WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced coal fired

  1. Advanced coal-fired power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauke, F. [Babcock Borsig Power Energy GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the joint efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant'. Net efficiences of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{degree}C. The principal efforts are based on development of creep resistent nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. The Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant project will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation. Furthermore, it will provide a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. The demonstration programme will leave the possibility of any plant output between 400 and 1000 MW. The project will run to the end of 2003. 8 figs.

  2. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  3. Advanced char burnout models for the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Severin; S. Wirtz; V. Scherer [Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany). Institute of Energy Plant Technology (LEAT)

    2005-07-01

    The numerical simulation of coal combustion processes is widely used as an efficient means to predict burner or system behaviour. In this paper an approach to improve CFD simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers with advanced coal combustion models is presented. In simple coal combustion models, first order Arrhenius rate equations are used for devolatilization and char burnout. The accuracy of such simple models is sufficient for the basic aspects of heat release. The prediction of carbon-in-ash is one aspect of special interest in the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers. To determine the carbon-in-ash levels in the fly ash of coal fired furnaces, the char burnout model has to be more detailed. It was tested, in how far changing operating conditions affect the carbon-in-ash prediction of the simulation. To run several test cases in a short time, a simplified cellnet model was applied. To use a cellnet model for simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers, it was coupled with a Lagrangian particle model, used in CFD simulations, too. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. The advanced super critical 700{sup o}C pulverized coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S.; Klauke, F.; Vanstone, R.; Zeijseink, A.; Weissinger, G.; Kristensen, P.; Meier, J.; Blum, R.; Wieghardt, K. [Tech-Wise A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{sup o}C PF Power Plant'. The first phase started in 1998 based on a grant from the Commission's Thermie programme under the 4th Framework programme. The overall objective of the project is to ensure a role for coal in Europe also in future. The project's targets renewedpublic and political acceptance of coal by improving efficiency and economy of well-proven, super critical pulverised coal-fired technology. Net efficiencies of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{sup o}C. Principal efforts are based on development of creep resistant - and expensive - nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. Three benchmarks for theinvestigations have been set up: (i) the net efficiency of the demonstration plant from the present state of the art performance of 44% will be boosted into the range of 50-51% for a plant located inland with a cooling tower and 53-54% for the best seawater-cooled versions. (ii) reductions of investment cost of PF power plant by revising the overall architecture of the plant. (iii) Co-firing of up to 20% biomass with coal. The Advanced 700{sup o}C PF power plant project (or AD700) will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation and give a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  6. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, J.N. [Southern Co. Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Menzies, B. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); Smouse, S.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide NOx emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control/optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  8. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  9. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  11. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  12. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Anbo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  13. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  14. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  15. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  17. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  18. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  19. World market: A survey of opportunities for advanced coal-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, N.A.H.

    1995-06-01

    Although there is a wide range of forecasts for the future of World energy demand and consumption over the next 25 years, all forecasts show marked increases being required for all forms of fossil fuels even when optimistic projections are made for the future adoption of Nuclear and Renewable energy. It is also generally expected that coal usage will in this period experience its greatest growth (a doubling) in the Asia-Pacific region dominated demographically by China and India. In this paper, energy projections and the extent and nature of the coal reserves available worldwide are examined. While most coal technologies can handle a variety of feedstocks, there are often economic factors that will determine the preferred selection. The matching of technology to coal type and other factors is examined with particular reference to the Asia Pacific region. Oil usage is similarly forecast to experience a comparable growth in this region. Over 70% of the World`s oil reserves are heavy oils and refinery crudes are increasing in gravity and sulfur content. The clean coal technologies of gasification and fluid bed combustion can also use low value petroleum residuals as feedstocks. There is therefore a nearer term market opportunity to incorporate such technologies into cogeneration and coproduction schemes adjacent to refineries resulting in extremely efficient use of these resources.

  20. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-19

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

  1. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

  2. The advanced supercritical 700 C pulverised coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S.; Kristensen, P. [Tech-wise A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Klauke, F. [Babcock Borsig Power Energy, Oberhausen (Germany); Vanstone, R. [ALSTOM Power UK Ltd., Rugby (United Kingdom); Zeijseink, A. [KEMA Nederland B.V., Arnhem (Netherlands); Weissinger, G. [ALSTOM Power Boilers GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Meier, J. [ALSTOM Power Ltd., Baden (Switzerland); Blum, R. [Elsam A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Wieghardt, K. [Siemens, Muelheim (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the joint efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700 C PF Power Plant'. Net efficiencies of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700 C. The principal efforts are based on development of creep resistant - and expensive - Nickel-based materials. (orig.) [German] Der Beitrag beschreibt die gemeinsamen Anstrengungen einer grossen Gruppe europaeischer Kraftwerksbauer, Kraftwerksbetreiber und Institute, die in einem gestuften langfristigen Projekt mit dem Titel 'Advanced 700 C PF Power Plant' zusammenarbeiten. Nettowirkungsgrade von mehr als 50% sollen durch die Entwicklung eines ueberkritischen Dampfkreislaufs erreicht werden, der mit maximalen Dampftemperaturen in der Groessenordnung von 700 C arbeitet. Die Hauptbemuehungen gelten der Entwicklung von kriechfesten und aufwaendigen Werkstoffen auf Nickelbasis, die als Superlegierungen bezeichnet werden. (orig.)

  3. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1994, April 1994--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NOx combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NOx burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters. Results are described.

  4. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.K. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  5. A Study of Coal Fire Propagation with Remotely Sensed Thermal Infrared Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Huo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal-bearing countries. Thus, it is very important to monitor changes in coal fires. Remote sensing provides a useful technique for investigating coal fields at a large scale and for detecting coal fires. In this study, the spreading direction of a coal fire in the Wuda Coal Field (WCF, northwest China, was analyzed using multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ thermal infrared (TIR data. Using an automated method and based on the land surface temperatures (LST that were retrieved from these thermal data, coal fires related to thermal anomalies were identified; the locations of these fires were validated using a coal fire map (CFM that was developed via field surveys; and the cross-validation of the results was also carried out using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared images. Based on the results from longtime series of satellite TIR data set, the spreading directions of the coal fires were determined and the coal fire development on the scale of the entire coal field was predicted. The study delineated the spreading direction using the results of the coal fire dynamics analysis, and a coal fire spreading direction map was generated. The results showed that the coal fires primarily spread north or northeast in the central part of the WCF and south or southwest in the southern part of the WCF. In the northern part of the WCF, some coal fires were spreading north, perhaps coinciding with the orientation of the coal belt. Certain coal fires scattered in the northern and southern parts of the WCF were extending in bilateral directions. A quantitative analysis of the coal fires was also performed; the results indicate that the area of the coal fires increased an average of approximately 0.101 km2 per year.

  6. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  7. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The LEBS plant design will be based on a high-sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal. This coal meets program selection requirements of extensive reserves and production, sulfur content, and representativeness. Two alternate test coals have been selected to examine fuel effects, and to broaden the range of application of the technology being developed. The alternate coals are a medium sulfur, Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous, and a Wyoming subbituminous coal. The efficiency goals for the LEBS are challenging, particularly with the demands environmental controls are likely to place on auxiliary power. Table 1 shows estimates of overall plant efficiencies for three steam cycles: (1) a 2400 psi subcritical single reheat cycle typical of current plants; (2) a 3500 psi supercritical single reheat cycle; and (3) an advanced 4500 psi double reheat cycle. The plant heat rates are based on maximum boiler efficiency and minimum auxiliary power requirements consistent with conventional plant design for the design and alternate coals. The aggressive efficiency goals clearly require advanced steam conditions, as well as careful management of any added auxiliary power requirements for environmental controls. The EPRI SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) project has selected the 4500 psi cycle as maximizing plant efficiency while minimizing generating costs for a commercial plant to be constructed by the year 2000. This program will incorporate the SOAPP base case cycle. The LESS design will incorporate a high-efficiency, once-through boiler design known as the Benson. Significant improvements in availability and operating flexibility have made this boiler design the system of choice for European power generation over the last fifteen years.

  8. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

  9. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a flue gas conditioning system was completed at PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. Performance testing was underway. Results will be detailed in the next quarterly and subsequent technical summary reports. Also in this quarter, discussions were initiated with a prospective long-term candidate plant. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning has been proposed here, but there is interest in liquid additives as a safer alternative

  10. Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Pines, D.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Significant improvements in efficiency for the conversion of coal into electricity can be achieved by cycles which employ a high temperature gas turbine topping cycle. The objective of this project is the development of an externally fired gas turbine system. The project computationally tested a new concept for a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) and high temperature heat exchanger with a proprietary design to reduce the problems associated with the harsh coal environment. The program addressed two key technology issues: (1) the HITAF/heat exchanger heat transfer through a 2-D computer analysis of the HITAF configuration; (2) 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model application to simulate the exclusion of particles and corrosive gases from the heat exchanger surface. The basic concept of this new combustor design was verified through the 2D and 3D modeling. It demonstrated that the corrosion and erosion of the exchanger material caused by coal and ash particles can be largely reduced by employing a specially designed firing scheme. It also suggested that a proper combustion geometry design is necessary to maximize the cleaning effect.

  11. Experimental research on influencing factors of wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated in a self-designed UV-bubble reactor. Several main influencing factors (UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, initial pH value, solution temperature, NO initial concentration, liquid-gas ratio and O2 percentage content) on the NO removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, NO initial concentration and liquid-gas ratio are the main influencing factors. In the best conditions, the highest NO removal efficiency by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process could reach 82.9%. Based on the experimental study, the influencing mechanism of the relevant influencing factors were discussed in depth.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report: First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, long-term testing of the LNB + AOFA configuration continued and no parametric testing was performed. Further full-load optimization of the LNB + AOFA system began on March 30, 1993. Following completion of this optimization, comprehensive testing in this configuration will be performed including diagnostic, performance, verification, long-term, and chemical emissions testing. These tests are scheduled to start in May 1993 and continue through August 1993. Preliminary engineering and procurement are progressing on the Advanced Low NOx Digital Controls scope addition to the wall-fired project. The primary activities during this quarter include (1) refinement of the input/output lists, (2) procurement of the distributed digital control system, (3) configuration training, and (4) revision of schedule to accommodate project approval cycle and change in unit outage dates.

  13. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the fourth reporting quarter, laboratory-screening tests of more than 20 potential additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. An initial field trial of three additive formulations was also conducted at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  14. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems: Technical progress report No. 16, July-September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcikowski, G.F.; Borio, R.W.; Bozzuto, C.R.; Burr, D.H.; Cellilli, L.; Fox, J.D.; Gibbons, T.B.; Hargrove, M.J.; Jukkola, G.D.; King, A.M.

    1996-11-27

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The Project is under budget and generally on schedule. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Status Report included as Appendix A. Under Task 7--Component development and optimization, the CeraMem filter testing was completed. Due to an unacceptably high flue gas draft loss, which will not be resolved in the POCTF timeframe, a decision was made to change the design of the flue gas cleaning system from Hot SNO{sub x}{sup {trademark}} to an advanced dry scrubber called New Integrated Desulfurization (NID). However, it is recognized that the CeraMem filter still has the potential to be viable in pulverized coal systems. In Task 8-- Preliminary POCTF design, integrating and optimizing the performance and design of the boiler, turbine/generator and heat exchangers of the Kalina cycle as well as the balance of plant design were completed. Licensing activities continued. A NID system was substituted for the SNO{sub x} Hot Process.

  15. Fire incidents in underground coal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, J. (Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland)); Auerkari, P. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    Autoignition of coal in underground storage facilities is reviewed in the light of recent incidents of smouldering fires. The opportunities to prevent and extinguish closed-space fires are also considered considering the efficiency of the available alternatives. The challenges of such fires are highlighted by an example case, describing the observations and outcome of a smouldering coal storage fire. The principles of self-heating and most critical factors in spontaneous combustion such as the condition and quality of coal are fairly well known, but usually only provide partial help in fire prevention. The experience suggests that nitrogen injection can be useful for extinguishing controllable fires, while more extensive measures may be needed against uncontrolled fires. In general, efficient fire extinction during plant operation can be challenging, as any air ingress tends to feed the fire. Methods and indicators for predicting and detecting the ignition are discussed, and improvements are suggested to enhance the storage and plant availability. Also, new experience on dealing with frozen coal is discussed in brief. (orig.)

  16. ADECOS II advanced development of the coal-fired oxyfuel process with CO{sub 2} separation - a research project of the COORETEC programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Grahl; A. Hiller; J. Loeser; S. Weigl; R. Wilhelm; M. Beckmann [Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany). Department of Combustion, Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of Power Engineering Technische

    2009-07-01

    The ADECOS (Advanced Developement of the Coal-fired Oxyfuel Process with CO{sub 2} Separation) project has the objective to make a comprehensive assessment of the Oxyfuel technology with CO{sub 2} separation for coal. This includes experiments in laboratory and technical scale as well as theoretical investigation, modelling work and component design concerning: ignition an burn-out behaviour, fouling, slagging, NO reduction, start-up und shut-down behaviour, SO{sub 2} removal, CO{sub 2} separation by distillation, CFD modelling and validation at a 50 kWthermal combustion chamber, comparison and evaluation of different steam generator concepts (pulverised fuel combustion, circulating fluidised bed combustion, melting chamber combustion), Evaluation of the overall Oxyfuel process (EBSILON Professional) and suggestions for optimisation, with special focus on intrinsic energy demand, residual gas separation, position of the desulphurisation facility as well as design of the steam generator and the compressor circuit for CO{sub 2} compression. In the presented paper we will focus on the experimental results at the test facilities at the University of Technology Dresden. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems. First quarterly report, FY94, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The major task during this quarter was testing and evaluation of the 25 MBtu/hr Toroidal Vortex Combustor (TVC) at Textron Defense Systems`` (TDS) Haverhill laboratories. The tests were completed and the results are being evaluated along with other scale up and integration issues. The preliminary conclusion is that the NOx performance and current design uncertainties do not justify the development risk within the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) timetable. Further program effort will focus on advanced U-firing arrangements. The second major effort during the period was the engineering development of the moving bed copper oxide system for SOx/NOx control. Through application of a DOE-developed model and the team`s engineering analysis, significant progress was made on developing an improved process design. Work began on a small scale test of the moving bed concept under realistic temperature and dust loading conditions. Work continued through the quarter on finalizing the Preliminary Engineering Design, Design Deficiency Analysis, and Research, Development, and Test Plan. The Design and Development Report containing these three deliverables was released in March. Sargent & Lundy printed and distributed the report to team members, as well as to the advisory panelists. The advisory panel numbers approximately fifteen organizations as of the end of the period.

  18. Technical and Energy Performance of an Advanced, Aqueous Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture Technology for a 500 MW Coal-Fired Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Feron, Paul; Tade, Moses; Wardhaugh, Leigh

    2015-08-18

    Using a rate-based model, we assessed the technical feasibility and energy performance of an advanced aqueous-ammonia-based postcombustion capture process integrated with a coal-fired power station. The capture process consists of three identical process trains in parallel, each containing a CO2 capture unit, an NH3 recycling unit, a water separation unit, and a CO2 compressor. A sensitivity study of important parameters, such as NH3 concentration, lean CO2 loading, and stripper pressure, was performed to minimize the energy consumption involved in the CO2 capture process. Process modifications of the rich-split process and the interheating process were investigated to further reduce the solvent regeneration energy. The integrated capture system was then evaluated in terms of the mass balance and the energy consumption of each unit. The results show that our advanced ammonia process is technically feasible and energy-competitive, with a low net power-plant efficiency penalty of 7.7%.

  19. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  20. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  1. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  2. Coal-fired electricity, environmental regulation, and domestic coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next decade it appears that utilities will have to effectively separate their power generation business from other regulated functions. Tighter restrictions of sulfur emissions will take effect in 2000 but, as of 1996 only 30 percent of US coal-fired electrical generating capacity had flue-gas scrubbers. New emission standards would likely accelerate the shift to low sulfur coal as the competitive pressures of power markets will restrict capital for investment. If power plants do not retrofit with scrubbers, then based on 1995 coal transactions data for Northern Appalachia, Central Appalachia, and the Illinois Basin, there is the equivalent of 216 million tons of annual shipments from these areas that will have to be replaced by low sulfur coal or be covered by emission permits. In the aggregate only 23 percent of the coal shipped in 1995 from these areas was shipped to power plants equipped with flue-gas scrubber systems. The purpose of this paper is to show the extent of the geographical shift in future coal production that could occur as the regulations are enforced. The paper initially discusses the deregulation of the electrical utility industry and the provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Current composition and historical changes of markets for the four major coal-producing regions--Northern Appalachian, Central Appalachian, Illinois Basin, and Power River Basin--are examined. Data on sulfur content of the coal received at power plants from each of the four major coal-producing regions are presented and used to infer the quality of coal likely to be produced in the immediate future. For each market, volumes of coal used by power plants having flue-gas scrubbers are estimated. Based on these estimates and available low sulfur supplies in each market, the volumes of produced coal are calculated that will not meet the new Clean Air Act standards and will likely not be used in scrubber equipped power

  3. Operation experience of Suralaya coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saragi, M. [PT Indonesia Power (Indonesia). Suralaya Generation Business Unit

    2004-07-01

    Coal utilization for generating electricity at Suralaya coal-fired power plant has been increased from time to time. It has been driven by the growth of electricity demand from industry as well as consumption from the household sector. Generally, boilers for power plant were designed to burn the locally available coals with a limited specification range. Suralaya coal-fired power plant was built based on coal specifications from Bukit Asam (Sumatera Island), which categorized as sub-bituminous coal rank. Nowadays, supply of coal for Suralaya coal-fired power plant not only comes from Bukit Asam coal mine but also from Kalimantan coal mines. The utilization of coal from the other mines has brought other consequences on operating and equipment of the plant. It needs some effort to deal with the effect from different specifications of coal from the originated design of coal. 4 tabs.

  4. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-28

    This project is concerned with the development of an a coal-fired low-emission boiler system. During march, separate kick-off meetings were held with PSI Powerserve, Raytheon and B&W`s Environmental Equipment Division to begin work on Phase I Task 5, the Commercial Plant Design. In addition, a meeting was held with MIT to discuss and review work completed and schedule work remaining on the project.

  5. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  6. 火电厂脱汞技术综述%Mercury Removal Technology Advances of Coal-fired Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝江

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas mercury pollution was attached great importance,and to research institutions it bacome one of the current focus of research.Combination of morphological characteristics of mercury,from coal before combustion,combustion and post-combustion synthesis,the latest developments of thermal power plants flue gas mercury removal technology was summerized.%火电厂烟气汞污染已受到高度重视,已成为科研机构当前重点研究内容之一。结合汞的形态特性,从煤燃烧前、燃烧中和燃烧后三方面综述了火电厂烟气脱汞技术最新进展。

  7. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  8. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  9. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the

  10. Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

  11. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  12. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBtu/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    The project objective was to demonstrate a technology which can be used to retrofit oil/gas designed boilers, and conventional pulverized coal fired boilers to direct coal firing, by using a patented sir cooled coal combustor that is attached in place of oil/gas/coal burners. A significant part of the test effort was devoted to resolving operational issues related to uniform coal feeding, efficient combustion under very fuel rich conditions, maintenance of continuous slag flow and removal from the combustor, development of proper air cooling operating procedures, and determining component materials durability. The second major focus of the test effort was on environmental control, especially control of SO{sub 2} emissions. By using staged combustion, the NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by around 3/4 to 184 ppmv, with further reductions to 160 ppmv in the stack particulate scrubber. By injection of calcium based sorbents into the combustor, stack SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by a maximum of of 58%. (VC)

  13. Status of NO sub x control for coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of technologies for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired power plants is reviewed. A discussion of current technology as well as future NOx control approaches is presented. Advanced combustion approaches are included as well as post-combustion alternatives such as catalytic and noncatalytic ammonia-bases systems and wet scrubbing. Special emphasis is given to unresolved development issues as they relate to practical applications on coal-fired power plants.

  14. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  15. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  16. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 10, January 1995--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-17

    The project is on schedule and under budget. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Report included as Appendix A. All Project Plans were updated based on the revised finding level authorized for FY95 and anticipated for FY96. Technology Transfer activities included {open_quotes}supplying{close_quotes} three executives and several team members to the LEBS Workshop, delivering a technical paper at a conference, and working on a Combustion 2000 Session for another conference. ABBES and CeraMem reached agreement concerning Task 7 work, including ownership and disposition of project-purchased equipment to be used during Task 7 and also during Task 11. A test plan was prepared. Task 7 activities for the Low-NO{sub x} Firing System included computational modeling of the firing arrangement. Reasonable comparisons to experimental data previously obtained in the Boiler Simulation Facility were achieved. A kinetic evaluation for both baseline and low NO{sub x} firing arrangements was also performed, with results indicating that the final reducing zone within the main windbox has a dominant effect on NO{sub x} reduction, with higher temperatures being more favorable for lower NO{sub x}. A week of combustion testing was completed in the Fundamental Scale Burner Facility to examine the impact of integrated fuel staging (NO{sub x} reduction via the reburn mechanism), and to explore preliminary vertical staging concepts within the main windbox region. Preliminary results from this testing demonstrated the potential of vertical air staging within the main windbox to augment overfire air. Testing was performed to quantify the coal size distribution and power requirements for one (1) conventional static and four (4) dynamic classifier designs. Results from this testing show the dynamic classifier capable of producing finer grinds of coal at lower relative power requirements.

  17. Coal-fired plants worst point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvingson, P.

    2007-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants dominate the twenty worst emitters, not only of carbon dioxide but also of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, in the 25 'old' EU member countries. Seven plants are among the 25 worst on all three lists. They are Belchatow, Rybnik and Kozience in Poland, Cottam and Longannet in the UK, Puentes in Spain and Taranto in Italy. All data refer to 2004. German plants are among the worst in respect of carbon dioxide - nine of the 25 biggest point sources are in Germany. Topping the list for sulphur dioxide is the coal-fired Puentes power plant in the northwest of Spain. Second highest as regards sulphur dioxide is the Megalopolis A (I, II, III) complex on the Peloponnesian peninsula in Greece. Close by is Megalopolis B (IV), also on the worst 25 list. All are fired with lignite from local deposits. British plants account for nine of the 25 worst emitters of nitrogen oxides. Figures from tables reproduced in the article are from the European Pollutant Emission Register, EPER which covers 11,500 industrial facilities in the EU25 and Norway and has recently been updated with 2004 figures. 3 tabs., 1 photo.

  18. Coal-fired stations top emission league

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aegren, C.

    2004-12-01

    Topping the list of the greatest emitters of sulphur into the atmosphere in Europe are two large coal-fired power stations in Bulgaria (Maritsa II) and Spain (Puentes). These figures come from an updated survey of emissions from large point sources prepared by SENCO on behalf of the Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain. The article summarises the survey results and gives a table of the 100 largest emitters of sulphur dioxide in the European Union EU25 and accession countries (Bulgaria and Romania) together with author listing the 'best' fossil fuel power plants. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be

  20. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  1. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn B. Stracher (ed.)

    2008-01-15

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  2. First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  3. Optimised control of coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, D.H.; MacConnell, P.F.A.; Neuffer, D.; Dando, R. [University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom). Centre for System and Control Engineering

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the project is to develop and specify a control methodology that will enable existing coal combustion plant to take maximum advantage of modern control techniques. The research is specifically aimed at chain-grate stoker plant (such as the test facility at the Coal Research Establishment, Cheltenham) on which little work has been done for thirty years yet which still represents a large proportion of industrial coal-fired plant in operation worldwide. In detail, the project: reviewed existing control strategies for moving grate stokers, highlighting their limitations and areas for improvements; carried out plant trials to identify the system characteristics such as response time and input/output behaviour; developed a theoretical process based on physical and chemical laws and backed up by trial data; specified control strategies for a single boiler; simulated and evaluated the control strategies using model simulations; developed of an optimised. Control strategy for a single boiler; and assessed the applicability and effects of this control strategy on multiple boiler installations. 67 refs., 34 figs.

  4. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal qual...

  5. CFD simulation of coal and straw co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Helle; Hvid, Søren L.; Larsen, Ejvind;

    This paper presents the results of a major R&D program with the objective to develop CFD based tools to assess the impact of biomass co-firing in suspension fired pulverized coal power plants. The models have been developed through a series of Danish research projects with the overall objective...... emissions. Results are presented for a Danish full-scale boiler that is currently co-firing biomass with coal on a commercial basis....

  6. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  7. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    In this literature report is provided a status for the present knowledge level on ash properties when co-firing coal and biomass. The fly ash formed in boilers using co-firing of coal and straw do have a large influence on ash deposit formation, boiler corrosion, fly ash utilization and operation...

  8. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  9. Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

    2007-01-15

    Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

  10. COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLYASH FROM COAL REFUSE-FIRED AND COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jifeng; Han Zuozhen; Wang Xiuying

    2000-01-01

    The physical,chemical and mineral facies properties of the flyash from Xiezhuang Coal Refuse-Fired Power Plant have been studied by means of naked eyes,microscope,chemical composition analysis and XRD analysis,and compared with that of the flyash from Tai'an Coal-Fired Power Plant.The result shows that the flyash from coal refuse-fired power plant is of better quality in making construction items,for being brighter in color,fine and high activity.Some ways of comprehensive utilization of the ash have been suggested in this paper.

  11. US EPA Region 9 Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Approximate locations of active coal-fired power plants located in US EPA's Region 9. Emission counts from the 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) are included...

  12. EMISSIONS OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough not to cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired co...

  13. Sintering in Biofuel and Coal-Biofuel Fired FBC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of systematic experiments conducted in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor in order to study agglomeration phenomena during firing straw and co-firing straw with coal. The influence of operating conditions on ag-glomeration was investigated. The effect of c...

  14. CO2 Capture from Coal fired Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dugstad, Tore; Jensen, Esben Tonning

    2008-01-01

    Coal is the most common fossil resource for power production worldwide and generates 40% of the worlds total electricity production. Even though coal is considered a pollutive resource, the great amounts and the increasing power demand leads to extensive use even in new developed power plants. To cover the world's future energy demand and at the same time limit our effect on global warming, coal fired power plants with CO2 capture is probably a necessity. An Integrated Gasification Combine...

  15. A one-two punch: Joint effects of natural gas abundance and renewables on coal-fired power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Fell; Daniel T. Kaffine

    2014-01-01

    Since 2007, coal-fired electricity generation in the US has declined by a stunning 25%. At the same time, natural gas-fired generation and wind generation have dramatically increased due to technological advances and policy interventions. We examine the joint impact of natural gas prices and wind generation on coal generation, with a particular focus on the interaction between low natural gas prices and increased wind generation. Exploiting detailed daily unit-level data, we estimate the resp...

  16. Application of paste backfill in underground coal fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C.; Masniyom, M. [Technische Univ., Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Coal fires are common in most coalfields around the world, and most particularly in China. The main countries affected by coal fires include China, India, the United States, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa. The fires cause sinkholes; large-scale subsidence; air pollution in the form of greenhouse gases; global warming; loss of mining productivity; contamination of drinking water; damage of flora and fauna; and a high safety risk. Therefore, protecting the economically valuable coal resources and the environment is of significant national and international importance. This paper discussed the use of paste backfill in the Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply to prevent coal fires. The study investigated backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. The paper presented the results of laboratory tests that were conducted on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures, with particular attention to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials such as fly ash from power plants. The characteristics of backfill materials, grain size analysis, and chemical composition of backfill were also identified. It was concluded that backfilling voids enhance the stability of the mine, thereby improving safety for the workforce. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  18. Environmental problems in a coal mining area affected by coal fires --A case study in Ruqigou Coalfield, Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ruqigou Coalfield, being one of the most important coal mining areas in China, has suffered coal fire problems for more than one hundred years. Due to coal fires, about 4.513 million tons coal resources has been lost each year, and apart from a large volume of CO2 delivered into air, environmental problems such as land degradation, land pollution and air pollution are also produced. Air pollution, as one related to coal fires, is the most dangerous problems for local people and has already led to vegetation pollution in this area. Land degradation is mainly induced with occurrence of land subsidence, fissures with due to coal mining/coal fires, and debris slide/flow. With development of opencast coal mining, a large volume of waste was produced, which is the major source of land pollution. All these environmental problems are associated with coal mining or coal fires and their comprehensive effects are deterioration of environment.

  19. Analysis of underground fires in Polish hard coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WACHOWICZ Jan

    2008-01-01

    In the period of the first twenty years after World War II the number of fires in Polish hard coal mines reached annually the value of several thousands of cases. About 80% of fires constituted spontaneous fires. Investigations into the development of new methods of fire hazard prediction and implementation of new methods and means of fire prevention as well as the introduction of prohibition concerning the use of products manufactured of combustible organic materials in underground mine workings re-duced considerably the hazard of underground fire rise. The worked out at the Central Mining Institute (GIG) new method of un-derground fire prediction allows the correct selection of fire prevention means. The introduction into common use of fire-resistant conveyor belts, the main factor giving rise to spontaneous fires, and methods of assessment of their fire resistance eliminated prac-tically the fire hazard. These activities contributed in an efficient way to the reduction of the number of underground fires to a sa-tisfactory level.

  20. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  1. 21st Century Coal: Advanced Technology and Global Energy Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Coal currently supplies with more than 40% of the world electricity consumption and it essential input of around 70% of world steel production, representing around 30% of the world primary energy supply. This is because coal is cheap, abundant, accessible, widely distributed and easy energy to transport, store and use. For these features, coal is projected to be intensively used in the future. Production and use of coal present a series of issues throughout the whole value chain. While existing technology allows addressing most of them (safety at work, land restoration, mercury, NOx and sulphur emissions avoidance, etc.), CO2 emissions continues to be the biggest challenge for coal use in the future. This report focuses on the technology path to near-zero emissions including useful insights in advanced coal power generation technologies and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage, a promising technology with a large potential which can push Carbon Capture and Storage competitiveness. In addition, the report shows the features of the new generation of coal-fired power plants in terms of flexibility for dynamic operation and grid stability, requirements increasingly needed to operate on grids with significant wind and solar generation.

  2. A Study of Coal Fire Propagation with Remotely Sensed Thermal Infrared Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyuan Huo; Zhuoya Ni; Caixia Gao; Enyu Zhao; Yuze Zhang; Yi Lian; Huili Zhang; Shiyue Zhang; Xiaoguang Jiang; Xianfeng Song; Ping Zhou; Tiejun Cui

    2015-01-01

    Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal-bearing countries. Thus, it is very important to monitor changes in coal fires. Remote sensing provides a useful technique for investigating coal fields at a large scale and for detecting coal fires. In this study, the spreading direction of a coal fire in the Wuda Coal Field (WCF), northwest China, was analyzed using multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) thermal infrared (TIR) data. Using an au...

  3. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  4. NOx control accomplishments and future challenges for coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) control strategies and challenges for fossil-fuel power plants are outlined. The following topics are described: US laws on environmental protection; US coal-fired generating capacity; retrofit NOx controls for coal-fired boilers; low NOx cell burner; NOx compliance planning; retrofit NOx controls for coal-fired boilers; emerging NOx issues; regulatory; strategic; technology and cost

  5. Coal fire quantification using ASTER, ETM and BIRD satellite instrument data

    OpenAIRE

    Tetzlaff, Anke

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires cause severe environmental and economic problems. Although satellite remote sensing has been used successfully to detect coal fires, a satellite data based concept that can quantify the majority of the detected coal fires is still missing. Recently, the determination of fire radiative energy (FRE) has been introduced as a new remote sensing tool to quantify forest and grassland fires. This thesis tests the concept of remotely measured FRE, with a view to ascertaining its potential...

  6. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  7. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. During this quarter, initial char combustion tests were performed at the CETF using a Foster Wheeler commercial burner. These preliminary tests were encouraging and will be used to support the development of an innovative char burner for the HIPPS

  8. The effect of Co-firing with Straw and Coal on High Temperature Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, OH

    2001-01-01

    As a part of ELSAMS development programme into alternative energy sources, various concepts of straw-firing have been investigated. This paper concerns co-firing of straw with coal to reduce the corrosion rate observed in straw-fired power plants. Co-firing with coal reduces the amount of potassium...

  9. Bituminous coal fired USC power plants for the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebes, J.; Tigges, K.-D.; Klauke, F.; Busekrus, K. [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The presentation, in slide/viewgraph form, is in sections entitled: Introduction; Steam generator design features; Optimization of plant efficiency; Steam turbine design features (USC material design principles; rotating and stationary blades; last stage blade (LP 48 inch)); and Future developments. The presentation includes a chart of recent highly efficient coal-fired power plants in Japan, China and Germany.

  10. Low-Rank Coal and Advanced Technologies for Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang', Dong-ke; Jackson, Peter J.; Vuthaluru, Hari B.

    Fluidised-bed based advanced power generation technologies offer higher efficiencies than conventional pulverised fuel fired power plants and better prospects in reducing ash-related problems associated with low-rank coal in such plants. However, bed material agglomeration and bed defluidisation present significant operational difficulties for the utilisation of the low-rank coal in fluidised-bed processes. Alkali and alkaline-earth elements and sulphur compounds, often found in low-rank coals, form low melting point eutectics at typical fluidised-bed combustion and gasification operating temperatures. These low melting-point materials are subsequently transferred onto the bed material particle surfaces, and the ash-coated particles then become adhesive and agglomerate. Defluidisation can occur either as an extension of agglomeration as a rate process gradually leading to defluidisation or as an instantaneous event without agglomeration. A critical thickness of the ash coating layer on the particle surface exists, above which defluidisation occurs. This critical thickness decreases with an increase in bed temperature. Several mineral additives, alternative bed materials and pretreatment of coal have been shown to suppress, to different extents, particle agglomeration and bed defluidisation when burning a high sodium, high sulphur low-rank coal in a spouted fluidised-bed combustor. Sillimanite as an alternative bed material is found to be most effective for defluidisation control. Alternative advanced technologies such as low-temperature pyrolysis and co-production are proposed for future investigation.

  11. Emissions of sulfur trioxide from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.K. Srivastava; C.A. Miller; C. Erickson; R. Jambhekar [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division

    2004-06-01

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. These emissions should therefore to be low enough to not cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur (S) in coal is converted to SO{sub 3} in coal-fired combustion devices such as electric utility boilers. The emissions of SO{sub 3} from such a boiler depend on coal S content, combustion conditions, flue gas characteristics, and air pollution devices being used. It is well known that the catalyst used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for nitrogen oxides control oxidizes a small fraction of sulfur dioxide in the flue gas to SO{sub 3}. The extent of this oxidation depends on the catalyst formulation and SCR operating conditions. Gas-phase SO{sub 3} and sulfuric acid, on being quenched in plant equipment (e.g., air preheater and wet scrubber), result in fine acidic mist, which can cause increased plume opacity and undesirable emissions. Recently, such effects have been observed at plants firing high-S coal and equipped with SCR systems and wet scrubbers. This paper investigates the factors that affect acidic mist production in coal-fired electric utility boilers and discusses approaches for mitigating emission of this mist. 50 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Electrical resistivity of coal-bearing rocks under high temperature and the detection of coal fires using electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Tang, Xiaofei; Xi, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Coal fires are severe hazards to environment, health and safety throughout the world. Efficient and economical extinguishing of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fires should be delineated. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have been used to detect coal fires in recent years. However, the resistivity change of coal-bearing rocks at high temperature is rarely investigated. The resistivity characteristics of coal fires at different temperatures and depths are seldomly researched as well. In this paper, we present the results of measurements of several coal-bearing rocks' resistivity and permeability under high temperature. Two major causes for the change in resistivity with increasing temperature are recognized, there are the increase of charge carriers and thermal fracturing, of which the first one is probably the dominant cause. A set of 2-D simulations is carried out to compare the relation of resolution and efficiency of coal fires detection to temperature and depth when adopting the electrical resistance tomography. The simulation results show that the resolution and efficiency decrease with the decrease of temperature and the increase of depth. Finally, the electrical resistance tomography is used to delineate coal fires in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine. Most low-resistivity regions are verified as coal-fire areas according to the long-term monitoring of borehole temperature. The results indicate that the electrical resistance tomography can be used as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  13. Combustion enhancing additives for coal firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Le Manquais; Colin Snape; Ian McRobbie; Jim Barker [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering (SChEME)

    2007-07-01

    For pulverised fuel (pf) combustion, the level of unburnt carbon in fly ash is now considerably more problematic worldwide than a decade ago, because of the introduction of low NOx burners and the increased level of high inertinite in internationally traded coals. Thus, there is a major opportunity to develop an effective additive to improve carbon burnout and obviate the need for post-treatment of fly ash, which endeavours to meet specifications for filler/building materials applications and thereby avoid landfill. A robust comparison of the reactivity of different coals and their corresponding chars is necessary, in order to estimate the effects of such an additive on pf combustion. Coal chars have been generated on a laboratory scale using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and on a larger scale using a drop tube furnace (DTF), which is more representative of the rapid heating rates and mixing achieved on pf combustion. The TGA results indicate that chars have varying levels of reactivity, dependent on the parent coal properties. When physically mixed with a propriety metal additive, the degree of enhancement to the reactivity of these chars also appeared reliant on the parent coal characteristics. Additionally it was demonstrated that DTF chars, whilst showing similar reactivity trends, are less reactive than the equivalent coal chars produced by the TGA. However, when mixed with the metal additive the DTF chars show a significantly greater improvement in reactivity than their analogous TGA chars, indicating the additive may have the greatest impact on the most unreactive carbon in the coal. 42 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  15. After the coal rush: assessing policy options for coal-fired electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, M.

    2008-06-15

    In Chapter 1, the importance of emissions from coal-fired power generation is established and details of energy company proposals for new coal investments are given. Chapter 2 investigates the key drivers for new coal from the perspective of the energy companies; Chapter 3 looks at the role of carbon pricing through the EU ETS; Chapter 4 considers how new targets for the expansion of renewable energy may affect investment decision. There is uncertainty about how many of the energy company proposals will be realised and how much new coal-fired power capacity will be built. Investigation of the emissions implications of new coal plants is explored in Chapter 5, which looks at the implications for emissions reductions targets for 2020 and 2050 in the Climate Change Bill currently before Parliament. A range of organizations anticipate that emissions from coal-fired power generation can be reduced through CCS technologies. The prospects for CCS are reviewed in Chapter 6. Much hinges on the strength of the climate and energy package currently being debated by the European Parliament and Council. Chapter 7 assess the debate on options for further action within the UK. However, to get a complete picture of the pricy problem with coal, we also need to look at the issue at the European level, and in particular how potential new coal build and the European Union emissions trading scheme interact. Chapter 8 provides an analysis of this dynamic, along with policy recommendations. Proposals to contain high emissions from coal-fired power generation have to address concerns about security of supply, the costs of electricity generation, and planning. The problem of establishing creditable policy is tackled in Chapter 8. A final section concludes and summarises the recommendations of the report. 109 refs., 82 figs. 6 tabs., 3 annexes.

  16. Technical and Economic Aspects of Biomass Co-Firing in Coal-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikuć M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the potential of using biomass and coal co-firing in the Polish electro energetic system and shows the benefits resulting from an increase of biomass amount in electricity production in one of the largest Polish power stations. The paper discusses the most often used technologies for biomass co-firing and the potential of using biomass in electricity production in Poland. It also emphasises the fact that biomass co-firing allows a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere and helps decrease consumption of energy resources. The article also emphasises the economic meaning of increasing the share of renewable energy resources in energy balance, including biomass, due to costs related to greenhouse gases emissions charges. Finally, conclusions from using biomass and coal co-firing in electricity production are presented

  17. Cofiring of rice straw and coal in a coal-fired utility boiler: thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Cofiring combustion of biomass and coal is a near-term, low cost alternative for reduction fossil greenhouse gas emissions in coal fired power plants. Recent reviews identified over 288 applications in over 16 countries with promising results for different coal and biomass combinations. In Brazil, there is no previous experience of cofiring biomass and coal, resulting in new challenges to fuel handling and boiler operation. A first experience is now proposed into an existing coal power plant, using rice straw as biomass fuel. A thermodynamic model was developed in order to predict operating and emissions data, which should be used in cofiring system design. For 10% of biomass input, the total CO{sub 2} emission is expected to slightly increase. However, considering only the coal CO{sub 2} emission, it is expected to decrease in about 10%. Also, the corresponding SO{sub 2} emission decreases in about 8%. (author)

  18. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen; Shoaib Mehmood; Bale V. Reddy

    2012-01-01

    The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel) and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite) are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combina...

  19. Analysis of thermal radiation in coal-fired furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jonathan J.; Hammaker, Robert G.; Madding, Robert P.; Sunderland, J. E.

    1997-04-01

    Many utilities throughout the United States have added infrared scanning to their arsenal of techniques for inspection and predictive maintenance programs. Commercial infrared scanners are not designed, however, to withstand the searing interiors of boilers, which can exceed 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. Two high-temperature lenses designed to withstand the hostile environment inside a boiler for extended periods of time were developed by the EPRI M&D Center, thus permitting real-time measurement of steam tube temperatures and subsequent analysis of tube condition, inspection of burners, and identification of hot spots. A study was conducted by Sunderland Engineering, Inc. and EPRI M&D in order to characterize the radiative interactions that affect infrared measurements made inside a commercial, coal- fired, water-tube boiler. A comprehensive literature search exploring the existing record of results pertaining to analytical and experimental determination of radiative properties of coal-combustion byproducts was performed. An experimental component intended to provide data for characterization of the optical properties of hot combustion byproducts inside a coal-fired furnace was carried out. The results of the study indicate that hot gases, carbon particles, and fly ash, which together compose the medium inside a boiler, affect to varying degrees the transport of infrared radiation across a furnace. Techniques for improved infrared measurement across a coal-fired furnace are under development.

  20. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  1. Clean electricity through advanced coal technologies handbook of pollution prevention and cleaner production

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    Coal power is a major cause of air pollution and global warming and has resulted in the release of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides, which place communities at risk for long-term health problems. However, coal-fired power plants also currently fuel 41% of global electricity. Clean Electricity Through Advanced Coal Technologies discusses the environmental issues caused by coal power, such as air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic solid wastes. This volume focuses on increasingly prevalent newer generation technologies with smaller environmental footprints than the existing c

  2. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  3. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    To study the influence of local conditions on the reaction between gaseous KCl and kaolin or coal fly ash experiments were done on CHECs electrically heated entrained flow reactor, which can simulate the local conditions in suspension fired boilers. The experimental results were compared with model...

  4. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    The properties of the ash from co-firing of coal and straw have a large influence on boiler operation, flue gas cleaning equipment and appropriate utilization of the fly ash. A study on the fuel composition and local conditions influence on fly ash properties has been done by making entrained flo...

  5. Exploring Links Between Innovation and Diffusion: Adoption of NOx Control Technologies at U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    David Popp

    2006-01-01

    While many studies have looked at innovation and adoption of technologies separately, the two processes are linked. Advances (and expected advances) in a single technology should affect both its adoption rate and the adoption of alternative technologies. Moreover, advances made abroad may affect adoption differently than improvements developed domestically. This paper combines plant-level data on U.S. coal-fired electric power plants with patent data pertaining to NOx pollution control techni...

  6. Hot Corrosion Studies in Coal Fired Boiler Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Subhash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hot corrosion behaviour of the bare and D-gun coated superfer 800H exposed to low temperature super-heater zone of the coal fired boiler of Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Power Plant, Bathinda, Punjab, India. The specimens were hanged in the platen super-heater of coal fired boiler where the gas temperature was around 900 °C ±10 °C. Hot corrosion experiments were performed for 10 cycles, each cycle consisting of 100 hours exposure followed by 1 hour cooling at ambient temperature. Weight change measurements were done at the end of each cycle. The weight change data used for predicting hot corrosion behaviour of the coated alloys after the total exposure of 1000 hours. The different phases and their distribution in the hot corroded specimens were analysed with the help of FE-SEM/EDS and X-ray mapping.

  7. SCR optimisation in Danish coal-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Jimmy [DONG Energy Power, Esbjerg (Denmark); Christensen, Soeren [DONG Energy Power, Fredericia (Denmark); Hvidberg, Jan

    2011-07-01

    From 1 January 2010, a new Danish tax on NO{sub x} emissions (0.7 EUR/kg NO{sub x}) worked as an incentive for minimising NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. Previously, an emission limit of 200 mg NO{sub x}/Nm{sup 3} had to be complied with, which was easily achieved, since all major Danish coal-fired power plants are equipped with high dust SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO{sub x}) systems. With the new NO{sub x} tax, a number of initiatives have been taken in order to maximise the DENOX capacity of the SCR systems. All efforts have led to a significant decrease in NO{sub x} emissions from DONG Energy's coal-fired power plants. (orig.)

  8. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. PMID:27023281

  9. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers.

  10. An approach of surface coal fire detection from ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal data: Jharia coal field, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priyom; Guha, Arindam; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-07-01

    Radiant temperature images from thermal remote sensing sensors are used to delineate surface coal fires, by deriving a cut-off temperature to separate coal-fire from non-fire pixels. Temperature contrast of coal fire and background elements (rocks and vegetation etc.) controls this cut-off temperature. This contrast varies across the coal field, as it is influenced by variability of associated rock types, proportion of vegetation cover and intensity of coal fires etc. We have delineated coal fires from background, based on separation in data clusters in maximum v/s mean radiant temperature (13th band of ASTER and 10th band of Landsat-8) scatter-plot, derived using randomly distributed homogeneous pixel-blocks (9 × 9 pixels for ASTER and 27 × 27 pixels for Landsat-8), covering the entire coal bearing geological formation. It is seen that, for both the datasets, overall temperature variability of background and fires can be addressed using this regional cut-off. However, the summer time ASTER data could not delineate fire pixels for one specific mine (Bhulanbararee) as opposed to the winter time Landsat-8 data. The contrast of radiant temperature of fire and background terrain elements, specific to this mine, is different from the regional contrast of fire and background, during summer. This is due to the higher solar heating of background rocky outcrops, thus, reducing their temperature contrast with fire. The specific cut-off temperature determined for this mine, to extract this fire, differs from the regional cut-off. This is derived by reducing the pixel-block size of the temperature data. It is seen that, summer-time ASTER image is useful for fire detection but required additional processing to determine a local threshold, along with the regional threshold to capture all the fires. However, the winter Landsat-8 data was better for fire detection with a regional threshold.

  11. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B. [Coal Tech Corp., Merion Station, PA (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  12. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-01-31

    This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last three months have been on: (1) Completion of a long term field test for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW Cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for RRI in PC fired boilers; (3) Design improvements and calibration tests of the corrosion probe; and (4) Investigations on ammonia adsorption mechanisms and removal processes for Fly Ash.

  13. Fire Clay Coal Zone County Statistics (Chemistry) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal quality...

  14. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  15. Coal fired power stations and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S.H.

    1982-12-01

    Environmental problems resulting from the use of coal in power stations were discussed in a conference in Copenhagen in August, 1982. Topics included: 1) Discussions of the adverse temperature effects of cooling tower water. The pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri has been isolated in two of eight cooling tower systems; 2) Uses of power plant ash. Dense blocks of the ash have been used to build artificial reefs with, as yet, not adverse effects on the marine community; 3) Long-range transport of particulates which bind heavy metals in the ash; and 4) The effects of acid rain. An examination of the fish status of Scandanavian lakes did not reveal a simple relationship between pH and fishlessness. It was concluded that levels of calcium and aluminum, food supply, genetically determined tolerance and ecological factors have also played a part in the fish regime of acid-affected lakes. The Norwegian attitude is that there are good grounds for thinking acid rain is a global problem implicating the discharge of nitrogen and sulfur oxides and either micropollutants. (JMT)

  16. Investigation of Bowen Basin coal mine fire gas analysis parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliff, D.; Bell, S.; O' Beirne, T. (ACIRL Ltd., North Ryde, NSW (Australia))

    1991-12-01

    Laboratory analysis of seven currently mined Bowen Basin coals has validated the use of carbon monoxide as the best indicator of the very early states of coal heating. As a primary warning indicator, other gases are rarely appropriate as they are emitted in such small quantities to make then very difficult to detect when diluted with typical mine ventilation quantities. Once a heating is suspected or confirmed, other gases and their various relationships can now be more confidently used to indicate peak temperatures and the progress of the heating. Interestingly, the order of evolution of many gases, from the Bowen Basin coals is quite different from overseas coals (as reported in the literature) and this impacts on the usefulness of many overseas generated interpretation techniques. All of the commonly used techniques for interpreting the status of a heating have been reviewed in the light of the research. These interpretative tools have very real limitations which have now been more clearly defined. The research has also demonstrated the need for accurate definitive mine gas analysis at the mine site. A fire ladder has been developed to enable the assessment of the heating coal temperature. The practical value of this research, as indicated above, needs to be concisely disseminated to industry. This should impact on the operation of mine environmental monitoring systems, and particularly on any software used to analyse gas results.

  17. Fire Clay Coal Zone Point Data (Geology) in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a point coverage of attributes on data location, thickness of the Fire Clay coal zone, and its elevation, in feet. This resource model for the Fire...

  18. Respiratory symptoms and annoyance in the vicinity of coal-fired plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Pershagen, G; Hammar, N; Vartiainen, E.

    1986-01-01

    This study constitutes one part of a program for assessing the impact of coal-fired power plants on the surrounding communities. A questionnaire was mailed to a total of 12,000 subjects living in six areas with coal-fired plants and in matched reference areas. The participation rate was 77.3%. In one coal-fired plant/reference area pair, a more detailed medical examination was carried out among subjects who reported symptoms of the respiratory tract. The match between coal-fired plant and ref...

  19. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

  20. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, I.M. [Shell Coal International, London (United Kingdom); Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  1. Advanced systems for producing superclean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop several advanced separation processes for producing superclean coal containing 0.4--2.0% ash and very little pyritic sulfur. Three physical and physico-chemical processes were studied: microbubble flotation, selective hydrophobic coagulation, and electrochemical coal cleaning. Information has been collected from bench-scale experiments in order to determine the basic mechanisms of all three processes. Additionally, because microbubble flotation has already been proven on a bench scale, preliminary scale-up models have been developed for this process. A fundamental study of the electrochemistry of coal pyrite has also been conducted in conjunction with this scale-up effort in order to provide information useful for improving sulfur rejection. The effects of additives (NaCl and kerosene) were also investigated. 94 refs., 167 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Feasibility of offshore coal-fired electrical power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumori, I.R.

    1975-01-01

    With dwindling supplies and escalating costs of petroleum, coal appears to offer the most attractive near-term energy resource, particularly for stationary electrical power generation. But coal-fired electrical generation plants produce atmospheric and terrestrial effluents that make them undesirable near neighbors. Ocean siting offers a method of solving this problem. This investigation explores three configurations of offshore coal-fired electrical power plants in the 500-MW capacity range and chooses a pylon-moored barge configuration for more detailed study. All in all, it appears that ocean siting is entirely technically feasible--and, since certain ocean siting economic advantages (i.e., ''assembly line'' production and inexpensive fuel delivery, as well as the obviated need for site preparation and cooling towers) can balance the increased costs of marine structures and underwater cables, it can be economically attractive as well. However, the required high-capacity underwater electrical cable is expensive at present, and the length of cable needed for a particular installation can be a controlling factor in calculations of comparative cost/benefit ratios.

  3. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  4. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems

  5. The coal fired power plant of Vado Ligure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radiological impact from radioactive effluents released by the forecast new coal-fired power plant of Vado Ligure, is examinated. Using health physic metodologies of evaluation, the highest levels of dose equivalents to the population are computed. Taken into account the possible errors due to conservative models adopted, it is concluded that the induced radiological risks are to be considered negligible, both referring to the actual natural radiological levels in the environment, and considering the maximum permissible levels stated in international raccomandations

  6. Coal Fires in the United States: A Case Study in Government Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal producing nations. Like most other environmental problems fires are not confined by political boundaries. Important economic coal seams in the United States are found across the Inter-montaine west, the Midwest, and Appalachia. The age of these deposits differs, as does the grade and sulfur content of the coal, the mining techniques utilized for exploitation of this resource, and the markets in which the coal is traded. Coal fires are ordinary occurrences under extraordinary conditions. Every coal bed exposed in an underground or surface mine has the potential to ignite. These fires are spread thinly over the political geography and over time, so that constituencies rarely coalesce to petition government to address the coal fire problem. Coal fires produce serious problems with long term consequences for society. They threaten mine safety, consume a non-renewable resource, and produce toxic gases with serious health effects for local populations. Additionally, as coal production in the developing world intensifies, these problems worsen. The lack of government attention to coal fires is due to the confluence of at least four independent political factors: 1) The separated powers, federated system in which decisions in the United States are made; 2) Low levels of political energy available in Congress to be expended on coal fires, measured by the magnitude of legislative majorities and seniority; 3) The mid-twentieth century model of scientific and technical information moving indirectly to legislators through the bureaucratic agencies; 4) The chronic and diffuse nature of fires across space and time.

  7. Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds from coal-, coal gangue-, and biomass-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Yang, Chao; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Bai, Huiling

    2016-10-01

    Face the large electricity demand, thermal power generation still derives the main way of electricity supply in China, account for 78.19% of total electricity production in 2013. Three types of thermal power plants, including coal-fired power plant, coal gangue-fired power plant and biomass-fired power plant, were chosen to survey the source profile, chemical reactivity and emission factor of VOCs during the thermal power generation. The most abundant compounds generated during coal- and coal gangue-fired power generation were 1-Butene, Styrene, n-Hexane and Ethylene, while biomass-fired power generation were Propene, 1-Butenen, Ethyne and Ethylene. The ratios of B/T during thermal power generation in this study was 0.8-2.6, which could be consider as the characteristics of coal and biomass burning. The field tested VOCs emission factor from coal-, coal gangue- and biomass-fired power plant was determined to be 0.88, 0.38 and 3.49 g/GJ, or showed as 0.023, 0.005 and 0.057 g/kg, with the amount of VOCs emission was 44.07, 0.08, 0.45 Gg in 2013, respectively. The statistical results of previous emission inventory, which calculated the VOCs emission used previous emission factor, may overestimate the emission amount of VOCs from thermal power generation in China.

  8. Regulations and Practice on Flue Gas Denitrification for Coal-Fired Power Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fahua; Zhao Guohua

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China, according to the relative up-to-date regulations and standards, the maincontrol measure for Nox emission of coal-fired power plants is, in principle, low Noxcombustion. However, in recent years, more and more newly approved coal-fired plantswere required to install flue gas denitrification equipment.

  9. Mitsubishi latest coal fired USC boiler technology (CFE Pacifico 700 MW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sakamoto, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Power Systems; Fujitab, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Power Systems

    2013-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has successfully completed commissioning work for CFE (Comision Federal de Electricidad) Pacifico 700 MW coal-fired unit in March 2010 which is the first supercritical unit in Latin America. This supercritical boiler was designed with state of the art technologies such as low NOx burners, high fineness pulverizers, advanced vertical furnace wall technology and so on. Especially the advanced vertical furnace wall technology with some improvements is a key technology to realize swift load changes such as 5% load per minute ramping rate with assuring dynamic characteristics. Recently the requirement of the high efficiency and the swift load changes for the power boilers has been increased so that even a coal-fired unit needs flexible operation characteristics for balancing variety of power sources. One of the challenges for the swift load change is to keep the furnace wall metal temperature low during the load change, which the advanced vertical furnace wall could realize. The report describes the features of the unit and commissioning result including load swing test results in details.

  10. Assessment of the Influence of Fractures on the Dynamics of Coal Seam Fires by Numerical Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Uncontrolled burning coal seam fires still constitute major problems for the coal industry by destroying the resource, a serious hazard for the local people by severe environmental pollution, and a tremendous threat to the global environment by the emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols. In particular when the seams are lying shallow the alteration of the immediate surrounding of the coal seam fire feeds back on the dynamics of the fire. Thermal stress induced fracturing produces direct connections of the fire zone with the atmosphere. This influences the supply with oxygen, the venting of the exhaust gases, and the dissipation of heat. The first two processes are expected to enhance the fire propagation whereas the latter effect should slow it down. With our dedicated coal seam fire code ACME ("Amendable Coal-fire Modeling Exercise") we study these coupled effects of fractures in simulations of typical coal seam fire scenarios based on data from Xinjiang, China. Fractures are predefined as 1D/2D objects in a 2D/3D model geometry and are opened depending on the passage of the heat wave produced by the coal seam fire.

  11. Exergetic and Parametric Study of a Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Hu; Kaiyu Tan; Yongping Yang; Yong Zhu; Rongrong Zhai

    2013-01-01

    A solar-aided coal-fired power plant realizes the integration of a fossil fuel (coal or gas) and clean energy (solar). In this paper, a conventional 600 MW coal-fired power plant and a 600 MW solar-aided coal-fired power plant have been taken as the study case to understand the merits of solar-aided power generation (SAPG) technology. The plants in the case study have been analyzed by using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics principles. The solar irradiation and load ratio have been ...

  12. Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986 Directorate-General XII 'Science, Research and Development' of the Commission of the European Communities has kept a watching brief on the development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation from the 'solid fuels' section of its non-nuclear energy R and D programme. It established, in 1987, the Faraday Working Group (FWG) to assess the development status of coal-fired MHD and to evaluate its potential contribution to the future electricity production in the Community. The FWG expressed as its opinion, at the end of 1987, that in sufficient data were available to justify a final answer to the question about MHD's potential contribution to future electricity production and recommended that studies be undertaken in three areas; (i) the lifetime of the generator, (ii) cost and performance of direct air preheating, (iii) cost and efficiency of seed recovery/reprocessing. These studies were contracted and results were presented in the extended FWG meeting on 15 November 1990, for an audience of about 70 people. The present volume contains the proceedings of this meeting. The introduction describes the reasons for establishing the FWG, its activities and the content of its extended meeting followed by the summary of the discussions and the concluding remarks of this meeting. The main part of the volume consists of the text either of the oral presentations during the meeting or of the final reports resulting from the studies under contract

  13. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  14. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates

  15. Mercury emission and its control in Chinese coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book focuses on investigating mercury emissions samplings and measurement in Chinese coal-fired power plants, mercury emission estimations and future trends, mercury speciation transformation during coal combustion, mercury control and mercury stability in byproducts. The book not only introduces mercury emissions from actual coal-fired power plants, but also presents studies on the mechanism of mercury emission and its control. This is a valuable reference for engineering thermal physicists, thermal engineers, and chemical engineers.

  16. Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires

    OpenAIRE

    Bobo Shi; Fubao Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was pr...

  17. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  18. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public... (facsimile). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines....1100 requires that each coal mine be provided with suitable firefighting equipment adapted for the...

  19. Numerical study of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass inside a cement calciner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; von Berg, Eberhard; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2014-07-01

    The use of waste wood biomass as fuel is increasingly gaining significance in the cement industry. The combustion of biomass and particularly co-firing of biomass and coal in existing pulverized-fuel burners still faces significant challenges. One possibility for the ex ante control and investigation of the co-firing process are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass in a cement calciner. Numerical models of pulverized coal and biomass combustion were developed and implemented into a commercial CFD code FIRE, which was then used for the analysis. Three-dimensional geometry of a real industrial cement calciner was used for the analysis. Three different co-firing cases were analysed. The results obtained from this study can be used for assessing different co-firing cases, and for improving the understanding of the co-firing process inside the calculated calciner.

  20. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges

  1. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. In order to prepare the CETF for the HIPPS char combustion test program, the following three subsystems were designed during this quarter: (1) Flue Gas Recycle System; (2

  2. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream

  3. SCR optimization in Danish coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Jimmy [DONG Energy Power, Esbjerg (Denmark); Christensen, Soeren; Hvidberg, Jan [DONG Energy Power, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2010-07-01

    From January 1st 2010 a new Danish tax on NO{sub x} emissions (0.7 Euro/kg NO{sub x}) worked as an incentive for minimizing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. Previously an emission limit of 200 mg NO{sub x}/Nm{sup 3} had to be kept, which was easily done, since all major Danish coal fired power plants are equipped with high dust SCR systems. With the new NO{sub x} tax a number of initiatives have been taken, in order to maximize the deNO{sub x} capacity of the SCR systems. Screening NO{sub x} measurements after the catalysts layers was performed on all units in order to investigate, if the distribution of ammonia and NO{sub x} before the catalysts is appropriate. If a skewed NOx profile was observed, the ammonia distribution was adjusted, this effort resulted typically in an increase in the NO{sub x} removal degree of 2-5 %. In situ laser based ammonia slip analyzers have been installed on all units. Implementation of these ammonia slip measurements in the SCR control system has helped optimizing the quantity of ammonia added, without exceeding the concentration limits for ammonia in the fly ash. A test campaign has showed a reasonable proportionality between ammonia slip and the quantity of ammonia found in the fly ash. During low load operation of the power plants, the temperature in the catalyst section often becomes so low, that it has been necessary stop ammonia addition, in order to avoid ammonium-bisulphate (ABS) formation. An intensive study of the formation of ABS has led to the implementation of ''an intelligent'' minimum temperature control, which makes it possible to keep ammonia addition enabled during low load operations. All of the above mentioned efforts have led to a significant decrease in NO{sub x} emissions from DONG Energy's coal fired power plants. In 2009 the specific NO{sub x} emission was on average 38 mg/MJ fired whereas the first three months of 2010 show a reduction to 25 mg/MJ fired. (orig.)

  4. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  5. Deposit formation in a full-scale pulverized wood-fired power plant with and without coal fly ash addition

    OpenAIRE

    Hao WU; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sander, Bo; Glarborg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition in a pulverized wood-fired power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was investigated by using an advanced deposit probe system at two different boiler locations with flue gas temperatures of ~1300oC and ~800oC, respectively. It was found that during pulverized wood combustion, the deposit formation at the hightemperature location was characterized by a slow and continuous ...

  6. Advanced Fire Detector for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable and efficient fire detection is a precondition for safe spaceflight. The threat of onboard fire is constant and requires early, fast and unfailing...

  7. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  8. Probabilistic performance assessment of a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Power plant equipment is usually oversized to account for input uncertainties. • Oversized equipment degrades its rated efficiency and increases capital cost. • A stochastic methodology to assess probabilities of equipment failure was proposed. • The methodology was proven applicable for design and analysis of the power plants. • Estimated high reliability indices allow reducing power plant equipment oversizing. - Abstract: Despite the low-carbon environmental policies, coal is expected to remain a main source of energy in the coming decades. Therefore, efficient and environmentally friendly power systems are required. A design process based on the deterministic models and application of the safety factors leads to the equipment oversizing, hence fall in the efficiency and increase in the capital and operating costs. In this work, applicability of a non-intrusive stochastic methodology to determine the probability of the power plant equipment failure was investigated. This alternative approach to the power plant performance assessment employs approximation methods for the deterministic prediction of the key performance indicators, which are used to estimate reliability indices based on the uncertainty of the input to a process model of the coal-fired power plant. This study revealed that high reliability indices obtained in the analysis would lead to reduced application of conservative safety factors on the plant equipment, which should result in lower capital and operating cost, through a more reliable assessment of its performance state over its service time, and lead to the optimisation of its inspection and maintenance interventions

  9. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  10. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  11. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  12. The potential of multidiurnal MODIS thermal band data for coal fire detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenzer, C.; Hecker, C.; Zhang, J.; Wessling, S.; Wagner, W. [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of our analyses of multidiurnal low-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal data for coal fire-related thermal anomaly detection. Results are presented for data of the Jharia coal mining region of India. We combine three relatively new approaches: first, we use low-resolution MODIS data for coal fire area analyses, which has only been undertaken by a few authors. Second, we analyse data from four different times of day (morning, afternoon, evening and predawn) and for three different bands (MODIS bands 20, 32 and a ratio thereof); and third, we use an unbiased automated algorithm for thermal anomaly extraction of local thermal anomalies. The MODIS data analysed stem from the years 2001 and 2005. Our analyses indicate that MODIS multidiurnal data, and especially bands 20, 32 and ratio bands thereof, have a high potential for the detection of coal fire zones and coal fire hot spot zones, as well as for regular thermal monitoring activities. However, the data are not suitable for a quantitative coal fire analysis concerning fire outline, fire temperature or fire classification into surface and subsurface fires. We used higher-resolution ASTER and LANDSAT data from 2005 and 2002 for general orientation and later comparison of thermal anomaly extraction results. We also used high-resolution Quickbird data for the characterization of individual anomalous thermal clusters. Comparisons demonstrate that even low-resolution thermal sensors such as MODIS can support coal fire detection and zonation into warm and very hot zones.

  13. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy conversion (ECAS) power systems. The study was part of the first phase of this ECAS study. Since this was the first opportunity to evaluate the coal fired closed cycle MHD system, a number of iterations were required to partially optimize the system. The present paper deals with the latter part of the study in which the direct coal fired, MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. The emphasis of the paper is on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed cycle MHD analysis. The author concludes that closed cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open cycle MHD and that both systems are considerably more efficient than the other system studies in Phase 1 of the GE ECAS. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed cycle MHD components and systems is made.

  14. Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Using ASTER Thermal Infrared Data, Part I: Methodology and Decadal Change Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomin Du; Daiyong Cao; Deepak Mishra,; Sergio Bernardes; Thomas R. Jordan; Marguerite Madden

    2015-01-01

    Coal fires that are induced by natural spontaneous combustion or result from human activities occurring on the surface and in underground coal seams destroy coal resources and cause serious environmental degradation. Thermal infrared image data, which directly measure surface temperature, can be an important tool to map coal fires over large areas. As the first of two parts introducing our coal fire detection method, this paper proposes a self-adaptive threshold-based approach for coal fire d...

  15. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  16. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  17. Fire Risk Assessment of Some Indian Coals Using Radial Basis Function (RBF) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimaje, Devidas; Tripathy, Debi Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Fires, whether surface or underground, pose serious and environmental problems in the global coal mining industry. It is causing huge loss of coal due to burning and loss of lives, sterilization of coal reserves and environmental pollution. Most of the instances of coal mine fires happening worldwide are mainly due to the spontaneous combustion. Hence, attention must be paid to take appropriate measures to prevent occurrence and spread of fire. In this paper, to evaluate the different properties of coals for fire risk assessment, forty-nine in situ coal samples were collected from major coalfields of India. Intrinsic properties viz. proximate and ultimate analysis; and susceptibility indices like crossing point temperature, flammability temperature, Olpinski index and wet oxidation potential method of Indian coals were carried out to ascertain the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. Statistical regression analysis showed that the parameters of ultimate analysis provide significant correlation with all investigated susceptibility indices as compared to the parameters of proximate analysis. Best correlated parameters (ultimate analysis) were used as inputs to the radial basis function network model. The model revealed that Olpinski index can be used as a reliable method to assess the liability of Indian coals to spontaneous combustion.

  18. Advanced analysis and design for fire safety of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Analysis and Design for Fire Safety of Steel Structures systematically presents the latest findings on behaviours of steel structural components in a fire, such as the catenary actions of restrained steel beams, the design methods for restrained steel columns, and the membrane actions of concrete floor slabs with steel decks. Using a systematic description of structural fire safety engineering principles, the authors illustrate the important difference between behaviours of an isolated structural element and the restrained component in a complete structure under fire conditions. The book will be an essential resource for structural engineers who wish to improve their understanding of steel buildings exposed to fires. It is also an ideal textbook for introductory courses in fire safety for master’s degree programs in structural engineering, and is excellent reading material for final-year undergraduate students in civil engineering and fire safety engineering. Furthermore, it successfully bridges th...

  19. Rocketdyne's advanced coal slurry pumping program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D. E.; Wong, G. S.; Gilman, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation is conducting a program for the engineering, fabrication, and testing of an experimental/prototype high-capacity, high-pressure centrifugal slurry feed pump for coal liquefaction purposes. The abrasion problems in a centrifugal slurry pump are primarily due to the manner in which the hard, solid particles contained in the slurry are transported through the hydraulic flow passages within the pump. The abrasive particles can create scraping, grinding, cutting, and sandblasting effects on the various exposed parts of the pump. These critical areas involving abrasion and impact erosion wear problems in a centrifugal pump are being addressed by Rocketdyne. The mechanisms of abrasion and erosion are being studied through hydrodynamic analysis, materials evaluation, and advanced design concepts.

  20. Nuclear and coal-fired power plant capital costs 1978 -June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography covers 16 papers dealing with the economics of power generation - mainly comparisons between the capital costs of nuclear and coal fired plants. Some of the papers additionally discuss fuel, operating and maintenance costs, and performance. (U.K.)

  1. Fire Clay Coal Zone Resource Areas in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of the Fire Clay coal zone that represents the areas in which resources were calculated and is only part of the full outcrop of...

  2. Fire Clay Coal Zone County Statistics (Geology) in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with statistics on the thickness of...

  3. Fire Clay Coal Zone Original Resources by County in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with original resources (millions of...

  4. Fire Clay Coal Zone Remaining Resources by County in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with remaining resources (millions of...

  5. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  6. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  7. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Sarv

    2009-02-28

    A NO{sub x} minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO{sub x} emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO{sub x} levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO{sub x} values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO{sub x} emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO{sub x} (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO{sub x} reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO{sub x} removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO{sub x} control, especially for smaller units. O{sub 2} enrichment in combination with 2-level

  8. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A NOx minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z(reg sign) low-NOx burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NOx emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NOx levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NOx values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NOx emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NOx (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NOx reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NOx removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NOx/106 Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NOx control, especially for smaller units. O2 enrichment in combination with 2-level OFA was not cost effective for wall-firing. For cyclone units, NOx removal by

  9. Numerical modeling for analyzing thermal surface anomalies induced by underground coal fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessling, Stefan; Kessels, Winfried; Wuttke, Manfred W. [Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); Kuenzer, Claudia [Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, IPF, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstr. 27-29, A-1040 Wien (Austria)

    2008-05-07

    Coal seams burning underneath the surface are recognized all over the world and have drawn increasing public attention in the past years. Frequently, such fires are analyzed by detecting anomalies like increased exhaust gas concentrations and soil temperatures at the surface. A proper analysis presumes the understanding of involved processes, which determine the spatial distribution and dynamic behavior of the anomalies. In this paper, we explain the relevance of mechanical and energy transport processes with respect to the occurrence of temperature anomalies at the surface. Two approaches are presented, aiming to obtain insight into the underground coal fire situation: In-situ temperature mapping and numerical simulation. In 2000 to 2005, annual temperature mapping in the Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) coal fire area showed that most thermal anomalies on the surface are closely related to fractures, where hot exhaust gases from the coal fire are released. Those fractures develop due to rock mechanical failure after volume reduction in the seams. The measured signals at the surface are therefore strongly affected by mechanical processes. More insight into causes and effects of involved energy transport processes is obtained by numerical simulation of the dynamic behavior of coal fires. Simulations show the inter-relation between release and transport of thermal energy in and around underground coal fires. Our simulation results show a time delay between the coal fire propagation and the observed appearance of the surface temperature signal. Additionally, the overall energy flux away from the burning coal seam into the surrounding bedrock is about 30-times higher than the flux through the surface. This is of particular importance for an estimation of the energy released based on surface temperature measurements. Finally, the simulation results also prove that a fire propagation rate estimated from the interpretation of surface anomalies can differ from the actual

  10. The Evaluation of Solar Contribution in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rongrong Zhai; Yongping Yang; Yong Zhu; Denggao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize various types of solar thermal energy for coupling coal-fired power plants by using the characteristics of various thermal needs of the plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will be unnecessary while the intermittent and unsteady way of power generation will be avoided. Moreover, the large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and the energy-saving aim of power plants will be realized. The contribution...

  11. Mapping Land Subsidence Related to Underground Coal Fires in the Wuda Coalfield (Northern China) Using a Small Stack of ALOS PALSAR Differential Interferograms

    OpenAIRE

    Delu Pan; Zhaoquan Huang; Dengrong Zhang; Jie Wang; Lifan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires have been found to be a serious problem worldwide in coal mining reserves. Coal fires burn valuable coal reserves and lead to severe environmental degradation of the region. Moreover, coal fires can result in massive surface displacements due to the reduction in volume of the burning coal and can cause thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass particularly cracks and fissures. The Wuda coalfield in Northern China is known for being an exclusive storehouse of prime coking coal as we...

  12. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  13. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and prepare an R D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team ofcompanies involved in this effort. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800[degrees]F in furnaces fired with cool-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor up to about 2400[degrees]F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuelgas is a relatively clean fuel, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need tobe a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown.

  14. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  15. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Technical, environmental, and economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power technologies in the Chinese context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lifeng [Energy Technology Innovation Policy, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, 11 Beisihuan West Road, Beijing 100190 (China)], E-mail: lifeng_zhao@ksg.harvard.edu; Xiao Yunhan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, 11 Beisihuan West Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Gallagher, Kelly Sims [Energy Technology Innovation Policy, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang Bo; Xu Xiang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, 11 Beisihuan West Road, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2008-07-15

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the technical, environmental, and economic dimensions of deploying advanced coal-fired power technologies in China. In particular, we estimate the differences in capital cost and overall cost of electricity (COE) for a variety of advanced coal-power technologies based on the technological and economic levels in 2006 in China. This paper explores the economic gaps between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and other advanced coal power technologies, and compares 12 different power plant configurations using advanced coal power technologies. Super critical (SC) and ultra super critical (USC) pulverized coal (PC) power generation technologies coupled with pollution control technologies can meet the emission requirements. These technologies are highly efficient, technically mature, and cost-effective. From the point of view of efficiency, SC and USC units are good choices for power industry. The net plant efficiency for IGCC has reached 45%, and it has the best environmental performance overall. The cost of IGCC is much higher, however, than that of other power generation technologies, so the development of IGCC is slow throughout the world. Incentive policies are needed if IGCC is to be deployed in China.

  18. Coal-fired power plants and the causes of high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakey, J.E.; Simms, N.J. [British Coal Corporation, Coal Technology Development Div., Cheltenham, Glos (United Kingdom); Tomkings, A.B. [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The heat exchangers in all types of coal-fired power plant operate in aggressive, high temperature environments where high temperature corrosion can severely limit their service lives. The extent of this corrosion is governed by the combined effects of the operating conditions of the heat exchanger and the presence of corrosive species released from the coal during operation. This paper reviews the coal-related factors, such as ash deposition, which influence the operating environments of heat exchangers in three types of coal-fired power plant - conventional pulverized coal boilers, fluidized bed boilers and coal gasification systems. The effects on the performance of the materials used for these heat exchangers are then compared. (au) 35 refs.

  19. Detection, Analysis and Risk Assessment of Coal Fires in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christian; Li, Jing; Wu, Jianjun; Erhler, Christoph; Jiang, Weiguo; Guo, Shan; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled combustion of coal is a serious problem on a global scale. Since coal can easily be oxidized and often has a prominent “self-heating” capacity, many coal types have a tendency to combust spontaneously once sufficient oxygen is available and natural cooling is prevented. The rapid expansion of uncontrolled small-scale coal mining activities during the last 30-40 years and the increasing amount of not adequate closed down and now abandoned coal mine sites are supposed to have led to an increase of human-induced coal fires. Thus, coalfield fires need to be not only inventoried at regional scales through rapid and cost effective methods, but also assessed, monitored and secured, wherever appropriate. This leads to major research and technological development objectives: Easy-to-use, routine remote and in-situ monitoring techniques, based on airborne and space borne imagery, to become part in an integrated long-term monitoring framework.

  20. UK signed an agreement with China on near zero emissions coal-fired electricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On Dec. 22, Environment Secretary Margaret Beckett welcomed a UK/China landmark agreement on the development of clean coal technology with carbon dioxide capture and storage, which aims to reduce significantly the climate change impact from coal-fired electricity generation.

  1. Natural radionuclides and radiation measurements in the vicinity of the Kosovian coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific activities of natural radionuclides in coal, ash and slag of the coal fired power plants and in soil samples in the surroundings of the plants, and gamma doses in air in the vicinity of the plants were measured. (P.A.)

  2. Thermal Performance and Economic Analysis of 210 MWe Coal-Fired Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder Kumar; Avdhesh Kr. Sharma; P C Tewari

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the thermal and economic performance of a 210 MWe coal-fired power plant situated in North India. Analysis is used to predict coal consumption rate, overall thermal efficiency, mass flow rate of steam through boiler, and Net present value (NPV) of plant for given load. Thermodynamic analysis was carried out using mass and energy equations followed by empirical correlations. Predicted mass flow rate of steam, coal consumption rate, and thermal efficiency give fair agreement...

  3. Emissions and Furnace Gas Temperature for Electricity Generation Via Co-Firing of Coal and Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaib Mehmood; Bale Reddy; Marc Rosen

    2015-01-01

    The emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen and sulphur oxides for electricity generation with coal and biomass co-firing are investigated and the furnace gas temperature assessed. The study uses simulation and considers fuel combinations based on two coals (bituminous coal, lignite) and four types of biomass (rice husk, sawdust, chicken litter, refused derived fuel). With increasing biomass, net CO2 emissions are seen to decline significantly for all types of selected biomass, while gross c...

  4. PSO Project 10085:Final Report – Co-Firing of Coal and RDF in Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Damø, Anne Juul; Munther, Anette; Sander, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Co-combustion of refuse derived fuels (RDF) with coal in pulverized coal-fired power plants can potentially increase the electrical efficiency of utilizing RDF and reduce the formation of some harmful pollutants such as dioxins. The objective of this project was to provide a general assessment of the technical issues related to co-combustion of coal and RDF, and to improve the fundamental understandings of this subject. The project was carried out in collaboration between the CHEC Research Ce...

  5. Experimental investigation of NOx emisssion in a coal-fired utility boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-qin; REN Jian-xing

    2006-01-01

    Based on the investigation of NOx formation mechanism, a coal-fired utility boiler whose capacity is 1 004 t/h was studied. Excessive air coefficient, inclination of burner and the way of coal supply were investigated through experimental method. Results indicated that under the condition of same boiler efficiency and burn-off rate, the operation conditions adopting the lower excessive air coefficient, upward burners' inclination and pyramid coal-supply could reduce NOx emission.

  6. CFD simulation of production of NOx in coal-fired furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    ASKAROVA ALIYA; BOLEGENOVA SALTANAT; MAXIMOV VALERY; OSPANOVA SHYNAR; BOLEGENOVA SYMBAT

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been accepted as a powerful and effective tool for control and analysis of coal-fired utility boilers. Since coal burning in a utility boilers is a very complex process that comprises high-temperature reacting turbulent flow, particles transport and radiative heat transfer a reliable numerical simulation models of coal combustion requires high accuracy and careful interpretation of its numerical results.

  7. Systems Analysis Of Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, Joseph F.; Jennings, Charles N.; Pappano, Alfred W.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents appraisal of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell power plants. Based on study comparing fuel-cell technologies with each other and with coal-based alternatives and recommends most promising ones for research and development. Evaluates capital cost, cost of electricity, fuel consumption, and conformance with environmental standards. Analyzes sensitivity of cost of electricity to changes in fuel cost, to economic assumptions, and to level of technology. Recommends further evaluation of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell integrated coal-gasification/combined-cycle, and pulverized-coal-fired plants. Concludes with appendixes detailing plant-performance models, subsystem-performance parameters, performance goals, cost bases, plant-cost data sheets, and plant sensitivity to fuel-cell performance.

  8. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  9. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  10. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  11. Electron beam treatment of coal-fired flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of SOX and NOX by electron beam irradiation from simulated coal-fired flue gas was studied using a small scale flow system (0.9 Nm3/hr) to get basic data for forthcoming pilot scale test in Japan. The standard concentrations of the gas components were NO: 150 ppm, SO2: 500 ppm, O2: 6%, H2O: 12% ('wet base'), N2: balance. Gaseous HN3 (1035-1150 ppm) was added to the simulated flue gas. The gas was irradiated with an electron beam (1.5 MeV) from a Cockcroft-Walton type electron accelerator. The irradiation vessel with three irradiation chambers was used in order to investigate the effect of multiple irradiation by comparing the effect of single, double and triple irradiations. The standard gas temperature in the system was set to be 650degC. The SOX removal was increased at low temperature. The increasing efficiency of NOX removal by multiple irradiation was observed. Reaction mechanism of NOX and SO2 removals is also discussed. The target SOX and NOX removal ratios (94% and 80%, respectively) and low leaked NH3 (less than 10 ppm) were achieved at 8 kGy. (author)

  12. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2005-06-30

    This is the twentieth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At the beginning of this quarter, the corrosion probes were removed from Gavin Station. Data analysis and preparation of the final report continued this quarter. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ FTIR lab, and includes the first results from tests run on samples cut from the commercial plate catalysts. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was removed from the plant, where the total exposure time on flue gas was 350 hours. A computational framework for SCR deactivation was added to the SCR model.

  13. Suspension-firing of wood with coal ash addition: Probe measurements of ash deposit build-up at Avedøre Power Plant (AVV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood-firing. Investigat......This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood......-firing. Investigations of deposit formation rate were made by use of an advanced online ash deposition/shedding probe. Quantification of ash deposition and shedding was made via deposit mass uptake signals obtained from the deposit probe. The influence of coal ash, flue gas temperature, probe surface temperature...... oC), deposit removal through surface melting was not identified. SEM-EDS analysis of the deposits showed significant presence of Ca, Al and Si, indicating that a significant amount of K has been captured by coal ash to form deposits rich in calcium-aluminum-silicates, and possible release of Cl...

  14. Improved Optimization Study of Integration Strategies in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar aided coal-fired power generation system (SACFPGS combines solar energy and traditional coal-fired units in a particular way. This study mainly improves the solar thermal storage system. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the SACFPGS. The best integration approach of the system, the collector area, and the corresponding thermal storage capacity to replace each high-pressure extraction are obtained when the amount of coal saving in unit solar investment per hour is at its largest. System performance before and after the improvement is compared. Results show that the improvement of the thermal storage system effectively increases the economic benefit of the integrated system.

  15. Evaluation of NOX emissions from TVA coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. Current EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emissions as a function of generating unit load, or in designs of boilers of the same general type, particularly wall-fired boilers. The TVA has compiled short-term NOx emissions data from 30 units at 11 TVA coal-fired plants. These units include cyclone, cell burner, single wall, opposed wall, single tangential, and twin tangential boiler firing designs. Tests were conducted on 29 of the 30 units at high load; 18 were also tested at reduced load. NOx emissions rates were calculated for each test and compared to the calculated rate for each boiler type using AP-42. Preliminary analysis indicates that: (1) TVA cyclone-fired units emit more NOx than estimated using AP-42; (2) TVA cell burner units emit considerably more NOx than estimated; (3) most TVA single-wall-fired units emit slightly more NOx than estimated; (4) most TVA single-furnace tangentially fired units emit less NOx than estimated at high load, but the same as (or more than) estimated at reduced load; and (5) most TVA twin-furnace tangentially fired units, at high load, emit slightly more NOx than estimated using AP-42

  16. Advanced Fire Information System - A real time fire information system for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, P. E.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) lead by the Meraka Institute and supported by the South African National Space Agency (SANSA) developed the Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) to provide near real time fire information to a variety of operational and science fire users including disaster managers, fire fighters, farmers and forest managers located across Southern and Eastern Africa. The AFIS combines satellite data with ground based observations and statistics and distributes the information via mobile phone technology. The system was launched in 2004, and Eskom (South Africa' and Africa's largest power utility) quickly became the biggest user and today more than 300 Eskom line managers and support staff receive cell phone and email fire alert messages whenever a wildfire is within 2km of any of the 28 000km of Eskom electricity transmission lines. The AFIS uses Earth observation satellites from NASA and Europe to detect possible actively burning fires and their fire radiative power (FRP). The polar orbiting MODIS Terra and Aqua satellites provide data at around 10am, 15pm, 22am and 3am daily, while the European Geostationary MSG satellite provides 15 minute updates at lower spatial resolution. The AFIS processing system ingests the raw satellite data and within minutes of the satellite overpass generates fire location and FRP based fire intensity information. The AFIS and new functionality are presented including an incident report and permiting system that can be used to differentiate between prescribed burns and uncontrolled wild fires, and the provision of other information including 5-day fire danger forecasts, vegetation curing information and historical burned area maps. A new AFIS mobile application for IOS and Android devices as well as a fire reporting tool are showcased that enable both the dissemination and alerting of fire information and enable user upload of geo tagged photographs and on the fly creation of fire reports

  17. Analysis of natural radionuclides in coal, slag and ash in coal-fired power plants in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Janković M.M.; Todorović D.J.; Nikolić J.D.

    2011-01-01

    The radioactivity monitoring in the “Nikola Tesla”, “Kolubara”, “Morava” and “Kostolac” coal-fired power plants was performed by the Radiation and Environmental Protection Laboratory, Vinča Institute of nuclear sciences in the period 2003-2010. Monitoring included the analysis of soil, water, flying ash, slag, coal and plants. This paper presents the results of the radioactivity analysis of coal, ash and slag samples. Naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, and ...

  18. Economic aspects of ecological risk due to nuclear and coal-fired electricity production (general comparison, related to the USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of this paper is reflected in the chapter headings: (1) Introduction (2) Environmental problems relating to the coal-fired power plants (3) Costs of environmental protection for coal-fired power plants (4) Comparison of economic efficiency of nuclear and coal-fired power plants (5) Cost of environmental protection for normal operation of a nuclear power plant and its fuel facilities (6) Accidental risk from off-reactor nuclear fuel cycle facilities (7) Conclusion. (Quittner)

  19. Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2007-01-01

    and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes...... of the 350 MW pulverized coal fired boiler, Studstrup unit 4, into a co-firing boiler with straw in 2002. During the rebuilding, test tube sections of X20CrMoV12 1 and TP347H FG were built into the superheater and the reheater loops. The temperature ranges during these exposures was for the steam from 470...... sulphate on superheater tubes resulting in increased corrosion rates. From field experimental results this paper show, that by co-firing straw with coal, corrosion rates can be brought down to an acceptable level. This paper firstly deals with the results from a demonstration program co-firing coal...

  20. AN ADVANCED COAL DESULFURIZATION PROCESS——SELECTIVE FLOCCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡璋; 刘红缨; 吴军; 陈彩茶

    1997-01-01

    Selective flocculation is an idea separation method to separate ultrafine pyrite from coal. A number of selective flocculation separation tests under different conditions have been done and the results are very encouraging. The results also show that desulfurization and deashing can be finished simultaneously in selective flocculation process. It is an advanced coal desulfurization process.

  1. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  2. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  3. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  4. Advanced numerical modelling of a fire. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, L.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-03-01

    Experience and probabilistic risk assessments show that fires present a major hazard in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The PALOME project (1988-92) improved the quality of numerical simulation of fires to make it a useful tool for fire safety analysis. Some of the most advanced zone model fire simulation codes were acquired. The performance of the codes was studied through literature and personal interviews in earlier studies and BRI2 code from the Japanese Building Research Institute was selected for further use. In PALOME 2 project this work was continued. Information obtained from large-scale fire tests at the German HDR facility allowed reliable prediction of the rate of heat release and was used for code validation. BRI2 code was validated particularly by participation in the CEC standard problem `Prediction of effects caused by a cable fire experiment within the HDR-facility`. Participation in the development of a new field model code SOFIE specifically for fire applications as British-Swedish-Finnish cooperation was one of the goals of the project. SOFIE code was implemented at VTT and the first results of validation simulations were obtained. Well instrumented fire tests on electronic cabinets were carried out to determine source terms for simulation of room fires and to estimate fire spread to adjacent cabinets. The particular aim of this study was to measure the rate of heat release from a fire in an electronic cabinet. From the three tests, differing mainly in the amount of the fire load, data was obtained for source terms in numerical modelling of fires in rooms containing electronic cabinets. On the basis of these tests also a simple natural ventilation model was derived. (19 refs.).

  5. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Joseph [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Porter, Jason [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Patki, Neil [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kelley, Madison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stanislowski, Josh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Makuch, David [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  6. UNEP Demonstrations of Mercury Emission Reduction at Two Coal-fired Power Plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozewicz W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP partnership area “Mercury releases from coal combustion” (The UNEP Coal Partnership has initiated demonstrations of mercury air emission reduction at two coal-fired power plants in Russia. The first project has modified the wet particulate matter (PM scrubber installed in Toliatti thermal plant to allow for addition of chemical reagents (oxidants into the closedloop liquid spray system. The addition of oxidant resulted in significant improvement of mercury capture from 20% total mercury removal (without the additive up to 60% removal (with the additive. It demonstrates the effectiveness of sorbent injection technologies in conjunction with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. ESPs are installed at 60%, while wet PM scrubbers are installed at 30% of total coal-fired capacity in Russia. Thus, the two UNEP Coal Partnership projects address the majority of PM emission control configurations occurring in Russia.

  7. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenker, J.

    1995-11-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation.

  8. Impact of heat and mass transfer during the transport of nitrogen in coal porous media on coal mine fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of "gravity settling" in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.

  9. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  10. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  11. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report 8, October--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. Goals have been specified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs, and general operation of the system. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degrees}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degrees}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only.

  12. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. The design of the char burner was completed during this quarter. The burner is designed for arch-firing and has a maximum capacity of 30 MMBtu/hr. This size represents a half scale version of a typical commercial burner. The burner is outfitted with

  13. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire extinguishing,the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine.The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation,namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district,increasing the air pressure of the working face,and filling the ground surface fractures.A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire.When the measures fail to increase the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber,the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  14. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire ex-tinguishing, the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine. The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation, namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district, increasing the air pressure of the working face, and filling the ground surface fractures. A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire. When the measures fail to in-crease the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber, the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  15. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  16. Maximizing economic and environmental performance of existing coal-fired assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, Pat; Foucher, Jean-Claude; Hestermann, Rolf; Hilton, Bob; Keegan, Bill; Stephen, Don

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, Plant Owners and innovative suppliers such as ALSTOM have come to realize that existing coal-fired assets have in many cases hidden capacity. This largely results from the conservative nature of their original design, but also from the possibility of integrating the latest advances in technology without the need to buy complete power plant components. ALSTOM's Optimized Plant Retrofit (OPR) process is a proven method to identify the full potential of existing equipment, taking a systemic and holistic approach to achieve full optimisation. OPRs are supported by ALSTOM's comprehensive portfolio of available technologies and a proven capability to integrate retrofit opportunities encompassing innovative solutions for a variety of plant components such as coal mills, boiler, air pollution control equipment, turbogenerator, feedheating and condensing plant. By teaming utility representatives with ALSTOM's technical experts we can collectively identify solutions for enhancing both heat rate and net output, to maximise the value of existing assets. This often gives a return on investment significantly better than greenfield construction for supply margin improvement. This paper introduces the OPR concept in detail and presents case studies and insights into future developments, in particular retrofitting existing assets in an emissions constrained environment. (auth)

  17. Technology Roadmap: High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal is the largest source of power globally and, given its wide availability and relatively low cost, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. The High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation Roadmap describes the steps necessary to adopt and further develop technologies to improve the efficiency of the global fleet of coal. To generate the same amount of electricity, a more efficient coal-fired unit will burn less fuel, emit less carbon, release less local air pollutants, consume less water and have a smaller footprint. High-efficiency, low emissions (HELE) technologies in operation already reach a thermal efficiency of 45%, and technologies in development promise even higher values. This compares with a global average efficiency for today’s fleet of coal-fired plants of 33%, where three-quarters of operating units use less efficient technologies and more than half is over 25 years old. A successful outcome to ongoing RD&D could see units with efficiencies approaching 50% or even higher demonstrated within the next decade. Generation from older, less efficient technology must gradually be phased out. Technologies exist to make coal-fired power generation much more effective and cleaner burning. Of course, while increased efficiency has a major role to play in reducing emissions, particularly over the next 10 years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be essential in the longer term to make the deep cuts in carbon emissions required for a low-carbon future. Combined with CCS, HELE technologies can cut CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation plants by as much as 90%, to less than 100 grams per kilowatt-hour. HELE technologies will be an influential factor in the deployment of CCS. For the same power output, a higher efficiency coal plant will require less CO2 to be captured; this means a smaller, less costly capture plant; lower operating costs; and less CO2 to be transported and stored.

  18. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for

  19. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2000-10-24

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels.

  20. Co-firing in coal power plants and its impact on biomass feedstock availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several states have a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and allow for biomass co-firing to meet the RPS requirements. In addition, a federal renewable fuel standard (RFS) mandates an increase in cellulosic ethanol production over the next decade. This paper quantifies the effects on local biomass supply and demand of different co-firing policies imposed on 398 existing coal-fired power plants. Our model indicates which counties are most likely to be able to sustain cellulosic ethanol plants in addition to co-firing electric utilities. The simulation incorporates the county-level biomass market of corn stover, wheat straw, switchgrass, and forest residues as well as endogenous crop prices. Our scenarios indicate that there is sufficient feedstock availability in Southern Minnesota, Iowa, and Central Illinois. Significant supply shortages are observed in Eastern Ohio, Western Pennsylvania, and the tri-state area of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky which are characterized by a high density of coal-fired power plants with high energy output. - Highlights: • Co-firing in coal-power plants can lead to biomass supply shortage. • The level of shortage depends also on the switchgrass production cost. • Little to no shortages occur in the Corn Belt and the Great Plains. • Biomass co-firing in power plants limits the supply for cellulosic ethanol plants

  1. Correlates of mental health in nuclear and coal-fired power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, D.K.; Bromet, E.J.

    1983-08-01

    The mental health of 104 nuclear workers at the Three Mile Island plant was compared with that of 122 workers from another nuclear plant and 151 workers from two coal-fired generating plants. The coal-fired plant workers were somewhat more symptomatic than the nuclear plant workers. Assessments of work environments showed that the coal-fired plant workers perceived less stress but more problems with workplace exposures than the nuclear plant workers. Negative perceptions of work and marital stress were both strongly and independently related to mental distress. Overall, the results suggest that the Three Mile Island accident did not engender long-term psychological difficulties in workers evaluated 2.5 years after the accident.

  2. A Study on Spreading Direction of Coal-fire Based with TIR Remote Sensing in Wuda Coalfield from 2000 to 2006, Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal producing countries. Coal fires could not only lead to a huge loss of non-renewable energy resources, but it also can cause many environmental problems such as GHG emission, land subsidence and increment of surface temperature. So it is very important to monitor the dynamic changes of coal fires. As far as large scale coal field, remote sensing provided researchers with a new and useful technique for coal fire detection. This paper developed a research over coal fire spreading direction using a multi-temporal TIR remote sensing approach. The results successfully showed that the direction of coal fire spreading and predicted the coal fire direction of development on a regional scale or on a whole coal field scale, and a quantitative analysis of coal fires was made in the research. The results showed that the coal fires had an average annual increase of 0.5 million square meters from 1999 to 2006, and the TIR remote sensing proved to be an available tool for coal fire mapping and prediction of coal fire development

  3. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  4. Potential of hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants in Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The City of Burbank and the Ralph M. Parsons Company studies showed several advantages for hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants, as follows: (1) the estimated cost of producing electricity in hybrid plant is about 18.3 mills/kWh, compared to 19.3 mills/kWh in an all-coal fired power plant; (2) the coal requirements for a given plant can be reduced about 12 to 17%; and (3) the geothermal brines can be used for power plant cooling water, and in some cases, as boiler feedwater. The pertinent results of the City of Burbank studies are summarized and applied to the geothermal and coal resources of Arizona for possible future utilization.

  5. Environmental life cycle assessment of Indian coal-fired power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Udayan Singh; Naushita Sharma; Siba Sankar Mahapatra

    2016-01-01

    Coal is the backbone of the Indian power sector.The coal-fired power plants remain the largest emitters of carbon dioxide,sulfur dioxide and substantial amounts of nitrogen oxides,which are associated with climate and health impacts.Various CO2 mitigation technologies (carbon capture and storage—CCS) and SO2/NOx mitigation technologies (flue gas desulfurization and selective catalytic reduction) have been employed to reduce the environmental impacts of the coal-fired power plants.Therefore,it is imperative to understand the feasibility of various mitigation technologies employed.This paper attempts to perform environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of Indian coal-fired power plant with and without CO2,SO2 and NOx mitigation controls.The study develops new normalization factors for India in various damage categories,using the Indian emissions and energy consumption data,coupled with the emissions and particulate emission to come up with a final environmental impact of coal-fired electricity.The results show a large degree of dependence on the perspective of assessment used.The impact of sensitivities of individual substances and the effect of plant efficiency on the final LCA results is also studied.

  6. Switching to biomass co-firing in European coal power plants: Estimating the biomass and CO 2 breakeven prices

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of biomass co-firing in European coal power stations. We propose a tractable and original method, that enables us to get expressions of biomass and CO2 breakeven points for co-firing in different types of coal plants. We call them carbon switching price and biomass switching price. They correspond to carbon and biomass prices that make coal plants equally attractive under co-firing or classical conditions (i.e. when coal is the only input). The carbon switchin...

  7. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for

  8. Polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in fly ash from coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal fired thermal power is the largest contributing power sector in India (about 70%) along with 25 hydel power generation, 3% nuclear power generation and about 1% wind power generation Power on demand by 2012. The role of GIS, GPS and remote sensing in power sector. Published by, CSDMS, IT for geography. The increasing demand of power in a developing country like India has resulted in rapid increase in thermal generation capacity. The coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fire power plants in India were measured for 210Po using alpha spectrometry and natural U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K by an HPGeã-ray spectrometer. The results show that fly ash or bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. (author)

  9. A moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal extraction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerton, C. R.; Westerfield, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.

  10. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    Progress is reported on a multitask contract to develop technology for steam bottoming cycle of a Combined Cycle MHD Steam Power Plant. The report describes a 314 hour proof-of-concept (POC) test completed during the quarter. Results include secondary combustion and effect of potassium on the light-off temperature, fouling of heat transfer surfaces, particulate clean-up device performance and advanced diagnostic system performance. Test results on ceramic materials and tubes directed toward the development of a high temperature recuperative air heater are summarized. Results of data analysis of previous tests that are reported include the continuing analysis of tube materials that were exposed to 1500 and 2000 hours of eastern coal fired operation during the previously completed 2000 hour POC test series on eastern, high sulfur coal.

  11. Full-scale ash deposition measurements at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 during suspension-firing of wood with and without coal ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    along with the fly ash and bottom ash from the plant were characterized extensively by SEM-EDS, ICP-OES/IC and XRD. Based on the results from the present work, the deposit formation and shedding mechanisms under different operational conditions were proposed and discussed. The influence of coal ash......The formation of deposits during suspension-firing of wood at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 (AVV2) was studied by using an advanced deposit probe system. The tests were conducted both with and without coal ash addition, and at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 1250-1300 oC and 750...... addition on deposit formation during wood suspension-firing at AVV2 was evaluated. It was revealed that the addition of coal fly ash could significantly influence the ash deposition/shedding behaviors and the deposit properties. The effect was evident at both measurement locations. At the location...

  12. Forecast fire damp emission in thin, steep coal bed; Prevision de Desprendimiento de Grisu en Capas Estrechas e Inclindas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    A model to forecast fire damp emission in thin, steep coal bed, mining in advance and backfill works, has been developed and validated. The model estimates the amount of methane released towards the works, including fire damp proceeding from the actually mined seam, as well as methane coming from adjacent seams layers, depending on easy-to find parameters. Methane coming from the mined seam is determined as a function of the methane concentration in the seam and methane from adjacent seams is assessed by the degassification degree. This parameter depends also on the distance to the mined seam. The influence volume of a thin, steep mined coal bed has been determined, in order to study which seams and layers release methane towards the works. The works to develop the methane emission model were done in a coal face on Maria seam, in San Antonio mine, belonging to HUNOSA. The validation works were carried out in 24 left south seam, in the belonging to Minas de Figaredo, S. A. (Author)

  13. Feedlot biomass co-firing: a renewable energy alternative for coal-fired utilities. Paper no. IGEC-1-128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The swiftly growing feedlot industry in the United States upshots in the production of manure from one or more animal species in excess of what can safely be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans. Disposal of the vast quantity of manure produced as a by-product of the cattle feeding industry is one of the major operating tasks of the industry. Aside from the traditional means of disposal as fertilizer, an alternative and attractive way of overcoming this threat is to develop processes that make use of manure as an energy resource. In the present study, the feasibility of using of manure as a fuel in existing coal fired power plants is considered and appropriately termed Feedlot Biomass (FB). The technology of co-firing coal: feedlot biomass facilitates an environment friendly utilization of animal waste for the production of valuable power/steam concurrently addressing the renewable energy, groundwater contamination, and greenhouse gas concerns. Co-firing tests were performed at the Texas AandM University 30 kWt (100,000 Btu/h) laboratory-scale facility. The trials revealed the enhanced combustion of the blends. The NO emissions were less for the blend even with higher nitrogen content of FB as compared to coal. (author)

  14. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. During this quarter, initial char combustion tests were performed at the CETF using a Foster Wheeler commercial burner. These preliminary tests were encouraging and will be used to support the development of an innovative char burner for the HIPPS

  15. Flexibility of a 300 MW Arch Firing Boiler Burning Low Quality Coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the flexibility of a 300 MW Arch Firing (AF) coal-fired boiler when burning low quality coals is reported.Measurements of gas temperature and species concentration and char sampling using a water-cooled suction pyrometer were carried out along the furnace elevation.The carbon content and the size distributions of the char samples were obtained.The char morphology was examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM).The char sampling was performed on this type of boiler for the first time.The results indicate that the flexibility of this boiler burning low quality coals under a moderate boiler load is better than its flexibility under a high boiler load.Because of the insufficient capacity of the coal pulverizers used, in case of low coal quality the pulverized coal fineness will drastically decrease under high boiler loads.This causes an increase in the loss due to incomplete mechanical and chemical combustion.This is the main cause of a low burnout degree of the pulverized coal and the decrease of the flexibility of this AF boiler under a high boiler load.

  16. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-12-31

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  17. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  18. Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-23

    To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

  19. China's Coal-Fired Power Plants and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Huanzhang; Jiang, Renzhong; Xu, Yani

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution caused by coal energy production is a very serious environmental problem in China, which has been led to heavy negative effects on social, economic and health. To minimize air pollution produced from coal combustion problem in China, we have to find some better methods, which have environmental benefit meanwhile can be offered by Chinese current economic capacity. Therefore main research question of the project is trying to find out the acceptable technologies that possibl...

  20. Advanced Fire Detector for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses an optical carbon monoxide sensor for early fire detection. During the sensor development, a concept was implemented to allow reliable carbon monoxide detection in the presence of interfering absorption signals. Methane interference is present in the operating wavelength range of the developed prototype sensor for carbon monoxide detection. The operating parameters of the prototype sensor have been optimized so that interference with methane is minimized. In addition, simultaneous measurement of methane is implemented, and the instrument automatically corrects the carbon monoxide signal at high methane concentrations. This is possible because VCSELs (vertical cavity surface emitting lasers) with extended current tuning capabilities are implemented in the optical device. The tuning capabilities of these new laser sources are sufficient to cover the wavelength range of several absorption lines. The delivered carbon monoxide sensor (COMA 1) reliably measures low carbon monoxide levels even in the presence of high methane signals. The signal bleed-over is determined during system calibration and is then accounted for in the system parameters. The sensor reports carbon monoxide concentrations reliably for (interfering) methane concentrations up to several thousand parts per million.

  1. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  2. Coal-fired Power Plant Flue Gas Desulfurization and Denitrification Treatment Strategies and Techniques%燃煤电厂烟气治理策略及脱硫脱硝技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2014-01-01

    燃煤电厂中燃煤锅炉的烟气对大气具有严重的危害,关注燃煤电厂烟气的治理十分重要,对燃煤电厂烟气的有效治理是治理大气污染的关键。烟气脱硫脱硝技术可以有效减少烟气中的二氧化硫和氮氧化物,燃煤电厂应当积极引进先进的脱硫脱硝技术,使用更完备的设备。主要探讨燃煤电厂烟气治理策略和脱硫脱硝技术,以供参考。%Coal-fired power plant flue gas of coal-fired boiler with a serious harm to the atmosphere, attention to coal-fired power plant flue gas treatment is very important, coal-fired power plant flue gas for effective governance is the key to control air pollution. Flue gas desulfurization and denitrification technology can effectively reduce the flue gas sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coal-fired power plants should be actively introduce advanced desulfurization and denitrification technology, the use of more complete equipment. This paper focuses on coal-fired power plant flue gas desulfurization and denitrification treatment strategies and technologies for reference.

  3. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do

  4. NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

  5. Feasibility of a 1400 MW coal-fired power-plant in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Nunthavorakarn, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based upon the case of a planned new 1400 MW coal-fired power station in Prachuap Khiti Khan in Thailand, the paper performs a feasibility study, in which a power-plant project and a proposed technical alternative are assessed in relation to a wide range of specific and general official development...

  6. EPA Research Highlights: Minimizing SO3 Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial reductions in emissions of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide through the application of control technologies and strategies. The installation of control technologies has added to the complexity of coal-fired boilers and their ope...

  7. Transport of the radionuclides and doses for some coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of the selected coal fired power plants near from Belgrade has been studied. The contents of natural radionuclides according to experimental data have been used and dose rates from inhalation have been calculated using a two dimensional version of the cloud model. (author)

  8. Multi-objective Optimization of Coal-fired Boiler Combustion Based on NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfang Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available NOx emission characteristics and overall heat loss model for a 300MW coal-fired boiler were established by Back Propagation (BP neural network, by which the the functional relationship between outputs (NOx emissions & overall heat loss of the boiler and inputs (operational parameters of the boiler of a coal-fired boiler can be predicted. A number of field test data from a full-scale operating 300MWe boiler were used to train and verify the BP model. The NOx emissions & heat loss predicted by the BP neural network model showed good agreement with the measured. Then, BP model and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II were combined to gain the optimal operating parameters which lead to lower NOx emissions and overall heat loss boiler. The optimization results showed that hybrid algorithm by combining BP neural network with NSGA-II can be a good tool to solve the problem of multi-objective optimization of a coal-fired combustion, which can reduce NOx emissions and overall heat loss effectively for the coal-fired boiler.

  9. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  10. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu. PMID:16259432

  11. LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement by low-NOx burners (LNBs) and combustion modification (CM) for dry-bottom pulverized-coal-fired boilers in Japan. LNBs have been widely used in Japan as a simple way to reduce NOx emissions by 20-50%. NOx abatement by a LNB and C...

  12. Combined Heat and Power: Coal-Fired Air Turbine (CAT)-Cycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By combining an integrated system with a gas turbine, coal-fired air turbine cycle technology can produce energy at an efficiency rate of over 40%, with capital and operating costs below those of competing conventional systems. Read this fact sheet to discover the additional benefits of this exciting new technology

  13. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 1, literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Radel, Ross F.; Hewson, John C.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-10-01

    Public safety and acceptance is extremely important for the nuclear power renaissance to get started. The Advanced Burner Reactor and other potential designs utilize liquid sodium as a primary coolant which provides distinct challenges to the nuclear power industry. Fire is a dominant contributor to total nuclear plant risk events for current generation nuclear power plants. Utilizing past experience to develop suitable safety systems and procedures will minimize the chance of sodium leaks and the associated consequences in the next generation. An advanced understanding of metal fire behavior in regards to the new designs will benefit both science and industry. This report presents an extensive literature review that captures past experiences, new advanced reactor designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to liquid sodium combustion behavior.

  14. Analysis of natural radionuclides in coal, slag and ash in coal-fired power plants in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity monitoring in the “Nikola Tesla”, “Kolubara”, “Morava” and “Kostolac” coal-fired power plants was performed by the Radiation and Environmental Protection Laboratory, Vinča Institute of nuclear sciences in the period 2003-2010. Monitoring included the analysis of soil, water, flying ash, slag, coal and plants. This paper presents the results of the radioactivity analysis of coal, ash and slag samples. Naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, and 210Pb as well as the man-made radionuclide 137Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector. The concentrations of pairs of radionuclides were statistically tested to determine the correlation between them. Based on the obtained results, health effect due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated via radium equivalent (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, external gamma absorbed dose rate ( and annual effective dose.

  15. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  16. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  17. More efficient operation of coal fired power plants using nonlinear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulsari, A.; Wemberg, A.; Anttila, A.; Multas, A. [Nonlinear Solution Oy, Turku (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Abstract: Coal fired power plants should be operated in such a way that the emissions are kept clearly below desired limits and the combustion efficiency is as high as can be achieved. This requires a lot of quantitative knowledge of the effects of the process variables and fuel characteristics on the emissions and efficiency. Mathematical models can be developed with different approaches. Physical models are too slow to be used for on-line process guidance, and require too many assumptions and simplifications. It is feasible to develop empirical or semi-empirical models from normal production data of the power plant. This technical communication explains with an example of a coal fired power plant how nonlinear models are an effective means of determining the best operating conditions at any given load for a given type of coal.

  18. The prospects for coal-fired power plants with carbon capture and storage: A UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Currently available and novel CCS technologies for coal-fired power plants are evaluated. • Energy and carbon analyses are made for coal-fired power stations with and without CCS. • Estimates of life-cycle CO2 emissions from these CCS plants have been made. • Cost estimates of coal-fired power stations with and without CCS are reported. • Recent UK industry-led estimates of comparable CCS cost reductions are also reported. - Abstract: Carbon capture and storage (CCS) facilities coupled to coal-fired power plants provide a climate change mitigation strategy that potentially permits the continued use of fossil fuels whilst reducing the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Potential design routes for the capture, transport and storage of CO2 from United Kingdom (UK) power plants are examined. Energy and carbon analyses were performed on coal-fired power stations with and without CCS. Both currently available and novel CCS technologies are evaluated. Due to lower operating efficiencies, the CCS plants showed a longer energy payback period and a lower energy gain ratio than conventional plant. Cost estimates are reported in the context of recent UK industry-led attempts to determine opportunities for cost reductions across the whole CCS chain, alongside international endeavours to devise common CCS cost estimation methods. These cost figures should be viewed as ‘indicative’ or suggestive. They are nevertheless helpful to various CCS stakeholder groups [such as those in industry, policy makers (civil servants and the staff of various government agencies), and civil society and environmental ‘non-governmental organisations’ (NGOs)] in order to enable them to assess the role of this technology in national energy strategies and its impact on local communities

  19. Strategic planning on carbon capture from coal fired plants in Malaysia and Indonesia: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.R. Othman; Martunus; R. Zakaria; W.J.N. Fernando [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2009-05-15

    Malaysia and Indonesia benefit in various ways by participating in CDM and from investments in the GHG emission reduction projects, above all, technology transfer such as carbon capture (CC) technology for the existing and future coal fired power plants. Among the fossil fuel resources for energy generation, coal is offering an attractive solution to the increasing fuel cost. The consumption of coal in Malaysia and Indonesia is growing at the fastest rate of 9.7% and 4.7%, respectively, per year since 2002. The total coal consumption for electricity generation in Malaysia is projected to increase from 12.4 million tons in 2005 to 36 million tons in 2020. In Indonesia, the coal consumption for the same cause is projected to increase from 29.4 million tons in 2005 to 75 million tons in 2020. CO{sub 2} emission from coal fired power plants are forecasted to grow at 4.1% per year, reaching 98 million tons and 171 million tons in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively. 44 refs., 24 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Strategic planning on carbon capture from coal fired plants in Malaysia and Indonesia. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M.R.; Zakaria, R.; Fernando, W.J.N. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Martunus [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Riau University Pekanbaru 28293 (Indonesia)

    2009-05-15

    Malaysia and Indonesia benefit in various ways by participating in CDM and from investments in the GHG emission reduction projects, inter alia, technology transfer such as carbon capture (CC) technology for the existing and future coal fired power plants. Among the fossil fuel resources for energy generation, coal is offering an attractive solution to the increasing fuel cost. The consumption of coal in Malaysia and Indonesia is growing at the fastest rate of 9.7% and 4.7%, respectively, per year since 2002. The total coal consumption for electricity generation in Malaysia is projected to increase from 12.4 million tons in 2005 to 36 million tons in 2020. In Indonesia, the coal consumption for the same cause is projected to increase from 29.4 million tons in 2005 to 75 million tons in 2020. CO{sub 2} emission from coal fired power plants are forecasted to grow at 4.1% per year, reaching 98 million tons and 171 million tons in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively. (author)

  1. Strategic planning on carbon capture from coal fired plants in Malaysia and Indonesia: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M.R. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)], E-mail: chroslee@eng.usm.my; Martunus [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Riau University Pekanbaru 28293 (Indonesia); Zakaria, R.; Fernando, W.J.N. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-15

    Malaysia and Indonesia benefit in various ways by participating in CDM and from investments in the GHG emission reduction projects, inter alia, technology transfer such as carbon capture (CC) technology for the existing and future coal fired power plants. Among the fossil fuel resources for energy generation, coal is offering an attractive solution to the increasing fuel cost. The consumption of coal in Malaysia and Indonesia is growing at the fastest rate of 9.7% and 4.7%, respectively, per year since 2002. The total coal consumption for electricity generation in Malaysia is projected to increase from 12.4 million tons in 2005 to 36 million tons in 2020. In Indonesia, the coal consumption for the same cause is projected to increase from 29.4 million tons in 2005 to 75 million tons in 2020. CO{sub 2} emission from coal fired power plants are forecasted to grow at 4.1% per year, reaching 98 million tons and 171 million tons in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively.

  2. Fuel characterization requirements for cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cofiring of biofuels with coal in existing boilers, or the cofiring of biofuels in combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) systems presents significant potential benefits to utilities, including reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions as a function of reducing the mass flow of sulfur and nitrogen to the boiler, reducing CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels; potentially reducing fuel costs both by the availability of wood residues and by the fact that biofuels are exempt from the proposed BTU tax; and providing support to industrial customers from the forest products industry. At the same time, cofiring requires careful attention to the characterization of the wood and coal, both singly and in combination. This paper reviews characterization requirements associated with cofiring biofuels and fossil fuels in boilers and CCCT installations with particular attention not only to such concerns as sulfur, nitrogen, moisture, and Btu content, but also to such issues as total ash content, base/acid ratio of the wood ash and the coal ash, alkali metal content in the wood ash and wood fuel (including converted fuels such as low Btu gas or pyrolytic oil), slagging and fouling indices, ash fusion temperature, and trace metal contents in the wood and coal. The importance of each parameter is reviewed, along with potential consequences of a failure to adequately characterize these parameters. The consequences of these parameters are reviewed with attention to firing biofuels with coal in pulverized coal (PC) and cyclone boilers, and firing biofuels with natural gas in CCCT installations

  3. Strategic planning on carbon capture from coal fired plants in Malaysia and Indonesia: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia and Indonesia benefit in various ways by participating in CDM and from investments in the GHG emission reduction projects, inter alia, technology transfer such as carbon capture (CC) technology for the existing and future coal fired power plants. Among the fossil fuel resources for energy generation, coal is offering an attractive solution to the increasing fuel cost. The consumption of coal in Malaysia and Indonesia is growing at the fastest rate of 9.7% and 4.7%, respectively, per year since 2002. The total coal consumption for electricity generation in Malaysia is projected to increase from 12.4 million tons in 2005 to 36 million tons in 2020. In Indonesia, the coal consumption for the same cause is projected to increase from 29.4 million tons in 2005 to 75 million tons in 2020. CO2 emission from coal fired power plants are forecasted to grow at 4.1% per year, reaching 98 million tons and 171 million tons in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively.

  4. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  5. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  6. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    Appendix C: Paper in Fuel 87 (2008) 3304-3312: A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor......Appendix C: Paper in Fuel 87 (2008) 3304-3312: A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor...

  7. Peruvian coal-fired direct reduction plant starts up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The SL/RN direct reduction plant of the Siderperu steel-producing company in Chimbote, Peru, has recently been successfully started-up. The SL/RN process is based on the direct reduction of iron ore with non-coking coal in a rotary kiln heated through shell fans.

  8. Emissions and Furnace Gas Temperature for Electricity Generation Via Co-Firing of Coal and Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mehmood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen and sulphur oxides for electricity generation with coal and biomass co-firing are investigated and the furnace gas temperature assessed. The study uses simulation and considers fuel combinations based on two coals (bituminous coal, lignite and four types of biomass (rice husk, sawdust, chicken litter, refused derived fuel. With increasing biomass, net CO2 emissions are seen to decline significantly for all types of selected biomass, while gross carbon dioxide emissions increase for all blends except bituminous coal/refuse derived fuel, lignite/chicken litter and lignite/refuse derived fuel. The reductions in emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides are dependent on the contents of nitrogen and sulphur in the biomass. The results also show for all fuel combinations that increasing the biomass proportion decreases the furnace exit gas temperature.

  9. A New Agro/Forestry Residues Co-Firing Model in a Large Pulverized Coal Furnace: Technical and Economic Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien Hui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the existing biomass co-firing technologies and the known innate drawbacks of dedicated biomass firing, including slagging, corrosion and the dependence on fuel, a new model of agro/forestry residue pellets/shreds and coal co-fired in a large Pulverized Coal (PC furnace was proposed, and the corresponding technical and economic assessments were performed by co-firing testing in a 300 MW PC furnace and discounted cash flow technique. The developed model is more dependent on injection co-firing and combined with co-milling co-firing. Co-firing not only reduces CO2 emission, but also does not significantly affect the fly ash use in cement industry, construction industry and agriculture. Moreover, economic assessments show that in comparison with dedicated firing in grate furnace, agro/forestry residues and coal co-firing in a large PC furnace is highly economic. Otherwise, when the co-firing ratio was below 5 wt%, the boiler co-firing efficiency was 0.05%–0.31% higher than that of dedicated PC combustion, and boiler efficiencies were about 0.2% higher with agro/forestry residues co-firing in the bottom and top burner systems than that in a middle burner system.

  10. Coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. This includes new installations and those existing installations that were originally designed for oil or gas firing. The data generated by these projects must be sufficient for private-sector decisions on the feasibility of using coal as the fuel of choice. This work should also provide incentives for the private sector to continue and expand the development, demonstration, and application of these combustion systems. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications is being developed under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 as part of this DOE development program. The current contract represents the third phase of a three-phase development program. Phase I of the program addressed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, and was initiated in 1987 and completed 1989. Phase II was initiated in 1989 and completed in 1990. During Phase II of the development, design improvements were made to critical components and the test program addressed the performance of the process using several different feedstocks. Phase III of the program was initiated September 1991 and is scheduled for completion in 1994. The Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value-added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and selected industrial wastes.

  11. Performance and economics of advanced energy conversion systems for coal and coal-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.; Fox, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The desire to establish an efficient Energy Conversion System to utilize the fossil fuel of the future - coal - has produced many candidate systems. A comparative technical/economic evaluation was performed on the seven most attractive advanced energy conversion systems. The evaluation maintains a cycle-to-cycle consistency in both performance and economic projections. The technical information base can be employed to make program decisions regarding the most attractive concept. A reference steam power plant was analyzed to the same detail and, under the same ground rules, was used as a comparison base. The power plants were all designed to utilize coal or coal-derived fuels and were targeted to meet an environmental standard. The systems evaluated were two advanced steam systems, a potassium topping cycle, a closed cycle helium system, two open cycle gas turbine combined cycles, and an open cycle MHD system.

  12. Metal fires and their implications for advanced reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Figueroa, Victor G.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Hewson, John C.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-10-01

    This report details the primary results of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project (LDRD 08-0857) Metal Fires and Their Implications for Advance Reactors. Advanced reactors may employ liquid metal coolants, typically sodium, because of their many desirable qualities. This project addressed some of the significant challenges associated with the use of liquid metal coolants, primary among these being the extremely rapid oxidation (combustion) that occurs at the high operating temperatures in reactors. The project has identified a number of areas for which gaps existed in knowledge pertinent to reactor safety analyses. Experimental and analysis capabilities were developed in these areas to varying degrees. In conjunction with team participation in a DOE gap analysis panel, focus was on the oxidation of spilled sodium on thermally massive surfaces. These are spills onto surfaces that substantially cool the sodium during the oxidation process, and they are relevant because standard risk mitigation procedures seek to move spill environments into this regime through rapid draining of spilled sodium. While the spilled sodium is not quenched, the burning mode is different in that there is a transition to a smoldering mode that has not been comprehensively described previously. Prior work has described spilled sodium as a pool fire, but there is a crucial, experimentally-observed transition to a smoldering mode of oxidation. A series of experimental measurements have comprehensively described the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. A new physics-based model has been developed that also predicts the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. The model introduces smoldering oxidation through porous oxide layers to go beyond traditional pool fire analyses that have been carried out previously in order to predict experimentally observed trends. Combined, these developments add significantly to the safety

  13. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  14. Physicochemical properties and heavy metals leachability of fly ash from coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Wei; Han Baoping; Zhou Dong; Nzihou Ange

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of fly ash from two kinds of coal-fired power plants were studied.Three aspects were examined:the micro-morphology,the mineral composition and the content of heavy met als.The results show that the fly ash from plants using a circulating fluidized bed are more irregular particles,while the particles from the plants using a pulverized coal-fired boiler are mainly spherical in shape.Quartz and mullite are the main crystalline phases in the ash.Clearly,both the technology and the coal used by a power plant can influence the mineral composition of the ash.The mineral composition of fly ash from a circulating fluidized bed is more complex than that from a pulverized coal-fired boiler.The quantity of elements found in the fly ash is greater than that found in the bottom ash for the same plant.Heavy metals are likely to be enriched in the fly ash.Heavy metal leachability was studied using two leaching methods.The results indicate that most of the heavy metals that leached during either batch leaching or column leaching experiments did not exceed the related maximum concentration standards.But Ni concentrations in the leachates from both batch and column tests exceed the standard.The highest excess rates in both tests were 572% and 497%,which levels might threaten the environment.

  15. Combustion stability assessment for utility pulverized coal-fired boilers under low loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H.-C.; Huang, Y.-L.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.-H.; Zheng, C.-G. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Lab. of Coal Combustion, Dept. of Power Engineering

    2000-08-01

    Based on the influence of chemical equivalence ratio on the combustion stability of utility pulverized coal-fired boilers and the control theory about system stability, a combustion stability index, CSI, which refers to the maximum reduction ratio of the fuel mass flow rate that can be overcome by the stable combustion process under a constant air mass flow rate, was proposed to assess quantitatively the combustion stability in the boilers. MLO, the Minimum Load of Operation with stable combustion not supported by firing oil, and MCQ, the Minimum Coal Quality, which gives the lowest heat values of coals with different volatile matter contents for stable operation of boilers, are defined on the basis of CSI. In order to predict MLO and MCQ, a simple chemical reaction system model has been modified by means of the concept of lean flammability of gaseous fuels. A three-dimensional combustion simulation code integrated with the modified model was used to study the stability of combustion process in a 200 MWe pulverized coal fired utility boiler. The predictions of MLO and MCQ agreed confidently with operational experiences. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Sintering in biofuel and coal-biofuel fired FBC's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents the results of systematic experiments conducted in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor in order to study agglomeration phenomena during firing straw and co-firing straw with coal. The influence of operating conditions on agglomeration was investigated. The effect of co-firing straw with coal on agglomeration was also examined. The results show that temperature has the most pronounced effect on the agglomeration tendency. As bed temperature increases, the defluidization time decreases sharply, which indicates an increasing tendency of agglomeration. When co-firing straw with coal, the defluidization time can be extended significantly. Examination of the agglomerates sampled during combustion by various analytical techniques indicates that the high potassium content in straw is the main cause for the formation of agglomerates. In the combustion process, potassium-containing compounds are prone to remain in the bed and form low melting temperature potassium rich ash. The molten ashes coat the surfaces of the bed material, promoting agglomeration and defluidization eventually. Based on a competition between the strengthening adhesive force by sintering of the ash coating and the breaking force induced by bubbles, an engineering model has been developed to describe the agglomeration and defluidization phenomena during combustion of straw. The results from the model are in good agreement with the experimental results. From the experimental observation and theoretical analysis, strategies for minimizing agglomeration problem are proposed. (au)

  17. Burnout control at the Albright coal-waste-bank fire. Rept. of investigations/1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnout Control is a process developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines for accelerating the burning of wasted coal fires in situ, while at the same time controlling the heat and fumes produced. The Albright fire project is a first field trial of Burnout Control as applied to a coal waste bank. An exhaust ventilation system was designed and constructed and then operated over a 1-year period at the site of an existing abandoned mine land fire near the town of Albright, W.V. While predicted exhaust gas temperatures of 900 C and thermal power levels of 5 MW were achieved at 20- to 30-in H2O vacuum levels, problems were encountered with engineering designs, equipment breakdown, and fuel-rich combustion that curtailed the time period of satisfactory operation. Effective afterburning of the exhaust gases (as they were drawn from the bank) corrected the problems associated with combustion stoichiometry and led to high thermal outputs. It is believed that with (1) improvements in engineering design and construction, (2) better control of the afterburning process, and (3) the use of conventional stack gas air-pollution controls, Burnout Control can be applied successfully to a coal waste bank fire

  18. As, Hg, and Se flue gas sampling in a coal-fired power plant and their fate during coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose R. Otero-Rey; Jose M. Lopez-Vilarino; Jorge Moreda-Pineiro; Elia Alonso-Rodriguez; Soledad Muniategui-Lorenzo; Purificacion Lopez-Mahia; Dario Prada-Rodriguez [University of A Coruna, A Coruna (Spain). Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences

    2003-11-15

    As, Hg, and Se are the most volatile elements in the flue gas from a coal-fired power plant. Significant amounts of these elements cause an undesired direct gaseous emission, which leads to a serious environmental health risk. The main focus of this study is to evaluate the possibility of simultaneous sampling of these volatile elements using an accurate official method for Hg (the most volatile element). A study of As, Hg, and Se emissions from a 1400 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) was carried out for the combustion of a mixture of two types of coal. Simultaneous sampling of coal, bottom ash, fly ash, flue gas, and particles associated with the gas phase has been performed. Flue gas has been sampled by the Ontario Hydro Method Sampling Train, an ASTM method for Hg speciation. This sampling method was tested for As and Se sampling. As and Se determinations have been performed by HG-AAS, and Hg has been determined by CV-AAS. The results were used to examine the following: overall mass balances, relative distribution of these elements in the coal-fired power plant; As, Hg, and Se concentrations in coal and combustion residues; and predominant oxidation state for Hg in flue gas. The mass balances obtained for As, Hg, and Se were satisfactory in all cases; nevertheless, relative enrichment values in fly ash for As and Se were low; therefore, we concluded that As sampling in flue gas can be conducted by application of the Ontario Hydro Method; nevertheless Se released in the gas phase is not completely collected by this sampling train. Application of this sampling method allowed for performance of Hg speciation. The results indicated that Hg(II) was the predominant species in flue gas. It has also been proved that 24%, more than 99.8%, and 90% for As, Hg, and Se in the stack emissions, respectively, were in the gaseous phase. 42 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  19. Exergetic and Parametric Study of a Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar-aided coal-fired power plant realizes the integration of a fossil fuel (coal or gas and clean energy (solar. In this paper, a conventional 600 MW coal-fired power plant and a 600 MW solar-aided coal-fired power plant have been taken as the study case to understand the merits of solar-aided power generation (SAPG technology. The plants in the case study have been analyzed by using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics principles. The solar irradiation and load ratio have been considered in the analysis. We conclude that if the solar irradiation was 925 W/m2 and load ratio of the SAPG plant was 100%, the exergy efficiency would be 44.54% and the energy efficiency of the plant (46.35%. It was found that in the SAPG plant the largest exergy loss was from the boiler, which accounted for about 76.74% of the total loss. When the load ratio of the unit remains at 100%, and the solar irradiation varies from 500 W/m2 to 1,100 W/m2, the coal savings would be in the range of 8.6 g/kWh to 15.8 g/kWh. If the solar irradiation were kept at 925 W/m2 while the load ratio of the plant changed from 30% to 100%, the coal savings could be in the range of 11.99 g/kWh to 13.75 g/kWh.

  20. [Predicting low NOx combustion property of a coal-fired boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Mao, Jianbo; Chi, Zuohe; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Cen, Kefa

    2002-03-01

    More attention was paid to the low NOx combustion property of the high capacity tangential firing boiler, but the NOx emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash of coal burned boiler were complicated, they were affected by many factors, such as coal character, boiler's load, air distribution, boiler style, burner style, furnace temperature, excess air ratio, pulverized coal fineness and the uniformity of the air and coal distribution, etc. In this paper, the NOx emission property and unburned carbon content in fly ash of a 600 MW utility tangentially firing coal burned boiler was experimentally investigated, and taking advantage of the nonlinear dynamics characteristics and self-learning characteristics of artificial neural network, an artificial neural network model on low NOx combustion property of the high capacity boiler was developed and verified. The results illustrated that such a model can predicate the NOx emission concentration and unburned carbon content under various operating conditions, if combined with the optimization algorithm, the operator can find the best operation condition of the low NOx combustion. PMID:12048812

  1. Mathematical modelling of flue gas tempered flames produced from pulverised coal fired with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breussin, A.; Weber, R.; Kamp, W.L. van de

    1997-10-01

    The combustion of pulverised coal in conventional utility boilers contributes significantly to global CO{sub 2} emissions. Because atmospheric air is used as the combustion medium, the exhaust gases of conventional pulverised coal fired utility boilers contain approximately 15 % CO{sub 2}. This relatively low concentration makes separating and recovering CO{sub 2} a very energy-intensive process. This process can be simplified if N{sub 2} is eliminated from the comburent before combustion by firing the pulverised coal with pure oxygen. However, this concept will result in very high flames temperatures. Flue gas recirculation can be used to moderate the flame temperature, whilst generating a flue gas with a CO{sub 2} concentration of 95 %. In this presentation, both experimental and modelling work will be described. The former deals with identifying the issues related to the combustion of pulverised coal in simulated turbine exhaust gas, particularly with respect to stability, burnout and pollutant emissions. The second part of this presentation describes mathematical modelling of type 2 as well as type 1 swirling pulverised coal flames. Future work will concentrate on high CO{sub 2} levels environments. (orig.)

  2. Automated remote control of fuel supply section for the coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudin, O.V.; Maidan, B.V.; Tsymbal, A.A. [JSC Khabarovskenergo, Khabarovsk (Russian Federation). Heat and Power Plant No. 3

    1996-05-01

    Approximately 6,000 miles east of Moscow, lays the city of Khabarovsk. This city`s coal-fired Power Plant 3 supplies electricity, heat and hot water to approximately 250,000 customers. Plant 3 has three units with a combined turbine capacity of 540 MW, (3 {times} 180) electrical and 780 (3 {times} 260) Gkal an hour thermal capacity with steam productivity of 2010 (3 {times} 670) tons per hour at 540 C. Coal fired thermal electric power plants rely on the equipment of the fuel supply section. The mechanism of the fuel supply section includes: conveyor belts, hammer crushers, guiding devices, dumping devices, systems for dust neutralizing, iron separators, metal detectors and other devices. As a rule, the fuel path in the power plant has three main directions: from the railroad car unloading terminal to the coal warehouse; from the coal warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, and the railroad car unloading terminal to the acceptance bunkers of power units. The fuel supply section always has a reserve and is capable of uninterruptible fuel supply during routine maintenance and/or repair work. This flexibility requires a large number of fuel traffic routes, some of which operate simultaneously with the feeding of coal from the warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, or in cases when rapid filling of the bunkers is needed, two fuel supply routes operate at the same time. The remote control of the fuel handling system at Power Plant 3 is described.

  3. Gamma isotopic analysis of the coals and ashes from coal fired power plants of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-isotopic analysis of the ashes produced by the combustion of lignite in power stations of Turkey together with the parent coal samples was performed with the aim to estimate its potential adverse impacts on human health. Gamma-isotopic analysis indicated that all samples contained 226Ra (coal samples: 89-148 Bq kg-1; ash samples: 15-26 Bq kg-1), 238U (coal samples: 2-4 μg g-1; ash samples: 9-33 μg g-1), 232Th (coal samples: 1-9 μg g-1; ash samples: 8-12μg g-1), and 40K (coal samples: 26-67 Bq kg-1; ash samples: not detected). 134Cs and 137Cs have not been found in the samples. (author)

  4. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  5. Biotic and physico-chemical conditions in a cooling reservoir of a coal-fired power plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Cholla Lake is a cooling reservoir for the coal fired Cholla electrical generating plant. The lake provides recreational fishing and water contact recreation. The...

  6. Coal quality influence on availability and reliability of two 620 MW lignite fired units after 100 000 operating hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General statistics data on operation of two 620 MW low calorific value coal fired units are foundation for analysis of influence of variable coal characteristics on availability and reliability. Changeable mineralogical structure, ash contents and heating value cause the following problems: increased abrasive wear and unstable firing. Almost 23 % of plant shutting down are caused by the mentioned reasons, which have multiplied in the last years. Analysis will show how it is possible to plan terms of overhaul of boilers with respect to quality of used coal and reliability of pipe system and maintenance of high level of availability and reliability in spite of periodical low heating value of coal. Described experiences are also important for planning, design, construction and operation of new power plants firing with same coal. (Author)

  7. Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. However, many uncertainties still remain in our knowledge of primary anthropogenic releases of mercury to the atmosphere in China. In situations involving large uncertainties, our previous mercury emission inventory that used a deterministic approach could produce results that might not be a true reflection of reality; and in such cases stochastic simulations incorporating uncertainties need to be performed. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed as an uncertainty case study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10 to 154.6 Mg (P90; and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10 to 75.7 Mg (P90. The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content of coal and mercury removal efficiency.

  8. Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed multiple-year inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China has been developed. Coal combustion and nonferrous metals production continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, together contributing ~80% of total mercury emissions. Within our inventory, a new comprehensive sub-module for estimation of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China is constructed for uncertainty case-study. The new sub-module integrates up-to-date information regarding mercury content in coal by province, coal washing and cleaning, coal consumption by province, mercury removal efficiencies by control technology or technology combinations, etc. Based on these detailed data, probability-based distribution functions are built into the sub-module to address the uncertainties of these key parameters. The sub-module incorporates Monte Carlo simulations to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters and produce the mercury emission results in the form of a statistical distribution. For example, the best estimate for total mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China in 2003 is 90.5 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 57.1 Mg (P10 to 154.6 Mg (P90; and the best estimate for elemental mercury emissions is 43.0 Mg, with the uncertainty range from 25.6 Mg (P10 to 75.7 Mg (P90. The results further indicate that the majority of the uncertainty in mercury emission estimation comes from two factors: mercury content in coal and mercury removal efficiency.

  9. Mapping Land Subsidence Related to Underground Coal Fires in the Wuda Coalfield (Northern China Using a Small Stack of ALOS PALSAR Differential Interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delu Pan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires have been found to be a serious problem worldwide in coal mining reserves. Coal fires burn valuable coal reserves and lead to severe environmental degradation of the region. Moreover, coal fires can result in massive surface displacements due to the reduction in volume of the burning coal and can cause thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass particularly cracks and fissures. The Wuda coalfield in Northern China is known for being an exclusive storehouse of prime coking coal as well as for being the site of occurrence of the maximum number of known coal fires among all the coalfields in China and worldwide, and is chosen as our study area. In this study, we have investigated the capabilities and limitations of ALOS PALSAR data for monitoring the land subsidence that accompanies coal fires by means of satellite differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR observations. An approach to map the large and highly non-linear subsidence based on a small number of SAR images was applied to the Wuda coalfield to reveal the spatial and temporal signals of land subsidence in areas affected by coal fires. The DInSAR results agree well with coal fire data obtained from field investigations and thermal anomaly information, which demonstrates that the capability of ALOS PALSAR data and the proposed approach have remarkable potential to detect this land subsidence of interest. In addition, our results also provide a spatial extent and temporal evolution of the land subsidence behavior accompanying the coal fires, which indicated that several coal fire zones suffer accelerated ongoing land subsidence, whilst other coal fire zones are newly subsiding areas arising from coal fires in the period of development.

  10. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, C. [National Power Training Institute, Durgapur (India)

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  11. [Determination and Emission of Condensable Particulate Matter from Coal-fired Power Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Bing

    2015-05-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21.2 ± 3.5) mg · m(-3) while the FPM was (20.6 ± 10.0) mg · m(-3) during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32%, and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1%. PMID:26314098

  12. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  13. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

  14. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongPing; CUI YingHong; HOU HongJuan; GUO XiYan; YANG ZhiPing; WANG NinLing

    2008-01-01

    Integrationg rating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha-nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a of SEGS, 0.14 S/kW. h.

  15. Sliding Mode Predictive Control of Main Steam Pressure in Coal-fired Power Plant Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史元浩; 王景成; 章云锋

    2012-01-01

    Since the combustion system of coal-fired boiler in thermal power plant is characterized as time varying, strongly coupled, and nonlinear, it is hard to achieve a satisfactory performance by the conventional proportional integral derivative (PID) control scheme. For the characteristics of the main steam pressure in coal-fired power plant boiler, the sliding mode control system with Smith predictive structure is proposed to look for performance and robustness improvement. First, internal model control (IMC) and Smith predictor (SP) is used to deal with the time delay, and sliding mode controller (SMCr) is designed to overcome the model mismatch. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller compared with conventional ones.

  16. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment. PMID:26370817

  17. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles formed from combustion of a bituminous coal and co-combustion of coal with 7 th% (thermal percentage) solid recovered fuel (SRF) in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were sampled and characterized in this study. The particles from dedicated coal combustion and co-combustion both...... showed an ultrafine mode centered at approximately 0.1 μm. Compared with coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the formation of submicron particles, especially ultrafine particles below 0.2 μm. The morphology of the particles indicated that supermicron particles were primarily formed...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  18. Failure analysis of high temperature superheater tube (HTS) of a pulverized coal-fired power station

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mujibur Rahman; Ahmad Kamal Kadir

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the failure investigation of high temperature superheater (HTS) tubes.  Samples were collected from one of the coal fired power plants in Malaysia, namely, Stesen Janakuasa Sultan Azlan Shah, Manjung (Manjung Power Station).  After eight years of non-continuous services of three boilers, welded support-clips were completely separated (detached) from (HTS) tubes, which caused the wall thinning.  Collected failed samples were undergone several experimental investigations inc...

  19. Low-cost Evaporator Protection Method against Corrosion in a Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Krzysztof Dyjakon; Przemysław Bukowski

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion processes appearing on the watertubes in a combustion chamber of pulverized coal-fired boilers require permanent control and service. Subject to the power plant strategy, different anti-corrosion protection methods can be applied. Technical-economical analysis has been performed to evaluate and support the decisions on maintenance and operation services. The paper presents and discusses results of the application of an air protection system in boiler OP-230 in view of anti-corrosion...

  20. 800-MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Boilers in Suizhong Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Haifeng; Li Zhishan; Liu Zhongqi; Yan Hongyong; Zhang Yuanliang; Wang Lei

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the problems of Russia-made 800-MW coal-fired supercritical boilers inSuizhong Power Plant, such as burner burnout, water-wall leakage, slag screen I explosion, crack happenedon the desuperheater outlet of reheater and welding defect of economizer; tells the process of renovating theseunits by modifying the original design and adjusting the operation parameters. After several years' effort, allthe problems have been well solved. The experience may be useful for other imported units in China.

  1. Investigations on the fouling behaviour of Rhenish brown coals in lignite-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In lignite-fired power plants high fouling in heat exchangers can be observed while firing Rhenish brown coals rich in sodium and poor in silicon content. These sulphatic and oxidic deposits reduce the heat transfer and can cause plant damage. It is assumed that fouling is caused by ash softening and partial melting of alkaline phases. The objective of this dissertation is to provide a better understanding of the fouling processes in lignite-fired boilers through experimental analysis using the ashes of different Rhenish brown coals and synthetic ash mixtures. In order to estimate the agglomeration potential of the brown coal ashes and synthetic ash mixtures, measurements of shear properties and impedance spectroscopy were performed. Furthermore, exposure tests in air and flue gas were conducted in the temperature range between 600 to 1,200 C to evaluate the influence of different parameters on the crystalline phase compounds and microstructures of the brown coal ashes and synthetic ash mixtures. The exposed samples were compared among each other and with corresponding ash deposits produced in a micro combustion chamber. Another aim of this dissertation is to verify the occurrence of NaOH melt in fouling processes. For this purpose impedance spectroscopy with a special probe was performed in the pilot power plant Niederaussem while firing sodium enriched fouling coal. This research indicates the importance of non-silicate bonded sodium and calcium in fouling processes. The higher their contents are, the higher is the fouling potential of the brown coal. Although the occurrence of NaOH in the boiler can not be directly proven by impedance spectroscopy, the experimental results indicate that it plays an important role in fouling. However, this research shows that silicates reduce the fouling potential of the ashes. Shear property measurements, impedance spectroscopy and the calculation of Na/Si and Ca/Si ratios of 450 C-ashes are applicable methods to predict the

  2. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  3. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emissions of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2 and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. For steadily increasing emissions without substantial pollution controls, we find that the net global mean climate forcing ranges from near zero to a substantial negative value, depending on the magnitude of aerosol indirect effects, due to aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. The long-term forcing from stable (constant emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls, with larger values in the case of pollutant controls. The results imply that historical emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period. Those emissions likely led to weak cooling at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes and warming in the Southern Hemisphere, however. Subsequent imposition of pollution controls and the switch to low-sulfur coal in some areas kept global SO2 emissions roughly level from 1970 to 2000. Hence during that period, RF due to emissions during those decades and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and likely contributed to rapid global and regional warming. Most recently, construction of coal-fired power plants in China and India has been increasing rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of high-growth rates for another 30 years would lead to near zero to negative global mean climate forcing in the absence of expanded pollution controls, but severely degraded air quality. However, following the Western pattern of high coal usage followed by imposition of pollution controls could lead to accelerated global warming in the

  4. Historical Costs of Coal-Fired Electricity and Implications for the Future

    CERN Document Server

    McNerney, James; Farmer, J Doyne

    2010-01-01

    We study the costs of coal-fired electricity in the United States between 1882 and 2006 by decomposing it in terms of the price of coal, transportation costs, energy density, thermal efficiency, plant construction cost, interest rate, and capacity factor. The dominant determinants of costs at present are the price of coal and plant construction cost. The price of coal appears to fluctuate more or less randomly while the construction cost follows long-term trends, decreasing from 1902 - 1970, increasing from 1970 - 1990, and leveling off or decreasing a little since then. This leads us to forecast that even without carbon capture and storage, and even under an optimistic scenario in which construction costs resume their previously decreasing trending behavior, the cost of coal-based electricity will drop for a while but eventually be determined by the price of coal, which varies stochastically but shows no long term decreasing trends. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of using long time series and compari...

  5. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  6. Parameters affecting nitrogen oxides in a Coal-Fired Flow Facility system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang

    1996-03-01

    The unusually high temperature in the primary combustor of the Coal-Fired Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation system causes much higher nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to be produced than in a conventional coal fired generation system. In order to lower the NO{sub x} concentration to an acceptable level, it is important to know how parameters of the MM power generation system affect the NO{sub x} concentration. This thesis investigates those effects in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute under the contract of US Department Of Energy (DOE). With thermodynamic and kinetic computer codes, the theoretical studies were carried out on the parameters of the CFFF system. The results gathered from the computer codes were analyzed and compared with the experimental data collected during the LMF5J test. The thermodynamic and kinetic codes together modeled the NO.{sub x} behavior with reasonable accuracy while some inconsistencies happened at the secondary combustor inlet.

  7. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pal; Jitendra Vaish; Sahadev Kumar; Abhay Kumar Bharti

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from −1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050–1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  8. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS PHASE II AND III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 "Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III." The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: à thermal efficiency (HHV) >47%; à NOx, SOx, and particulates <10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); à coal providing >65% of heat input; à all solid wastes benign; à cost of electricity <90% of present plants. Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase II, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: à Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; à Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  9. The Evaluation of Solar Contribution in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize various types of solar thermal energy for coupling coal-fired power plants by using the characteristics of various thermal needs of the plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will be unnecessary while the intermittent and unsteady way of power generation will be avoided. Moreover, the large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and the energy-saving aim of power plants will be realized. The contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power needs to be explored. This paper deals with the evaluation method of solar contribution based on the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of thermoeconomics with a case of 600 MW solar aided coal-fired power plant. In this study, the feasibility of the method has been carried out. The contribution of this paper is not only to determine the proportion of solar energy in overall electric power, but also to assign the individual cost components involving solar energy. Therefore, this study will supply the theoretical reference for the future research of evaluation methods and new energy resource subsidy.

  10. Radiation doses from coal-fired plants in Oxfordshire and Berkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains an assessment of the radiation doses to members of the public living in Oxfordshire and Berkshire from the releases to atmosphere of natural radioactivity from Didcot Power Station and the coal-fired boilers that operate at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston and the Harwell Laboratory of UKAEA. The calculated annual effective dose equivalents to adults from the emissions from Didcot Power Station and the coal-fired plants at AWE, Aldermaston, and UKAEA, Harwell, at 5 km from the sites are, respectively, 0.3, 0.06 and 0.01 μSv. The dose to red bone marrow are broadly comparable with these values. The doses to the other age groups considered (1-year-old and 10-year-old children) are similar to those to the adults. The conclusion is therefore drawn that the discharges from the coal-fired plants make a negligible contribution to the total radiation doses received by the population living around the sites. (author)

  11. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions. PMID:26545153

  12. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions.

  13. Thermal Performance and Economic Analysis of 210 MWe Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the thermal and economic performance of a 210 MWe coal-fired power plant situated in North India. Analysis is used to predict coal consumption rate, overall thermal efficiency, mass flow rate of steam through boiler, and Net present value (NPV of plant for given load. Thermodynamic analysis was carried out using mass and energy equations followed by empirical correlations. Predicted mass flow rate of steam, coal consumption rate, and thermal efficiency give fair agreement with plant operating data. The economic analysis includes operational activities such as equipment cost, fuel cost, operations and maintenance cost, revenue, and plant net present value. From economic point of view, the effect of condensate extraction pump redundancy on net present value is observed to be sensitive than boiler feed pump redundancy.

  14. Formation and emission of fine particles from two coal-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.T.; Livbjerg, H.; Fogh, C.L.;

    2002-01-01

    The generation and emission of combustion particles from two full-scale coal-fired power plants was studied by field measurements during which particles are sampled for size classification and chemical analysis simultaneously at three positions in the plants: before the electrostatic precipitator...... are in the PM2.5 range. The emitted particles primarily stern from the coal ash with a minor contribution of particles of entrained, dried-out droplets of scrubber slurry. The large emitted particles are compact, almost-spherical single particles originating from the ash mineral inclusions in the coal......, before the desulfurisation plant, and in the stack. The following sampling techniques are used: scanning mobility particle sizer, low pressure cascade impactor, dichotomous PM2.5 sampler, and total particle filter. The so-called multi-platform method used in this work Proves useful for gaining insight...

  15. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-03-31

    Proposed activities for quarter 7 (12/15/01-3/14/2002): (1) Incorporation of moisture model into PCGC2 code. Parametric study of moisture effects on flame structure and pollutants emissions in cofiring of coal and Liter Biomass (LB) (Task 4); (2) Use the ash tracer method to determine the combustion efficiency and comparison it to results from gas analysis (Task 2); (3) Effect of swirl on combustion performance (Task 2); (4) Completion of the proposed modifications to the gasifier setup (Task 3); (5) Calibration of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) used for measuring the product gas species (Task 3); and (6) To obtain temperature profiles for different fuels under different operating conditions in the fixed bed gasifier (Task 3).

  16. Radioactivity in coal, ashes and selected wastewaters from Canadian coal-fired steam electric generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is known to contain naturally occurring radioactive elements and there has been speculation that as a results, coal-fuelled power generation stations may be significant emitters of these substances. In this report, the subject of radioactivity is introduced. The kinds of radioactive substances which occur naturally in coal formations, the nature of their emissions and the existing information on their behaviour and their effects on environmental organisms are also reviewed. The results of an examination of levels of alpha, beta and gamma radiaton levels, and the substances which produce them in coals, fly ashes, bottom ashes and related wastewaters at six Canadian coal-fuelled power stations are presented. Difficulties in studies of this nature and the potential effects of these releases on organisms in the adjacent aquatic environment are discussed. Existing and potential technologies for the removal of these substances from wastewaters are examined. In general the releases in wastewaters from the six stations were found to be lower than those known to cause short-term or acute biological effects. The potential for long-term effects from such low-level releases could not be accurately assessed because of the paucity of information. A number of recommendations for: improvements in further studies of this nature; the further examination of the fate of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment; and the determination of the long-term effects of low levels of naturally occurring radioactive substances on aquatic organisms, are made

  17. Application of the decree 2910 for coal fired boilers; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie, Charbonnages de France, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French decree 2910 concerning the classification of all combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on 2 to 20 MW coal-fired boilers, are discussed, with emphasis on their pollutant emissions (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes). The compositions of several coals is presented and the various types of coal-fired boilers adapted to the new decree are presented: automatic boilers, dense fluidized bed boilers, vibrating and chain grids with fume tubes and water tubes

  18. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers. Final report, October 1990--August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, T.; Melick, T.; Morrison, D.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this DOE sponsored project was to successfully fire coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler that was designed for oil/gas firing and establish a data base that will be relevant to a large number of existing installations. Firing slurry in a fire-tube configuration is a very demanding application because of the extremely high heat release rates and the correspondingly low furnace volume where combustion can be completed. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the major obstacle when firing slurry in a fire-tube boiler, the program was focused on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler system was successfully designed and operated to fire coal-water slurry for extended periods of time with few slurry related operational problems. The host facility was a 3.8 million Btu/hr Cleaver-Brooks fire-tube boiler located on the University of Alabama Campus. A slurry atomizer was designed that provided outstanding atomization and was not susceptible to pluggage. The boiler was operated for over 1000 hours and 12 shipments of slurry were delivered. The new equipment engineered for the coal-water slurry system consisted of the following: combustion air and slurry heaters; cyclone; baghouse; fly ash reinjection system; new control system; air compressor; CWS/gas burner and gas valve train; and storage tank and slurry handling system.

  19. Application of hybrid coal reburning/SNCR processes for NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Zhou, J.H.; Hongkun, L.V.; Liu, J.Z.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    Boilers in Beijing Thermal Power Plant of Zhongdian Guohua Co. in China are coal-fired with natural circulation and tangential fired method, and the economical continuous rate is 410 ton per hour of steam. Hybrid coal reburning/SNCR technology was applied and it successfully reduced NOx to about 170 mg/Nm{sup 3} from about 540 mg/Nm{sup 3}, meanwhile ammonia slip was lower than 10 ppm at 450-210 t/h load and the total reduction efficiency was about 70%. Normal fineness pulverized coal from the bin was chosen as the reburning fuel and the nozzles of the upper primary air were retrofitted to be used as the reburning fuel nozzles. The reducing agent of SNCR was an urea solution, and it was injected by the four layer injectors after online dilution. At 410 t/h load, NOx emission was about 300 mg/Nm{sup 3} when the ratio of reburning fuel to the total fuel was 25.9%-33.4%. Controlling the oxygen content of the gas in the reversal chamber to less than 3.4% resulted in not only low NOx emission but also high combustion efficiency. Ammonia slip distribution in the down gas pass was uneven and ammonia slip was higher in the front of the down gas pass than in the rear of the down gas pass. NSR and NOx reduction were proportional to each other and usually resulted in more ammonia slip with reduction in NOx. About 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} NOx emission could be achieved with about 40 ppm NH{sub 3} slip at 300-450 t/h, and ammonia slip from the SNCR reactions could be used as reducing agent of SCR, which was favorable for the future SCR retrofit.

  20. Distribution and Fate of Mercury in Pulverized Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants in Coal Energy-Dominant Huainan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyu; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding on the partitioning behavior of mercury (Hg) during coal combustion in large-scale coal-fired power plants is fundamental for drafting Hg-emission control regulations. Two large coal-fired utility boilers, equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system, respectively, in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China, were selected to investigate the distribution and fate of Hg during coal combustion. In three sampling campaigns, we found that Hg in bottom ash was severely depleted with a relative enrichment (RE) index removal efficiencies of ESPs, WFGD, and ESPs + WFGD were 17-32, 10-29, and 36-46%, respectively. The Hg-emission factor of studied boilers was in a high range of 0.24-0.29 g Hg/t coal. We estimated that Hg emissions in all Huainan coal-fired power plants varied from 1.8 Mg in 2003 to 7.3 Mg in 2010. PMID:26883032

  1. Burnout prediction using advance image analysis coal characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Lester; Dave Watts; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The link between petrographic composition and burnout has been investigated previously by the authors. However, these predictions were based on 'bulk' properties of the coal, including the proportion of each maceral or the reflectance of the macerals in the whole sample. Combustion studies relating burnout with microlithotype analysis, or similar, remain less common partly because the technique is more complex than maceral analysis. Despite this, it is likely that any burnout prediction based on petrographic characteristics will become more accurate if it includes information about the maceral associations and the size of each particle. Chars from 13 coals, 106-125 micron size fractions, were prepared using a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) at 1300{degree}C and 200 millisecond and 1% Oxygen. These chars were then refired in the DTF at 1300{degree}C 5% oxygen and residence times of 200, 400 and 600 milliseconds. The progressive burnout of each char was compared with the characteristics of the initial coals. This paper presents an extension of previous studies in that it relates combustion behaviour to coals that have been characterized on a particle by particle basis using advanced image analysis techniques. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  2. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the

  3. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  4. Deposit growth and property development in coal-fired furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) to provide a self-consistent database of simultaneously measured, time-resolved ash deposit properties in well-controlled and well-defined environments and (2) to provide analytical expressions that relate deposit composition and structure to deposit properties of immediate relevance to PETC`s Combustion 2000 program. This project is distinguished from related work being done elsewhere by: (1) the development and deployment of in-situ diagnostics to monitor deposit properties, including heat transfer coefficients, porosity, emissivity, tenacity, strength, density, and viscosity; (2) the time resolution of such properties during deposit growth; (3) simultaneous measurement of structural and composition properties; (4) development of algorithms from a self-consistent, simultaneously measured database that includes the interdependence of properties; and (5) application of the results to technologically relevant environments such as those being planned under Combustion 2000 program. Work completed during FY94 emphasized diagnostic development. During FY95, this development work will be completed and we will emphasize application of the diagnostics to meet the other project objectives. Included in this work are the development and application of two in-situ, real-time diagnostic systems for monitoring the properties of inorganic materials on Heat transfer surfaces and in the gas-phase during controlled combustion of selected coal samples in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor (MFC). Also, several diagnostics are being incorporated into the MFC that will eventually be used to characterize ash deposit properties.

  5. Trace element partitioning behavior of coal gangue-fired CFB plant: experimental and equilibrium calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingyi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-10-01

    Energy recovery is a promising method for coal gangue utilization, during which the prevention of secondary pollution, especially toxic metal emission, is a significant issue in the development of coal gangue utilization. In the present study, investigation into trace element partitioning behavior from a coal gangue-fired power plant in Shanxi province, China, has been conducted. Besides the experimental analysis, thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was also conducted to help the further understanding on the effect of different parameters. Results showed that Hg, As, Be, and Cd were highly volatile elements in the combustion of coal gangue, which were notably enriched in fly ash and may be emitted into the environment via the gas phase. Cr and Mn were mostly non-volatile and were enriched in the bottom ash. Pb, Co, Zn, Cu, and Ni were semi-volatile elements and were enriched in the fly ash to varying degrees. Equilibrium calculations show that the air/fuel ratio and the presence of Cl highly affect the element volatility. The presence of mineral phases, such as aluminosilicates, depresses the volatility of elements by chemical immobilization and competition in Cl. The coal gangue, fly ash, and bottom ash all passed the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and their alkalinity buffers the acidity of the solution and contributes to the low solubility of the trace elements. PMID:26006077

  6. Pain without gain? Reviewing the risks and rewards of investing in Russian coal-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study explores the risks and rewards facing coal in Russia. • Rewards include low costs, investment, rural modernization, exports, and innovation. • Risks include development challenges, air pollution and climate change, and policy support. - Abstract: Coal use—and thus investment—is expected to grow considerably in the Russian Federation over the next few decades. Projections suggest that at least $200 billion of investment will be needed to modernize existing coal-fired power plants by 2030, but the bulk of this financing is to come from the private sector or foreign enterprises. This study asks: what are the possible investment risks and rewards of pursuing this expansion of coal in the Russian power sector? To provide an answer, the study uses a mixed methods approach consisting of elite semi-structured interviews and a review of English and Russian peer-reviewed literature. The study provides a brief overview of the Russian electricity sector before discussing five distinct rewards to investing in coal such as low production costs, competitive returns on investment, rural modernization, expansion of exports, and the acceleration of innovation. These benefits however are offset by five risks: inferior performance to investments in oil and gas, development challenges, air pollution and climate change, social degradation from mining, and a tradeoff with existing policies incentivizing renewable energy and energy efficiency. The study concludes by analyzing what these disparate risks and rewards mean for policymakers and energy analysts

  7. Pollution control technologies applied to coal-fired power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burning of fossil fuels is the major source of energy in today's global economy with over one-third of the world's power generation derived from coal combustion. Although coal has been a reliable, abundant, and relatively inexpensive fuel source for most of the 20th century, its future in electric power generation is under increasing pressure as environmental regulations become more stringent worldwide. Current pollution control technologies for combustion exhaust gas generally treat the release of regulated pollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as three separate problems instead of as parts of one problem. New and improved technologies have greatly reduced the emissions produced per ton of burning coal. The term 'Clean Coal Combustion Technology' applies generically to a range of technologies designed to greatly reduce the emissions from coal-fired power plants. The wet methods of desulfurization at present are the widest applied technology in professional energetics. This method is economic and gives good final results but a future for clean technologies is the biomass. Power from biomass is a proven commercial option of the electricity generation in the World. An increasing number of power marketers are starting to offer environmentally friendly electricity, including biomass power, in response to the consumer demand and regulatory requirements. (authors)

  8. Metallurgical Analysis of Cracks Formed on Coal Fired Boiler Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, Rajat; Kyada, Tushal; Goyal, Rajesh K.; Kathayat, T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Metallurgical failure analysis was carried out for cracks observed on the outer surface of a boiler tube made of ASME SA 210 GR A1 grade steel. The cracks on the surface of the tube were observed after 6 months from the installation in service. A careful visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness measurement, detailed microstructural analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to ascertain the cause for failure. Visual inspection of the failed tube revealed the presence of oxide scales and ash deposits on the surface of the tube exposed to fire. Many cracks extending longitudinally were observed on the surface of the tube. Bulging of the tube was also observed. The results of chemical analysis, hardness values and optical micrographs did not exhibit any abnormality at the region of failure. However, detailed SEM with EDS analysis confirmed the presence of various oxide scales. These scales initiated corrosion at both the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. In addition, excessive hoop stress also developed at the region of failure. It is concluded that the failure of the boiler tube took place owing to the combined effect of the corrosion caused by the oxide scales as well as the excessive hoop stress.

  9. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 3, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and prepare an R & D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team ofcompanies involved in this effort. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degrees}F in furnaces fired with cool-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor up to about 2400{degrees}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuelgas is a relatively clean fuel, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need tobe a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown.

  10. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Wang; Tsunemi Watanabe; Zhiwei Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much hig...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2004-03-01

    The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

  12. Development of mercury control technology for coal-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livengood, D.C.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1995-08-01

    The emission of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) from various industrial processes has emerged as a major environmental issue that was singled out for particular attention in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In particular, mercury emissions are the subject of several current EPA studies because of concerns over possible serious effects on human health. Some of those emissions originate in the combustion of coal, which contains trace amounts of mercury, and are likely to be the subject of control requirements in the relatively near future. Data collected by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) at operating electric-power plants have shown that conventional flue-gas cleanup (FGC) technologies are not very effective in controlling emissions of mercury in general, and are particularly poor at controlling emissions of elemental mercury. This paper gives an overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on improving the capture of mercury in flue gas through the use of dry sorbents and/or wet scrubbers. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are not effective in removing elemental mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon; chemically treated mineral substrates have the potential to be developed into effective and economical mercury sorbents; sorbents treated with different chemicals respond in significantly different ways to changes in flue-gas temperature.

  13. Natural radioactive level in coal and ash and building material products from coal-fired power plants in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the methods and results of survey on content of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in samples of coal, ash from 5 coal-fired power plants in Beijing and ash bricks, air-added concrete from Beijing air-added concrete plant from February to December, 1993. 55 coal Samples, 26 ash Samples, 8 ash brick samples and 8 air-added concrete samples were collected. These samples were analysed by type FH-1936 low background γ-spectrometer. The average value of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of coal is 28.9, 35.9 and 80.4 Bq/kg, respectively; 101, 110 and 347 Bq/kg, for ash; 47.6, 72.9 and 288 Bq/kg, for ash brick and 47.8, 70.1 and 216 Bq/kg for air-added concrete, respectively. In addition, γ radiation dose rate inside buildings of workers, dwelling houses of the Beijing air-added concrete plant made of ash building materials were investigated and analysed. The range and the average value of 8 measurement values is (67.4-84.7) nGy/h and 78.2 nGy/h, respectively. It approaches to the average value inside bungalow of bricks and a building of two or more storeys made of bricks and concrete in Beijing and within normal range. The results show that it might not cause obviously increase of γ radiation dose rate inside building when the ash were rationally used as the raw materials of building

  14. Performance Analysis of a Coal-Fired External Combustion Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is one of the large-scale energy storage technologies utilized to provide effective power peak load shaving. In this paper, a coal-fired external combustion CAES, which only uses coal as fuel, is proposed. Unlike the traditional CAES, the combustion chamber is substituted with an external combustion heater in which high-pressure air is heated before entering turbines to expand in the proposed system. A thermodynamic analysis of the proposed CAES is conducted on the basis of the process simulation. The overall efficiency and the efficiency of electricity storage are 48.37% and 81.50%, respectively. Furthermore, the exergy analysis is then derived and forecasted, and the exergy efficiency of the proposed system is 47.22%. The results show that the proposed CAES has more performance advantages than Huntorf CAES (the first CAES plant in the world. Techno-economic analysis of the coal-fired CAES shows that the cost of electricity (COE is $106.33/MWh, which is relatively high in the rapidly developing power market. However, CAES will be more likely to be competitive if the power grid is improved and suitable geographical conditions for storage caverns are satisfied. This research provides a new approach for developing CAES in China.

  15. Efficiency and environmental impacts of electricity restructuring on coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the impacts of electricity market restructuring on fuel efficiency, utilization and, new to this area, cost of coal purchases among coal-fired power plants using a panel data set from 1991 to 2005. Our study focuses exclusively on coal-fired power plants and uses panel data covering several years after implementation of restructuring. The estimation compares how investor-owned (IOs) plants in states with restructuring changed their behavior relative to IOs in states without. Our analysis finds that restructuring led to: (1) a two percent improvement in fuel efficiency for IOs, (2) a ten percent decrease in unit cost of heat input, and (3) a lower capacity factor even after adjusting for cross-plant generation re-allocation due to cost reductions. Based on these estimates, back-of-the-envelope calculations find that restructuring has led to about 6.5 million dollars in annual cost savings or nearly 12 percent of operating expenses and up to a 7.6 percent emissions reduction per plant.

  16. Efficiency and environmental impacts of electricity restructuring on coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, H. Ron [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Economics; Fell, Harrison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Division of Economics and Business; Lange, Ian [Stirling Univ. (United Kingdom). Division of Economics; Li, Shanjun [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management

    2013-03-15

    We investigate the impacts of electricity market restructuring on fuel efficiency, utilization and, new to this area, cost of coal purchases among coal-fired power plants using a panel data set from 1991 to 2005. Our study focuses exclusively on coal-fired power plants and uses panel data covering several years after implementation of restructuring. The estimation compares how investor-owned (IOs) plants in states with restructuring changed their behavior relative to IOs in states without. Our analysis finds that restructuring led to: (1) a two percent improvement in fuel efficiency for IOs, (2) a ten percent decrease in unit cost of heat input, and (3) a lower capacity factor even after adjusting for cross-plant generation re-allocation due to cost reductions. Based on these estimates, back-of-the-envelope calculations find that restructuring has led to about 6.5 million dollars in annual cost savings or nearly 12 percent of operating expenses and up to a 7.6 percent emissions reduction per plant.

  17. Numerical study on the impact of varying operation conditions on NOx emissions of large-scale pulverized coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue-yun [Jiangsu Institute of Economic and Trade Technology, Nanjing (China); Gao, Xiao-tao [Jiangsu Electric Power Test and Research CO., LTD, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Ming-yao [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    For complying with the increasingly strengthened regulation on NOx emission from coal fired power plant, newly built large-scale pulverized coal-fired utility boilers are all installed with low-NOx combustion systems to low NOx emissions. Understanding the characteristics of the system is essential for fully utilizing the system without affecting the combustion performance. In the present work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was applied to simulate the combustion and NOx formation processes in the furnace of 1,000 MW ultra- supercritical boiler equipped with an advanced low-NOx combustion system so as to study the impacts of varying the operation conditions on its NOx emission as well as combustion characteristics. The combustion system is the Mitsubishi Advanced Combustion Technology system consisting of six levels corner-fired pollution minimum (PM) coal burners and additional air to achieve air staging combustion. With the help of CFD simulation, the distributions of the combustion temperature and CO, O{sub 2} and NO concentrations were calculated and analyzed. The main influential operation parameters studied include coal type, additional air flow rate, excess air level and mill groups in service. The CFD simulations indicated that the main reasons of the low NOx emission from this boiler are on two aspects: rationally organizing the combustion process to achieve relatively uniform temperature distribution and reducing combustion environment in the main combustion zone, and combining the utilizations of the large amount of additional air to achieve deep air stage and the low excess air level as well as PM burners. It was also found that varying the operational parameters had considerable effects on the performance of the combustion system.

  18. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Soyuz Priyadarsan (PhD)

    2003-06-01

    Reburn with animal waste yield NO{sub x} reduction of the order of 70-80%, which is much higher than those previously reported in the literature for natural gas, coal and agricultural biomass as reburn fuels. Further, the NO{sub x} reduction is almost independent of stoichiometry from stoichiometric to upto 10% deficient air in reburn zone. As a first step towards understanding the reburn process in a boiler burner, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been developed for estimating the NO{sub x} reduction in the reburn process using simulated animal waste based biomass volatiles. However the first model does not include the gradual heat up of reburn fuel particle, pyrolysis and char combustion. Hence there is a need for more rigorous treatment of the model with animal waste as reburn fuel. To address this issue, an improved zero-dimensional model is being developed which can handle any solid reburn fuel, along with more detailed heterogeneous char reactions and homogeneous global reactions. The model on ''NO{sub x} Reduction for Reburn Process using Feedlot Biomass,'' incorporates; (a) mixing between reburn fuel and main-burner gases, (b) gradual heat-up of reburn fuel accompanied by pyrolysis, oxidation of volatiles and char oxidation, (c) fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) pyrolysis, and FBN including both forward and backward reactions, (d) prediction of NO{sub x} as a function of time in the reburn zone, and (e) gas phase and solid phase temperature as a function of time. The fuel bound nitrogen is assumed to be released to the gas phase by two processes, (a) FBN evolution to N{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}, and (b) FBN oxidation to NO at the char surface. The formulation has been completed, code has been developed, and preliminary runs have been made to test the code. Note that, the current model does not incorporate the overfire air. The results of the simulation will be compared with the experimental results. During this quarter, three journal and

  19. Enginnering development of coal-fired high performance power systems phase II and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) >47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity <90% of present plants. Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R ampersand D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase II, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update

  20. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  1. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  2. The assessment of the environmental external costs of power plants for both coal-fired plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts were made to assess the environmental external costs of power plants for both Samchonpo coal-fired plant and Younggwang nuclear power plant by using the computer program developed by the IAEA. In the case that the emission control devices such as precipitator for particulates reduction, wet scrubber for SO2, and low-NOx burner for NOx were installed in the coal-fired power plant, total environmental external cost was estimated as 33.97Won/kWh, much higher than 0.76Won/kWh of Younggwang nuclear power plant. And this study also assessed and compared the environmental external costs when Younggwang nuclear power plant was replaced by the coal-fired power plant at the same site and with the same capacity. According to the result, total environmental external cost of coal-fired power plant, with the emisison control devices installed, was estimated as 792 million US$ and it was about 50 times higher than 15 million US$ of Younggwang nuclear power plant. Although the result of this study had some limits due to using the simplified model, it was still true that nuclear power was much more environmentally friendly power source than coal-fired power

  3. Deposit formation in a full-scale pulverized wood-fired power plant with and without coal fly ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2013-01-01

    temperatures of ~1300oC and ~800oC, respectively. It was found that during pulverized wood combustion, the deposit formation at the hightemperature location was characterized by a slow and continuous growth of deposits followed by the shedding of a large layer of deposits, while the deposit formation......Ash transformation and deposition in a pulverized wood-fired power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was investigated by using an advanced deposit probe system at two different boiler locations with flue gas...... at the low-temperature location showed a slow initial build-up and a stable mass of deposits after approximately 1-5 h. The deposits collected during pulverized wood combustion contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of coal fly ash (~4 times of the mass flow of wood...

  4. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship

  5. Technology and development requirements for advanced coal conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A compendium of coal conversion process descriptions is presented. The SRS and MC data bases were utilized to provide information paticularly in the areas of existing process designs and process evaluations. Additional information requirements were established and arrangements were made to visit process developers, pilot plants, and process development units to obtain information that was not otherwise available. Plant designs, process descriptions and operating conditions, and performance characteristics were analyzed and requirements for further development identified and evaluated to determine the impact of these requirements on the process commercialization potential from the standpoint of economics and technical feasibility. A preliminary methodology was established for the comparative technical and economic assessment of advanced processes.

  6. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  7. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ancora

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of selective catalyst reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  8. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  9. MINLP model for optimizing electricity production from coal-fired power plants considering carbon management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gases committed in the Kyoto Protocol, countries must establish control policies and encourage industries to reduce their emissions. Two main options arise in a cap and trade framework: (i) buying/selling emission allowances; and (ii) reducing emissions by investing in abatement technologies. In this context, each industry must choose the best strategy considering its particular features. This work proposes a systematic tool to assist decision-makers in the design of coal-fired energy production with carbon management in existing power plants. Our approach relies on a novel mixed integer non-linear program (MINLP) that minimizes the cost of electricity (COE) for a given price of CO2 allowance on the trade market. We demonstrate the capabilities of this MINLP through a case study that addresses the retrofitting of a coal-fired power plant. Results show that the price of the CO2 allowance on the market that effectively induce the investment in carbon capture falls in the range 22–30 $/tCO2eq depending on the quantity of allowances distributed for free. In this solution, carbon capture is accomplished by implementing the oxy-fuel combustion technology (which is preferred to the post-combustion capture using monoethanolamine as solvent). - Highlight: ► We optimize electricity production from coal-fired power plants considering carbon management. ► Our approach relies on a novel mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) optimization model. ► We minimize the cost of electricity (COE) for a given price of CO2 allowance in the trade market. ► The allowance price that effectively induce the investment in CCS falls in the range 22–30 $/tCO2eq. ► Oxy-fuel is preferred to the post-combustion capture with MEA in a cap and trade framework.

  10. Upgrading existing coal-fired power plants through heavy-duty and aeroderivative gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The feedwater repowering of an existing coal-fired power plant is examined. • Repowering is operated by adding heavy duty and aeroderivative gas turbines. • A characteristic plane allows to compare benefits of different repowering options. • Regenerative gas turbines yield the greatest increase in steam plant performances. • Aeroderivative gas turbine allows to implement a more flexible part-load strategy. - Abstract: The need to meet future changes in power demand and current environmental regulations are considered the main driving forces for upgrading existing coal-fired power plants. In this context, repowering by gas-turbine integration is a well-established technique to increase power plant capacity and operational flexibility. Non-negligible benefits are also improvements in efficiency and a decrease in greenhouse gases emissions promoted by the shift to low carbon fuels. This paper aims to investigate the impact of feedwater heater repowering on a 300 MW coal-fired power plant. Marginal efficiency and power increase, as well as the performance of integrated steam-gas power plants, are evaluated by varying the steam section operating conditions and gas turbine technology. Three main cases are investigated, assuming integration with simple or regenerative heavy-duty gas turbines and aeroderivative gas turbines. As part of this investigation, a performance plane is defined, allowing to compare repowering options based on different steam turbine overloads and boiler modes of operation. Focusing on repowering configurations with the maximum power increase, the analysis also examines the plant capability to follow potential load variations and their impact on energy and economic performance parameters

  11. Comparative study of computational intelligence approaches for NOx reduction of coal-fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on NOx emission prediction and operating parameters optimization for coal-fired boilers. Support Vector Regression (SVR) model based on CGA (Conventional Genetic Algorithm) was proposed to model the relationship between the operating parameters and the concentration of NOx emission. Then CGA and two modified algorithms, the Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and SAGA (Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm), were employed to optimize the operating parameters of the coal-fired boiler to reduce NOx emission. The results showed that the proposed SVR model was more accurate than the widely used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model when employed to predict the concentration of NOx emission. The mean relative error and correlation coefficient calculated by the proposed SVR model were 2.08% and 0.95, respectively. Among the three optimization algorithms implemented in this paper, the SAGA showed superiority to the other two algorithms considering the quality of solution within a given computing time. The SVR plus SAGA method was preferable to predict the concentration of NOx emission and further to optimize the operating parameters to achieve low NOx emission for coal-fired boilers. - Highlights: • The CGA based SVR model is proposed to predict the concentration of NOx emission. • The CGA based SVR model performs better than the widely used ANN model. • CGA and two modified algorithms are compared to optimize the parameters. • The SAGA is preferable for its high quality of solution and low computing time. • The SVR plus SAGA is successfully employed to optimize the operating parameters

  12. Utilization of fly ash from coal-fired power plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-zuo CAO; Eva SELIC; Jan-Dirk HERBELL

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly increasing demand for energy in China leads to the construction of new power plants all over the country. Coal, as the main fuel resource of those power plants, results in increasing problems with the disposal of solid residues from combustion and off gas cleaning. This investigation describes chances for the utilization of fly ash from coal-fired power plants in China. After briefly comparing the situation in China and Germany, the status of aluminum recycling from fly ash and the advantages for using fly ash in concrete products are introduced. Chemical and physical analyses of Chinese fly ash samples, e.g., X-ray diffraction (XRD), ICP (Inductive Coupled Plasma) and particle size analysis, water requirement, etc. are presented. Reasonable amounts of aluminum were detected in the samples under investigation, but for recovery only sophisticated procedures are available up to now. Therefore, simpler techniques are suggested for the first steps in the utilization of Chinese fly ash.

  13. A Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Optimized for Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Dlouhý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on modifying a pulverized coal-fired steam boiler in a 250 MWe power plant for oxygen combustion conditions. The entry point of the study is a boiler that was designed for standard air combustion. It has been proven that simply substituting air by oxygen as an oxidizer is not sufficient for maintaining a satisfactory operating mode, not even with flue gas recycling. Boiler design optimization aggregating modifications to the boiler’s dimensions, heating surfaces and recycled flue gas flow rate, and specification of a flue gas recycling extraction point is therefore necessary in order to achieve suitable conditions for oxygen combustion. Attention is given to reducing boiler leakage, to which external pre-combustion coal drying makes a major contribution. The optimization is carried out with regard to an overall power plant conception for which a decrease in efficiency due to CO2 separation is formulated.

  14. Overview of environmental assessment for China nuclear power industry and coal-fired power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative environmental assessment method and the corresponding computer code are introduced. By the consideration of all fuel cycle steps, it given that the public health risk of China nuclear power industry is 5.2 x 10-1 man/(GW·a) the public health risk is 2.5 man/(GW·a), and the total health risk is 3.0 man/(GW·a). After the health risk calculation for coal mining, transport, burning up and ash disposal, it gives that the public health risk of China coal-fired power industry is 3.6 man/(GW·a), the occupational health risk is 50 man/(GW·a), and the total is 54 man/(GW·). Accordingly, the conclusion that China nuclear power industry is one with high safety and cleanness is derived at the end

  15. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T D; Schmidt, C E [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Radziwon, A S [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has two current investigations, initiated before passage of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), that will determine the air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. DOE has contracted with Battelle Memorial Institute and Radian corporation to conduct studies focusing on the potential air toxics, both organic and inorganic, associated with different size fractions of fine particulate matter emitted from power plant stacks. Table 2 indicates the selected analytes to be investigated during these studies. PETC is also developing guidance on the monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) to be incorporated in the Environmental Monitoring plans for the demonstration projects in its Clean Coal Technology Program.

  16. Wasteless combined aggregate-coal-fired steam-generator/melting-converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioro, L S; Pioro, I L

    2003-01-01

    A method of reprocessing coal sludge and ash into granulate for the building industry in a combined wasteless aggregate-steam-generator/melting-converter was developed and tested. The method involves melting sludge and ash from coal-fired steam-generators of power plants in a melting-converter installed under the steam-generator, with direct sludge drain from the steam generator combustion chamber. The direct drain of sludge into converter allows burnup of coal with high ash levels in the steam-generator without an additional source of ignition (natural gas, heating oil, etc.). Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside a melt. This feature provides melt bubbling and helps to achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, to improve mixing, to increase rate of chemical reactions and to improve the conditions for burning the carbon residue from the sludge and ash. The "gross" thermal efficiency of the combined aggregate is about 93% and the converter capacity is about 18 t of melt in 100 min. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed method are presented. The effective ash/charging materials feeding system is also discussed. The reprocessed coal ash and sludge in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concrete and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. PMID:12781221

  17. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  18. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  19. Radiological consequences of atmospheric releases from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the individual and collective doses resulting from radioactive materials contained in the stack releases of coal-fired power plants. A critical analysis of relevant calculations in literature is given. The different reports analyzed show a very wide range in calculated doses. To a great extent these differences may be explained by the wide range in the assumptions adopted. There is also disagreement on what exposure pathways are the most important, and what nuclides contribute most to calculated doses. A most probable value of 0.5 mrem/year for the maximum individual effective dose equivalent commitment, is indicated in the report

  20. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shig [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  1. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. PMID:26141885

  2. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments.

  3. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  4. Fires in Operating or Abandoned Coal Mines or Heaps of Reactive Materials and the Governing Transport and Reaction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Kessels, W.; Wessling, S.; Han, J.

    2007-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion is a world wide problem for technical operations in mining, waste disposal and power plant facilities. The principle driving the combustion is every where the same independent of the different reactive materials: Fresh air with the common oxygen content is getting in contact with the reactive material by human operations. The following reaction process produces heat at a usually low but constant rate. The reactive material in operating or abandoned coal mines, heaps of coal, waste or reactive minerals is most times strongly broken or fractured, such that the atmospheric oxygen can deeply penetrate into the porous or fractured media. Because the strongly broken or fractured medium with air filled pores and fractures is often combined with a low thermal conductivity of the bulk material the produced heat accumulates and the temperature increases with time. If the reactivity strongly increases with temperature, the temperature rise accelerates up to the "combustion temperature". Once the temperature is high enough the combustion process is determined by the oxygen transport to the combustion center rather than the chemical reactivity. Spontaneous combustion is thus a self- amplifying process where an initial small variation in the parameters and the starting conditions can create exploding combustion hot spots in an apparently homogenous material. The phenomenon will be discussed by various examples in the context of the German - Sino coal fire project. A temperature monitoring in hot fracture systems documents the strong influence of the weather conditions on the combustion process. Numerical calculations show the sensitivity of the combustion to the model geometries, the boundary conditions and mainly the permeability. The most used fire fighting operations like covering and water injection are discussed. A new method of using saltwater for fire fighting is presented and discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wessling, S., Li, X., and Wuttke, M

  5. Determination of operational parameters for steam generation in coal-fired power plants; Ermittlung von Betriebsparametern zur Dampferzeugung in Kohlekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlessing, J. [Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In coal-fired power plant operation, a growing number of difficulties arises due to the increased utilization of problematic coal types. The alternating coal quality mainly results from the combustion of coal mixtures with an amount of volatile ingredients largely varying from one coal type to another. Therefore, further improvements in the fields of coal storage, preparation and firing are absolutely necessary. Besides preconditions like coal rapid analysis, optimal firing and improved or new monitoring methods, reliable operational parameters would be of special importance. To meet these operational requirements, it was tried to sum up in one plant constant all operating experience, conditions and characteristics of a firing process. Unknown coal types to be fired are compared with this value, which is referring to the individual plant as well as to the fuel, and then empirically evaluated. The evaluation procedures are based on many years of experience and were already applied at various firings in several power plants. With the results, the coal mill and the furnace can be adjusted more precisely. In addition, the suitability on an individual coal type for firing becomes obvious. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch den vermehrten Einsatz problematischer Kohlensorten und dem damit verbundenen Wechsel der Kohlequalitaet, vor allem auch durch das Verbrennen von Kohlemischungen mit sehr unterschiedlichem Fluechtigengehalt, ergeben sich fuer den Betreiber immer groessere Schwierigkeiten. Deshalb sind weitere Verbesserungen in den Bereichen Kohlelager, Aufbereitung und Feuerung unerlaesslich. Ausser den Voraussetzungen, wie Kohleschnellanalysen, optimale Feuerungsfuehrung und verbesserte bzw. neue Ueberwachungsmethoden waeren verlaessliche Betriebsparameter immens wichtig. Um diesen betrieblichen Forderungen nachzukommen, hat man versucht, die Summe aller Betriebserfahrungen, Abhaengigkeiten und charakteristischen Eigenschaften einer Feuerung in einer Anlagenkonstante zu

  6. Detection and control of fires and heatings in shallow, abandoned coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heatings and fires in shallow, abandoned coal mines create an environmentally undesirable hazard in the Witbank area in South Africa, as well as locations in Europe and North America. A research program was set up in South Africa to detect and control the occurrence and extent of subsurface heatings and fires. Prior to any remedial action being taken to control or extinguish a heating or fire, it is essential to evaluate underground conditions in order to determine the most effective control method. Normally, such workings cannot physically be entered due to poor ground conditions and the presence of heat and toxic gases. Two novel detection methods have been developed by the Chamber of Mines Research Organization (COMRO) for the purpose of identifying the nature and extent of such heatings remotely, via surface boreholes. Temperature monitoring allows for the detection of heating intensity and location. To determine areas of uncontrolled air infiltration into the workings, tracer gas technology is used. In addition, a method for controlling a fire which has been successfully used in South Africa is described

  7. Public Service Co. of Colorado's NOx reduction program for pulverized coal tangentially fired 165 and 370MW utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public Service Co. of Colorado has made a voluntary corporate commitment to reduce NOx emissions by 20% from their major boilers in the Denver Metro Area before the end of 1991. Their two largest units in the Metro Area were chosen for retrofit with in-furnace low NOx technology - Valmont No. 5 and Cherokee No. 4. Both of these units are tangential coal fired boilers manufactured by ABB Combustion Engineering. As of this writing, Valmont No. 5 has been completed and is discussed herein. Cherokee No. 4 is scheduled to complete its Performance Guarantee testing in December of 1990. The topics of this paper include the commitment to NOx reduction, unit description, project schedule, overview of tangential firing system, pulverized coal NOx formation, low NOx concentric firing system, contribution of overfire air for NOx control, contribution of offset air nozzle tips for NOx control, contribution of flame attachment coal nozzle tips for NOx control, installation experience, performance and testing results

  8. Technico-economic evaluation of abatement systems applying to air pollution resulting from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the analysis of the health care policies which could be considered in coal-fired power plants, in the comparative framework of the radiation protection in nuclear power plants. After a recall of the typical parameters of the air pollution due to the normal operation of a coal-fired power plant, we develop a heuristic model which allows, after having quantified the releases, to determine the theoretical health effects associated to a one-year operation of the power plant. The comparison of the various protection policies has been done with the help of a cost-effectiveness analysis. An examination of the results shows that the policy presently implemented forms a part of the cost-effective options. Nevertheless, it can be seen that the marginal protection cost is higher in nuclear power plants than in coal-fired power plants

  9. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study

  10. Combustion aerosols from co-firing of coal and solid recovered fuel in a 400 mw pf-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2010-01-01

    for co-firing as compared with dedicated coal combustion. This implies an increased capture of SO2/SO3 by reaction with CaO in the fly ash. It leads us to suggest that a reduced collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator observed during co-firing of SRF may be linked to SO3 deficiency......In this work, combustion aerosols (i.e. fine particles combustion conditions...... to be bi-modal, with an ultrafine (vaporization) mode centered around 0.1 μm, and a coarser (finefragmentation) mode above 2 μm. Co-firing of SRF tended to increase the formation of ultrafine particles as compared with dedicated coal combustion, while the coarse mode tended to decrease. The increased...

  11. Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  12. A new proposed approach for future large-scale de-carbonization coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The post-combustion CO2 capture technology provides a feasible and promising method for large-scale CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. However, the large-scale CO2 capture in conventionally designed coal-fired power plants is confronted with various problems, such as the selection of the steam extraction point and steam parameter mismatch. To resolve these problems, an improved design idea for the future coal-fired power plant with large-scale de-carbonization is proposed. A main characteristic of the proposed design is the adoption of a back-pressure steam turbine, which extracts the suitable steam for CO2 capture and ensures the stability of the integrated system. A new let-down steam turbine generator is introduced to retrieve the surplus energy from the exhaust steam of the back-pressure steam turbine when CO2 capture is cut off. Results show that the net plant efficiency of the improved design is 2.56% points higher than that of the conventional one when CO2 capture ratio reaches 80%. Meanwhile, the net plant efficiency of the improved design maintains the same level to that of the conventional design when CO2 capture is cut off. Finally, the match between the extracted steam and the heat demand of the reboiler is significantly increased, which solves the steam parameter mismatch problem. The techno-economic analysis indicates that the proposed design is a cost-effective approach for the large-scale CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. - Highlights: • Problems caused by CO2 capture in the power plant are deeply analyzed. • An improved design idea for coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture is proposed. • Thermodynamic, exergy and techno-economic analyses are quantitatively conducted. • Energy-saving effects are found in the proposed coal-fired power plant design idea

  13. Current status and prediction of major atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power plants in Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tianqi; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Shandong is considered to be the top provincial emitter of air pollutants in China due to its large consumption of coal in the power sector and its dense distribution of coal-fired plants. To explore the atmospheric emissions of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong, an updated emission inventory of coal-fired power plants for the year 2012 in Shandong was developed. The inventory is based on the following parameters: coal quality, unit capacity and unit starting year, plant location, boiler type and control technologies. The total SO2, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg) emissions are estimated at 705.93 kt, 754.30 kt, 63.99 kt and 10.19 kt, respectively. Larger units have cleaner emissions than smaller ones. The coal-fired units (≥300 MW) are estimated to account for 35.87% of SO2, 43.24% of NOx, 47.74% of PM2.5 and 49.83% of Hg emissions, which is attributed primarily to the improved penetration of desulfurization, LNBs, denitration and dust-removing devices in larger units. The major regional contributors are southwestern cities, such as Jining, Liaocheng, Zibo and Linyi, and eastern cities, such as Yantai and Qindao. Under the high-efficiency control technology (HECT) scenario analysis, emission reductions of approximately 58.61% SO2, 80.63% NOx, 34.20% PM2.5 and 50.08% Hg could be achieved by 2030 compared with a 2012 baseline. This inventory demonstrates why it is important for policymakers and researchers to assess control measure effectiveness and to supply necessary input for regional policymaking and the management of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong.

  14. Oxy-coal combustion in an entrained flow reactor: Application of specific char and volatile combustion and radiation models for oxy-firing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, L.; Yin, Chungen; Riaza, J.;

    2013-01-01

    implemented in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations of combustion of three coals under air-firing and various oxy-firing (21-35% vol O2 in O2/CO2 mixture) conditions in an EFR (entrained flow reactor). The predicted coal burnouts and gaseous emissions were compared against experimental results...

  15. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO2 emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  16. Post-combustion CO2 capture : energetic evaluation of chemical absorption processes in coal-fired steam power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Oexmann, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a semi-empirical column model is developed to represent absorber and desorber columns of post-combustion CO2 capture processes in coal-fired steam power plants. The chemical solvents are represented by empirical correlations on the basis of fundamental measurement data (CO2 solubility, heat capacity, density). The model of a CO2 capture process including the column model is coupled to detailed models of a hard-coal-fired steam power plant and of a CO2 compressor to evaluate and ...

  17. Improvements of the Computerized Data Acquisition System for 25MWt Experimental Facility of Coal-fired MHD Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and development of a new computerized data acquisition system for the coal-fired magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) electrical power generation experiments. Compared to the previous system, it has a higher sampling rate and an improved simultaneity performance. It also improves the data collection method and sensor design for the measurement of Faraday voltages and Faraday currents. The system has been successfully used in many regular MHD generator tests. It provides an excellent base for the future research and development of the Coal-fired MHD electrical power generation.

  18. Analysis and study on the performance variation of SCR DeNOx catalyst of Coal-Fired Boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel and air at high temperature. NOx emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment. In this paper, coal-fired utility boilers were chosen as the object, NOx formation mechanism and control were studied, and SCR deNOx technology was used to control NOx emissions from coal-fired boilers. Analyzed the relationship between deNOx efficiency and characteristics of SCR DeNOx catalyst. Through analysis, affecting SCR DeNOx catalyst failure factors, change law of catalytic properties and technical measures to extend the service life of the catalyst were gotten. (author)

  19. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; FABIANOVA, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic a...

  20. Large-scale carbon capture and storage for coal-fired power: Effect on global carbon dioxide emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Torvanger, Asbjørn

    2007-01-01

    The scenarios in this report show that large-scale deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies for new coal-fired power plants from year 2015 may reduce global CO2 emissions by 8-18% by 2030 and 22-25% by 2100. These estimates are sensitive to the Business-as-Usual scenarios chosen, both for total CO2 emissions and for power production based on coal.

  1. Mercury removals by existing pollutants control devices of four coal-fired power plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Wang; WenhuaWang; Wei Xu; Xiaohao Wang; Song Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The mercury removals by existing pollution control devices and the mass balances of mercury in four coal-fired power plants of China were carried out based on a measurement method with the aluminum matrix sorbent.All the plants are equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series.During the course of coal stream,the samples,such as coal,bottom ash,fly ash,gypsum and fiue gas,were collected.The Hg concentrations in coals were measured by CVAAS after appropriate preparation and acid digestion.Other solid samples were measured by the RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Spectrometer.The vapor phase Hg was collected by a sorbent trap from flue gas and then measured using CVAAS followed by acid leaching.The mercury mass balances were estimated in this study were 91.6%,77.1%,118% and 85.8% for the four power plants,respectively.The total Hg concentrations in the stack gas were ranged from 1.56-5.95 μg/m3.The relative distribution of Hg in bottom ash,ESP,WFGD and stack discharged were ranged between 0.110%-2.50%,2.17%-23.4%,2.21%-87.1%,and 21.8%-72.7%,respectively.The distribution profiles were varied with the coal type and the operation conditions.The Hg in flue gas could be removed by ESP and FGD systems with an average removal efficiency of 51.8%.The calculated average emission factor was 0.066 g/ton and much lower than the results obtained ten years ago.

  2. Prediction of the minimum load of operation and minimum coal quality with stable combustion for utility pulverized-coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H.C.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.H.; Zheng, C.G.

    1999-07-01

    MLO, the Minimum Load of Operation with stable combustion not supported by firing oil, and MCQ, the Minimum Coal Quality, which gives the lowest heat values of coals with different volatile matter contents, are defined on the basis of CSI, a combustion stability index. In order to predict MLO and MCQ, the simple, chemical reaction system model has been modified by means of the concept of lean flammability of gases. A three-dimensional combustion simulation code integrated with the modified model was used to study the combustion process in a 200MW pulverized coal fired utility boiler. The results showed that as the content of volatile matter increases, the value of CSI under different load levels increases accordingly, and the MLO becomes lower. The prediction of MCQ agreed also well with operational experiences. Much work should be done before the method proposed in this paper can be applied into practice.

  3. CO2 post-combustion capture in coal-fired power plants integrated with solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapellucci, R.; Giordano, L.; Vaccarelli, M.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the World's primary energy consumption is still based on fossil fuels, representing the largest source of global CO2 emissions. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), such emissions must be significantly reduced in order to avoid the dramatic consequences of global warming. A potential way to achieve this ambitious goal is represented by the implementation of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technologies. However, the significant amount of energy required by the CCS systems still represents one the major barriers for their deployment. Focusing on post-combustion capture based on amine absorption, several interesting options have been investigated to compensate the energy losses due to solvent regeneration, also using renewable energy sources. One of the most promising is based on the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), providing a part of the energy requirement of the capture island. In this study the integration of a CSP system into a coal-fired power plant with CO2 postcombustion capture is investigated. Basically, a CSP system is used to support the heat requirement for amine regeneration, by producing saturated steam at low temperature. This allows to reduce or even eliminate the conventional steam extraction from the main power plant, affecting positively net power production and efficiency. The energy analysis of the whole system is carried out using the GateCycle software to simulate the coal-fired power plant and ChemCad platform for the CO2 capture process based on amine absorption.

  4. Satellite measurements oversee China’s sulfur dioxide emission reductions from coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Martin, Randall V.; Philip, Sajeev; Liu, Fei; Li, Meng; Jiang, Xujia; He, Kebin

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the real reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in China, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) remote sensing SO2 columns were used to inversely model the SO2 emission burdens surrounding 26 isolated power plants before and after the effective operation of their flue gas desulfurization (FGD) facilities. An improved two-dimensional Gaussian fitting method was developed to estimate SO2 burdens under complex background conditions, by using the accurate local background columns and the customized fitting domains for each target source. The OMI-derived SO2 burdens before effective FGD operation were correlated well with the bottom-up emission estimates (R = 0.92), showing the reliability of the OMI-derived SO2 burdens as a linear indicator of the associated source strength. OMI observations indicated that the average lag time period between installation and effective operation of FGD facilities at these 26 power plants was around 2 years, and no FGD facilities have actually operated before the year 2008. The OMI estimated average SO2 removal equivalence (56.0%) was substantially lower than the official report (74.6%) for these 26 power plants. Therefore, it has been concluded that the real reductions of SO2 emissions in China associated with the FGD facilities at coal-fired power plants were considerably diminished in the context of the current weak supervision measures.

  5. Selenium Partitioning and Removal Across a Wet FGD Scrubber at a Coal-Fired Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Constance L; Tyree, Corey A; Meeks, Noah D; Acharya, Chethan; McCain, Joseph D; Cushing, Kenneth M

    2015-12-15

    Selenium has unique fate and transport through a coal-fired power plant because of high vapor pressures of oxide (SeO2) in flue gas. This study was done at full-scale on a 900 MW coal-fired power plant with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. The first objective was to quantify the partitioning of selenium between gas and condensed phases at the scrubber inlet and outlet. The second objective was to determine the effect of scrubber operation conditions (pH, mass transfer, SO2 removal) on Se removal in both particulate and vapor phases. During part of the testing, hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) was injected upstream of the scrubber. Gas-phase selenium and particulate-bound selenium were measured as a function of particle size at the inlet and outlet of the scrubber. The total (both phases) removal of Se across the scrubber averaged 61%, and was enhanced when hydrated lime sorbent was injected. There was evidence of gas-to-particle conversion of selenium across the scrubber, based on the dependence of selenium concentration on particle diameter downstream of the scrubber and on thermodynamic calculations. PMID:26554426

  6. Ash fouling monitoring and key variables analysis for coal fired power plant boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yuanhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces is still a significant problem in coal-fired power plant utility boilers. The effective ways to deal with this problem are accurate on-line monitoring of ash fouling and soot-blowing. In this paper, an online ash fouling monitoring model based on dynamic mass and energy balance method is developed and key variables analysis technique is introduced to study the internal behavior of soot-blowing system. In this process, artificial neural networks (ANN are used to optimize the boiler soot-blowing model and mean impact values method is utilized to determine a set of key variables. The validity of the models has been illustrated in a real case-study boiler, a 300MW Chinese power station. The results on same real plant data show that both models have good prediction accuracy, while the ANN model II has less input parameters. This work will be the basis of a future development in order to control and optimize the soot-blowing of the coal-fired power plant utility boilers.

  7. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  8. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Integrating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha- nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a typical SACPG system, considering CO2 avoidance, is 0.098 $/kW·h, lower than that of SEGS, 0.14 $/kW·h.

  9. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard), coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustor; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  10. Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhong Liu; Jie Wang; Guangxue Zhang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

    2011-01-01

    Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution.The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment.Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration.The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors.The most important and controversial factor is frequency.Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coalfired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency.Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis,experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined.The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash.Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 μm the particles agglomerated to adhere together,and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 μm.The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%,and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased.Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition.According to the results of orthogonal analysis,frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz.

  11. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  12. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, J.; Tomer, S.; Levin, T.; Lehr, H. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel). Dept. of Plant Science

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. The following parameters of lichen vitality were examined: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F{sub v}/F{sub m}, (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F{sub v}/F{sub m} ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  13. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initial testing campaign was carried out during the summer of 2000 to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NOx emissions. Extensive data had been collected during the Fall of 1999 and Spring of 2000 using a single pulverized-coal (PC) burner, and this data collection was funded by a separate Department of Energy program, the Combustion 2000 Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) project under the direction of DB Riley. This single-burner data was thus available for comparison with NOx emissions obtained while firing three burners at the same overall load and operating conditions. A range of operating conditions were explored that were compatible with single-burner data, and thus the emission trends as a function of air staging, burner swirl and other parameters will be described below. In addition, a number of burner-to-burner operational variations were explored that provided interesing insight on their potential impact on NOx emissions. Some of these variations include: running one burner very fuel rich while running the others fuel lean; varying the swirl of a single burner while holding others constant; increasing the firing rate of a single burner while decreasing the others. In general, the results to date indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NOx emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. At very fuel rich burner stoichiometries (SR and lt; 0.75), the difference between multiple and single burners became indistinguishable. This result is consistent with previous single-burner data that showed that at very rich stoichiometries the NOx emissions became independent of burner settings such as air distributions, velocities and burner swirl

  14. Methodology Used in the Radiological Assessment of a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan C.; Corbacho, Jose A.; Robles, Beatriz; Baeza, Antonio; Cancio, David; Suañez, Ana M.

    2008-08-01

    A radiological assessment of the workers and the public potentially affected by the operation of the Teruel Coal-fired Power Plant (the UPT Teruel), was performed under realistic assumptions. This assessment is part of a wider study to characterize the potential radiological impact of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), in which our team, integrated by University of Extremadura and CIEMAT, is carrying out the study on coal-fired power plants sponsored by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). The study comprises the four biggest coal-fired power plants in Spain. Taking into account the working conditions and the plant specifications, six groups of workers were defined, established considering the 17 working tasks that could be of any importance for this assessment. For the public, considering that the area is barely inhabited, two different recreational scenarios were defined. Therefore, in-plant and outside measurements, needed for the assessment of each scenario, were carried out. Where experimental data were not available or measurements ranged within the natural background radiation values, modelling has been used. Every measured or estimated activity concentration in coal and other used materials or in the by-products generated in the power plant, for every radionuclide in the natural chains of 238U, 232Th and 40K, were below 0.32 Bq g-1. Those values are under the 0.5 Bq g-1 reference value for exemption and clearance of 238U, 232Th and 226Ra and the 5 Bq g-1 for 40K recommended in Europe. In the dose evaluations for six groups of workers, a maximum of 21 μSv a-1 was obtained (mainly due to the inhalation of resuspended particles). For both considered scenarios for the public, all the evaluated doses were below 4.3 μSv a-1. These results are considered negligible from a radiological point of view. In this work the models and assumptions used for the evaluation of workers and public doses, the assessment, as well as the most relevant

  15. Non-greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Within the Twelth Five-Year Plan, the Chinese Government has made addressing air quality problems a key environmental priority, with an intention to accelerate the development of systems, institutions and a technical knowledge base for sustained improvement. A major focus is on the coal power sector for which standards have been introduced that require the installation of modern, very high efficiency SO2, NOx and particulates emissions control systems. Nine key regions, which are facing very significant air quality challenges, are the three major economic zones around the cities of Beijing, Shanghai (Yangtze River Delta) and Guangzhou (Pearl River Delta), together with six areas around the cities of Shenyang, Changsha, Wuhan, Chengdu Chongqing, the Shandong peninsula, and the coastal area west of the Taiwan strait. These regions comprise the population and economic centres of the country, accounting for 64% of national GDP, 43% of total energy use, and 39% of the population. In these locations, all existing and new coal-fired power plants will have to achieve particulate, SO2 and NOx emissions limits of 20, 50 and 100 mg/m3 respectively, with new plants expected to meet the standards from 1 January 2012 and existing plants by 1 July 2014. At the same time, there will be an increasing emphasis on limiting any new coal-fired power plants in these regions. For the rest of the country, the standards are not quite so strict and the SO2 limits for existing plants are less severe than for new plants. The new pollutant that will be regulated on coal-fired power plants is mercury and its compounds, for which the limit has been set at a level that represents a core control. This means that providing the power plant operator meets the new particulate, SO2 and NOx standards then the mercury standard should be met without the need to introduce an additional capture device, although the emissions level will have to be measured on a regular basis. From a global perspective, this

  16. Mercury species present in smoke from coal fire. Water soluble mercury species in air and precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosset, C.

    1983-08-01

    In order to elucidate the content and chemical behaviour of mercury species present in smoke from coal fire a number of measurements have been undertaken. Samples from Vaesteraas thermal power plant, AB Papyrus Moelndal and a pilot plant at Studsvik Energiteknik AB, Studsvik have been analyzed with respect to metallic vapor (Hg degree) and water soluble compounds (Hg/sup 1/)) both reactive (Hg/sup 1/subR) and nonreactive (Hg/sup 1/subNR). The total concentration of mercury hitherto observed amounted to 2-5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. The water soluble fraction of this total mercury concentration has been found to be 40-80 percent. This means that the content of mercury in coal has probably been released at the combustion process (t>1000 degree C) as Hg degree of which subsequently 40-80 percent have been oxidized to Hg/sup 1/ in the stack as the temperature had decreased to below 500 degree C. The water soluble (oxidized) mercury consists of two different types of compounds. One of these has the property to resist reduction with SnCl/sub 2/ but can be reduced by NaBH/sub 4/ (Hg/sup 1/subNR). Most of Hg in smoke from coal fire belongs to this type. The other type is easily reduced by SnCl/sub 2/ (Hg/sup 1/subR). The chemical composition of these water soluble mercury compounds is not yet established. For Hg/sup 1/subNR in smoke from coal fire it has been shown that it is not CH/sub 3/HgCl nor sulfite-complexes. For Hg/sup 1/subR it has been shown that in alcaline solutions it behaves as if it were Hg(OH)/sub 2/. Consequently it is possible that Hg/sup 1/subR here is composed of a number of Hg/sup 2/+-salts with not too strong bonds to the ligands.

  17. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-03-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  18. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  19. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and

  20. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  1. Cylindrical particle modelling in pulverized coal and biomass co-firing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical analysis of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass in a vertical cylindrical laboratory furnace is explored. The ratio of coal and biomass in the fuel was 80:20 by mass for all cases. The mathematical model of combustion in the furnace was established by describing physical phenomena such as turbulent flow, heat and mass transfer, devolatilization and combustion. A 3D-model of combustion in a laboratory furnace was created using the CFD software FLUENT. The shape of the biomass particles was estimated as cylindrical and was accounted for in the calculation of particle trajectories via a custom-developed model. Experimental measurements were conducted on a 20 kW laboratory furnace with controllable wall temperature. The temperature varied in the range from 1233 K to 1823 K, depending on the case. Excess air for combustion was set at 10% or 20%, depending on the case. The developed model shows better agreement with the experimental data than the existing models, which estimate particles as spheres. Analysis of the results shows that the influence of the particle size increases with the size of the particle. Also, the geometry of the cylindrical particles strongly influences the beginning and the intensity of the devolatilization process and subsequently the combustion process. - Highlights: • Co-firing of pulverized biomass and coal is modelled using CFD Software Fluent. • Shape of biomass particles is taken into consideration in the model. • Geometry of particles influences the process of devolatilization and combustion. • Influence of the particle shape and size increases with the particle size

  2. An intelligent emissions controller for fuel lean gas reburn in coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifman, J; Feldman, E E; Wei, T Y; Glickert, R W

    2000-02-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the furnace. Based on this model, optimal distributions of injected gas are determined such that the largest NOx reduction is achieved for each value of total injected gas. This optimization is accomplished through the development of a new optimization method based on neural networks. This new optimal control algorithm, which can be used as an alternative generic tool for solving multidimensional nonlinear constrained optimization problems, is described and its results are successfully validated against an off-the-shelf tool for solving mathematical programming problems. Encouraging results obtained using plant data from one of Commonwealth Edison's coal-fired electric power plants demonstrate the feasibility of the overall approach. Preliminary results show that the use of this intelligent controller will also enable the determination of the most cost-effective operating conditions of the FLGR system by considering, along with the optimal distribution of the injected gas, the cost differential between natural gas and coal and the open-market price of NOx emission credits. Further study, however, is necessary, including the construction of a more comprehensive database, needed to develop high-fidelity process models and to add carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the model of the gas reburn system.

  3. An intelligent emissions controller for fuel lean gas reburn in coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifman, J; Feldman, E E; Wei, T Y; Glickert, R W

    2000-02-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the furnace. Based on this model, optimal distributions of injected gas are determined such that the largest NOx reduction is achieved for each value of total injected gas. This optimization is accomplished through the development of a new optimization method based on neural networks. This new optimal control algorithm, which can be used as an alternative generic tool for solving multidimensional nonlinear constrained optimization problems, is described and its results are successfully validated against an off-the-shelf tool for solving mathematical programming problems. Encouraging results obtained using plant data from one of Commonwealth Edison's coal-fired electric power plants demonstrate the feasibility of the overall approach. Preliminary results show that the use of this intelligent controller will also enable the determination of the most cost-effective operating conditions of the FLGR system by considering, along with the optimal distribution of the injected gas, the cost differential between natural gas and coal and the open-market price of NOx emission credits. Further study, however, is necessary, including the construction of a more comprehensive database, needed to develop high-fidelity process models and to add carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the model of the gas reburn system. PMID:10680354

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE CHEMICAL FORMS OF MERCURY AND OTHER TARGET POLLUTANTS IN COAL-FIRED BOILER FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence J. McManus, Ph.D.

    1999-06-30

    Since approximately 55% of the electrical power produced in the U. S. is generated by coal-based power utility plants, there is serious concern about the massive amounts of coal combustion products emitted into the atmosphere annually. Furthermore, Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) requires the measurement and inventory of a possible 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from any stationary source producing more than 10 tons per year of any one pollutant or more than 25 tons per year of total pollutants. Although power utilities are not presently included on the list of source categories, the CAAA requires the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to carry out a study of emissions from electricity generation using fossil fuels. Since many of these HAPs are known to be present in coal derived flue gas, coal-fired electric power utilities may be subject to regulation following these studies if Congress considers it necessary. In a cooperative effort with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) initiated such a study in 1991. DOE-FETC commissioned five primary contractors to conduct emission studies at eight different coal-fired electric utilities. The eight sites represented a cross section of feed coal type, boiler designs, and particulate and gaseous pollutant control technologies. The major goal of these studies was to determine the sampling and analytical methodologies that could be used efficiently to perform these emission tests while producing representative and reliable emission data. The successful methodology could then be recommended to the EPA for use in compliance testing in the event the regulation of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants is implemented. A secondary purpose of the testing was to determine the effectiveness of the control technologies in reducing target hazardous air pollutants. Advanced Technology Systems, Inc

  5. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Narcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. a.; Corbacho, J. a.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Narcea coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  6. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  7. Industrial and utility applications coal-oil mixture data index. [Oil-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    The seriousness of the present and projected national energy picture dictated the adoption of several approaches by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop alternate fuel sources as a means of curtailing our present dependence on imported oil. One approach, which offers near term potential for reducing the domestic consumption rate of natural gas and oil, is the application of coal-oil mixture (COM) combustion technology. The idea of burning coal and oil in the form of a mixture has been around for some time and is not viewed by DOE, in any degree, as the solution to our domestic energy problem. However, it is viewed as a near-term retrofit coal utilization technology with a high degree of application potential to existing oil fired systems. In view of this, DOE has undertaken several demonstration and support-research projects to further define existing COM technical uncertainties. The purpose of this manual is to present a comprehensive technical description and status of each project, both informative and practical with respect to the diverse data requirements.

  8. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  9. Three Dimensional Modeling of Pulverized Coal combustion in a 600MW Corner Fired Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SandroDal-Secco

    2000-01-01

    The three-dimensional code ESTET developed at the LNH has been used to predict the reactive flow in a 600 W coal fired boiler,Assuming a no-slip condition between the gas and the coal,the equations for a gas-particle mixture can e written.The pulverized coal particle size distribution is represented by a discrete number of particle size groups determined by the measured fineness distrbution.The combustion models taking into account the pyrolysis of the particle and the heterogeneous combustion of char have been validated using intensive measurements performed on the 600MW utility boiler.Heat fluxes were measured along the walls of the furnace and satisfactory agreement between computation and measurements has been achieved in terms of maximum flux location and heat flux intensity.Local measurements of velocities using LDV probe.gas temperature and gas species concentrations were performed in the vicinity of one burner and compared with the computed variables.Again we have observed a good agreement between the computations and the measurements in terms of jet penetration,temperature distribution.oxygen concentration and ash content.

  10. INTRODUCTION TO INCONEL ALLOY 740: AN ALLOY DESIGNED FOR SUPERHEATER TUBING IN COAL-FIRED ULTRA SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.J. Patel

    2005-01-01

    Chinese utilities as well as those worldwide are facingincreased demand for additional electric-ity, reduced plant emissions and greater efficiency.To meet this challenge willrequire increas-ing boiler temperature,pressure and coal ashcorrosion resistance of the materials of boiler construction of future coal-fired boilers. A new nickel-based tube alloy, INCONELRalloy 740,is described aiming at meeting this challenge. Emphasis will be on describing the alloy s mechanical properties, coal-ash and steam corrosion resistance.Microstructural stability as a function of temperature and time is addressed as well as some of the early methodology employed to arrive at the current chemical composition.

  11. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much higher than that of a biomass power plant, 0.00012 US$/kWh. The external cost of coal-fired power generation is as much as 90% of the current price of electricity generated by coal, while the external cost of a biomass power plant is 1/1000 of the current price of electricity generated by biomass. In addition, for a biomass power plant, the external cost associated with SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 are particularly lower than those of a coal-fired power plant. The prospect of establishing precise estimations for external cost mechanisms and sustainable energy policies is discussed to show a possible direction for future energy schemes in China. The paper has significant value for supporting the biomass power industry and taxing or regulating coal-fired power industry to optimize the energy structure in China.

  12. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using observations of land subsidence from differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishant Gupta; Tajdarul H Syed; Ashiihrii Athiphro

    2013-10-01

    Coal fires in the Jharia coalfield pose a serious threat to India’s vital resource of primary coking coal and the regional environment. In order to undertake effective preventative measures, it is critical to detect the occurrence of subsurface coal fires and to monitor the extent of the existing ones. In this study, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar (DInSAR) technique has been utilized to monitor subsurface coal fires in the Jharia coalfield. Results showed that majority of the coal fire-related subsidence were concentrated on the eastern and western boundaries of the coalfield. The magnitude of subsidence observed was classified into high (10–27.8 mm), low (0–10 mm) and upliftment (−10–0 mm). The results were strongly supported by in situ observations and satellite-based thermal imagery analysis. Major subsidence was observed in the areas with repeated sightings of coal fire. Further, the study highlighted on the capability of the methodology for predicting potential coal fire zones on the basis of land surface subsidence only. The results from this study have major implications for demarcating the hazardous coal fire areas as well as effective implementation of public safety measures.

  13. Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40

  14. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  15. Assessment of the Utility of the Advanced Himawari Imager to Detect Active Fire Over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hally, B.; Wallace, L.; Reinke, K.; Jones, S.

    2016-06-01

    Wildfire detection and attribution is an issue of importance due to the socio-economic impact of fires in Australia. Early detection of fires allows emergency response agencies to make informed decisions in order to minimise loss of life and protect strategic resources in threatened areas. Until recently, the ability of land management authorities to accurately assess fire through satellite observations of Australia was limited to those made by polar orbiting satellites. The launch of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Himawari-8 satellite, with the 16-band Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI-8) onboard, in October 2014 presents a significant opportunity to improve the timeliness of satellite fire detection across Australia. The near real-time availability of images, at a ten minute frequency, may also provide contextual information (background temperature) leading to improvements in the assessment of fire characteristics. This paper investigates the application of the high frequency observation data supplied by this sensor for fire detection and attribution. As AHI-8 is a new sensor we have performed an analysis of the noise characteristics of the two spectral bands used for fire attribution across various land use types which occur in Australia. Using this information we have adapted existing algorithms, based upon least squares error minimisation and Kalman filtering, which utilise high frequency observations of surface temperature to detect and attribute fire. The fire detection and attribution information provided by these algorithms is then compared to existing satellite based fire products as well as in-situ information provided by land management agencies. These comparisons were made Australia-wide for an entire fire season - including many significant fire events (wildfires and prescribed burns). Preliminary detection results suggest that these methods for fire detection perform comparably to existing fire products and fire incident reporting from relevant

  16. Analysis and optimization of a coal-fired power plant under a proposed flue gas recirculation mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new flue gas recirculation configuration in coal-fire power plant is proposed. • The influence of flue gas recirculation on thermodynamics properties is analyzed. • The key parameters are optimized and operation suggestions are provided. • The proposed system can greatly improve off-design energy efficiency. - Abstract: This study mainly investigated the influence of flue gas recirculation (FGR) on reheat steam temperature, boiler efficiency, and thermal efficiency in a proposed FGR scheme. The main parameters of the boiler are calculated under different modes on the basis of a 600 MW coal-fired boiler. Optimization is conducted, and the optimum recirculation rate and coal input are determined. Results from case study showed that under the same recirculation rate, the reheat temperature increases higher and the net coal consumption decreases more in the improved recirculation system than those in the traditional recirculation system. The key parameters, such as the FGR rate and coal feed rate are optimized. Under optimum recirculation rate and coal input conditions, the net coal consumption rate can be reduced by 2.35–2.60 g/(kW h) compared with that obtained with the use of a conventional recirculation system. This net coal consumption rate can be reduced by 3.50–5.11 g/(kW h) compared with that obtained without gas recirculation system. For a better operation, lower recirculation rate and relative higher coal input are recommended under high-load conditions, whereas higher recirculation rate and relative lower coal input are appropriate for low-load conditions

  17. Co-firing coal with wood pellets for U.S. electricity generation: A real options analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to EU, U.S. electric utilities are not employing the bioenergy technology of co-firing wood pellets with coal. This difference in employment patterns is explored within a real options analysis (ROA) for possible U.S. utilization of wood pellets, considering fuel-price series from 2009 to 2014. For analysis, these series are divided into two sub-periods based on different market conditions: Infancy (2009–2011) and Substitution (2012–2014). ROA indicates co-firing wood pellets with coal is feasible considering adoption during wood pellets' infancy, under low discount rates, and long power-plant lifespans. A portfolio effect of employing multiple fuels underlies this result. However, co-firing is not currently economically feasible. The different adoption decisions are likely a consequence of recent cheap and abundant U.S. natural gas. For co-fired wood pellets to be feasible, government incentives and/or a market increase in natural gas prices appear necessary. -- Highlights: •Real options analysis indicates co-firing is not currently economically feasible within the U.S. •The recent U.S. natural-gas boom is likely hindering the adoption of co-firing. •For co-fired adoption, government incentives or an increase in natural-gas prices are necessary

  18. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  19. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  20. A data envelopment analysis for energy efficiency of coal-fired power units in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two kinds of energy efficiency (EE) indices are analyzed and compared. • The influence degrees of different uncontrollable factors on EE are compared. • The influence of load factor on special EE is 82.6% larger than capacity factor. • The influence of cooling method on special EE is 90.32% larger than steam pressure. • The generalized EE indicator is more recommended by the authors. - Abstract: In this article, the non-parametric data envelopment analysis method (DEA) is employed to evaluate energy efficiency (EE) of 34 coal-fired power units in China. Input-oriented CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes) model is used for EE analysis. Two efficiency indices, generalized EE and special EE are defined and analyzed. The generalized EE is calculated based on four input parameters: coal consumption, oil consumption, water consumption and auxiliary power consumption by power units. The special EE is only based on two input parameters: coal consumption and auxiliary power consumption. Relations between these two EE indices and non-comparable factors including quality of coal, load factor, capacity factor, parameters of main steam and cooling method are studied. Comparison between EE evaluation results of the two indices is conducted. Results show that these two kinds of EE are more sensitive to the load factor than the capacity factor. The influence of the cooling method on EE is larger than that of main steam parameter. The influence of non-comparable factors on the special EE is stronger than that on the generalized EE

  1. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  2. LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

  3. Visualization of 3-D temperature distribution in a 300 MW twin-furnace coal-fired boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chao; ZHOU Huai-chun; HUANG Zhi-feng

    2008-01-01

    Until now, it has been difficult to obtain on-line three-dimensional (3-D) temperature distribution information which can reflect the overall combustion condition in the furnace of a coal-fired power plant boiler. A combustion monitoring system is intro-duced which can solve the problem efficiently. Through this system, the 3-D temperature distribution in a coal-fired boiler furnace can be obtained using a novel flame image processing technique. Briefly, we first outline the visualization principle. Then, the hardware and software design of the system in a 300 MW twin-furnace coal-fired boiler are introduced in detail. The visualization of the 3-D temperature distribution in the twin-furnace boiler is realized with an industrial computer and the Distributed Control System (DCS) of the boiler. The practical operation of the system shows that it can provide valuable combustion information of a furnace and is useful for the combustion diagnosis and adjustment in coal-fired power plants.

  4. Assessment of pulverized-coal-fired combustion performance: Final report for the period September 1980--September 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W.F.; Clark, W.; Pohl, J.H.; Payne, R.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this program was to evaluate an engineering analysis procedure which could be used to assess the impact on thermal performance of converting gas and oil fired equipment to coal. The program consisted of four major tasks: (1) Engineering Analysis. The objective was to evaluate currently available models which could be used to predict combustor performance and to define a procedure which could be used to assess the impact of a coal firing in a boiler or furnace; (2) Reactor Studies. The purpose was to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the radiative properties of fly ash clouds; (3) Pilot Scale Experiments. This involved a combustion trial with gas and coals which were burned at 0.7 /times/ 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr in a pilot-scale combustor. The purpose was to verify and supplement the results of the small-scale reactor studies on the radiant properties of coal flames at larger scale; (4) Reporting. Engineering analysis procedures were used to identify those fuels related properties which had a major impact on the thermal performance of furnaces. The major result of the study is that thermal performance of coal-fired furnaces is dominated by the formation of fly ash deposits on the heat transfer surfaces. The key parameters which influence thermal performance are: thickness, thermal conductivity, and surface emissivity or absorptivity. 105 refs., 170 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  6. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shindell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2 and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low-sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogenaities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by

  7. Exergetic analysis of a steam power plant using coal and rice straw in a co-firing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Alvaro; Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: arestrep@labcet.ufsc.br, miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil). U.O. Usina Termeletrica Jorge Lacerda C.], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an exergetic analysis concerning an existing 50 M We steam power plant, which operates with pulverized coal from Santa Catarina- Brazil. In this power plant, a co-firing rice straw is proposed, replacing up to 10% of the pulverized coal in energy basis required for the boiler. Rice straw has been widely regarded as an important source for bio-ethanol, animal feedstock and organic chemicals. The use of rice straw as energy source for electricity generation in a co-firing process with low rank coal represents a new application as well as a new challenge to overcome. Considering both scenarios, the change in the second law efficiency, exergy destruction, influence of the auxiliary equipment and the greenhouse gases emissions such as CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were considered for analysis. (author)

  8. Field test corrosion experiments in Denmark with biomass fuels Part II Co-firing of straw and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    and potassium sulphate. These components give rise to varying degrees of accelerated corrosion. This paper concerns co-firing of straw with coal to reduce the corrosion rate from straw to an acceptable level. A field investigation at Midtkraft Studstrup suspension-fired power plant in Denmark has been......In Denmark, straw is used for generating energy in power plants. However during straw combustion, potassium chloride and SO2 are released in the flue gas and through condensation and deposition processes they will result in the formation of superheater deposits rich in potassium chloride...... undertaken where coal has been co-fired with 10% straw and 20% straw (% energy basis) for up to approx. 3000 hours. Two types of exposure were undertaken to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, and b) the exposure of a range of materials built into the existing...

  9. 我国煤电技术国际竞争优势分析%Study on international competitiveness of China's coal-fired power generation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛彦廷; 倪昕; 何洋; 杨旸; 杨寿敏; 牟春华; 赵帅; 姚明宇; 李阳; 谷伟伟; 薛静远; 苏立新

    2015-01-01

    China is rich in coal but lack of oil and gas.Against this situation,the major indexes of coal-fired power generation technology in China were compared with that in other countries employing coal-fired power generation as the main power production approach,like the United States,Germany,Japan and Aus-tralia,from the aspects of energy structure,energy efficiency indexes,pollutants emissions,technical equip-ment level,environmental protection standards and others.The results show that,the energy consumption indexes for China's coal-fired units with scale of 300 MW and above,including the design,manufacture,con-struction and operation of the equipments for thermal power generation,are at the leading positions in the world.SO2 emission per unit electricity production,dust removal facilities construction and dust control technology are all in the world advanced level.However,the NOx emission per unit electricity production in China's coal-fired power plants is over high,which should be focused in the power units'treatment.In China's environmental protection standard,the NOx,SOx and dust emission limits for coal-fired power plants,especially for the ones in the key areas,are obviously lower than that in the current standards of other countries,indicating China has the most strict environmental protection standard for coal-fired power plants in the whole world at present.%针对我国富煤、贫油、少气的能源结构特点,从国内外电力发展现状、煤电能效指标、污染物排放指标、技术装备水平和环保标准等方面,对中国、美国、德国、日本和澳大利亚等主要燃煤发电国家煤电技术进行对标分析研究。结果表明:中国300 MW及以上容量燃煤机组能耗指标包括设计、制造、施工与运行等在内的煤电超超临界机组整体技术装备水平均居于世界领先水平;单位发电量的SO2排放量、火电厂除尘设施建设和粉尘控制技术水平等均居于世界先进

  10. Projected costs of generating electricity from nuclear and coal-fired power stations for commissioning in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report updates and extends the previous NEA study, ''The Costs of Generating Electricity in Nuclear and Coal-fired Power Stations'', published by the OECD in late 1983. Despite the changed expectations concerning coal prices and the considerable movements in exchange rates since the first study was completed, the conclusions remain essentially the same. Nuclear Power is projected to be economically superior by a significant margin to coal-fired plants for base load electricity production in Europe, Japan and some regions of North America. In areas of North America in close proximity to supplies of cheap coal, this would be the more economic fuel, unless future nuclear investment costs can be reduced to match the best US and Canadian experience. In all regions considered, the economic advantage of both coal and nuclear over oil and gas-fired plants for commissioning in the mid-1990s is expected to be substantial. These conclusions are based on an analysis of cost projections for 900 MWe to 1400 MWe Light Water Reactors to be commissioned in 1995, operating at a levelised load factor of about 72 per cent over an assumed 25 years economic life and calculated with a 5 per cent (real) discount rate. This parallels the reference reactor selected for the NEA report ''The Economics of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle'', which was published by the OECD in June 1985, though it deviates somewhat from the reference conditions of the previous generation cost study. Contemporary coal-fired stations ranging in capacity from 330 MWe to 700 MWe with the same assumed economic life and load factor provide the basis for comparison. Some data are included on CANDU Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors, and a brief comment is annexed on the relevance of the comparisons for the smaller plants that may be of interest to countries with smaller electricity networks or where special circumstances apply

  11. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  12. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Muhammad Mohsin, Morten C. Melaaen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  13. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  14. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Mohsin, Muhammad [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  15. Modeling of mercury speciation and capture in coal-fired flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Heyang; Ma, Zhanhua; Lu, Pisi [SmartBurn LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Cao, Yan; Pan, Wei-Ping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). ICSET

    2013-07-01

    A 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling tool was developed to model the mercury speciation and capture processes in coal-fired flue gas, including gaseous mercury oxidation and adsorption of mercury by the particulate matter. This CFD modeling tool was then applied to predicting enhanced mercury oxidation and capture by HBr injection in a slipstream reactor. The reaction rate constants of the mercury oxidation by HBr are extracted from the slipstream reactor testing data from the ICSET of Western Kentucky University. The modeling results show good agreement with the testing data and reasonable trends under different conditions. This CFD modeling tool can be either used to design a new mercury control system with higher efficiency and lower operating cost or to improve the performance of an existing system.

  16. Economic considerations in coverting from oil/gas firing to coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Economic considerations involved in fuel conversion such as from oil and/or gas firing to coal are discussed including investments costs for new facilities and equipment (including air pollution control equipment), operation and maintenance costs, and purchased fuel costs. An analytical approach to assessing the cost effectiveness of fuel conversion in terms of the annual net cost of conversion, the equivalent annual number of barrels of oil saved, and the integral rate of return of the conversion investment is presented. Illustrative numerical examples are presented for typical utility boilers and industrial boiler facilities. A further consideration addressed deals with the impacts of these costs on the overall financial structure of the firm and the ability of the firm to raise the necessary investment captial.

  17. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

  18. Low-cost Evaporator Protection Method against Corrosion in a Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Krzysztof Dyjakon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion processes appearing on the watertubes in a combustion chamber of pulverized coal-fired boilers require permanent control and service. Subject to the power plant strategy, different anti-corrosion protection methods can be applied. Technical-economical analysis has been performed to evaluate and support the decisions on maintenance and operation services. The paper presents and discusses results of the application of an air protection system in boiler OP-230 in view of anti-corrosion measures. It is indicated that a low-cost protection method of watertubes (evaporator against corrosion can be efficient and lead to financial savings in comparison to the standard procedure of replacement of watertube panels.

  19. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, February - April, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. The steam generated is as follows: steam = 20,000 lb/hr; temperature = 353 F (saturated); pressure = 125 psig; and steam quality = {approximately}98.5%. During this reporting period: structural corrections have been made to make the facility meet the required building costs; and refractory bakeout was successfully completed during April 23-25, 1996 over a 54 -hour period. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed.

  20. Numerical simulation of NOx formation in a cyclone-opposed coal-fired utility boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-qin; REN Jian-xing; WEI Dun-song

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, FLUENT software was used to simulate the burning process in a utility boiler. Chose the kinetics/diffusion-limited as combustion model, two-compet-ingrates as devolatjlization model, RNG k-εmodel as viscous model, and PDF model as combustion turbulent flow model. Numerical calculation of NOx formation in a 330 MW cyclone-opposed coal-fired utility boiler with 32 double air registers was done. The distribution characteristics of temperature, NOx and oxygen concentration in furnace were studied. They were symmetrically distributed in furnace. In the combustion area, temperature and NOx concentration are high, while oxygen concentration is low. Temperature and NOx concentration are declined gradually along with furnace height, while oxygen concentration is raised. The higher the temperature is and the greater the excess air coefficient is, the more NOx formation.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevor Ley

    2003-07-01

    This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, ongoing tests and analysis on samples from Powerton and Valley to yield waste characterization results for the COHPAC long-term tests were conducted. A draft final report for the sorbent evaluations at Powerton was submitted. Sorbent evaluations at Valley Power Plant were completed on April 24, 2003. Data analysis and reporting for the Valley evaluations are continuing. A statement of work for sorbent evaluations at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant was submitted and approved. Work will begin late August 2003. A no cost time extension was granted by DOE/NETL.

  2. Measurement method and experimental research on flame emissivity in Coal-fired furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chao; LOU Chun; JIANG Zhi-wei; ZHOU Huai-chun

    2007-01-01

    The combustion condition in coal-fired furnaces of the large power station boiler is very complex and the flame emissivity is one of the important combustion parameters.A measurement method of the flame emissivity based on the blackbody furnace calibration of CCD(Charge Coupled Device)cameras and the color image processing techniques of computer was introduced.The experimentaI research on the flame emissivity in a 200 MW boiler furnace and a 300 MW boiler furnace was conducted respectively through the several CCD cameras installed at different height in furnace.The measurement results show:the flame emissivity increases with the increase of the unit load.the flame emissivity of the burner areas in furnace is the highest and the flame emissivity decrease with the increase of height of furnace above the burners area.

  3. A Study on Total Factor Energy Efficiency of Coal-fired Power Plants Considering Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-ping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we measure the total-factor energy efficiency under the constraint of environment of 13 coal-fired power plants in Hebei province over the period of 2009 to 2011 using the DEA model which based on the environmental production technology and the directional distance function. The results indicate that the total factor energy efficiency of sample power plants is still at sub-optimal level of around 0.84 and the efficiency is over estimated when without looking at environmental impacts. This indicates that undesirable outputs have a significant influence on energy efficiency of power plants. Poor performance of few power plants is due to their ability to manage the undesirable outputs need to be improved. In order to improve energy efficiency and achieve sustainable development, plants should concentrate on both energy saving and emission reduction at the same time.

  4. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  5. Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the heat flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Eddings, E.G.; Ring, T.; Thornock, J.; Draper, T.; Isaac, B.; Rezeai, D.; Toth, P.; Wu, Y.; Kelly, K.

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this task is to produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers. Validation data came from the Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) for tangentially fired, oxy-coal operation. This task brings together experimental data collected under Alstom’s DOE project for measuring oxy-firing performance parameters in the BSF with this University of Utah project for large eddy simulation (LES) and validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ). The Utah work includes V/UQ with measurements in the single-burner facility where advanced strategies for O2 injection can be more easily controlled and data more easily obtained. Highlights of the work include: • Simulations of Alstom’s 15 megawatt (MW) BSF, exploring the uncertainty in thermal boundary conditions. A V/UQ analysis showed consistency between experimental results and simulation results, identifying uncertainty bounds on the quantities of interest for this system (Subtask 9.1) • A simulation study of the University of Utah’s oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) focused on heat flux (Subtask 9.2). A V/UQ analysis was used to show consistency between experimental and simulation results. • Measurement of heat flux and temperature with new optical diagnostic techniques and comparison with conventional measurements (Subtask 9.3). Various optical diagnostics systems were created to provide experimental data to the simulation team. The final configuration utilized a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera to measure heat flux and temperature, which was synchronized with a high-speed, visible camera to utilize two-color pyrometry to measure temperature and soot concentration. • Collection of heat flux and temperature measurements in the University of Utah’s OFC for use is subtasks 9.2 and 9.3 (Subtask 9.4). Several replicates were carried to better assess the experimental error. Experiments were specifically designed for the

  6. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  7. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  8. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO

  9. Rock magnetic finger-printing of soil from a coal-fired thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gune, Minal; Harshavardhana, B G; Balakrishna, K; Udayashankar, H N; Shankar, R; Manjunatha, B R

    2016-05-01

    We present seasonal rock magnetic data for 48 surficial soil samples collected seasonally around a coal-fired thermal power plant on the southwest coast of India to demonstrate how fly ash from the power plant is transported both spatially and seasonally. Sampling was carried out during pre-monsoon (March), early-monsoon (June), monsoon (September) and post-monsoon (December) seasons. Low- and high-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf and χhf), frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd), χfd %, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), "hard" IRM (HIRM), saturation IRM (SIRM) and inter-parametric ratios were determined for the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used on limited number of samples. NOAA HYSPLIT MODEL backward trajectory analysis and principal component analysis were carried out on the data. Fly ash samples exhibit an average HIRM value (400.07 × 10(-5) Am(2) kg(-1)) that is comparable to that of soil samples. The pre- and post-monsoon samples show a consistent reduction in the concentration of magnetically "hard" minerals with increasing distance from the power plant. These data suggest that fly ash has indeed been transported from the power plant to the sampling locations. Hence, HIRM may perhaps be used as a proxy for tracking fly ash from coal-fired thermal power plants. Seasonal data show that the distribution of fly ash to the surrounding areas is minimum during monsoons. They also point to the dominance of SP magnetite in early-monsoon season, whereas magnetic depletion is documented in the monsoon season. This seasonal difference is attributable to both pedogenesis and anthropogenic activity i.e. operation of the thermal power plant. PMID:27056477

  10. Cost analysis of a coal-fired power plant using the NPV method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Sharma, Avdhesh Kr.; Tewari, P. C.

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the impact of various factors affecting coal-fired power plant economics of 210 MW subcritical unit situated in north India for electricity generation. In this paper, the cost data of various units of thermal power plant in terms of power output capacity have been fitted using power law with the help of the data collected from a literature search. To have a realistic estimate of primary components or equipment, it is necessary to include the latest cost of these components. The cost analysis of the plant was carried out on the basis of total capital investment, operating cost and revenue. The total capital investment includes the total direct plant cost and total indirect plant cost. Total direct plant cost involves the cost of equipment (i.e. boiler, steam turbine, condenser, generator and auxiliary equipment including condensate extraction pump, feed water pump, etc.) and other costs associated with piping, electrical, civil works, direct installation cost, auxiliary services, instrumentation and controls, and site preparation. The total indirect plant cost includes the cost of engineering and set-up. The net present value method was adopted for the present study. The work presented in this paper is an endeavour to study the influence of some of the important parameters on the lifetime costs of a coal-fired power plant. For this purpose, parametric study with and without escalation rates for a period of 35 years plant life was evaluated. The results predicted that plant life, interest rate and the escalation rate were observed to be very sensitive on plant economics in comparison to other factors under study.

  11. Effect of air ingress on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingress of air in boilers leads to drops in energy efficiency. This paper presents the effects of air ingress in the combustion zone, post-combustion zone and air pre-heater (APH) on the energy efficiency and loading capacity of a coal fired thermal power plant operating on fuel with high ash (35-45%). The optimal O2 in the flue gas for a pulverized coal fired system is 3.5% (corresponding to 20% excess air). The operating values are in the range of 4.2-6.0% in membrane type boilers and up to 10% in refractory type boilers (after sustained periods of operation). The leakage rate of boilers (up to the entrance of the APH) is designed at 0.2% while the average operating values are 7.25% for membrane type enclosures and 33.61% for refractory enclosures. The leakage rate of the APH is designed at 5.0% while the operating values range from 13.66% to 20.13% for rotary and tubular APHs. When the O2 in the combustion zone varies from 3.5% to 8.0%, efficiency drops of 2.0% points are experienced in the boiler and turbine separately, and the gross overall efficiency drop is ∼3.0% points. The units do not experience any capacity drop up to an O2 in the flue gas of 6.0% before the APH. At an O2 in the flue gas (before APH) of 7.2%, a mild limitation on the unit capacity of around 2-3% is experienced. When O2 in the flue gas (before APH) reaches a level of 9.0%, 20% capacity drop of the unit is experienced due to which the plant load cannot be raised higher than 80%. Beyond the level of 9.0% (rare occurrence), the unit is quite difficult to operate and has to be taken off for overhaul

  12. Rock magnetic finger-printing of soil from a coal-fired thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gune, Minal; Harshavardhana, B G; Balakrishna, K; Udayashankar, H N; Shankar, R; Manjunatha, B R

    2016-05-01

    We present seasonal rock magnetic data for 48 surficial soil samples collected seasonally around a coal-fired thermal power plant on the southwest coast of India to demonstrate how fly ash from the power plant is transported both spatially and seasonally. Sampling was carried out during pre-monsoon (March), early-monsoon (June), monsoon (September) and post-monsoon (December) seasons. Low- and high-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf and χhf), frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd), χfd %, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), "hard" IRM (HIRM), saturation IRM (SIRM) and inter-parametric ratios were determined for the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used on limited number of samples. NOAA HYSPLIT MODEL backward trajectory analysis and principal component analysis were carried out on the data. Fly ash samples exhibit an average HIRM value (400.07 × 10(-5) Am(2) kg(-1)) that is comparable to that of soil samples. The pre- and post-monsoon samples show a consistent reduction in the concentration of magnetically "hard" minerals with increasing distance from the power plant. These data suggest that fly ash has indeed been transported from the power plant to the sampling locations. Hence, HIRM may perhaps be used as a proxy for tracking fly ash from coal-fired thermal power plants. Seasonal data show that the distribution of fly ash to the surrounding areas is minimum during monsoons. They also point to the dominance of SP magnetite in early-monsoon season, whereas magnetic depletion is documented in the monsoon season. This seasonal difference is attributable to both pedogenesis and anthropogenic activity i.e. operation of the thermal power plant.

  13. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate the rate and effect of mercury emissions in the atmosphere and technologies to control the emissions. The US DOE sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate health risks of mercury emissions from coal combustion. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the compound predominantly responsible for human exposure to atmospheric mercury in the United States, through fish ingestion. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single large power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized are near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms (paresthesia) was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  15. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) co-firing of coal and hospital waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed project involves co-firing of coal and medical waste (including infectious medical waste) in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) to safely dispose of medical waste and produce steam for hospital needs. Combustion at the design temperature and residence time (duration) in the AFBC has been proven to render infectious medical waste free of disease producing organisms. The project would be located at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. The estimated cost of the proposed AFBC facility is nearly $4 million. It would be jointly funded by DOE, Veterans Affairs, and Donlee Technologies, Inc., of York, Pennsylvania, under a cooperative agreement between DOE and Donlee. Under the terms of this agreement, $3.708 million in cost-shared financial assistance would be jointly provided by DOE and the Veterans Affairs (50/50), with $278,000 provided by Donlee. The purposes of the proposed project are to: (1) provide the VA Medical Center and the Good Samaritan Hospital (GSH), also of Lebanon, Pennsylvania, with a solution for disposal of their medical waste; and (2) demonstrate that a new coal-burning technology can safely incinerate infectious medical waste, produce steam to meet hospital needs, and comply with environmental regulations

  16. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The proposed project involves co-firing of coal and medical waste (including infectious medical waste) in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) to safely dispose of medical waste and produce steam for hospital needs. Combustion at the design temperature and residence time (duration) in the AFBC has been proven to render infectious medical waste free of disease producing organisms. The project would be located at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. The estimated cost of the proposed AFBC facility is nearly $4 million. It would be jointly funded by DOE, Veterans Affairs, and Donlee Technologies, Inc., of York, Pennsylvania, under a cooperative agreement between DOE and Donlee. Under the terms of this agreement, $3.708 million in cost-shared financial assistance would be jointly provided by DOE and the Veterans Affairs (50/50), with $278,000 provided by Donlee. The purposes of the proposed project are to: (1) provide the VA Medical Center and the Good Samaritan Hospital (GSH), also of Lebanon, Pennsylvania, with a solution for disposal of their medical waste; and (2) demonstrate that a new coal-burning technology can safely incinerate infectious medical waste, produce steam to meet hospital needs, and comply with environmental regulations.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Closed Porosity of Inorganic Solidified Foam Designed to Prevent Coal Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the deficiency of the existing fire control technology and control coal spontaneous combustion by sealing air leakages in coal mines, inorganic solidified foam (ISF with high closed porosity was developed. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS concentration on the porosity of the foams was investigated. The results showed that the optimized closed porosity of the solidified foam was 38.65 wt.% for an SDS concentration of approximately 7.4×10-3 mol/L. Based on observations of the microstructure of the pore walls after solidification, it was inferred that an equilibrium between the hydration process and the drainage process existed. Therefore, the ISF was improved using three different systems. Gelatin can increase the viscosity of the continuous phase to form a viscoelastic film around the air cells, and the SDS + gelatin system can create a mixed surfactant layer at gas/liquid interfaces. The accelerator (AC accelerates the hydration process and coagulation of the pore walls before the end of drainage. The mixed SDS + gelatin + AC systems produced an ISF with a total porosity of 79.89% and a closed porosity of 66.89%, which verified the proposed stabilization mechanism.

  18. Co-combustion of gasified contaminated waste wood in a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This project demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of the producing and cofiring of product gas from demolition waste wood. For this purpose LCV product gas is generated in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification plant, cooled and cleaned and transported to the boiler of a 600 MWe pulverized coal fired power plant. Gas cooling and cleaning takes place in a waste heat boiler and a multi stage wet gas cleaning train. Steam raised in the waste heat boiler is exported to the power plant. On an annual basis 70,000 tons of steam coal are substituted by 150,000 tons of contaminated demolition waste wood (50,000 tons oil equivalent), resulting in a net CO2 emission reduction of 170,000 tons per year, while concurrently generating 205 GWh of electrical power. The wood gasification plant was built by NV EPZ (now incorporated in Essent Energi BV) for Amergas BV, now a 100% subsidiary of Essent Energie BV. The gasification plant is located at the Amer Power Station of NV EPZ Production (now Essent Generation) at Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands. Demonstrating several important design features in wood gasification, the plant started hot service in the Spring of 2000, with first gasification accomplished in the Summer of 2000 and is currently being optimized. (au)

  19. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  20. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  1. Technical, economic and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in coal and natural gas fired power plants in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the technical, economic, and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in existing Dutch coal and natural gas fired power plants, and industrial combined-cycles (CC), is addressed. Main criteria that are considered are: the availability and contractibility of biomass for energy purposes; the (technical) operation of the conventional fossil fuel based processes may not be disturbed; the gaseous and liquid plant emissions have to comply to those applicable for power plants/CCs, the commercial applicability of the solid residues may not be negatively influenced; applicable additional biomass conversion technologies must be commercially available; the necessary additional investment costs must be acceptable from an economic point of view, and the co-firing option must result in a substantial CO2-emission reduction. The main result of the study described in the paper is the presentation of a clear and founded indication of the total co-firing potential of biomass in existing power plants and industrial CCs in the Netherlands. This potential is determined by considering both technical, economic, and environmental criteria. In spite of the fact that the co-firing potential for the specific Dutch situation is presented, the results of the criteria considered are more generally applicable, and therefore are also very interesting for potential co-firing initiatives outside of the Netherlands

  2. Life-cycle comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption for coal and shale gas fired power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has the world's largest shale gas reserves, which might enable it to pursue a new pathway for electricity generation. This study employed hybrid LCI (life cycle inventory) models to quantify the ETW (extraction-to-wire) GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and water consumption per kWh of coal- and shale gas-fired electricity in China. Results suggest that a coal-to-shale gas shift and upgrading coal-fired power generation technologies could provide pathways to less GHG and water intensive power in China. Compared to different coal-fired generation technologies, the ETW GHG emissions intensity of gas-fired CC (combined cycle) technology is 530 g CO2e/kWh, which is 38–45% less than China's present coal-fired electricity. Gas-fired CT (combustion turbine) technology has the lowest ETW water consumption intensity at 960 g/kWh, which is 34–60% lower than China's present coal-fired electricity. The GHG-water tradeoff of the two gas-fired power generation technologies suggests that gas-fired power generation technologies should be selected based on regional-specific water resource availabilities and electricity demand fluctuations in China. However, the low price of coal-fired electricity, high cost of shale gas production, insufficient pipeline infrastructures, and multiple consumers of shale gas resources may serve as barriers to a coal-to-shale gas shift in China's power sector in the near term. - Highlights: • The GHG and water footprints of coal- and shale gas-fired electricity are estimated. • A coal-to-shale gas shift can enable less GHG and water intensive power in China. • The GHG emissions of shale gas-fired combined cycle technology is 530 g CO2e/kWh. • The water consumption of shale gas-fired combustion turbine technology is 960 g/kWh. • Shale gas-fired power generation technologies selection should be regional-specific

  3. Assessing the Exergy Costs of a 332-MW Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Rangel-Hernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the exergy costs of a real large industrial boiler with the aim of improving efficiency. Specifically, the 350-MW front-fired, natural circulation, single reheat and balanced draft coal-fired boiler forms part of a 1050-MW conventional power plant located in Spain. We start with a diagram of the power plant, followed by a formulation of the exergy cost allocation problem to determine the exergy cost of the product of the boiler as a whole and the expenses of the individual components and energy streams. We also define a productive structure of the system. Furthermore, a proposal for including the exergy of radiation is provided in this study. Our results show that the unit exergy cost of the product of the boiler goes from 2.352 to 2.5, and that the maximum values are located in the ancillary electrical devices, such as induced-draft fans and coil heaters. Finally, radiation does not have an effect on the electricity cost, but affects at least 30% of the unit exergy cost of the boiler’s product.

  4. Soil as an archive of coal-fired power plant mercury deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos

    2016-05-01

    Mercury pollution is a global environmental problem that has serious implications for human health. One of the most important sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions are coal-burning power plants. Hg accumulations in soil are associated with their atmospheric deposition. Our study provides the first assessment of soil Hg on the entire Spanish surface obtained from one sampling protocol. Hg spatial distribution was analysed with topsoil samples taken from 4000 locations in a regular sampling grid. The other aim was to use geostatistical techniques to verify the extent of soil contamination by Hg and to evaluate presumed Hg enrichment near the seven Spanish power plants with installed capacity above 1000 MW. The Hg concentration in Spanish soil fell within the range of 1-7564 μg kg(-1) (mean 67.2) and 50% of the samples had a concentration below 37 μg kg(-1). Evidence for human activity was found near all the coal-fired power plants, which reflects that metals have accumulated in the basin over many years. Values over 1000 μg kg(-1) have been found in soils in the vicinity of the Aboño, Soto de Ribera and Castellon power plants. However, soil Hg enrichment was detectable only close to the emission source, within an approximate range of only 15 km from the power plants. We associated this effect with airborne emissions and subsequent depositions as the potential distance through fly ash deposition. Hg associated with particles of ash tends to be deposited near coal combustion sources. PMID:26808251

  5. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  6. Coal fly ash-containing sprayed mortar for passive fire protection of steel sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches, L. F.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the possible use of coal fly ash as the chief component of sprayed mortars to fireproof steel structures. A pilot wet-mix gunning rig was specifically designed and built to spray different pastes on to sheet steel and sections with different surface/volume ratios. After gunning, the specimens were placed in a furnace and subjected to standard fire resistance testing. Product fire resistance was calculated from the test results. The mortar used in this study, with a high fly ash content, was found to have acceptable mechanical properties as well as afire resistance potential comparable to those of commercial passive fire protection products.

    En este artículo se estudia el posible uso de las cenizas volantes procedentes de la combustión del carbón como constituyente principal de morteros que pueden ser proyectados sobre estructuras metálicas, para protegerlas contra el fuego. Con objeto de estudiar el proceso de proyección, se ha construido una planta piloto de gunitado por vía húmeda. La pasta se ha proyectado sobre placas metálicas y perfiles metálicos con diferentes relaciones superficie/volumen. Tras el gunitado, las probetas proyectadas se colocan en un horno y se someten a un programa de calentamiento según la norma de resistencia al fuego. A partir de los datos obtenidos se ha podido realizar una estimación de la resistencia al fuego del producto. Los resultados muestran que el material proyectado usado en este estudio, que contiene una alta proporción de cenizas volantes, tiene unas propiedades mecánicas aceptables y unas características potenciales de resistencia al fuego comparables a las de otros productos comerciales utilizados en la protección pasiva contra el fuego.

  7. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    A method of removing a target gas from a gas stream is disclosed. The method uses advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions having vastly improved fire resistance. Methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard.

  8. Operational experiences of (in)direct co-combustion in coal and gas fired power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational experiences of direct and indirect co-combustion of biomass/waste in European coal and natural gas fired power plants are addressed. The operational experiences of mainly Dutch direct co-combustion activities in coal fired power plants are discussed; whereas an overview of European indirect co-combustion activities is presented. The technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of different indirect co-combustion concepts (i.e. upstream gasification, pyrolysis, combustion with steam-side integration) is investigated, and the results are compared with the economic preferable concept of direct co-combustion. Main technical constraints that limit the co-combustion capacity of biomass/waste in conventional coal fired power plants are: the grindability of the biomass/coal blend, the capacity of available unit components, and the danger of severe slagging, fouling, corrosion and erosion. The main environmental constraints that have to be taken into account are the quality of produced solid waste streams (fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum) and the applicable air emission regulations. 6 refs

  9. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rawls, P. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  10. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-01

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand. PMID:26023722

  11. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-01

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand.

  12. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  13. Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free

  14. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  15. Advanced Portable Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fine water mist (FWM) is a promising replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in performance,...

  16. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  17. Integrating multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics to optimize boiler combustion process of a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A coal fired power plant boiler combustion process model based on real data. • We propose multi-objective optimization with CFD to optimize boiler combustion. • The proposed method uses software CORBA C++ and ANSYS Fluent 14.5 with AI. • It optimizes heat flux transfers and maintains temperature to avoid ash melt. - Abstract: The dominant role of electricity generation and environment consideration have placed strong requirements on coal fired power plants, requiring them to improve boiler combustion efficiency and decrease carbon emission. Although neural network based optimization strategies are often applied to improve the coal fired power plant boiler efficiency, they are limited by some combustion related problems such as slagging. Slagging can seriously influence heat transfer rate and decrease the boiler efficiency. In addition, it is difficult to measure slag build-up. The lack of measurement for slagging can restrict conventional neural network based coal fired boiler optimization, because no data can be used to train the neural network. This paper proposes a novel method of integrating non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) based multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to decrease or even avoid slagging inside a coal fired boiler furnace and improve boiler combustion efficiency. Compared with conventional neural network based boiler optimization methods, the method developed in the work can control and optimize the fields of flue gas properties such as temperature field inside a boiler by adjusting the temperature and velocity of primary and secondary air in coal fired power plant boiler control systems. The temperature in the vicinity of water wall tubes of a boiler can be maintained within the ash melting temperature limit. The incoming ash particles cannot melt and bond to surface of heat transfer equipment of a boiler. So the trend of slagging inside furnace is controlled. Furthermore, the

  18. Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Jayaraman, Ambalavanan [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Dietz, Steven [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2016-03-03

    In this project TDA Research, Inc (TDA) has developed a new post combustion carbon capture technology based on a vacuum swing adsorption system that uses a steam purge and demonstrated its technical feasibility and economic viability in laboratory-scale tests and tests in actual coal derived flue gas. TDA uses an advanced physical adsorbent to selectively remove CO2 from the flue gas. The sorbent exhibits a much higher affinity for CO2 than N2, H2O or O2, enabling effective CO2 separation from the flue gas. We also carried out a detailed process design and analysis of the new system as part of both sub-critical and super-critical pulverized coal fired power plants. The new technology uses a low cost, high capacity adsorbent that selectively removes CO2 in the presence of moisture at the flue gas temperature without a need for significant cooling of the flue gas or moisture removal. The sorbent is based on a TDA proprietary mesoporous carbon that consists of surface functionalized groups that remove CO2 via physical adsorption. The high surface area and favorable porosity of the sorbent also provides a unique platform to introduce additional functionality, such as active groups to remove trace metals (e.g., Hg, As). In collaboration with the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California, Irvine (UCI), TDA developed system simulation models using Aspen PlusTM simulation software to assess the economic viability of TDA’s VSA-based post-combustion carbon capture technology. The levelized cost of electricity including the TS&M costs for CO2 is calculated as $116.71/MWh and $113.76/MWh for TDA system integrated with sub-critical and super-critical pulverized coal fired power plants; much lower than the $153.03/MWhand $147.44/MWh calculated for the corresponding amine based systems. The cost of CO2 captured for TDA’s VSA based system is $38

  19. Expanding exports, increasing smog : Ontario Power Generation's and Hydro One's strategies to continue coal-fired electricity generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of coal-fired electricity increased by approximately 150 per cent in Ontario between 1995 and 2000. As a result, the smog-causing emissions generated by the five coal-fired power plants operated by Ontario Power Generation caused an increase in smog and worsened air quality in the province as well as affecting air quality as far afield as the Atlantic provinces. Between 2002 and 2005, it is expected that the Pickering and Bruce nuclear plants will be returned to service, making the electricity generated by the coal plants surplus to Ontario's needs. Increasing this surplus are the planned natural gas generating stations. Ontario Power Generation is planning on using this surplus to export it to the United States rather than phasing out its reliance on coal. The increase in exports to the United States Northeast and Midwest is planned with Hydro One, already busy increasing its transmission capacity to the United States by 1,000 megawatt (MW). This plan involves laying 975 MW submarine cable from the Nanticoke Generating Station (operated by Ontario Power Generation) under Lake Erie to Pennsylvania, Ohio, or both states. At the moment, the exports are constrained by the government emissions limits imposed by the Ontario government on sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This constraint could be removed if Ontario Power Generation decides to pay further for pollution controls for sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides at its coal stations. Unfortunately, increasing the exports would also result in emissions increases for 28 other uncapped pollutants such as lead, mercury and arsenic. The author recommended that the Ontario government ban non-emergency coal-fired electricity exports to improve air quality in the province. refs., 8 figs

  20. State of the art coal fired steam generators for low emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busekrus, K.; Tigges, K.; Klauke, F. [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Some methods of improving efficiency of coal-fired power plants in order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions is described, followed by carbon capture and storage technologies. NOx and SOx reduction technologies are then discussed. 26 refs.

  1. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Gutterman, C. (Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)); Chander, S. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  2. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  3. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  4. Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-11-30

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  7. Biological carbon fixation: A study of Isochrysis sp. growth under actual coal-fired power plant's flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Liyana Yahya, Muhammad Nazry Chik, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Azmir Pang,

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary study on the growth of marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. was carried out using actual flue gas from a coal-fired power station. The species was cultured using a 2×10-L customized bubble column photobioreactor skid under specified culture conditions. With an initial culture density of 0.459 Abs (optical density at 560 nm wavelength), the species was found able to survive - observed by increases in optical densities, number of cells and weights - in the presence of actual coal-fired flue gas containing on average 4.08 % O2, 200.21 mg/m3 SO2, 212.29 mg/m3 NOx, 4.73 % CO2 and 50.72 mg/m3 CO. Results thus add value to the potential and capability of microalgae, especially for Isochrysis sp., to be the biological carbon fixer in neutralizing carbon emissions from power plants.

  8. Evaluating the Thermal Pollution Caused by Wastewaters Discharged from a Chain of Coal-Fired Power Plants along a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and safe operation of a coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water sources and wastewater discharge are challenges for power station operation. In this study, an evaluation on the basis of a wastewater thermal pollution vector is reported for the environmental impact of residual water generated and discharged in the Jiu River during the operation of thermoelectric units of the Rovinari, Turceni and Craiova coal-fired power plants in Romania. Wastewater thermal pollutant vector Plane Projection is applied for assessing the water temperature evolution in the water flow lane created downstream of each power plant wastewater outlet channel. Simulation on the basis of an Electricity of France model, and testing validation of the results for thermoelectric units of 330 MW of these power plants are presented.

  9. The modernization potential of gas turbines in the coal-fired power industry thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    The opportunity of repowering the existing condensing power stations by means of  gas turbogenerators offers an important opportunity to considerably improvement of their energy efficiency. The Modernization Potential of Gas turbines in the Coal-Fired Power Industry presents the methodology, calculation procedures and tools used to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to dual-fuel gas-steam combined-cycle technologies. Both the conceptual and practical aspects of the conversion of existing coal-fired power plants is covered. Discussions of the feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and possible methods are supported by chapters presenting equations of energy efficiency for the conditions of repowering a power unit by installing a gas turbogenerator in a parallel system and the results of technical calculations involving the selection heating structures of heat recovery steam generators. A methodology for analyzing thermodynamic and economic effectiveness for the selection of a structure...

  10. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  11. Utilizing aquiferous layers in advanced treatment of coal bearing strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perezhilov, A.E.; Lukash, A.S.; Kochetov, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    This article analyzes effects of aquiferous layers close to a coal seam on efficiency of water injection into a seam endangered by methane or rock bursts. Two procedures of water injection into a coal seam situated at depths of 850 m are compared: injection from ground surface directly to the seam, injection into an overlying limestone aquiferous layer and into an underlying sandstone aquiferous layer and in the last stage injection into the coal seam situated between 2 aquiferous layers. The overlying layer 2 m thick is situated 15 m from the seam; the underlying layer 4.0 m thick is separated from the seam by a rock layer 3.2 m thick. The results of comparisons are given in a table and in a diagram. Investigations show that aquiferous layers close to a coal seam actively influence water injection. When water is injected into a rock aquiferous layer first and at later stage into an adjacent coal seam the rock layer plays the role of an accumulating medium. When water injection from the ground surface is discontinued water accumulated in the aquiferous strata flows into a coal seam (filtration flow and capillary flow). Distribution of moisture in a coal seam is more regular. Use of aquiferous rock layers as accumulating strata during water injection into coal seams increases injection efficiency.

  12. Summary of workshop on materials issues in low emission boilers and high efficiency coal-fired cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review with experts in the field the materials issues associated with two of the primary coal power systems being developed by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy. The DOE-FE Advanced Power Systems Program includes natural gas-based and coal-based power systems. Major activities in the natural gas-based power systems area include the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program, the Fuel Cells Program, and Hybrid Cycles. The coal-based power systems projects include the Low Emissions Boiler Systems (LEBS) Program, the High-Performance Power Systems Program (HIPPS), the Integrated (Coal) Gasification Combined-Cycle Program, and the Fluidized-Bed Combustion Program. This workshop focused on the materials issues associated with the LEBS and HIPPS technologies.

  13. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  14. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  15. Impacts of the Minamata Convention for Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Generation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, A.; Stokes, L. C.; Streets, D. G.; Corbitt, E. S.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the potential implications of the recently signed United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from coal-fired power generation in Asia, and the impacts of these emissions changes on deposition of mercury worldwide by 2050. We use qualitative interviews, document analysis, and engineering analysis to create plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention, taking into account both technological and political factors. We translate these scenarios into possible emissions inventories for 2050, based on IPCC development scenarios, and then use the GEOS-Chem global transport model to evaluate the effect of these different technology choices on mercury deposition over geographic regions and oceans. We find that China is most likely to address mercury control through co-benefits from technologies for SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) capture that will be required to attain its existing air quality goals. In contrast, India is likely to focus on improvements to plant efficiency such as upgrading boilers, and coal washing. Compared to current technologies, we project that these changes will result in emissions decreases of approximately 140 and 190 Mg/yr for China and India respectively in 2050, under an A1B development scenario. With these emissions reductions, simulated average gross deposition over India and China are reduced by approximately 10 and 3 μg/m2/yr respectively, and the global average concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) is reduced by approximately 10% in the Northern hemisphere. Stricter, but technologically feasible, requirements for mercury control in both countries could lead to an additional 200 Mg/yr of emissions reductions. Modeled differences in concentration and deposition patterns between technology suites are due to differences in both the mercury removal efficiency of technologies and their resulting stack speciation.

  16. Coal fires, industrial emissions and motor vehicles as sources of environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawther, P J; Waller, R E

    1976-01-01

    One of the most widely studied carcinogenic agents in the environment is the polycyclic hydrocarbon, benzo(a) pyrene. As a component of soot from the inefficient combustion of coal, its association with cancer can be traced back 200 years, but its possible relevance to lung cancer as a widely distributed air relevance to lung cancer as a widely distributed air pollutant has been investigated only during the past 25 years. Domestic coal fires have been shown to be important sources, and smaller amounts come from industrial sources and from motor vehicles. There is evidence now that the concentration of benzo (a) pyrene in large towns in Britain has decreased by a factor of about ten during the last few decades, as a result of changing heating methods and smoke control. In view of the overwhelming effect of cigarette smoking, it is difficult to determine whether the benzo(a)pyrene content of the air has had any importnat effect on the development of lung cancer, but careful analysis of trends in mortality may now throw some light on this. Among other materials with carcinogenic properties that may be dispersed into the general air, asbestos is the one that has been investigated most thoroughly. The association between exposure to asbestos and the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma of the pleura has been clearly demonstrated among people occupationally exposed to the dust, but as far as the general public is concerned, any risk may be limited to the immediate vicinity of major sources. These and other hazards demonstrated among occupational gropus serve as a warning however to maintain careful scutiny of urban air pollutants in relation to the acetiology of cancer.

  17. Transfer-factors for radionuclides in the coal-fired power plants environments in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the coal combustion in power plants, radionuclides are distributed in solid and gaseous combustion products and discharged into environment. Radioactivity monitoring of coal-fired power-plants environments (PP Nikola Tesla, PP Kolubara, PP Morava and PP Kostolac) in Serbia was carried out during 2003-2006. Here are presented results concerning the soil-plant and ash-plant systems. Plant samples growing at the soil and ash disposals are analyzed by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%) and corresponding transfer factors (TF) for natural isotopes 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were calculated and discussed. Obtained concentrations values of naturally occurring radionuclides are in following ranges: (0.4 - 29) Bq/kg 226Ra, (0.16 - 23) Bq/kg 232Th, (245 - 1274) Bq/kg 40K, (1.7 - 30) Bq/kg 238U, (0.08 - 4.7) Bq/kg 235U, (5.6 - 95) Bq/kg 210Pb; (28 - 288) Bq/kg 7Be and man-made 137Cs in range 0.06 - 2.8 Bq/kg. Ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are calculated for several sampling points. Values for both ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors are much higher for 40K than 226Ra and 232Th probably due to different assimilation mechanisms of these elements by plants. Analyzed radionuclides have higher concentrations in the ash disposal than soil, and corresponding transfer-factors values obtained for ash-plant systems (ranged from 0,007 to 0,179 for 226Ra, from 0,015 to 0,174 for 232Th and from 0,418 to 2,230 for 40 K) are higher, indicating that there is no limit value for absorption in plants. (author)

  18. Experimental and numerical analysis of isothermal turbulent flows in interacting low NOx burners in coal-fired furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Cvoro, Valentina

    2007-01-01

    Coal firing power stations represent the second largest source of global NOx emissions. The current practice of predicting likely exit NOx levels from multi-burner furnaces on the basis of single burner test rig data has been proven inadequate. Therefore, to further improve current NOx reduction technologies and assist in the assessment of NOx levels in new and retrofit plant cases, an improved understanding of the impact of burner interactions is required. The aim of this research is tw...

  19. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NOx emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NOx removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  20. Understanding China’s electricity market reform from the perspective of the coal-fired power disparity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, electricity consumption has grown quickly, supply is highly dependent on coal-fired power, and the prices of electricity are determined by the government, which increases the need for reform to enhance efficiency. In response to disputes about China’s electricity market reform, this paper analyses the efficiency of China’s coal-fired power plants using the Data Envelopment Analysis—Slack Based Measure (DEA-SBM) method on three levels: groups, provinces, and plants. The results indicate that there are both coal-electricity efficiency disparities and generation-hour arrangement unfairness across groups; the disparity across provinces is obvious and long-lasting, as indicated by capacity surpluses and coal-electricity efficiencies; and the disparities are displayed in detail by the estimation at the plant level. The disparities are primarily caused by the generator combination and generation hour arrangement. Competition may be able to solve the disparities, but a further comparison indicates that competition at the national level will enhance the efficiency to a greater degree than competition at the regional level. These results demonstrate that both competition and a united electricity market are necessary for further electricity market reform. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the coal-fired electricity efficiency from three levels. • There are efficiency disparities and hour arrangement unfairness at group level. • The disparities and unfairness are long-lasting across provinces. • The disparities and unfairness are detailed by analysis at plant level. • Competition at national market can improve the efficiency better than at regional market