescriptions reported by pharmacists participating in the survey, the volume of CHT seems to approach that of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved menopausal hormone therapy, and growth in the CHT market is expected. Thus, physicians should educate themselves and the women consulting them about the differences between the FDA-approved and the less-tested CHT formulations. More research on the efficacy, safety, and consistency of non-FDA–approved CHT is needed. PMID:26645819
Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Bradet, Richard; Mondor, Myrto; Lavoie, France; Moisan, Jocelyne
Canadian Pharmacists are easy to reach. Although Québec pharmacists are not allowed to administer vaccines, they can: (1) promote vaccination, (2) counsel patients on vaccination, (3) sell vaccines and (4) provide vaccine administration by a nurse. Our objectives were to describe immunization services given in Québec pharmacies and assess the potential relation between, on one hand, pharmacy characteristics and difficulties perceived by pharmacists and, on the other hand, vaccine administrati...
Mirghani A. Yousif; Eldalo, Ahmed S.; Ahmed A. Albarraq; Nizar Sirag; Mustafa Ibrahim
Objective: The study was to determine the Sudanese pharmacy students′ opinions and to measure their satisfaction about education instructions and to reveal their impact on the future carrier. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted by using pretested self-administered questionnaire among final year pharmacy students in Sudan. Results: A total of 455 students from both public and private colleges were participated in the study. Combined one-way direct with interactive method...
Pharmacy education has undergone a radical change as it evolves towards becoming a more patient oriented profession. With a greater emphasis on problem based teaching and competency, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), supported by its reliability and validity became the gold standard for the evaluation of clinical skills of undergraduate students of medicine and pharmacy worldwide. Core competency evaluation has become a mandatory and critical norm for accountability of edu...
Shrank, William H.; Porter, Michael E.; Jain, Sachin H.; Choudhry, Niteesh K
Pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) have a unique opportunity to promote health and generate value in the healthcare system. Today, PBMs are largely evaluated on their ability to control costs rather than improve health. Pharmacy benefit managers should be evaluated along 3 dimensions in which they can increase value: (1) use of cost-effective medications, (2) timely initiation of appropriate medication therapy, and (3) adherence to that therapy. Value creation requires the development of integr...
This Bachelor's Thesis studies application of marketing to a pharmacy in a small to medium sized town. The theoretical part addresses marketing elements that are relevant for this field of entrepreneurship. I also add the specifics of marketing in the field of medical care. The analysis deals mainly with marketing mix in a traditional sense and competiton in the area. The Theoretical part also includes specifics of operation of a pharmacy. The Practical part contains basic information about t...
I. A. Dzhuparova
The article studies the problems of development of methods of the outsourcing reasoning of a certain business process of pharmacy chains considering the risk on the basis of the system analysis, expert survey, theory of probability, mathematical statistics. Business processes of the pharmacy chain for outsourcing have been indicated. We have offered an “index of outsourcing reasonability” for qualitative evaluation of business processes implementation.
Kassam R; Volume-Smith C; Albon SP
Introduction: A study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using the physician-based Informed Shared Decision Making (ISDM) framework for teaching pharmacy students competencies to effectively develop therapeutic relationships with patients. Objectives: To: (1) assess the relevance and importance of the physician-developed ISDM competencies for pharmacy practice, (2) determine which competencies would be easiest and hardest to practice, (3) identify barriers to implementing ISDM in p...
Auta, A; Banwat, SB; Sariem, CN; Shalkur, D; Nasara, B; Atuluku, MO
This study was aimed at identifying the types of medicines in pharmacy students’ residence and to determine if a relationship exists between keeping medicines in students’ accommodation and self-medication practices. A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 240 undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria, was carried out. Participating students were given a self-administered questionnaire, and only 188 students returned their filled questionnaire. The data col...
Kamaruzaman Jusoff; Rohaty M. Majzub; Maisarah M. Rais
Communication skills are of utmost importance to both students and practicing pharmacists. In order to become successful pharmacists, one needs to possess excellent communication skills to serve the clients. This study examined the perception of 1st year pharmacy students who are currently enrolled in a course entitled Communication Skills for Pharmacy. A sample of 21 students was identified through purposive sampling. They were examined on a) the importance of communication skills in ESP and...
Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine
Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.1-2 Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student’s own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a...
Nkansah, Nancy T.; Youmans, Sharon L.; Agness, Chanel F.; Assemi, Mitra
Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas a...
The "Pharmacy guide" is approved by the Medical Commission of the IOC. The guide lists the catalogue for drugs available and prescription process at the pharmacy in the Youth Olympic Village Polyclinic and covers therapeutic use exemption and other matters. The guide is mainly aimed at providing NOC delegations with the following information : drugs available at the Youth Olympic Village Polyclinic ; procedures for prescribing ; 2014 Prohibited List.
Gabriella Roecker; Paula da Silva Cardoso; Patrícia de Aguiar Amaral
Radiopharmacy is an essential and integral part of nuclear medicine. Preparation of reactive substances has to be carried out by competent professionals, who must be able to demonstrate knowledge of all areas of the specialty. Given the responsibilities of the pharmacist, this study aimed at analyzing the curriculum of the college of pharmacy at Universities of the Southern Brazil offering the discipline of radiopharmacy (or similar). The curriculum of pharmacy institutions in Paraná, Santa C...
Thomas L. Lenz, PharmD, MA
Full Text Available IntroductionSeveral organizations representing pharmacy and other health professions stress the importance of teaching public health topics as part of training future practitioners. The objective of our study was to assess the number of U.S. pharmacy schools that incorporate lifestyle modification topics into their curricula.MethodsWe developed an electronic survey on lifestyle modification topics and sent it to each of the 89 pharmacy schools in the United States. The survey defined lifestyle modification topics as topics that address nutrition, exercise, weight loss, smoking cessation, and alcohol use.ResultsOf 89 pharmacy schools contacted, 50 (56% responded to the survey. Of the 50, four offer at least one required course in a lifestyle modification topic, seven offer at least one elective course, and one offers a required course that incorporates more than one lifestyle modification topic. Five required and nine elective courses were identified from the responses. Nutrition was the most commonly offered required course topic, followed by smoking cessation, exercise, weight loss, and alcohol use.ConclusionFew pharmacy schools are addressing recommendations to promote public health education through formalized didactic courses. More courses on lifestyle modification topics should be offered to pharmacy students, who will be highly accessible to the public as pharmacists and will be able to offer education to enhance public health focused on the prevention of chronic diseases.
Kazmierski, Mandy; King, Nigel
The community matron (CM) is often the key worker caring for patients with chronic, life-limiting, long-term conditions, but these patients are not always recognised as palliative cases. This study explored the experiences of CMs with regard to advance care planning (ACP) and 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' (DNACPR) decision-making to understand whether or not they felt adequately prepared for this aspect of their role, and why. Qualitative data were generated from six CMs using a broad interpretive phenomenological approach. Face-to-face recorded interviews were analysed using template analysis. The study found that although participants faced complex ethical situations around ACP and DNACPR almost on a daily basis, none had received any formal training despite the emphasis on training in national and local guidelines. Participants often struggled to get their patients accepted on to the Gold Standards Framework. The research found variability and complexity of cases to be the main barriers to clear identification of the palliative phase. PMID:25559025
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Pharmacy Locations dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. It is described as...
Neeta Shivakumar*, Pushpa Agrawal and Praveen Kumar Gupta
Full Text Available The people in India have an outstanding knowledge of medicinal plants acquired over centuries. A passion for studying medicinal plants is evident both in folk and scholarly traditions. The indigenous mode of understanding and using plants is different from the modern scientific way. It includes botanical, medical and astrological elements. This is the basis of green pharmacy. Indians obviously care for medicinal plants because they know so many of them, so much about them and have worked extensively on their application. It is a remarkable fact that the use of medicinal plants is still a living tradition in the form of a million village-based folk carriers. These traditional birth attendants, bonesetters, herbal healers and wandering monks are invisible to policy makers and therefore not taken into account as a public health resource. Apart from these specialised folk healers there are also millions of women and elders with traditional knowledge of food and nutrition and herbal home-remedies. However, the revitalisation of this vast and diverse folk tradition does not appear on the Governments agenda. Here is an attempt to introduce these traditional knowledge with an emphasis of Nevadensin that holds a promising substance to cure many of the diseases naturally.
Full Text Available Frequent, suboptimal use of antimicrobial drugs has resulted in the emergence of microbial resistance, compromised clinical outcomes and increased costs, particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU. Mounting on these challenges is the paucity of new antimicrobial agents.Objectives: The study aims to determine the impact of prospective pharmacy-driven antimicrobial stewardship in the ICU on clinical and potential financial outcomes. The primary objectives were to determine the mean length of stay (LOS and mortality rate in the ICU resulting from prospective pharmacy interventions on antimicrobial therapy. The secondary objective was to calculate the difference in total drug acquisition costs resulting from pharmacy infectious diseases (ID-related interventions.Methods: In collaboration with an infectious disease physician, the ICU pharmacy team provided prospective audit with feedback to physicians on antimicrobial therapies of 70 patients over a 4-month period in a 31-bed ICU. In comparison with published data, LOS and mortality of pharmacy-monitored ICU patients were recorded. Daily cost savings on antimicrobial drugs and charges for medication therapy management (MTM services were added to calculate potential total cost savings. Pharmacy interventions focused on streamlining, dose optimization, intravenous-to-oral conversion, antimicrobial discontinuation, new recommendation and drug information consult. Antimicrobial education was featured in oral presentations and electronic newsletters for pharmacists and clinicians.Results: The mean LOS in the ICU was 6 days, which was lower than the published reports of LOS ranging from 11 to 36 days. The morality rate of 14% was comparable to the reported range of 6 to 20% in published literature. The total drug cost difference was a negative financial outcome or loss of USD192 associated with ID-related interventions.Conclusion: In collaboration with the infectious disease physician, prospective
Kerns, Suzanne; Puspitasari, Ajeng; Hendricks, Karin; Pierson, Andria; Fizur, Phil; Comtois, Katherine A.; Green, Amy E; Trott, Elise M.; Willging, Cathleen E.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Woolf, Nicholas H.; Liang, Shuting Lily; Heredia, Natalia I.; Kegler, Michelle; Risendal, Betsy
Table of contents Introduction to the 3rd Biennial Conference of the Society for Implementation Research Collaboration: advancing efficient methodologies through team science and community partnerships Cara Lewis, Doyanne Darnell, Suzanne Kerns, Maria Monroe-DeVita, Sara J. Landes, Aaron R. Lyon, Cameo Stanick, Shannon Dorsey, Jill Locke, Brigid Marriott, Ajeng Puspitasari, Caitlin Dorsey, Karin Hendricks, Andria Pierson, Phil Fizur, Katherine A. Comtois A1: A behavioral economic perspective ...
Full Text Available Background Self medication is practice by a pharmacist or lay person to treat minor health problem or symptoms without prescription. The study was conducted to evaluate the medication pattern, behaviour, practice and attitude among undergraduate pharmacy students on self medication. Methods Descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among 175 pharmacy undergraduates in different institutions within Kathmandu valley, Nepal using prevalidated, five sectional and structured questionnaires. Results Non steroidal analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drugs (n=235, 38.29% were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever (n=94, 55.29% and headaches (n=89, 52.35%, mainly paracetamol (n=144, 23.8%.Community pharmacies (n=136, 80.00% and pharmacist recommendation (n=76, 44.70% were main sources of obtaining and selecting particular medicine and its dose (n=108, 63.54% while friends and family (n=75, 44.11% remained main source of information. 128(75.29%always checked up the information on package label or insert, mainly date of manufacturing (n=96, 56.47% . 70(41.17% respondents fully and 71(41.76% of them partly understood the information. 161(94.30%respondent always checked the expiry date before medicating. Significant proportion perceived it as unacceptable practice with main reasons of being unsafe (n=64, 37.64% and potential adverse reaction (n=21, 12.35%.52(30.58% of them faced adverse reactions or side effects. Allopathic system (n=114, 67.05% was preferable medication system for self medication. Conclusion Most common drugs were NSAIDs, primly paracetamol, cough and cold reliever and GI infection ailments. Students and their profession interrelationship were predominant shaping their attitude and behaviour on self medication.
Full Text Available Kerry Wilbur College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: The Canadian-accredited post-baccalaureate Doctor of Pharmacy program at Qatar University trains pharmacists to deliver advanced patient care. Emphasis on acquisition and development of the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes lies in the curriculum’s extensive experiential component. A campus-based oral comprehensive examination (OCE was devised to emulate a clinical viva voce and complement the extensive formative assessments conducted at experiential practice sites throughout the curriculum. We describe an evaluation of the final exit summative assessment for this graduate program. Methods: OCE results since the inception of the graduate program (3 years ago were retrieved and recorded into a blinded database. Examination scores among each paired faculty examiner team were analyzed for inter-rater reliability and linearity of agreement using intraclass correlation and Spearman’s correlation coefficient measurements, respectively. Graduate student ranking from individual examiner OCE scores was compared with that of other relative ranked student performance. Results: Sixty-one OCEs were administered to 30 graduate students over 3 years by a composite of eleven different pairs of faculty examiners. Intraclass correlation measures demonstrated that examiner team reliability was low and linearity of agreements was inconsistent. Only one examiner team in each respective academic year was found to have statistically significant inter-rater reliability, and linearity of agreements was inconsistent in all years. No association was found between examination performance rankings and other academic parameters. Conclusion: Critical review of our final summative assessment implies it is lacking robustness and defensibility. Measures are in place to continue the quality improvement process and develop and implement an alternative means of evaluation within a more
Minard, Laura V; Deal, Heidi; Harrison, Megan E; Toombs, Kent; Neville, Heather; Meade, Andrea
Background In hospitals around the world, there has been no consensus regarding which clinical activities a pharmacist should focus on until recently. In 2011, a Canadian clinical pharmacy key performance indicator (cpKPI) collaborative was formed. The goal of the collaborative was to advance pharmacy practice in order to improve patient outcomes and enhance the quality of care provided to patients by hospital pharmacists. Following a literature review, which indicated that pharmacists can improve patient outcomes by carrying out specific activities, and an evidence-informed consensus process, a final set of eight cpKPIs were established. Canadian hospitals leading the cpKPI initiative are currently in the early stages of implementing these indicators. Objective To explore pharmacists' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of cpKPIs. Methods Clinical pharmacists employed by the Nova Scotia Health Authority were invited to participate in focus groups. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed, and data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings Three focus groups, including 26 pharmacists, were conducted in February 2015. Three major themes were identified. Resisting the change was comprised of documentation challenges, increased workload, practice environment constraints, and competing priorities. Embracing cpKPIs was composed of seeing the benefit, demonstrating value, and existing supports. Navigating the unknown was made up of quality versus quantity battle, and insights into the future. Conclusions Although pharmacists were challenged by documentation and other changes associated with the implementation of cpKPIs, they demonstrated significant support for cpKPIs and were able to see benefits of the implementation. Pharmacists came up with suggestions for overcoming resistance associated with the implementation of cpKPIs and provided insights into the future of pharmacy practice. The identification of barriers
There are more than 450 nuclear pharmacies in the United States of America. Approximately 80% of these are centralized nuclear pharmacies operated by three major companies: Cardinal Health, Tyco Healthcare/Mallinckrodt and GE Healthcare. There are 88 independent facilities and two additional companies specialized in PET radiopharmaceuticals: CTI/PETNET and Eastern Isotopes. Institutional nuclear pharmacies, representing 20% of the radiopharmacies in the USA, prepare multidose radiopharmaceuticals in university or hospital settings. All commercial nuclear pharmacies are licensed by a state board of pharmacy and operate under the supervision of an authorized nuclear pharmacist. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that all nuclear pharmacists be certified pharmacists, completing an approved programme consisting of 200 h of didactic and 500 h of practical training. Recently, requirements for aseptic compounding and dispensing of radiopharmaceuticals have been developed by the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP ). The Society of Nuclear Medicine communicated with the USP in late 2004 regarding unique situations specific to the preparation of radioactive compounds (such as radiation exposure, shielding requirements and contamination risks) that would make it difficult to comply fully with the new USP regulations. The USP Sterile Compounding Committee subsequently approved revisions and exemptions for radiopharmaceutical compounding. (author)
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the views and expectations of a selected group of customers regarding health information in Swedish pharmacies. Methods: A repeated cross sectional, questionnaire study carried out in 2004 and 2005. Customers buying calcium products answered questions on osteoporosis and general questions on health promotion and information. Results: Respondents had a positive attitude towards receiving health information from the pharmacies and towards the pharmacies’ future role in health promotion. However, only 30% of the respondents expected to get information on general health issues from the pharmacy. In spite of this, 76% (2004 and 72% (2005 of the respondents believed that the pharmacies could influence people’s willingness to improve their health.Conclusion: There is a gap between the respondents’ positive attitudes towards the Swedish pharmacies and their low expectations as regards the pharmacies’ ability to provide health information. In the light of the upcoming change to the state monopoly on medicine sales, this gap could be an important area for competition between the actors in the new situation for medicine sales in Sweden.
Fejza, Albina; Kryeziu, Zeqir; Kadrija, Kushtrim; Musa, Malbora
Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among Pharmacy students of the University of Prishtina in regards to the antibiotics. Methods: 144 pharmacy students at the University of Prishtina were recruited in this study to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The total number of questions in this questionnaire was eight (8), covering two (2) major themes: self-report of the current and past antibiotic use and behavior; and anticipated prescription behavior of antibiotics upon graduation. The data was statistically analyzed through using SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analysis was employed, and the results were expressed in frequency and percentages. Results: The results showcased a good knowledge of antibiotic among students. The most common answer of students’ knowledge about antibiotics was good or moderate (82 %), while 63.2% of the subjects used antibiotics by self-decision, most of them (45 %) for sore throat. Upon graduation, 56.9 % of the students will not sell antibiotics without prescription and 85.4% think that module for rational use of antibiotics is very necessary to be inside the pharmacy syllabus. Conclusion: The study showed good and moderate knowledge of pharmacy students regarding the antibiotics. Half of them use antibiotics by self-decision but the majority of them stated that they will not serve the antibiotics without medical prescription. Specific modules and training for proper antibiotic use should be implemented within the Pharmacy program in The Faculty of Medicine. PMID:27011780
Sando, Karen R.; Elliott, Jennifer; Stanton, Melonie L.; Doty, Randell
Objective. To implement and evaluate the use of a situated-learning experience to prepare second-year pharmacy students to conduct medication history interviews in preparation for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) at ambulatory clinic sites.
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A.; Spivey, Christina; Martin, Jennifer R.; Wyles, Christina; Ehrman, Clara; Schlesselman, Lauren S.
Objectives. To evaluate scholarship, as represented by peer-reviewed journal articles, among US pharmacy practice faculty members; contribute evidence that may better inform benchmarking by academic pharmacy practice departments; and examine factors that may be related to publication rates.
Karimi, Reza; Meyer, Doug; Fujisaki, Brad; Stein, Susan
Objectives. To evaluate whether a novel integrated longitudinal curricular activity to prepare graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students for 2 comprehensive examinations was successful, and to assess whether it engaged other pharmacy students in curricular discussion and learning.
Neville, Michael W.
Objective. To implement required attendance at mutual support groups for addiction recovery as a pharmacy skills laboratory exercise, and to evaluate how attendance affected pharmacy students’ attitudes about caring for patients with addiction.
Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko
This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers. PMID:26922733
Nuffer, Wesley; Vaughn, Jessica; Kerr, Kevin; Zielenski, Christopher; Toppel, Brianna; Johnson, Lauren; McCauley, Patrina; Turner, Christopher J.
Objectives. To implement and evaluate a 3-year reflective writing program incorporated into introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) in the first- through third-year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program.
Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim
This thesis describes the quality of private pharmacy practice and assesses the effects of an intervention package on knowledge and practice of private pharmacy staff in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study types used were a case study and a randomised controlled trial. In the case study, two private pharmacies were included. Interviews, observations and drug inventory were used for data collection. In the intervention study, 68 private pharmacies participated. A Simulated Client M...
Liu, Chuanming; Wang, Ling; Qi, Ershi
Biological-pharmacy industry refers to biotechnology companies and pharmacy makers. Because of the uncertainty and time-lag in the field of biological-pharmacy, the former is confronted with lacking of capital and the later is faced with improving technique-innovation and product-exploitation. This paper analyzes basic operation principle of strategic alliance, and related strategies are also put forward for biological-pharmacy enterprise to carry out. PMID:17282722
Asiri, Yousif A.
The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of “medical and pharmacy education” is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established ...
Nkansah, Nancy T; Youmans, Sharon L; Agness, Chanel F; Assemi, Mitra
Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas and national/international diversity reports were incorporated into this manuscript to supplement the available pharmacy evidence base. This review summarizes the benefits of diversity from an academic organizational standpoint, discusses the issues administrators and faculty members must consider when developing programs, and provides guidance on best practices in fostering and managing diversity. PMID:20221345
Full Text Available Pharmacy education has undergone a radical change as it evolves towards becoming a more patient oriented profession. With a greater emphasis on problem based teaching and competency, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE, supported by its reliability and validity became the gold standard for the evaluation of clinical skills of undergraduate students of medicine and pharmacy worldwide. Core competency evaluation has become a mandatory and critical norm for accountability of educational objectives as the traditional testing tools cannot evaluate clinical competence. Interpersonal and communication skills, professional judgment, skills of resolution etc., may be best assessed through a well- structured OSCE in comparison to oral examinations, multiple choice tests and other methods of assessment. Though OSCEs as an objective method of evaluation offer several advantages to both students and teachers, it also has disadvantages and pitfalls in implementation. This article reviews the OSCE as a trend in pharmacy education.
Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pstudents (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066
Aburahma, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Heba Moustafa
The shift in the pharmacist's role from simply dispensing medications to effective delivery of pharmaceutical care interventions and drug therapy management has influenced pharmacy education.(1-3) The educational focus has shifted from basic sciences to clinical and integrated courses that require incorporating active-learning strategies to provide pharmacy graduates with higher levels of competencies and specialized skills. As opposed to passive didactic lectures, active-learning strategies address the educational content in an interactive learning environment to develop interpersonal, communication, and problem-solving skills needed by pharmacists to function effectively in their new roles.(4-6) One such strategy is using educational games. The aim of this paper is to review educational games adopted in different pharmacy schools and to aid educators in replicating the successfully implemented games and overcoming deficiencies in educational games. This review also highlights the main pitfalls within this research area. PMID:26089568
Cain, Jeff; Piascik, Peggy
Serious gaming is the use of game principles for the purposes of learning, skill acquisition, and training. Higher education is beginning to incorporate serious gaming into curricula, and health professions education is the most common area for serious game use. Advantages of serious gaming in pharmacy education include authentic, situated learning without risk of patient consequences, collaborative learning, ability to challenge students of all performance levels, high student motivation with increased time on task, immediate feedback, ability to learn from mistakes without becoming discouraged, and potential for behavior and attitude change. Development of quality games for pharmacy education requires content expertise as well as expertise in the science and design of gaming. When well done, serious gaming provides a valuable additional tool for pharmacy education. PMID:26089556
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both syringe exchange programs (SEPs and pharmacy sales of syringes are available in Estonia, though the current high incidence and high prevalence of HIV among injection drug users (IDUs in Tallinn, Estonia requires large-scale implementation of additional harm reduction programs as a matter of great urgency. The aims of this report were to compare risk behavior and HIV infection and to assess the prevention needs among IDUs who primarily use pharmacies as their source of sterile syringes with IDUs who primarily use SEPs in Tallinn. Methods A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 350 IDUs for an interviewer-administered survey and HIV testing. IDUs were categorized into two groups based on their self-reported main source for syringes within the last six months. Odds ratios with 95% CI were used to compare characteristics and risk factors between the groups. Results The main sources of sterile needles for injection drug users were SEP/SEP outreach (59% and pharmacies (41%. There were no differences in age, age at injection drug use initiation, the main drug used or experiencing overdoses. Those IDUs using pharmacies as a main source of sterile needles had lower odds for being infected with either HIV (AOR 0.54 95% CI 0.33–0.87 or HCV (AOR 0.10 95% CI 0.02–0.50, had close to twice the odds of reporting more than one sexual partner within the previous 12 months (AOR 1.88 95% CI 1.17–3.04 and engaging in casual sexual relationships (AOR 2.09 95% CI 1.24–3.53 in the last six months. Conclusion The data suggest that the pharmacy users were at a less "advanced" stage of their injection career and had lower HIV prevalence than SEP users. This suggests that pharmacies could be utilized as a site for providing additional HIV prevention messages, services for IDUs and in linking IDUs with existing harm reduction services.
Chester, M I; Zilz, D A
A bar-code stock ordering system installed in the ambulatory-care pharmacy and sterile products area of a hospital pharmacy was compared with a manual paper system to quantify overall time demands and determine the error rate associated with each system. The bar-code system was implemented in the ambulatory-care pharmacy in November 1987 and in the sterile products area in January 1988. It consists of a Trakker 9440 transaction manager with a digital scanner; labels are printed with a dot matrix printer. Electronic scanning of bar-code labels and entry of the amount required using the key-pad on the transaction manager replaced use of a preprinted form for ordering items. With the bar-code system, ordering information is transferred electronically via cable to the pharmacy inventory computer; with the manual system, this information was input by a stockroom technician. To compare the systems, the work of technicians in the ambulatory-care pharmacy and sterile products area was evaluated before and after implementation of the bar-code system. The time requirements for information gathering and data transfer were recorded by direct observation; the prevalence of errors under each system was determined by comparing unprocessed ordering information with the corresponding computer-generated "pick lists" (itemized lists including the amount of each product ordered). Time consumed in extra trips to the stockroom to replace out-of-stock items was self-reported. Significantly less time was required to order stock and transfer data to the pharmacy inventory computer with the bar-code system than with the manual system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2757044
Lee, Mary W; Clay, Patrick G; Kennedy, W Klugh; Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Sifontis, Nicole M; Simonson, Dana; Sowinski, Kevin M; Taylor, William J; Teply, Robyn M; Vardeny, Orly; Welty, Timothy E
In 2008, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy appointed the Task Force on Research in the Professional Curriculum to review and make recommendations on the essential research curriculum that should be part of doctor of pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree programs. The essential research curriculum provides all students with critical and analytical thinking and lifelong learning skills, which will apply to current and future practice and stimulate some students to pursue a career in this field. Eight key curricular competencies are as follows: identifying relevant problems and gaps in pharmacotherapeutic knowledge; generating a research hypothesis; designing a study to test the hypothesis; analyzing data results using appropriate statistical tests; interpreting and applying the results of a research study to practice; effectively communicating research and clinical findings to pharmacy, medical, and basic science audiences; interpreting and effectively communicating research and clinical findings to patients and caregivers; and applying regulatory and ethical principles when conducting research or using research results. Faculty are encouraged to use research-related examples across the curriculum in nonresearch courses and to employ interactive teaching methods to promote student engagement. Examples of successful strategies used by Pharm.D. degree programs to integrate research content into the curriculum are provided. Current pharmacy school curricula allow variable amounts of time for instructional content in research, which may or may not include hands-on experiences for students to develop research-related skills. Therefore, an important opportunity exists for schools to incorporate the essential research curriculum. Despite the challenges of implementing these recommendations, the essential research curriculum will position pharmacy school graduates to understand the importance of research and its applications to practice. This perspective is provided as an aid
Polo, Isabel; And Others
A clinical geriatric pharmacy clerkship containing three separate practice areas (long-term, acute, and ambulatory care) is described. The program follows the medical education clerkship protocol, with a clinical pharmacy specialist, pharmacy practice resident, and student. Participation in medical rounds, interdisciplinary conferences, and…
Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.
Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)
Raehl, Cynthia; Bond, C. A.
Analyzed databases from four U.S. National Clinical Pharmacy Services Studies and the American Hospital Association for trends in hospital involvement in pharmacy education. Detailed findings indicated that clinical pharmacy services within the nation's teaching hospitals are not standardized and that financial pressures impede a full, consistent…
The radioisotopes techniques have notably contributed to the advancement of knowledge in medicine and biomedicine during the last 60 years. The School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, offers different Courses on methodology of radioisotopes in which the specialized knowledge on radioprotection is adapted to the following different groups: 1) A course for biochemistry students; 2) A course for physicians; 3) A course for graduates in biochemistry, biology, chemistry or other disciplines related to the health; 4) An up-dating course for licensed professionals; 5) A course for nuclear medicine technicians; and finally: 6) A course for Pharmacy students. The main objective of radiological protection teaching is specific and fitted to each level: the course (1) has been given (optional or mandatory) since 1960 for more than 7500 students. Part of the learning process in radioprotection is only informative, because in this case the students are not allowed to ask the Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority authorization for radioactive material handling. Course (2) has been taken by more than 800 physicians since 1962. Here, the students receive a very intensive training in radioprotection which includes: justification, optimization and dose limits; dosimetric magnitudes and units; internal and external dosimetry of 99mTc, 201Tl, 60Co and other isotopes used in medicine; safety in occupational exposure; national and international legislation. Since 1962, more than 1000 graduates have attended course (3). In this case the training in radioprotection is as intensive as in course (2) with special focusing in 125I, 3H, 14C, 32P and other isotopes used in biomedicine. Course (4) has been given from 1992 and the objective is to up-date knowledge and the intensity of training depends on the requirements of each professional. Course (5) has been given since 1997 and it is mainly directed to the operational aspects of radioprotection for
The radioisotopes techniques have notably contributed to the advancement of knowledge in medicine and biomedicine during the last 60 years. The School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, offers different Courses on methodology of radioisotopes in which the specialized knowledge on Radioprotection is adapted to the following different groups: 1) A course for Biochemistry students; 2) A course for Physicians; 3) A course for Graduates in Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry or other disciplines related to the health. 4) An up-dating course for licensed professionals; 5) A course for Nuclear Medicine Technicians; and finally, 6) A course for Pharmacy students. The main objective of Radiological Protection teaching is specific and fitted to each level: the course (1) has been given (optional or mandatory) since 1960 for more than 7500 students. Part of the learning process in radioprotection is only informative, because in this case the students are not allowed to ask the Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority authorization for radioactive material handling. Course (2) has been taken by more than 800 Physicians since 1962. Here, the students receive a very intensive training in radioprotection which includes: justification, optimization and dose limits; dosimetric magnitudes and units; internal and external dosimetry of 99mTc, 201Tl, 60Co and other isotopes used in medicine; safety in occupational exposure; national and international legislation. Since 1962, more than 1000 graduates have attended course (3). In this case the training in radioprotection is as intensive as in course (2) with special focusing in 125I, 3H, 14C, 32P and other isotopes used in biomedicine. Course (4) has been given from 1992 and the objective is to up-date knowledge and the intensity of training depends on the requirements of each professional. Course (5) has been given since 1997 and it is mainly directed to the operational aspects of radioprotection for
Spentzouris, P.; /Fermilab; Cary, J.; /Tech-X, Boulder; McInnes, L.C.; /Argonne; Mori, W.; /UCLA; Ng, C.; /SLAC; Ng, E.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley
The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors. ComPASS is in the first year of executing its plan to develop the next-generation HPC accelerator modeling tools. ComPASS aims to develop an integrated simulation environment that will utilize existing and new accelerator physics modules with petascale capabilities, by employing modern computing and solver technologies. The ComPASS vision is to deliver to accelerator scientists a virtual accelerator and virtual prototyping modeling environment, with the necessary multiphysics, multiscale capabilities. The plan for this development includes delivering accelerator modeling applications appropriate for each stage of the ComPASS software evolution. Such applications are already being used to address challenging problems in accelerator design and optimization. The ComPASS organization