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Sample records for advanced coal conversion

  1. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  3. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  4. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  5. Performance and economics of advanced energy conversion systems for coal and coal-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.; Fox, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The desire to establish an efficient Energy Conversion System to utilize the fossil fuel of the future - coal - has produced many candidate systems. A comparative technical/economic evaluation was performed on the seven most attractive advanced energy conversion systems. The evaluation maintains a cycle-to-cycle consistency in both performance and economic projections. The technical information base can be employed to make program decisions regarding the most attractive concept. A reference steam power plant was analyzed to the same detail and, under the same ground rules, was used as a comparison base. The power plants were all designed to utilize coal or coal-derived fuels and were targeted to meet an environmental standard. The systems evaluated were two advanced steam systems, a potassium topping cycle, a closed cycle helium system, two open cycle gas turbine combined cycles, and an open cycle MHD system.

  6. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  7. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  8. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  9. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  10. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 1. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this program was the development of a predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. The foundation to describe coal specific conversion behavior was AFR`s Functional Group and Devolatilization, Vaporization and Crosslinking (DVC) models, which had been previously developed. The combined FG-DVC model was integrated with BYU`s comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model for combustion and coal gasification, PCGC-2, and a one-dimensional model for fixed-bed gasifiers, FBED-1. Progress utilizing these models is described.

  11. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high moisture, low rank coals to a high quality, low sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal process enhances low rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 Btu/lb, by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton per hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train load out facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. During this report period the primary focus has been to continue the operation of the demonstration facility. Production has been going to area power plants. Modifications and maintenance work was also performed this quarter.

  12. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-second quarterly report, January 2, 1992--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO{sub x}-NO{sub x} submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  13. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-first quarterly report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  14. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 19th quarterly report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  15. RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of this study, understanding of the long-term behavior of environmentally-exposed Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) was lacking in (among others) two primary areas addressed in this work. First, no method had been successfully applied to achieve full quantitative analysis of the partitioning of chemical constituents into reactive or passive crystalline or noncrystalline compounds. Rather, only semi-quantitative methods were available, with large associated errors. Second, our understanding of the long-term behavior of various CCBs in contact with the natural environment was based on a relatively limited set of study materials. This study addressed these areas with two objectives, producing (1) a set of protocols for fully quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (RQXRD) method and (2) greater understanding of the hydrologic and geochemical nature of the long-term behavior of disposed and utilized CCBs. The RQXRD technique was initially tested using (1) mixtures of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) crystalline standards, and (2) mixtures of synthetic reagents simulating various CCBs, to determine accuracy and precision of the method, and to determine the most favorable protocols to follow in order to efficiently quantify multi-phase mixtures. Four sets of borehole samples of disposed or utilized CCBs were retrieved and analyzed by RQXRD according to the protocols developed under the first objective. The first set of samples, from a Class F ash settling pond in Kentucky disposed for up to 20 years, showed little mineralogical alteration, as expected. The second set of samples, from an embankment in Indiana containing a mixture of chain-grate (stoker) furnace ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues, showed formation of the mineral thaumasite, as observed in previously studied exposed FBC materials. Two high-calcium CCBs studied, including a dry-process flue gas desulfurization

  16. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 2. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This report describes work pertaining to the development of models for coal gasification and combustion processes. This volume, volume 1, part 2, contains research progress in the areas of large particle oxidation at high temperatures, large particle, thick-bed submodels, sulfur oxide/nitrogen oxides submodels, and comprehensive model development and evaluation.

  18. Coal conversion. 1977 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The status and progress in US DOE's projects in coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion are reviewed with financing, flowsheets, history, progress and status of each (57 projects). (LTN)

  19. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: rotating components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W. R.; Horton, J. R.; Boudreau, W. F.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1978-04-01

    At the request of the Major Facilities Project Management Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Fossil Energy Division, a study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of U.S. industry to supply the rotating equipment needed for future coal conversion facilities. Furthermore, problem areas were to be identified and research and development needs determined for producing advanced designs of the required equipment: Pumps, compressors, hydraulic turbines, and gas expanders. It has been concluded that equipment for essentially all clean-stream applications likely to be encountered in coal conversion facilities is generally available except high-pressure oxygen compressors. These oxygen compressors as well as slurry pumps need to be developed or significantly upgraded. Also, fans and blower for dirty-gas streams need developmental work, as do expanders for high-temperature service. Hydraulic turbines, which were not specified but which might be used for slurry applications in future coal conversion plants, are not available.

  20. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  1. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Conference on Materials for Coal Conversion and Utilization was held October 7-9, 1980, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Sixty-six papers have been entered individually into ERA and EDB; two had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  2. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  3. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  4. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-01-01

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  5. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  6. Advanced energy conversion and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This VDI-report 1029 contains the manuscripts of 45 lectures which have been held on the expert meeting ''Advanced energy conversion and application''. The following 3 main subjects have been dealt with: I electric power stations and heating and power stations, II industrial energy technology, III energy supply of buildings. For each of the 45 manuscripts, a separated assessment with regard to the content has been elaborated. (HW)

  7. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  8. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  9. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  10. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, W. A.; Slade, E. C.

    1978-06-01

    A survey of the industrial capabilities of the valve and valve-actuator industry to supply large, high-pressure stop valves for the future coal conversion industry is presented in this report. Also discussed are development and testing capabilities of valve and valve-actuator manufacturers and anticipated lead times required to manufacture advanced design valves for the most stringent service applications. Results indicate that the valve and valve-actuator industry is capable of manufacturing in quantity equipment of the size and for the pressure and temperature ranges which would be required in the coal conversion industry. Valve manufacturers do not, however, have sufficient product application experience to predict the continuing functional ability of valves used for lock-hopper feeders, slurry feeders, and slag-char letdown service. Developmental and testing efforts to modify existing valve designs or to develop new valve concepts for these applications were estimated to range from 1 to 6 years. A testing facility to simulate actuation of critical valves under service conditions would be beneficial.

  11. Advanced coal based power plants for the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liere, J. van; Burgt, M.J. van der [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The global electric power generation demand from the year 2000 to 2015 is estimated to approach 1700 GWe. The global market share of coal is projected to be 38% - a significant market to penetrate for new clean coal technologies. Coal-based power generation has shown continued and steady growth during recent decades, despite drastic changes in political and general economic conditions. This is due to the abundance of global coal resources, their geographical dispersion and a comparatively low price for extraction, transportation and conversion. Demands for reduction of the environmental impact of power generation have so far been met by appropriate technological development, and efforts are made to face the latest challenge - the reduction of CO{sub 2} - emissions. This report presents a utility view on various advanced coal-based technologies for the next millennium: the pulverized coal-fired plant with advanced steam data (PF-USC), the integrated coal gasification/combined cycle plant (IGCC), and the pressurized fluid-bed combustion combined cycle plant (PFBC-CC). Furthermore, the longer-term perspectives of new coal-based technologies are addressed. Key topics are: energy efficiency, economy and ecology. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  13. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  14. Coal conversion. 1978 technical report. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The United States has more energy available in coal than in petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, and tar sands combined. Nationwide energy shortages, together with the availability of abundant coal reserves, make commercial production of synthetic fuels from coal vital to the Nation's total supply of clean energy. In response to this need, the Division of Fossil Fuel Processing - US Department of Energy is conducting a research, development and demonstration program to provide technology that will permit rapid commercialization of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for those derived from oil and natural gas. These substitute fuels include crude oil, fuel oil and distillates; chemical feedstocks; pipeline quality and fuel gas; and other products such as char that may be useful in energy production.

  15. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  16. Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

  17. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

    1990-08-15

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  19. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Liquefaction of coal by depolymerization in an organic solvent has been studied for several years. The liquefied coal extract which results from such a process is far more suitable for conversion into liquid fuel by hydrogenolysis than is the untreated coal. Investigations on the chemical structure and the reactive sites of coal can help to select useful reactions for the production of liquids from coal. Sternberg et al. demonstrated that the reductive alkylation method transforms bituminous coal into an enormously soluble substance, irrespective of the mild reaction conditions. The effectiveness of newly introduced alkyl groups for the disruption of intermolecular hydrogen bonds and pi-pi interactions between the aromatic sheets in coal macromolecules has been recognized. It has been reported by Ignasiak et al. that a C-alkylabon reaction using sodium or potassium amide in liquid ammonia can be used to introduce alkyl groups at acidic carbon sites. A method has been developed recently in this laboratory for the solubilization of high rank coals. In the previous reports it was shown that n-butyl lithium and potassium t-butoxide in refluxing heptane produced coal anions which could be alkylated with different alkyl halides. Such alkylated coals were soluble up to 92% in solvents like pyridine. Though the solubilization of coal depended very much on the length of the alkyl group, it also depended very much on the nature of the base used. Strong bases like n-butyl lithium (pKa=42) can cause proton abstraction from aromatic structures, if the more acidic benzylic protons are absent. The utility of this procedure, initially developed and used by Miyake and Stock, has now been tested with the high oxygen containing, low rank Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals.

  20. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  1. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  2. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBtu/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    The project objective was to demonstrate a technology which can be used to retrofit oil/gas designed boilers, and conventional pulverized coal fired boilers to direct coal firing, by using a patented sir cooled coal combustor that is attached in place of oil/gas/coal burners. A significant part of the test effort was devoted to resolving operational issues related to uniform coal feeding, efficient combustion under very fuel rich conditions, maintenance of continuous slag flow and removal from the combustor, development of proper air cooling operating procedures, and determining component materials durability. The second major focus of the test effort was on environmental control, especially control of SO{sub 2} emissions. By using staged combustion, the NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by around 3/4 to 184 ppmv, with further reductions to 160 ppmv in the stack particulate scrubber. By injection of calcium based sorbents into the combustor, stack SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by a maximum of of 58%. (VC)

  3. Fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 9 to 11, 1979, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Department of Energy, and the Gas Research Institute. The papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  4. Hydrogen - the product of coal thermal conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Vlastimil; Brožová, Zuzana

    Vol. Part 1. Ostrava : Vysoká škola báňská - TU Ostrava, 2007 - (Fečko, P.), s. 7-10 ISBN 978-80-248-1277-9. [Conference on Environment and Mineral Processing /11./. Ostrava (CZ), 31.05.2007-02.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrogen * coal * two-stage pyrolysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  5. An overview of coal preparation initiatives with application to coal conversion in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal has for many years been the most important energy resource in South Africa and has contributed to more than 70 % of South Africa's energy needs in 1998. The large in-situ coal deposits (in excess of 120 x 109 t) and relatively large recoverable reserves (about 33.5 x 109 t) will ensure that coal will for many a year still be South Africa's single biggest energy resource. Biomass burning consumes approximately 11 Mt/a of which 8 Mt/a is natural wood. This equals natural wood production. The use of firewood is considered to be unsustainable. Of the 225 Mt/a of coal extracted in South Africa in 1998, 67.0 Mt/a was exported. Of this, 62.9 Mt/a were exported as steam coal, 2.1 Mt/a as metallurgical coal, and the rest as anthracite. Current exports are conducted via the Richards Bay terminal (63.6 Mt/a), Durban (2.0 Mt/a) and a small amount via Maputo. The Richards Bay terminal is to be expanded to 72 Mt/a by 1999. It is also very important to note that most of the coal resources possess calorific values of below 25 MJ/kg, which limits its utilization to power generation (Eskom) and processes such as fixed bed dry bottom gasification (Sasol). A break-down of production and usage of coal by the various controlling groups in South Africa shows that Sasol (54.2 Mt/a) and Escom (91.0 Mt/a) are major consumers of coal. It has been proposed earlier by Horsfall (1993) that for power generation and coal conversion, the in-situ quality is generally regarded as satisfactory for use. All that is required in the way of processing is crushing to an appropriate top size and, for conversion, screening of the unwashed coal. Most other consumers require some degree of beneficiation, which generally entails the removal of stone/shale and low quality coal. More recently, the introduction of destoning plants at Duvha Colliery (Larcodems) and New Vaal Colliery (Drewboy washers) has significantly reduced the abrasiveness content of these local thermal coals, together with an increase in

  6. Advanced bioreactor systems for gaseous substrates: Conversion of synthesis gas to liquid fuels and removal of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from coal combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, P.T.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the proposed research program is the development and demonstration of a new generation of gaseous substrate-based bioreactors for the production of liquid fuels from coal synthesis gas and the removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} species from combustion flue gas. Coal is thermochemically converted to synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Conventional catalytic upgrading of coal synthesis gas into alcohols or other oxychemicals is subject to several processing problems such as interference of the other constituents in the synthesis gases, strict CO/H{sub 2} ratios required to maintain a particular product distribution and yield, and high processing cost due to the operation at high temperatures and pressures. Recently isolated and identified bacterial strains capable of utilizing CO as a carbon source and coverting CO and H{sub 2} into mixed alcohols offer the potential of performing synthesis gas conversion using biocatalysts. Biocatalytic conversion, though slower than the conventional process, has several advantages such as decreased interference of the other constituents in the synthesis gases, no requirement for strict CO/H{sub 2} ratios, and decreased capital and oeprating costs as the biocatalytic reactions occur at ambient temperatures and pressures.

  7. Proceedings of the third annual underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Annual Underground Coal Conversion Symposium was held at Fallen Leaf Lake, CA, June 6--9, 1977. It was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; ten papers had been entered previously from other sources. The papers cover the in-situ gasification of lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal, in flat lying seams and a steeply dipping beds, at moderate and at greater depths, and describe various technologies of (borehole linking, well spacings, gasifying agents (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, including mixtures). Measuring instruments for diagnostic and process control purposes are described. Environmental impacts (ground subsidence and possible groundwater pollution) are the subject of several papers. Finally, mathematical modelling and projected economics of the process are developed. (LTN)

  8. Proceedings of the 5th underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The 5th underground coal conversion symposium was held at Alexandria, Virginia, June 18--21, 1979. Thirty-three papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Seven papers were also abstracted for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. Seven papers had been entered previously from other sources. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Extraction. (LTN)

  9. Second Advanced Coal Gasification Symposium: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introductory paper presents an energy picture in China, including the present situation and the future prospects, as well as measures to be taken. The paper first describes the energy resources and reserves of China. Energy consumption is: coal - 71%; petroleum - 22%; water power - 4%; and natural gas - 3%. A resource appraisal was performed to find the best ways of utilizing China's energy sources. Besides the four mentioned above, nuclear power, biogas, biomass liquefaction, and other renewable energy sources were appraised. The paper then discussed plans for resource exploitation, conversion, and utilization and plans for energy conservation in transportation sectors and waste energy utilization

  10. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  11. Coal and coal-bearing strata: recent advances and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Andrew C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in coal geology are highlighted. The increase in our knowledge of peat formation is emphasized and the application of hydrological models of mire systems to coal-bearing strata is advocated. The importance of coalification studies to the geological community as a whole should not be underestimated, Consideration of the original peat-forming vegetation by coal geologists is advocated. Both conceptual and technical advances in coal geology are reviewed. Integration of different ...

  12. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung, W.Y.

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased, preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  13. Radiation-thermal processes of conversion in the coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The brief review, history, modern condition and bibliographic data on research of radiation-stimulated processes in coals are adduced in the report. Results of new researches of influence of gamma - radiation and accelerated electrons on pyrolysis, gasification, desulphurization, paramagnetism, adsorption and optical properties of coals in wide intervals of change of absorbed dose, dose rate, temperature, radiation type and other parameters of processes are stated. As object of researches Turkish (Yeni koy, Yatagan) and Russian (Siberia) coals were used. Specific peculiarities of influence of ionizing radiations on fossil fuels, bringing in change of their reactivity as result of destruction and polycondensation processes are considered. a)Pyrolysis: Under action of gamma-radiation and accelerated electrons the rate of thermal (t) pyrolysis grows and the ratio of radiation-thermal (rt) and thermal (t) processes: Wrt/ Wt depends on dose rate and temperature. By increase of dose rate the radiation effects grows, and at increase of temperature this effect is reduced. The influence of high rate heating of coals under pulls action of accelerated electrons on conversion degree and product composition has been established. The investigation regularities of formation liquid and gas products is resulted at radiation - thermal processing of mixtures of lignites with fuel oil. These experiments were conducted in flowing conditions in the interval of temperature T=350-500 degrees centigrade, power of the pulls accelerated electrons P=30-50 W, flow velocity of fuel oil 0,2-2 ml/minute. As a index of process were controlled conversion degree of coals, overall yield, contents and characteristic of liquid and gas products. The products of thermal treatment of these mixtures and also radiation-thermal treatment of separate components significantly less than radiation-thermal conversion of binary mixtures. It has been established that radiation effect has a positive

  14. Advanced bioreactor systems for gaseous substrates: Conversion of synthesis gas to liquid fuels and removal of SO{sub X} and NO{sub X} from coal combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, P.T.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this research program is the development and demonstration of a new generation of gaseous substrate based bioreactors for the production of liquid fuels from coal synthesis gas and the removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} species from combustion flue gas. This R&D program is a joint effort between the staff of the Bioprocessing Research and Development Center (BRDC) of ORNL and the staff of Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology report entitled {open_quotes}Biotechnology for the 21st Century{close_quotes} and the recent Energy Policy Act of 1992 emphasizes research, development, and demonstration of the conversion of coal to gaseous and liquid fuels and the control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in effluent streams. This R&D program presents an innovative approach to the use of bioprocessing concepts that will have utility in both of these identified areas.

  15. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  16. Rocketdyne's advanced coal slurry pumping program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D. E.; Wong, G. S.; Gilman, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation is conducting a program for the engineering, fabrication, and testing of an experimental/prototype high-capacity, high-pressure centrifugal slurry feed pump for coal liquefaction purposes. The abrasion problems in a centrifugal slurry pump are primarily due to the manner in which the hard, solid particles contained in the slurry are transported through the hydraulic flow passages within the pump. The abrasive particles can create scraping, grinding, cutting, and sandblasting effects on the various exposed parts of the pump. These critical areas involving abrasion and impact erosion wear problems in a centrifugal pump are being addressed by Rocketdyne. The mechanisms of abrasion and erosion are being studied through hydrodynamic analysis, materials evaluation, and advanced design concepts.

  17. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.-H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Venkatadri, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Perez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The progress achieved in leading to effective surface control for selective agglomeration processes was summarized. Several analytical techniques developed in Task 3 were utilized during this quarter to characterize coal samples obtained from agglomeration tests. Surface and near surface (1 {mu}m depth) functional groups were analyzed using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy. Surface composition analyses were conducted using Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer. The results of these analysis are being used to relate the agglomeration results with surface modifications to the properties of coal samples. The development of a method a for direct determination of pyrite using X-ray diffraction was continued. The sample preparation technique was improved in order to increase the reproducibility of the analysis. The contact angle of n-heptane droplets on coal pellets immersed in water were measured. The results of these measurements suggest that high shear mixing is necessary for wetting coal surfaces with n-heptane. Agglomeration tests using n-heptane as agglomerant were carried out this quarter. For Pittsburgh {number sign}8 coal, better performance was obtained using n-heptane than using n-pentane. For Upper Freeport coal, however, lower pyritic sulfur rejection was obtained with n-heptane. A n-heptane to coal ratio between 1.25 and 1.5 was found to produce the best performance results for Illinois {number sign}6 coal. A study of the effect of agglomeration time on the agglomeration process performance for Illinois {number sign}6 coal using n-pentane and n-heptane as agglomerants indicates that no significant gains in performance are possible using agglomeration times longer than 60 seconds. The addition of tall oil as a binding agent after the high shear agglomeration step resulted in a large increase in overall coal yield and energy recovery for Illinois {number sign}6 coal. 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Conversion of existing oil and gas units to coal fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmud, F.M.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility and technical aspects of various alternatives for converting gas- or oil-fired utility and industrial boilers to coal firing are reviewed. These alternatives involve direct coal firing, the use of modified coal fuels, and firing with fuels produced by coal gasification. (LCL)

  19. AN ADVANCED COAL DESULFURIZATION PROCESS——SELECTIVE FLOCCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡璋; 刘红缨; 吴军; 陈彩茶

    1997-01-01

    Selective flocculation is an idea separation method to separate ultrafine pyrite from coal. A number of selective flocculation separation tests under different conditions have been done and the results are very encouraging. The results also show that desulfurization and deashing can be finished simultaneously in selective flocculation process. It is an advanced coal desulfurization process.

  20. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Joseph [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Porter, Jason [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Patki, Neil [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kelley, Madison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stanislowski, Josh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Makuch, David [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  1. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  2. Quantitative relation between the macromolecular characteristics of brown coal and its reactivity in conversion with tetralin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I.; Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.; Gruber, R.; Brodzki, D. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-01

    The reactivity of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal in thermochemical conversion with tetralin is a linear function of the network flexibility, which is primarily controlled by ionic cross-linking with carboxylate bridges via polyvalent cations such as Ca{sup 2+}. Selective chemical pretreatments were used to modify specific oxygen functionalities. This allowed better defined correlations with coal characteristics to be evaluated and the principal structural units responsible for coal behaviour to be identified. 24 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. A Reduced Reaction Scheme for Volatile Nitrogen Conversion in Coal Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Saaby; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    In pulverised coal flames, the most important volatile nitrogen component forming NOx is HCN. To be able to model the nitrogen chemistry in coal flames it is necessary to have an adequate model for HCN oxidation. The present work was concerned with developing a model for HCN/NH3/NO conversion bas...

  4. Challenges of coal conversion for decarbonized energy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciazko, Marek; Jalosinski, Krzysztof; Majchrzak, Henryk; Michalski, Mieczyslaw; Tymowski, Henryk; Witos, Tadeusz; Wroblewska, Elzbieta

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide is considered to be the main challenge for the coal-based power generation as well as for any other industrial application of coal. Poland's energy sector is primarily based on coal combustion that covers almost 90% of demand. Future development of that sector depends on the restriction on value of carbon dioxide emission or trading allowances. There are two main technological approaches to development of new coal based generation capacity, namely: gasification and pre-combustion capture; supercritical combustion and post-combustion capture. The current situation in development of three this type projects in Poland is presented.

  5. A comparison of thermal conversion process for several coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y.; Shui, H.; Yuan, X. [East China Metallurgical Institute, Ma`anshan (China)

    1995-03-01

    The property and constituents of coal tar pitch are of great importance to the production of raw material for needle coke. Structural constituents of five coal tar pitches were determined using {sup 1}H-NMR. Besides, thermal conversion process of these pitches in which primary quinoline in soluble fraction was removed by centrifugal separation method was also investigated. The experimental results show Baogang (I) and Meishan coal tar pitches meet the requirements of raw material for needle coke. The thermal conversion data was correlated with structural parameters. 6 refs.,1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Renewable energy systems advanced conversion technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion techniques are key in power electronics and even more so in renewable energy source systems, which require a large number of converters. Renewable Energy Systems: Advanced Conversion Technologies and Applications describes advanced conversion technologies and provides design examples of converters and inverters for renewable energy systems-including wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Learn Cutting-Edge Techniques for Converters and Inverters Setting the scene, the book begins with a review of the basics of astronomy and Earth physics. It then systematically introduc

  7. Advances in uranium refining and conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important steps in the nuclear fuel cycle is the uranium refining and conversion which goes from the yellow cake to three different products: uranium dioxide, natural metallic uranium and uranium hexafluoride. The total volume of this industry, at the present time, is nearly of 40,000 t U per year and at the end of the present century it would have reached the 60,000 t U per year. The refining and conversion of reprocessed uranium that can be extracted by treating irradiated fuel become equally important for recycling recovered fuel. In response to the growing interest in these topics, the IAEA convened a Technical Committee Meeting with the attendance of 37 experts from 21 countries. This technical document contains the 20 papers presented during the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  8. A moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal extraction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerton, C. R.; Westerfield, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.

  9. Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor heat source for coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the industrial nations, transportable fuels in the form of natural gas and petroleum derivatives constitute a primary energy source nearly equivalent to that consumed for generating electric power. Nations with large coal deposits have the option of coal conversion to meet their transportable fuel demands. But these processes themselves consume huge amounts of energy and produce undesirable combustion by-products. Therefore, this represents a major opportunity to apply nuclear energy for both the environmental and energy conservation reasons. Because the most desirable coal conversion processes take place at 800 degree C or higher, only the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) have the potential to be adapted to coal conversion processes. This report provides a discussion of this utilization of HTGR reactors

  10. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. A Review of Thermal Co-Conversion of Coal and Biomass/Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime Hilaire Tchapda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is relatively cleaner than coal and is the only renewable carbon resource that can be directly converted into fuel. Biomass can significantly contribute to the world’s energy needs if harnessed sustainably. However, there are also problems associated with the thermal conversion of biomass. This paper investigates and discusses issues associated with the thermal conversion of coal and biomass as a blend. Most notable topics reviewed are slagging and fouling caused by the relatively reactive alkali and alkaline earth compounds (K2O, Na2O and CaO found in biomass ash. The alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM present and dispersed in biomass fuels induce catalytic activity during co-conversion with coal. The catalytic activity is most noticeable when blended with high rank coals. The synergy during co-conversion is still controversial although it has been theorized that biomass acts like a hydrogen donor in liquefaction. Published literature also shows that coal and biomass exhibit different mechanisms, depending on the operating conditions, for the formation of nitrogen (N and sulfur species. Utilization aspects of fly ash from blending coal and biomass are discussed. Recommendations are made on pretreatment options to increase the energy density of biomass fuels through pelletization, torrefaction and flash pyrolysis to reduce transportation costs.

  12. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and

  13. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  14. 21st Century Coal: Advanced Technology and Global Energy Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Coal currently supplies with more than 40% of the world electricity consumption and it essential input of around 70% of world steel production, representing around 30% of the world primary energy supply. This is because coal is cheap, abundant, accessible, widely distributed and easy energy to transport, store and use. For these features, coal is projected to be intensively used in the future. Production and use of coal present a series of issues throughout the whole value chain. While existing technology allows addressing most of them (safety at work, land restoration, mercury, NOx and sulphur emissions avoidance, etc.), CO2 emissions continues to be the biggest challenge for coal use in the future. This report focuses on the technology path to near-zero emissions including useful insights in advanced coal power generation technologies and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage, a promising technology with a large potential which can push Carbon Capture and Storage competitiveness. In addition, the report shows the features of the new generation of coal-fired power plants in terms of flexibility for dynamic operation and grid stability, requirements increasingly needed to operate on grids with significant wind and solar generation.

  15. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  16. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  17. High quality coal extraction and environmental remediation of fine coal refuse ponds using advanced cleaning technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that are also considered to be environmentally harmful. Significant amounts of cleanable fine coal generally exist in the refuse ponds due to the inability of conventional technologies to effectively separate the fine coal from the associated gangue particles. In addition, acid generation, generally a result of pyrite oxidation, has potential to adversely affect the surrounding environment. An integrated processing strategy of simultaneously recovering high quality coal and pyrite-rich products from the treatment of a coal refuse pond slurry has been successfully evaluated using an advanced physical cleaning circuit. A clean coal product having ash and pyritic sulfur contents of 10.1% and 0.41% was recovered with a mass yield of nearly 49%. In addition, a pyrite-rich product containing nearly 83% of the coal pyrite particles present in the refuse pond material was generated for neutralization purposes for the environmental remediation of the slurry pond. 4 refs

  18. Low-Rank Coal and Advanced Technologies for Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang', Dong-ke; Jackson, Peter J.; Vuthaluru, Hari B.

    Fluidised-bed based advanced power generation technologies offer higher efficiencies than conventional pulverised fuel fired power plants and better prospects in reducing ash-related problems associated with low-rank coal in such plants. However, bed material agglomeration and bed defluidisation present significant operational difficulties for the utilisation of the low-rank coal in fluidised-bed processes. Alkali and alkaline-earth elements and sulphur compounds, often found in low-rank coals, form low melting point eutectics at typical fluidised-bed combustion and gasification operating temperatures. These low melting-point materials are subsequently transferred onto the bed material particle surfaces, and the ash-coated particles then become adhesive and agglomerate. Defluidisation can occur either as an extension of agglomeration as a rate process gradually leading to defluidisation or as an instantaneous event without agglomeration. A critical thickness of the ash coating layer on the particle surface exists, above which defluidisation occurs. This critical thickness decreases with an increase in bed temperature. Several mineral additives, alternative bed materials and pretreatment of coal have been shown to suppress, to different extents, particle agglomeration and bed defluidisation when burning a high sodium, high sulphur low-rank coal in a spouted fluidised-bed combustor. Sillimanite as an alternative bed material is found to be most effective for defluidisation control. Alternative advanced technologies such as low-temperature pyrolysis and co-production are proposed for future investigation.

  19. Characterization of selected Ohio coals to predict their conversion behavior relative to 104 North American Coals. [Factors correlating with liquefaction behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitacre, T. P.; Hunt, T. J.; Kneller, W. A.

    1982-02-01

    Twenty-six coal samples from Ohio were collected as washed and seam samples, and lithobodies within the seams. Characterization of these samples included determination of % maceral, % anti R/sub max/, LTA, chlorine content and proximate/ultimate and qualitative mineral analyses. These data were compared to data from a similar project by Yarzab, R.F., et al., 1980 completed at Pennsylvania State University using tetralin as the hydrogen donor solvent. The characteristics of these coals were correlated with liquefaction conversion and other data accrued on 104 North American coals by statistical analyses. Utilizing percent carbon, sulfur, volatile matter, reflectance, vitrinite and total reactive macerals, Q-mode cluster analysis demonstrated that Ohio coals are more similar to the coals of the Interior province than to those of the Appalachian province. Linear multiple regression analysis for the 104 North American coals provided a prediction equation for conversion (R = .96). The predicted conversion values for the samples range from 58.8 to 79.6%, with the Lower Kittanning (No. 5) and the Middle Kittanning (No. 6) coal seams showing the highest predicted percent conversion (respectively, 73.4 and 72.2%). The moderately low FSI values for the No. 5 and No. 6 coals (respectively, 2.5 and 3) and their moderately high alkaline earth content (respectively, 0.69 and 0.74%) suggest that these coals possess the best overall properties for conversion. Stepwise regression has indicated that the most important coal characteristics affecting conversion are, in decreasing order of importance: % volatile matter, % vitrinite and % total sulfur. Conversion processes can be expected to produce higher yields with Ohio coals due to the presence of such mineral catalysts as pyrite and kaolinite. It is believed that the presence of these disposable catalysts increases the marketability of Ohio coals.

  20. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods. Fifth quarterly report, October--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1988-12-31

    Liquefaction of coal by depolymerization in an organic solvent has been studied for several years. The liquefied coal extract which results from such a process is far more suitable for conversion into liquid fuel by hydrogenolysis than is the untreated coal. Investigations on the chemical structure and the reactive sites of coal can help to select useful reactions for the production of liquids from coal. Sternberg et al. demonstrated that the reductive alkylation method transforms bituminous coal into an enormously soluble substance, irrespective of the mild reaction conditions. The effectiveness of newly introduced alkyl groups for the disruption of intermolecular hydrogen bonds and pi-pi interactions between the aromatic sheets in coal macromolecules has been recognized. It has been reported by Ignasiak et al. that a C-alkylabon reaction using sodium or potassium amide in liquid ammonia can be used to introduce alkyl groups at acidic carbon sites. A method has been developed recently in this laboratory for the solubilization of high rank coals. In the previous reports it was shown that n-butyl lithium and potassium t-butoxide in refluxing heptane produced coal anions which could be alkylated with different alkyl halides. Such alkylated coals were soluble up to 92% in solvents like pyridine. Though the solubilization of coal depended very much on the length of the alkyl group, it also depended very much on the nature of the base used. Strong bases like n-butyl lithium (pKa=42) can cause proton abstraction from aromatic structures, if the more acidic benzylic protons are absent. The utility of this procedure, initially developed and used by Miyake and Stock, has now been tested with the high oxygen containing, low rank Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  2. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration

  3. Superacid Catalyzed Coal Conversion Chemistry. Final Technical Report, September 1, 1983-September 1, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    This research project involved the study of a raw comparatively mild coal conversion process. The goal of the project was to study model systems to understand the basic chemistry involved and to provide a possible effective pretreatment of coal which significantly improves liquefaction-depolymerization under mild conditions. The conversion process operates at relatively low temperatures (170 degrees C) and pressures and uses an easily recyclable, stable superacid catalysts (HF-BF{sub 3}). It consequently offers an attractive alternative to currently available processes. From the present studies it appears that the modification of coal structure by electrophilic alkylation and subsequent reaction of alkylated coal with HF-BF{sub 3}-H{sub 2} system under mild conditions considerably improves the extractability of coal in pyridine and cyclohexane. On the other hand, nitration of coal and its subsequent reaction with HF-BF{sub 3}H{sub 2} decreases the pyridine and cyclohexane extractability. Study of model compounds under conditions identical with the superacidic HF/BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system provided significant information about the basic chemistry of the involved cleavage-hydrogenation reactions.

  4. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  5. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, D.A. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  6. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  7. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  8. Selective separation of coal feedstocks for conversion by magnetic separation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hise, E.C.; Holman, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) technique can separate particles on the basis of small differences in magnetic susceptibility. The highly reactive coal macerals are diamagnetic while the minerals and less reactive macerals range from slightly diamagnetic to paramagnetic with the pyritic minerals exhibiting the greatest positive magnetic susceptibility. OGMS can spread a falling stream of fine coal into a spectrum permitting the physical separation of these several maceral and mineral groups. Several eastern bituminous coals have been selectively separated into five to ten fractions. Petrographic examination of these separated fractions shows a concentration of the maceral and mineral groups in the appropriate fractions. It is proposed that the selective separation of the most reactive macerals, as well as of those minerals that exhibit a catalytic effect, can enhance the efficiency of coal conversion.

  9. Research on coal staged conversion poly-generation system based on fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjiang Ni; Chao Li; Mengxiang Fang; Qinhui Wang; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

    2014-01-01

    A new coal staged conversion poly-generation system combined coal combustion and pyrolysis has been developed for clean and high efficient utilization of coal. Coal is the first pyrolysed in a fluidized pyrolyzer. The pyrolysis gas is then purified and used for chemical product or liquid fuel production. Tar is collected during purification and can be processed to extract high value product and to make liquid fuels by hydro-refining. Semi-coke from the pyrolysis reactor is burned in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor for heat or power generation. The system can realize coal multi-product generation and has a great potential to increase coal utilization value. A 1 MW poly-generation system pilot plant and a 12 MW CFB gas, tar, heat and power poly-generation system was erected. The experimental study focused on the two fluidized bed operation and characterization of gas, tar and char yields and compositions. The results showed that the system could operate stable, and produce about 0.12 m3/kg gas with 22 MJ/m3 heating value and about 10 wt%tar when using Huainan bituminous coal under pyrolysis temperature between 500 and 600 ?C. The produced gases were mainly H2, CH4, CO, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6 and C3H8. The CFB combustor can burn semi-coke steadily. The application prospect of the new system was discussed.

  10. Effect of in-situ solvent soaking and heating pre-treatment on coal conversion and oil yield during liquefaction of demineralized low-rank Malaysian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A.M. Ishak; M.F. Abdullah; K. Ismail; M.O.A. Kadir; A.R. Mohamed [University Technology MARA, Perlis (Malaysia). Fuel Combustion Research Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences

    2005-07-01

    The effect of in-situ solvent soaking and heating (SSH) pre-treatment on demineralized low-rank Malaysian coal towards coal conversion and oil yield during direct liquefaction was investigated. Demineralization of coal was carried out by leaching with strong protic acids such as HCl, HF and HNO{sub 3} whereby more than 95 % of mineral content in the coal was reduced. Apparently, the mineral matter that was removed by the HCl treatment (i.e. cationics) exhibits more catalytic effect during the liquefaction process. The reduction in the mineral content increased the coal porosity that enabled the solvent to penetrate into the coal macropores during the SSH pre-treatment process. The results of liquefaction on the pre-treated SSH demineralized coal at 420{sup o}C and at 4 MPa, however show comparable amount of coal conversion with slightly lower amount of oil yield being obtained with comparison to the raw and SSH-raw coals. Thus, besides the in-situ solvent soaking and heating pre-treatment, the presence of mineral matters in coal prove to be beneficial during coal liquefaction process.

  11. Guest Editorial Advanced Distributed Control of Energy Conversion Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudi, Ali; Guerrero, Josep M.; Lewis, Frank; Balog, Robert; Johnson, Brian; Weaver, Waine; Wang, Liwei; Edrington, Chris; Blasco-Gimenez, Ramon; Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro; Chow, Mo-Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The papers in this special issue on advanced distributed control of energy conversion devices and systems are loosely grouped into three categories: 1) ac energy conversion systems; 2) dc energy conversion systems; and 3) optimization and standards....

  12. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. The kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.; Wang, S.; Campbell, D.

    1998-03-01

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc., the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. The program at Delaware was conducted between August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivity toward hydrocracking of coal-derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An introduction and Summary of the project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here.

  13. Burnout prediction using advance image analysis coal characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Lester; Dave Watts; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The link between petrographic composition and burnout has been investigated previously by the authors. However, these predictions were based on 'bulk' properties of the coal, including the proportion of each maceral or the reflectance of the macerals in the whole sample. Combustion studies relating burnout with microlithotype analysis, or similar, remain less common partly because the technique is more complex than maceral analysis. Despite this, it is likely that any burnout prediction based on petrographic characteristics will become more accurate if it includes information about the maceral associations and the size of each particle. Chars from 13 coals, 106-125 micron size fractions, were prepared using a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) at 1300{degree}C and 200 millisecond and 1% Oxygen. These chars were then refired in the DTF at 1300{degree}C 5% oxygen and residence times of 200, 400 and 600 milliseconds. The progressive burnout of each char was compared with the characteristics of the initial coals. This paper presents an extension of previous studies in that it relates combustion behaviour to coals that have been characterized on a particle by particle basis using advanced image analysis techniques. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Time-depth conversion of transient electromagnetic method used in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing-cun; WANG Yang-zhou; LIU Jian; ZENG Xiao-bo

    2008-01-01

    Accuracy of time-depth conversion in data processing of transient electromagnetic prospecting always affects the accurate positioning of water bodies in coal mines. In order to improve the accuracy of time-depth conversion, we established a mathematical model of time-depth conversion for a transient electromagnetic method based on the theory of "double smoke ring effect"of full space transient electromagnetic field transmission. Using a 3-layer as well as a 4-layer geo-electric model for roadway floors,we performed the time-depth conversion of theoretical curves of apparent resistance varying over time. In these curves, the depth corresponding to extreme value points is nearly the same as the depth of a geo-electric model. The position of water body determined by our time-depth conversion method agrees well with the result of borehole drilling, indicating that the established time-depth conversion model can clearly improve the accuracy of spatial positioning of water bodies in coal mines.

  15. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  16. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  18. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States has the world's largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create a major source of domestic transportation fuels from coal, and some prominent Montanans want to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process applied to average coal in Montana is less than 1/2 of the corresponding efficiency of an average crude oil refining process. The resulting CO2 emissions are 20 times (2000%) higher for CTL than for conventional petroleum products. One barrel of the FT fuel requires roughly 800 kg of coal and 800 kg of water. The minimum energy cost of subsurface CO2 sequestration would be at least 40% of the FT fuel energy, essentially halving energy efficiency of the process. We argue therefore that CTL conversion is not the most valuable use for the coal, nor will it ever be, as long as it is economical to use natural gas for electric power generation. This finding results from the low efficiency inherent in FT synthesis, and is independent of the monumental FT plant construction costs, mine construction costs, acute lack of water, and the associated environmental impacts for Montana

  19. Preliminary evaluation of PETC-coal conversion solid and hazardous wastes. Progress report, September 15, 1977--September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, R.D.; Shapiro, M.; Chen, C.; Wallach, S.; Sain, S.

    1978-09-30

    This progress report reviews issues and local area practice relative to the disposal of small quantity laboratory solid and chemical wastes from the PETC site. Research efforts to date have been in two major directions, a) solid and hazardous waste problems relative to PETC, and b) solid and hazardous waste problems relative to coal gasification and liquefaction conversion processes. It is intended that bench scale coal conversion processes located at PETC be considered as small but typical models for residuals sample generation. A literature search activity has begun in order to develop a data bank of coal conversion residual characterizations, and identify other centers of hazardous waste handling research expertise.

  20. Survey and conceptual flow sheets for coal conversion plant handling-preparation and ash/slag removal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, F.C.; Thomas, O.W.; Silverman, M.D.; Dyslin, D.A.; Holmes, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    This study was undertaken at the request of the Fossil Fuel Processing Division of the Department of Energy. The report includes a compilation of conceptual flow sheets, including major equipment lists, and the results of an availability survey of potential suppliers of equipment associated with the coal and ash/slag operations that will be required by future large coal conversion plant complexes. Conversion plant flow sheet operations and related equipment requirements were based on two representative bituminous coals - Pittsburgh and Kentucky No. 9 - and on nine coal conversion processes. It appears that almost all coal handling and preparation and ash/slag removal equipment covered by this survey, with the exception of some coal comminution equipment, either is on hand or can readily be fabricated to meet coal conversion plant capacity requirements of up to 50,000 short tons per day. Equipment capable of handling even larger capacities can be developed. This approach appears to be unjustified, however, because in many cases a reasonable or optimum number of trains of equipment must be considered when designing a conversion plant complex. The actual number of trains of equipment selected will be influenced by the total requied capacity of the complex, the minimum on-line capacity that can be tolerated in case of equipment failure, reliability of specific equipment types, and the number of reactors and related feed injection stations needed for the specific conversion process.

  1. Critical evaluation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors applicable to coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review is presented of the technology and costs of very high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) applicable to nuclear coal conversion. Coal conversion processes suitable for coupling to reactors are described. Vendor concepts of the VHTR are summarized. The materials requirements as a function of process temperature in the range 1400 to 20000F are analyzed. Components, environmental and safety factors, economics and nuclear fuel cycles are reviewed. It is concluded that process heat supply in the range 1400 to 15000F could be developed with a high degree of assurance. Process heat at 16000F would require considerably more materials development. While temperatures up to 20000F appear to be attainable, considerably more research and risk were involved. A demonstration plant would be required as a step in the commercialization of the VHTR

  2. A Reduced Reaction Scheme for Volatile Nitrogen Conversion in Coal Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Saaby; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    In pulverised coal flames, the most important volatile nitrogen component forming NOx is HCN. To be able to model the nitrogen chemistry in coal flames it is necessary to have an adequate model for HCN oxidation. The present work was concerned with developing a model for HCN/NH3/NO conversion based......). Provided that the CO/H-2 chemistry was described adequately, the reduced HCN/NH3/NO model compared very well with the detailed model over a wide range of stoichiometries. Decoupling of the HCN chemistry from the CO/H-2 chemistry resulted in over-prediction of the HCN oxidation rate under fuel rich...... conditions, but had negligible effect on the CO/H-2 chemistry. Comparison with simplified HCN models from the literature revealed significant differences, indicating that these models should be used cautiously in modelling volatile nitrogen conversion....

  3. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  4. Research, development, demonstration, and early deployment policies for advanced-coal technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced-coal technologies will increasingly play a significant role in addressing China's multiple energy challenges. This paper introduces the current status of energy in China, evaluates the research, development, and demonstration policies for advanced-coal technologies during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, and gives policy prospects for advanced-coal technologies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Early deployment policies for advanced-coal technologies are discussed and some recommendations are put forward. China has made great progress in the development of advanced-coal technologies. In terms of research, development, and demonstration of advanced-coal technologies, China has achieved breakthroughs in developing and demonstrating advanced-coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, and key technologies of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and co-production systems. Progress on actual deployment of advanced-coal technologies has been more limited, in part due to insufficient supporting policies. Recently, industry chose Ultra Super Critical (USC) Pulverized Coal (PC) and Super Critical (SC) PC for new capacity coupled with pollution-control technology, and 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) as a supplement

  5. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  6. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  7. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  8. The advanced pulverized coal-fired power plant - status and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S. [ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, Fredericia (Denmark). Boiler and Turbine Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Construction work on two seawater-cooled 400 MW pulverized coal-fired and gas-fired power plants with advanced design parameters for operation in 1997 and 1998 has been initiated by the Danish power utility ELSAM. Main steam pressure at the turbine inlet will be 285 bar (4130 psia) and main steam temperature will be 580{degree}C (1076{degree}F). Double reheat is expected to be 580{degree}C (1076{degree}F) and final feedwater temperature will be 300{degree}C (572{degree}F). Net efficiency will be 47% for coal and 49% for gas. Detailed information on the design of the sliding pressure-controlled once-through tower boilers designed by Danish Burmeister and Wain Energy (BWE) and the five casing turbo groups from MAN-Energie and GEC/Alsthom are presented. ELSAM`s investigations into further improvements of the conversion from coal to electricity up to an efficiency of approx. 50% are also presented. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  10. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO2 emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  11. Conversion to a Coal-Fueled Industrial ATS (CFATS): Topical report, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, G.M.

    1998-06-01

    The task objective is to identify system changes to the selected Gas Fueled Advanced Turbine System (GFATS) hardware that are necessary to adapt it for the burning of coal-derived fuels. Using GFATS configuration results of Task 6, a study was initiated to determine the required engine system changes that are needed to utilize coal derived gas fuels. An imposed goal of this Task, was to maintain the following engine conditions, which are the same as the engine GFATS power and airflow levels defined in Task 3. Engine Compressor Airflow 496.4 lbs/sec. Power Output 131.9 MW (Simple Cycle) and 158.6 MW (Combined Cycle). The initial effort for this study was to select a coal gasification system that had the potential of being used in a commercial environment and then to determine the impact on the engine system. Four gasifier systems have been reviewed for constituent content, heating value of the gas fuel output, and the engine bleed flow needed to maintain the required power level. After review of four available coal gasification systems and based on General Electric`s experience, the Shell coal gasification system was chosen for additional study. The resulting engine interface schematic is provided.

  12. Fuel nitrogen conversion and release of nitrogen oxides during coal gangue calcination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingyi; Ge, Xinlei; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-05-01

    The pollution emission during the widespread utilization of coal gangue in construction industry has long been neglected. In present study, the NO x release behaviors in a simulation experiment of coal gangue calcination in construction industry were systematically investigated. The corresponding evolution of nitrogen functionalities in coal gangue was also discussed. Results showed that pyrrolic (N-5) and pyridine N-oxide (N-6-O) forms nitrogen were relatively abundant in the raw gangue. During calcination, the N-5 and N-6-O form nitrogen greatly decreased and converted to quaternary nitrogen (N-Q). It was found that NO2 was formed under slowly heating-up condition and at 600 °C under isothermal condition, while only NO was detected with further increase of temperature. From 600 to 1000 °C, the conversion ratio of fuel nitrogen to NO x increased from 8 to 12 %. The char nitrogen was found greatly contribute to NO formation, which may bring difficulty to the abatement of NO x emission during coal gangue calcination. PMID:25501860

  13. Microbial conversion of higher hydrocarbons to methane in oil and coal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Martin; Beckmaann, Sabrina; Siegert, Michael; Grundger, Friederike; Richnow, Hans [Geomicrobiology Group, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, oil production has increased enormously but almost half of the oil now remaining is heavy/biodegraded and cannot be put into production. There is therefore a need for new technology and for diversification of energy sources. This paper discusses the microbial conversion of higher hydrocarbons to methane in oil and coal reservoirs. The objective of the study is to identify microbial and geochemical controls on methanogenesis in reservoirs. A graph shows the utilization of methane for various purposes in Germany from 1998 to 2007. A degradation process to convert coal to methane is shown using a flow chart. The process for converting oil to methane is also given. Controlling factors include elements such as Fe, nitrogen and sulfur. Atmospheric temperature and reservoir pressure and temperature also play an important role. From the study it can be concluded that isotopes of methane provide exploration tools for reservoir selection and alkanes and aromatic compounds provide enrichment cultures.

  14. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  15. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  16. Performance of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toqan, M.A.; Paloposki, T.; Yu, T.; Teare, J.D.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1989-12-01

    Under contract from DOE-PETC, Combustion Engineering, Inc. undertook the lead-role in a multi-task R D program aimed at development of a new burner system for coal-based fuels; the goal was that this burner system should be capable of being retrofitted in oil- or gas-fired industrial boilers, or usable in new units. In the first phase of this program a high efficiency advanced coal combustor was designed jointly by CE and MIT. Its burner is of the multiannular design with a fixed shrouded swirler in the center immediately surrounding the atomizer gun to provide the primary act,'' and three further annuli for the supply of the secondary air.'' The degree of rotation (swirl) in the secondary air is variable. The split of the combustion air into primary and secondary air flows serves the purpose of flame stabilization and combustion staging, the latter to reduce NO{sub x} formation.

  17. The prospects for coal-to-liquid conversion: A general equilibrium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Chen, Y.-H., E-mail: chenyh@colorado.edu [Development Research Group at the World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Reilly, John M., E-mail: jreilly@mit.edu [MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Paltsev, Sergey, E-mail: paltsev@mit.edu [MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We investigate the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion, a polygeneration technology that produces liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity by coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process. CTL is more expensive than extant technologies when producing the same bundle of output. In addition, the significant carbon footprint of CTL may raise environmental concerns. However, as petroleum prices rise, this technology becomes more attractive especially in coal-abundant countries such as the U.S. and China. Furthermore, including a carbon capture and storage (CCS) option could greatly reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions at an added cost. To assess the prospects for CTL, we incorporate the engineering data for CTL from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) into the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the global economy. Based on DOE's plant design that focuses mainly on liquid fuels production, we find that without climate policy, CTL has the potential to account for up to a third of the global liquid fuels supply by 2050 and at that level would supply about 4.6% of global electricity demand. A tight global climate policy, on the other hand, severely limits the potential role of the CTL even with the CCS option, especially if low-carbon biofuels are available. Under such a policy, world demand for petroleum products is greatly reduced, depletion of conventional petroleum is slowed, and so the price increase in crude oil is less, making CTL much less competitive. - Highlights: > We apply an economy-wide model to assess the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion. > Our approach allows us to consider how CTL competes with other conversion technologies. > We find that without climate policy, CTL may account for a third of global liquid fuels by 2050. > With climate policy, CTL may not be viable due to high conversion cost and huge carbon footprint. > Although adding CCS reduces CO{sub 2} emissions

  18. The prospects for coal-to-liquid conversion: A general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion, a polygeneration technology that produces liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity by coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process. CTL is more expensive than extant technologies when producing the same bundle of output. In addition, the significant carbon footprint of CTL may raise environmental concerns. However, as petroleum prices rise, this technology becomes more attractive especially in coal-abundant countries such as the U.S. and China. Furthermore, including a carbon capture and storage (CCS) option could greatly reduce its CO2 emissions at an added cost. To assess the prospects for CTL, we incorporate the engineering data for CTL from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) into the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the global economy. Based on DOE's plant design that focuses mainly on liquid fuels production, we find that without climate policy, CTL has the potential to account for up to a third of the global liquid fuels supply by 2050 and at that level would supply about 4.6% of global electricity demand. A tight global climate policy, on the other hand, severely limits the potential role of the CTL even with the CCS option, especially if low-carbon biofuels are available. Under such a policy, world demand for petroleum products is greatly reduced, depletion of conventional petroleum is slowed, and so the price increase in crude oil is less, making CTL much less competitive. - Highlights: → We apply an economy-wide model to assess the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion. → Our approach allows us to consider how CTL competes with other conversion technologies. → We find that without climate policy, CTL may account for a third of global liquid fuels by 2050. → With climate policy, CTL may not be viable due to high conversion cost and huge carbon footprint. → Although adding CCS reduces CO2 emissions, the

  19. Coal conversion processes. Quarterly report, December 13, 1983-March 12, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Biloen, P.; Holder, G.D.; Klinzing, G.E.; Tierney, J.W.

    1984-05-01

    Experimental work is continuing on four separate projects related to coal conversion processes. The direct digital control of exothermic multiphase reactions is being studied in an experimental adiabatic flow reactor. The existence of two stable steady states for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction network at the same temperature and feed condition has been verified and quantified. Various absorbents for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub X/ are being studied. The absorption of NO/sub 2/ by methanol and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone has been extensively examined. Preliminary data have been obtained with triethylene-tetraamine. Hindered amines will be studied next. Procedures for the preparation of liquid membranes have been tested and the incorporation of hindered amines in them will now be examined. Isotopic switching is being used to study the way in which promoters affect supported metal catalysts. With improved resolution from the mass spectrometer, early quantitative results give indications of three different surface species and of non-statistical ingrowth of /sup 13/C into the product molecules. A program for the study of the extraction of coal and oil shale using supercritical fluids is being carried out. The effect of the presence of piperidine on the amount of toluene solubles produced by supercritical extraction of coal with toluene/piperidine mixture has been determined. A new kinetic model for the extraction/liquefaction of coal by supercritical toluene and THF has been developed and proven satisfactory. Bruceton coal and Hi Na lignite have been extracted with supercritical water. 3 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  20. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-03-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  1. COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO(sub 2), bulk TiO(sub 2), and CuO supported on Al(sub 2) O(sub 3). We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO(sub 2) yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO(sub 2) and TiO(sub 2) catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO(sub 2) formation rates during SCWO. MnO(sub 2) does not affect the selectivity to CO(sub 2), or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO(sub 2) are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO(sub 2) , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of

  2. Advancements and future directions in enzyme technology for biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zisheng; Donaldson, Adam A; Ma, Xiaoxun

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal alternative to acid hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production, limited primarily by pre-treatment requirements and economic considerations arising from enzyme production costs and specific activities. The quest for cheaper and better enzymes has prompted years of bio-prospecting, strain optimization through genetic engineering, enzyme characterization for simple and complex lignocellulosic feedstock, and the development of pre-treatment strategies to mitigate inhibitory effects. The recent shift to systematic characterizations of de novo mixtures of purified proteins is a promising indicator of maturation within this field of study, facilitating progression towards feedstock assay-based rapid enzyme mixture optimization. It is imperative that international standards be developed to enable meaningful comparisons between these studies and the construction of a database of enzymatic activities and kinetics, aspects of which are explored here-in. Complementary efforts to improve the economic viability of enzymatic hydrolysis through process integration and reactor design are also considered, where membrane-confinement shows significant promise despite the associated technological challenges. Significant advancements in enzyme technology towards the economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass should be expected within the next few years as systematic research in enzyme activities conforms to that of traditional reaction engineering. PMID:22306162

  3. Research and Development of Coal Conversion Technologies on the New Sunshine Program; Nyusanshain keikaku ni okeru sekitan tenkan gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Akira.; Kurosawa, Shigeru.; Yasuda, Hajime.; Hatori, Hiroaki.; Sugiura, Takashi.; Saito, Kazufumi. [Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-20

    Agency of Industrial Science and Technolgy (AIST) has been conduction R and D on coal conversion technologies in Japan. New energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has been carrying out some R and D projects on soal liquefaction and gasification as a part of (New Sunshine Program) lead by AIST. Coal liquefaction and gasification are mejor concern for NEDO and the overview od the R and D projects up-dated is presented in this paper. In additition, new concept and ambition of R and D on coal aonversion technologies are also outlined. (author)

  4. Proceedings of the symposium on assessing the industrial hygiene monitoring needs for the coal conversion and oil shale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, O. Jr. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, Analysis and Assessment Program, through the Safety and Environmental Protection Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The symposium program included presentations centering around the themes: Recognition of Occupational Health Monitoring Requirements for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries and Status of Dosimetry Technology for Occupational Health Monitoring for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries. Sixteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; six had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  5. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent analyses of alternative global energy supply strategies, such as the forthcoming report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to be published in 1996, have drawn attention to the possibility that biomass modernized with advanced technologies could play an important role in meeting global energy needs in the next century. This paper discusses two promising classes of advanced technologies that offer the potential for providing modem energy carriers (electricity and fluid fuels) from biomass at competitive costs within one or two decades. These technologies offer significantly more efficient use of land than currently commercial technologies for producing electricity and fluid fuels from biomass, as well as substantially improved energy balances. Electricity is Rely to be the first large market for modernized biomass, but the potential market for fluid fuel production is likely to be much larger. As coal is likely to present a more serious competitive challenge to biomass in the long run, we present an economic comparison with coal-based electricity and fluid fuels. A meaningful economic comparison between coal and biomass is possible because these feedstocks are sufficiently alike in their physical characteristics that similar conversion technologies may well be used for producing electricity and fluid fuels from them. When similar conversion technologies are used for both feedstocks, the relative costs of electricity or fluid fuels will be determined by the distinguishing technical characteristics of the feedstocks (sulphur content, moisture content and reactivity) and by the relative feedstock prices. Electric power generation from biomass and coal are compared here using an advanced integrated gasifier/gas turbine cycle that offers the potential for achieving high efficiency, low unit capital cost and low local pollutant emissions: the steam-injected gas turbine coupled to an air-blown gasifier. For both feedstocks, generation costs are

  6. Superacid Catalyzed Depolymerization and Conversion of Coals. Final Technical Report. [HF:BF{sub 2}/H{sub 2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G.

    1980-01-01

    We were interested in applying superacid catalyzed cleavage-depolymerization and ionic hydrogenation low temperature conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbon, as well as obtaining information about the reactions involved and the structure of intermediates of the coal liquefaction process. In order to show the feasibility of our proposed research we have carried out preliminary investigation in these areas. Preceding our work there was no practical application of a superacid system to coal liquefaction. We carried out an extensive study of the potential of the HF:BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system for coal hydroliquefaction. Under varying conditions of reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature, we were able to obtain over 95% pyridine extractible product by treating coal in HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system at approx. 100 degrees C for 4 hours. The coal to acid ratio was 1:5 and FB{sub 3} at 900 psi and H{sub 2} at 500 psi were used. These are extremely encouraging results in that the conditions used are drastically milder than those used in any known process, such as Exxon donor solvent and related processes. The cyclohexane extractibility of the treated coal was as high as 27% and the yield of liquid distillate at 400 degrees C/5 x 10{sup -3}/sup torr/ was approx. 30%. The infrared spectrum of product coal, extracts and distillates were distinctly different from the starting coal and show a significant increase in the amount of saturates. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of cyclohexane extract of the treated coal shows essentially all aliphatic photons. The spectra of other treated coal extracts show increased amounts and types of aliphatic protons as well as significant amounts of protons bound to unsaturated sites. This again indicates that the HF-BF{sub 3} system is depolymerizing the coal to small fragments which are soluble in non-polar solvents.

  7. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rawls, P. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  8. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  9. Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, C. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. Many aspects of the NGNP must be researched and developed in order to make recommendations on the final design of the plant. Parameters such as working conditions, cycle components, working fluids, and power conversion unit configurations must be understood. Three configurations of the power conversion unit were demonstrated in this study. A three-shaft design with 3 turbines and 4 compressors, a combined cycle with a Brayton top cycle and a Rankine bottoming cycle, and a reheated cycle with 3 stages of reheat were investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting process heat to a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and an 80% nitrogen, 20% helium mixture (by weight) were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms cycle efficiency and development cost. In each of these configurations the relative component size were estimated for the different working fluids. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the three-shaft and combined cycles were performed to determine the effect of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of these cycles to various

  10. Advanced Energy Conversion Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Phillips, Dane J.; Laycock, Rustin L.; ONeill, Mark; Henley, Mark W.; Fork, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. There is a need to produce "proof-ofconcept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space surface sites. Space surface receiving sites of particular interest include the areas of permanent shadow near the moon s North and South poles, where WPT technologies could enable access to ice and other useful resources for human exploration. This paper discusses work addressing a promising approach to solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) applied to both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components (only the photovoltaic cells need to be different), economies of manufacturing and scale may be realized by using SLA on both ends of the laser power beaming

  11. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  12. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Gutterman, C. (Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)); Chander, S. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  13. Foresight Study on Advanced Conversion Technologies of Fossil Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Observatorio de Prospectiva Tecnologica Industrial (OPTI) is a Foundation supported by the Ministry of Industry and Energy, (MINER) and has as main objective to provide a basic information and knowledge on technology evolution. This information will be accessible to the Administration and to the Companies and can be taking into account in planning and decision making of technology policies. Ciemat is member of OPTI and is the organism in charge of the actions in the Energy sector. CIEMAT has the responsibility on the realisation of the sector studies to get in three years (1998 to 2001) a foresight vision of the critical technology topics. The OPTI integrated strategic plan undertake the analysis of other seven technology sectors, with the same criteria on methodological aspects. Delphi method was used for the realization of the studies. It consisted of a survey conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire to check the experts opinion. The time frame of the studies was defined from 1999 to 2015. The study presented in this document has been performed by CIEMAT in the second stage of the OPTI activities. The main goal behind this study is to identify the advanced clean and efficient technologies for the conversion of fossil fuels to promote in our country. The questionnaire was addressed to 250 experts and the response rate was about the 37%, ratifying the final results. The spanish position and the barriers for the development of each technology has been determined and also the recommended measures to facilitate their performance in the future. This basic information is consider of main interest, taking in account the actual energetic situation with a foreseeable demand increase and fossil fuels dependence. (Author) 17 refs

  14. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ''Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting

  15. Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

    1999-05-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ``Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a

  16. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  17. Clean electricity through advanced coal technologies handbook of pollution prevention and cleaner production

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    Coal power is a major cause of air pollution and global warming and has resulted in the release of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides, which place communities at risk for long-term health problems. However, coal-fired power plants also currently fuel 41% of global electricity. Clean Electricity Through Advanced Coal Technologies discusses the environmental issues caused by coal power, such as air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic solid wastes. This volume focuses on increasingly prevalent newer generation technologies with smaller environmental footprints than the existing c

  18. Task 3.3: Warm Syngas Cleanup and Catalytic Processes for Syngas Conversion to Fuels Subtask 3: Advanced Syngas Conversion to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Li, J.; Taylor, Charles E.; Wang, Yong; Dagle, Robert A.; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-03-31

    activity was to develop methods and enabling materials for syngas conversion to SNG with readily CO2 separation. Suitable methanation catalyst and CO2 sorbent materials were developed. Successful proof-of-concept for the combined reaction-sorption process was demonstrated, which culminated in a research publication. With successful demonstration, a decision was made to switch focus to an area of fuels research of more interest to all three research institutions (CAS-NETL-PNNL). Syngas-to-Hydrocarbon Fuels through Higher Alcohol Intermediates There are two types of processes in syngas conversion to fuels that are attracting R&D interest: 1) syngas conversion to mixed alcohols; and 2) syngas conversion to gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline process developed by Exxon-Mobil in the 1970s. The focus of this task was to develop a one-step conversion technology by effectively incorporating both processes, which is expected to reduce the capital and operational cost associated with the conversion of coal-derived syngas to liquid fuels. It should be noted that this work did not further study the classic Fischer-Tropsch reaction pathway. Rather, we focused on the studies for unique catalyst pathways that involve the direct liquid fuel synthesis enabled by oxygenated intermediates. Recent advances made in the area of higher alcohol synthesis including the novel catalytic composite materials recently developed by CAS using base metal catalysts were used.

  19. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  1. Systems Analysis Of Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, Joseph F.; Jennings, Charles N.; Pappano, Alfred W.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents appraisal of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell power plants. Based on study comparing fuel-cell technologies with each other and with coal-based alternatives and recommends most promising ones for research and development. Evaluates capital cost, cost of electricity, fuel consumption, and conformance with environmental standards. Analyzes sensitivity of cost of electricity to changes in fuel cost, to economic assumptions, and to level of technology. Recommends further evaluation of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell integrated coal-gasification/combined-cycle, and pulverized-coal-fired plants. Concludes with appendixes detailing plant-performance models, subsystem-performance parameters, performance goals, cost bases, plant-cost data sheets, and plant sensitivity to fuel-cell performance.

  2. Advanced coal liquefaction research. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1983-September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-04-01

    Work this quarter focused on staged liquefaction. The effect of residence time on conversion in single pass experiments was found to be quite different for the subbituminous Belle Ayr Mine and bituminous Illinois No. 6 coals studied. With bituminous coal, conversion to soluble material is quite high and the limit of conversion is approached in only a few minutes. With a subbituminous coal, however, conversion is much lower and the limit of conversion is approached much more slowly. Short contact time (SCT) dissolution of Belle Ayr coal was studied as a possible first stage in a two-stage process. Conversion, hydrocarbon gas yield and hydrogen consumption were increased as residence time or temperature were increased. Conversion was also significantly increased by partial slurry recycle. Pyrite was found to be the most effective slurry catalyst for increasing conversion, followed by ammonium molybdate emulsion and finally nickel-molybdenum on alumina. Illinois No. 6 coal was liquefied in two stages. Conditions in the first stage dissolution were varied to determine the effect on upgradability in the second stage. An SCT (6 minute) coal dissolution stage is preferred over one at 30 minutes because hydrocarbon gas yield was much lower while overall oil yields for the combined dissolution and upgrading stages were nearly the same. Use of a NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst in a trickle-bed second stage resulted in a higher oil yield and lower product heteroatom content than use of the same catalyst in the slurry phase. The total oil yield was lower with a pyrite slurry catalyst than with a NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ slurry catalyst. With Belle Ayr coal and added pyrite, there was no change in total oil yield, conversion or product quality brought about by adding an 8-minute first stage at 450/sup 0/C (842/sup 0/F) to a 2-hour second stage operated at 420/sup 0/C (788/sup 0/F). 39 figures, 12 tables.

  3. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells

  4. Systems studies of coal-conversion processes using a reference simulator. Final report, March 12, 1976-August 12, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reklaitis, G.V.; Sood, M.K.; Soni, Y.; Overturf, B.W.; Wiede, W.; Clark, S.; Buchanan, P.

    1979-12-01

    Methodology and general purpose software were developed which do allow computer-aided design and analysis of large scale coal conversion processes. The LINBAL package for larger scale balance calculations was demonstrated to be quick and efficient in solving problems involving over 100 streams, 20 species, and 80 or more flowsheet units. The LSP simulation package embodies constraint handling, recycle calculation, and information management features which are an advance of the state of the art. The two level strategy available in LSP was demonstrated on a reasonable sized simulation and shown to result in a 1/3 reduction of CPU time over conventional calculation strategies. The Physical Properties Package was used in all of the simulation models developed under this project and proved to be satisfactory within the limits of the thermodynamic correlations and estimation methods which are encoded. Although the package is largely conventional in overall design, it does employ features which make it convenient to use both within LSP and on a stand-along basis. The PCOST package represents a new approach to the design of this type of program. The program has proved to be simple to use, robust, and accurate within the limitations of the literature cost correlations that it contains. In summary, the project has accomplished its primary objectives. However, time and fiscal limitation did not permit the completion of an adequate slate of case studies.

  5. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  6. Conversion of Fuel-N to N2O and NOx during Coal Combustion in Combustors of Different Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昊; 黄燕; 莫桂源; 廖子昱; 岑可法

    2013-01-01

    With focus on investigating the effect of combustor scale on the conversion of fuel-N to NOx and N2O, experiments are carried out in three combustors, including single coal particle combustion test rig, laboratory scale circulating fluidized-bed boiler (CFB) and full scale CFB in this work. For single coal particle combustion, the ma-jority of fuel-N (65%-82%) is released as NOx, while only a little (less than 8%) fuel-N yields N2O. But in labora-tory scale CFB, the conversion of fuel-N to N2O is increases, but the conversion of fuel-N to NOx is quite less than that of single coal particle combustion. This is because much char in CFB can promote the NOx reduction by in-creasing N2O formation. In full scale CFB, both of the conversion of fuel-N to NOx and the conversion of fuel-N to N2O are smaller than laboratory scale CFB.

  7. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The configuration of the subscale combustor has evolved during the six years of this program from a system using only an impact separator to remove particulates to a system which also included a slagging cyclone separator before the lean-quench combustor. The system also now includes active slag tapping after the impact separator rather than a bucket to collect the slag. The subscale 12 MM Btu/hr (higher heating value, HHV) slagging combustor has demonstrated excellent coal-fired operation at 6 atm. The combustor has fired both coal-water mixtures (CWM) and pulverized coal (PC). Three Wyoming subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals have been successfully fired in the TVC. As a result of this active testing, the following conclusions may be drawn: (1) it was possible to achieve the full design thermal capacity of 12 MM Btu/hr with the subscale slagging combustor, while burning 100% pulverized coal and operating at the design pressure of 6 atm; (2) because of the separate-chamber, rich-lean design of the subscale slagging combustor, NO{sub x} emissions that easily meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) limits were achieved; (3) carbon burnout efficiency was in excess of 99% when 100% coal-fired; (4) ninety percent of the ash can be separated as slag in the impact separator, and a total 98 to 99% removed with the addition of the slagging cyclone separator; (5) Objectives for third-stage exit temperature (1850{degrees}F), and exit temperature pattern factor (14%) were readily achieved; (6) overall pressure loss is currently an acceptable 5 to 6% without cyclone separator and 7 to 9% with the cyclone; and (7) feeding pulverized coal or sorbent into the combustor against 6 atm pressure is achievable.

  8. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  9. Superacid Catalyzed Coal Conversion Chemistry. 1st and 2nd Quarterly Technical Progress Reports, September 1, 1983-March 30, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    In our laboratories we have previously developed a mild coal conversion process. This involves the use of a superacid system consisting of HF and BF{sub 3} in presence of hydrogen and/or a hydrogen donor solvent. In order to understand the chemistry involved in the process of depolymerization of coal by the HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system we are carrying out a systematic study of a number of coal model compounds. The model compounds selected for present study have two benzene rings connected with various bridging units such as alkylidene, ether, sulfide etc. From studies so far carried out it appears that high pyridine extractibilities achieved by treating coal at temperature below 100 degrees C results from the cleavage of bridges such as present in bibenzyl, diphenyl methane, dibenzyl ether, dibenzyl sulfide etc. On the other hand the increased cyclohexane extractibility and distillability observed at relatively higher temperatures and hydrogen pressures reflects the hydrogenation and cleavage of the aromatic backbone in coal structure similar to what is seen in the conversion of model compounds such as biphenyl, diphenyl ether, diphenyl sulfide, anthracene, etc.

  10. Environmental quality and energy conservation in coal conversion processes. [Overall minimization of energy required for sulfur pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.L.; Hill, A.H.; Fleming, D.K.

    1979-01-01

    In general, controlling emissions from a coal conversion process is an energy consuming process. In this paper, a parametric assessment of energy requirements for sulfur management in a coal gasification process to produce substitute natural gas is presented. The results of this assessment suggest that the least energy intensive sulfur management practice to utilize in coal gasification plants using low sulfur coal (< 3.5%) is an H/sub 2/S selective removal process providing a Claus plant feed-stream containing 10% or less H/sub 2/S with tail gas from the Claus plant being incinerated in the coal-fired boiler and the additional SO/sub 2/ removed in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. For high sulfur coals (> 3.5%), energy consumptions for all combinations were similar for a given FGD SO/sub 2/ removal specification. As the SO/sub 2/ specification increases for the FGD system, the total energy required for sulfur management also increases. Finally, contrary to expectations, the total energy requirements for sulfur management decrease with increasing sulfur content of the feed coal indicating that the energy requiements of the H/sub 2/S removal process dominates. The total energy requirements for the two Claus plant tail gas treatment processes are similar. Incineration in the boiler is slightly more energy efficient. For low sulfur coals (< 3.5%) the total energy requirements decreased rapidly as the level of H/sub 2/S selective acid-gas removal process decreased from 30% to 10%. For high sulfur coals (> 3.5%) the total energy requirements were similar for all levels of H/sub 2/S in the Claus plant feed gas with a possible minimum in energy requirements for the 15% H/sub 2/S cases.

  11. Coal conversion systems design and process modeling. Volume 1: Application of MPPR and Aspen computer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a coal gasification system design and mass and energy balance simulation program for the TVA and other similar facilities is described. The materials-process-product model (MPPM) and the advanced system for process engineering (ASPEN) computer program were selected from available steady state and dynamic models. The MPPM was selected to serve as the basis for development of system level design model structure because it provided the capability for process block material and energy balance and high-level systems sizing and costing. The ASPEN simulation serves as the basis for assessing detailed component models for the system design modeling program. The ASPEN components were analyzed to identify particular process blocks and data packages (physical properties) which could be extracted and used in the system design modeling program. While ASPEN physical properties calculation routines are capable of generating physical properties required for process simulation, not all required physical property data are available, and must be user-entered.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Phase 1 Results from the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). [coal utilization for electric power plants feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Ten advanced energy conversion systems for central-station, based-load electric power generation using coal and coal-derived fuels which were studied by NASA are presented. Various contractors were selected by competitive bidding to study these systems. A comparative evaluation is provided of the contractor results on both a system-by-system and an overall basis. Ground rules specified by NASA, such as coal specifications, fuel costs, labor costs, method of cost comparison, escalation and interest during construction, fixed charges, emission standards, and environmental conditions, are presented. Each system discussion includes the potential advantages of the system, the scope of each contractor's analysis, typical schematics of systems, comparison of cost of electricity and efficiency for each contractor, identification and reconciliation of differences, identification of future improvements, and discussion of outside comments. Considerations common to all systems, such as materials and furnaces, are also discussed. Results of selected in-house analyses are presented, in addition to contractor data. The results for all systems are then compared.

  15. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER ...

  16. Monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion processes via ultrasound. [Ultrasonic thermometry proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A. C.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    1980-02-01

    A study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion systems has been carried out. The instrumentation types studied include Thermocouples, Radiation Pyrometers, and Acoustical Thermometers. The capabilities and limitations of each type are reviewed. The study determined that ultrasonic thermometry has the potential of providing viable instrumentation. Consequently, a feasibility study of the ultrasonic thermometry was undertaken. A mathematical model of a pulse-echo ultrasonic temperature measurement system is developed using linear system theory. The mathematical model lends itself to the adaptation of generalized correlation techniques for the estimation of propagation delays. Computer simulations are made to test the efficacy of the signal processing techniques for noise-free as well as noisy signals. Based on the theoretical study, acoustic techniques to measure temperature in reactors and combustors are feasible. To experimentally verify the technique it is needed (a) to test the available sensor materials at high temperatures under erosive and corrosive conditions and (b) upon the selection of the appropriate sensor material to validate the proposed signal processing technique. The base for the applicability of this technique will be the frequency of operation, which will determine the length of the sensor and the noise background at the frequency of interest. It is, however, believed that the proposed technique will provide reliable estimates under the noise background.

  17. Coal devolatilization and char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    indicates that a shift from air to oxy-fuel combustion does not influence the devolatilization process significantly. Char combustion experiments yielded similar char conversion profiles when N2 was replaced with CO2 under conditions where combustion was primarily controlled by chemical kinetics. When char......The aim of the present investigation is to examine differences between O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres during devolatilization and char conversion of a bituminous coal at conditions covering temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K and inlet oxygen concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The experiments...... have been carried out in an electrically heated entrained flow reactor that is designed to simulate the conditions in a suspension fired boiler. Coal devolatilized in N2 and CO2 atmospheres provided similar results regarding char morphology, char N2-BET surface area and volatile yield. This strongly...

  18. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing

  19. Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, M.; Fink, J.K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

  20. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The experimental study of coal swelling ratios have been determined with a wide variety of solvents. Only marginal levels of coal swelling were observed for the hydrocarbon solvents, but high levels were found with solvents having heteroatom functionality. Blends were superior to pure solvents. The activity of various catalyst precursors for pyrene hydrogenation and coal conversion was measured. Higher coal conversions were observed for the S0{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Coal conversions were highest for Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively. Bottoms processing consists of a combination of the ASCOT process coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking. Initial results indicate that a blend of butane and pentane used near the critical temperature of butane is the best solvent blend for producing a yield/temperature relationship of proper sensitivity and yet retaining an asphalt phase of reasonable viscosity. The literature concerning coal swelling, both alone and in combination with coal liquefaction, and the use of dispersed or unsupported catalysts in coal liquefaction has been updated.

  1. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  2. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  3. Advanced char burnout models for the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Severin; S. Wirtz; V. Scherer [Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany). Institute of Energy Plant Technology (LEAT)

    2005-07-01

    The numerical simulation of coal combustion processes is widely used as an efficient means to predict burner or system behaviour. In this paper an approach to improve CFD simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers with advanced coal combustion models is presented. In simple coal combustion models, first order Arrhenius rate equations are used for devolatilization and char burnout. The accuracy of such simple models is sufficient for the basic aspects of heat release. The prediction of carbon-in-ash is one aspect of special interest in the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers. To determine the carbon-in-ash levels in the fly ash of coal fired furnaces, the char burnout model has to be more detailed. It was tested, in how far changing operating conditions affect the carbon-in-ash prediction of the simulation. To run several test cases in a short time, a simplified cellnet model was applied. To use a cellnet model for simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers, it was coupled with a Lagrangian particle model, used in CFD simulations, too. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  5. The new knowledge on the application of the advanced clean coal technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turèániová ¼udmila

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the project ID 031 - 95 " Slovak brown coal" are presented in the paper. From the scientific knowledge point of view, the mechanic-chemical alkaline leaching, the clarification of mechanism of accompanying phenomena of MCL procedures and the influence of the radiation pre-treatment represent the priority. The study of the surface and adhesive properties will contribute to a broadening the knowledge on microbial adhesion in coal treatment. The advanced treatment procedures are not suitable for the Slovak brown coal treatment. From the physical pre-treatment procedures, the gravitation treatment in hydrocyclones without the heavy material (hydrocyclone "only" water is perspective under condition of the innovation of coal mining aims.

  6. Self-supported electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge in developing new energy conversion technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerated fuel cells and water splitting devices is to find suitable catalysts that can efficiently and stably catalyze the key electrochemical processes involved. This paper reviews the new development of self-supported electrocatalysts in three categories: electrocatalysts growing on rigid substrates, electrocatalysts growing on soft substrates, and free-standing catalyst films. They are distinct and superior to the conventional powdery electrocatalysts, showing advantages in controllable nanostructure and chemical component, flexible electrode configuration, and outstanding catalytic performance. The self-supported electrocatalysts with various architectures like nanowire/plate/pillar arrays and porous films, composed of metals, metal oxides/selenides/phosphides, organic polymers, carbons and their corresponding hybrids, are presented and discussed. These catalysts exhibit high activity, durability and selectivity toward oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and/or hydrogen evolution reactions. The perspectives on the relevant areas are also proposed.

  7. Advanced Electric Distribution, Switching, and Conversion Technology for Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, James V.

    1998-01-01

    The Electrical Power Control Unit currently under development by Sundstrand Aerospace for use on the Fluids Combustion Facility of the International Space Station is the precursor of modular power distribution and conversion concepts for future spacecraft and aircraft applications. This unit combines modular current-limiting flexible remote power controllers and paralleled power converters into one package. Each unit includes three 1-kW, current-limiting power converter modules designed for a variable-ratio load sharing capability. The flexible remote power controllers can be used in parallel to match load requirements and can be programmed for an initial ON or OFF state on powerup. The unit contains an integral cold plate. The modularity and hybridization of the Electrical Power Control Unit sets the course for future spacecraft electrical power systems, both large and small. In such systems, the basic hybridized converter and flexible remote power controller building blocks could be configured to match power distribution and conversion capabilities to load requirements. In addition, the flexible remote power controllers could be configured in assemblies to feed multiple individual loads and could be used in parallel to meet the specific current requirements of each of those loads. Ultimately, the Electrical Power Control Unit design concept could evolve to a common switch module hybrid, or family of hybrids, for both converter and switchgear applications. By assembling hybrids of a common current rating and voltage class in parallel, researchers could readily adapt these units for multiple applications. The Electrical Power Control Unit concept has the potential to be scaled to larger and smaller ratings for both small and large spacecraft and for aircraft where high-power density, remote power controllers or power converters are required and a common replacement part is desired for multiples of a base current rating.

  8. Assessment of Metal Media Filters for Advanced Coal-Based Power Generation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.

    2002-09-19

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. This paper reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion conditions.

  9. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC's vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC's rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines

  10. 78 FR 49061 - Valuation of Federal Coal for Advance Royalty Purposes and Information Collection Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... name such as ``Korea,'' ``China,'' ``United Kingdom,'' etc. for foreign destination point(s). Coal... logical mining unit (LMU) during the immediately preceding production royalty payment period (2) the... proposed rulemaking titled ``Lease Modifications, Lease and Logical Mining Unit Diligence, Advance...

  11. Advanced CFB for clean and efficient coal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Nevalainen; J. Saastamoinen; M. Jegoroff (and others) [VTT, Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    The European Union's Clefco project (2004-06) aimed to promote the development of once through steam cycle (OTSC) CFB technology. This was carried out by increasing the process knowledge that is essential for successful boiler design and demonstration of the multi-fuel flexibility of the process. To fulfil the development needs of OTSC CFB technology, a comprehensive understanding of CFB combustion processes needed to be achieved. Intensive research in laboratory, pilot and full-scale combustors was required to fulfil the abovementioned objectives. In the project, each partner worked in its own field of research. Cooperation between partners enabled the best-possible understanding of the process. In order to study different process characteristics and verify measurements and simulations, experiments were carried out with different size reactors - VTT's laboratory scale CFB reactor, VTT's 50 kW pilot CFB reactor, Chalmers' 12 MW CFB boiler, cold rig and several commercial boilers. To find out possibilities for end-use of ash, national legislations and standards were studied. Knowledge was applied to ash management possibilities for coal combustion and co-combustion of coal and biomass. The studies were based on the ash characterisation, which was carried out for ash samples collected during the projects' combustion tests. 52 refs., 122 figs., 42 tabs.

  12. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  13. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  14. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  15. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  16. Improved algorithms and advanced features of the CAD to MC conversion tool McCad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The latest improvements of the McCad conversion approach including decomposition and void filling algorithms is presented. •An advanced interface for the materials editing and assignment has been developed and added to the McCAD GUI. •These improvements have been tested and successfully applied to DEMO and ITER NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) applications. •The performance of the CAD model conversion process is shown to be significantly improved. -- Abstract: McCad is a geometry conversion tool developed at KIT to enable the automatic bi-directional conversions of CAD models into the Monte Carlo (MC) geometries utilized for neutronics calculations (CAD to MC) and, reversed (MC to CAD), for visualization purposes. The paper presents the latest improvements of the conversion algorithms including improved decomposition, void filling and an advanced interface for the materials editing and assignment. The new implementations and features were tested on fusion neutronics applications to the DEMO and ITER NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) models. The results demonstrate greater stability and enhanced efficiency of McCad conversion process

  17. Neutron-induced gamma spectrometry for on-line compositional analysis in coal conversion and fluidized-bed combustion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All available methods of analysis of process streams in coal conversion and fluidized-bed combustion systems require the physical removal and conditioning of a sample from the system before the actual analysis. The inherent time lag makes these measurements unsuitable for process control, and the size and conditioning of the sample raise doubts about the similarity of the composition of the analyzed sample to that of the process stream. What is needed is an on-line analysis of the entire stream cross section, preferably by a non-invasive technique. We are evaluating neutron-capture gamma techniques for this application. Both neutrons and gamma rays are sufficiently penetrating that the sampled volume is comparable to the full section of pipe being irradiated, offering the possibility of non-invasive, continuous on-line instrumental monitoring of composition which is representative of the full process stream. Our studies and those of other groups have established the feasibility of using neutron-induced gamma spectrometry to obtain elemental abundances in coal. Several irradiation assemblies utilizing 252Cf neutron sources have been built and used with lithium-drifted germanium detectors and associated electronics. Samples of a variety of independently analyzed coals and simulated coals have been measured. The spectral responses from H, C, Fe, Si, S, Al, Cl, Ca, Ti, and N have been examined. The evidence indicates that quantitative determination of H, Fe, Si, S, Cl, Ca, and Ti will be possible, and that other constituents such as N, K, and Na may be quantitatively determined with further refinement of the technique. We are also working with fast neutrons from a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator in order to obtain reliable analyses of the carbon and oxygen content of the coal process stream, as well as analyses for additional elements

  18. New and advanced energy conversion technologies. Analysis of cogeneration, combined and integrated cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.

    1998-04-03

    Advances within power cycles, integration of cycles, and combination of existing technologies are the possible ways to improve performance of small- and medium-scale power technology. Identification and development of new energy conversion technologies and systems for distributed power generation applications are the objectives of the New Energy Conversion Technologies (NECT) programme of the Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem). The part of the programme, which is dedicated to the development of new and improved combinations of existing energy conversion technologies, defines the structure of this thesis. At the beginning, the basic thermodynamic cycles and their specific features are described. Because no single cycle can offer high efficiency due to the intrinsic limitations and the impossibility to operate within a broad temperature range, combined and advanced cycles are addressed. Combined cycles do not suffer from the drawbacks of the single cycles, since the heat rejected by the topping cycle is utilized by the bottoming one, and better performance can be obtained. The basic cycles are combined according to their temperature level: high-temperature cycles are good candidates for the topping application, and medium- or low-temperature cycles for bottoming. Of the combined cycles considered, each cycle is outlined and its schematic diagram is given. In addition to the combined cycles, improvements within a particular cycle are discussed. The scope of the NECT programme covers power and heat production, so industrial cogeneration is assessed in various configurations (steam boiler, gas turbine, heat pumps) and operating modes. Subsequently, several technologies, which are selected for further development within the NECT programme, are analyzed in detail. One of the configurations is the Joule/Joule combined cycle, which consists of an existing gas turbine and an air bottoming turbine. The bottoming cycle adds 20-30% to the power output, which

  19. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  20. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  1. Repowering flexibility of coal-based advanced power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajura, R.A.; Bechtel, T.F.; Schmidt, D.K.; Wimer, J.G.

    1995-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) helps enhance the economic competitiveness, environmental quality, and national well-being of the U.S. by developing advanced power-generation systems. The potential market for advanced power-generation systems is large. In the U.S., electric demand is estimated to grow at about 1 percent per year through the year 2010. The total power generation market also includes new-capacity as well as replacement of existing power plants as they age. Thus, the market for power systems over the next 15 years is estimated to be about 279,000 megawatts (MW), but could range from as much as 484,000 MW to as little as 153,000 MW. These predictions are summarized. Over the next 15 years, the replacement market is potentially much larger than the expansion market because of the large base of aging power plants in the U.S.

  2. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  3. Advanced energy sources and conversion techniques. Proceedings of a seminar. Volume 1. [35 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-11-01

    The Seminar was organized as a series of tutorial presentations and round table discussions on a technical level to implement the following: (a) to identify and explore present and projected needs for energy sources and conversion techniques for military applications; (b) to exchange information on current and planned efforts in these fields; (c) to examine the effect of anticipated scientific and technological advances on these efforts; and (d) to present suggested programs aimed at satisfying the military needs for energy sources and conversion techniques. Volume I contains all of the unclassified papers presented at the Seminar. (W.D.M.)

  4. Advances in graphene-based semiconductor photocatalysts for solar energy conversion: fundamentals and materials engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Kretschmer, Katja; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-08-28

    Graphene-based semiconductor photocatalysis has been regarded as a promising technology for solar energy storage and conversion. In this review, we summarized recent developments of graphene-based photocatalysts, including preparation of graphene-based photocatalysts, typical key advances in the understanding of graphene functions for photocatalytic activity enhancement and methodologies to regulate the electron transfer efficiency in graphene-based composite photocatalysts, by which we hope to offer enriched information to harvest the utmost fascinating properties of graphene as a platform to construct efficient graphene-based composite photocatalysts for solar-to-energy conversion. PMID:26204442

  5. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eOhtomo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological CO2 sequestration in unmineable subsurface oil/gas fields and coal formations has been proposed as a means of reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. However, the feasibility of injecting CO2 into subsurface depends upon a variety of geological and economic conditions, and the ecological consequences are largely unpredictable. In this study, we developed a new flow-through-type reactor system to examine potential geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impacts associated with CO2 injection by simulating in situ pressure (0–100 MPa and temperature (0–70°C conditions. Using the reactor system, anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 mL/min, respectively were continuously supplemented into a column comprised of bituminous coal and sand under a pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa at 40°C for 56 days. 16S rRNA gene analysis of the bacterial components showed distinct spatial separation of the predominant taxa in the coal and sand over the course of the experiment. Cultivation experiments using sub-sampled fluids revealed that some microbes survived, or were metabolically active, under CO2-rich conditions. However, no methanogens were activated during the experiment, even though hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogens were obtained from conventional batch-type cultivation at 20°C. During the reactor experiment, the acetate and methanol concentration in the fluids increased while the δ13Cacetate, H2 and CO2 concentrations decreased, indicating the occurrence of homo-acetogenesis. 16S rRNA genes of homo-acetogenic spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Sporomusa were consistently detected from the sandstone after the reactor experiment. Our results suggest that the injection of CO2 into a natural coal-sand formation preferentially stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, and that this process is accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to

  6. Eleventh annual international Pittsburgh coal conference proceedings: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference presented over 300 papers in 39 separate sessions. These presentations are grouped into five topical areas: the technologies in pre- and post-utilization of coal; research and development in coal conversion; advanced coal combustion; environmental control technologies, and environmental policy issues related to coal use. The program has expanded its coverage in non-fuel use of coal. This is reflected in the three sessions on use of coal in the steel industry, and a sessions on carbon products and non-fuel coal applications. Volume 2 includes the following topics: Environmental systems and technologies/Environmental policy; Coal drying, dewatering and reconstitution; Coal cleaning technology; Slurry bed technology; Coal syngas, methanol, DME, olefins and oxygenates; Environmental issues in energy conversion technology; Applied coal geology; Use of coal in the steel industry; Recent developments in coal preparation; International coal gasification projects; Progress on Clean Coal projects; Retrofit air quality control technologies;Fluidized bed combustion; Commercialization of coal preparation technologies; Integrated gasification combined cycle program; the US Department of Energy's Combustion 2000 program; and Environmental issues in coal utilization. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  9. Conversion of nitrogen compounds and tars obtained from pre-composted pig manure pyrolysis, over nickel loaded brown coal char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel gas production and nitrogen transformation during pig manure pyrolysis from room temperature to 900 °C are investigated. The catalytic decomposition of the derived volatiles is also studied. Ammonia, HCN and N2 were obtained as the main N-containing gases. Ammonia was mainly emitted below 700 °C, which corresponds to 24.8 wt% of the nitrogen in the manure. Hydrogen cyanide and N2 gases obviously formed at temperatures above 700 °C, while the HCN concentration was as low as one ninth that of NH3 and one fifth of the concentration of nitrogen even at 900 °C. Thermal cracking of the pyrolysis volatiles produced little NH3, but noticeably increased HCN formation. When the prepared nickel-loaded brown coal char (LY-Ni) was added to the second part of the reactor (second stage) as a catalyst, most of the N-containing species in the volatiles converted into N2 gas. It suggests that LY-Ni has high catalytic activity for the conversion of N-containing compounds. Significant quantities of light fuel gases (H2, CO and CH4) were also generated. Compared with sand, 5.8 times (H2 and CO) the amount of gases was produced with the LY-Ni char at 650 °C. Decomposition of the manure volatiles depends on the catalyst temperature. Total product gases approximately doubled in yield when the catalyst temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C, and the volatiles conversion (based on carbon balance of the manure volatiles) increased from 72.4 wt% to 92.0 wt%. At 600–700 °C, the volatiles conversions stabilized at high levels of 96.7–98.2 wt%. -- Highlights: •The main N-containing gases from pig manure pyrolysis were NH3, HCN and N2. •Thermal cracking for the pig manure volatiles promoted HCN formation noticeably, and did little effect on NH3. •A nickel-loaded brown coal char converted the N in the pig manure volatiles mostly into N2 gas. •Light fuel gases, such as H2, CO and CH4, were significantly generated under the prepared nickel-loaded brown coal char

  10. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  11. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  12. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Y.; Ijiri, A.; Ikegawa, Y.; Tsutsumi, M.; Imachi, H.; Uramoto, G.; Hoshino, T.; Morono, Y.; Tanikawa, W.; Hirose, T.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    belonged to a methylotrophic methanogen within the genus Methanosarcina. For the acetate-fed culture, no cell proliferation and methane-production were observed after two-years incubation. During the injection of CO2 and fluid, increase of dissolved CH4 concentration was observed, of which δ13CCH4 were constantly similar to those of the absorbed coal-bed methane (δ13CCBM, ~70‰), suggesting the enhanced gas recovery with fluid flow. The output volume of CO2 (ΣCO2out, 22.1 to 125.6 mM) was smaller than initial concentration (ΣCO2in, 138.38 mM), which can be explained by either adsorption on coal, formation of carbonate minerals, or microbial consumption. Increase of acetate concentration in the fluids was also observed, whereas δ13Cacetate depleted during experiment. Considering with the decrease of additive H2, it is most likely that homo-acetogenesis would occur during experiments, which is consistent with detection of Sporomusa-related 16S rRNA genes, homo-acetogenic bacterium, in cloning analysis of sandstone after experiment. Decrease of formate concentrations and increase of δ13Cformate indicate bacterial consumption of formate and isotopic fractionation. Our results suggest that CO2 injection to natural coal-sand formation stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to acetate.

  13. Performance of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor. Task 2, Pilot scale combustion tests: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toqan, M.A.; Paloposki, T.; Yu, T.; Teare, J.D.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Under contract from DOE-PETC, Combustion Engineering, Inc. undertook the lead-role in a multi-task R&D program aimed at development of a new burner system for coal-based fuels; the goal was that this burner system should be capable of being retrofitted in oil- or gas-fired industrial boilers, or usable in new units. In the first phase of this program a high efficiency advanced coal combustor was designed jointly by CE and MIT. Its burner is of the multiannular design with a fixed shrouded swirler in the center immediately surrounding the atomizer gun to provide the ``primary act,`` and three further annuli for the supply of the ``secondary air.`` The degree of rotation (swirl) in the secondary air is variable. The split of the combustion air into primary and secondary air flows serves the purpose of flame stabilization and combustion staging, the latter to reduce NO{sub x} formation.

  14. Hydration reactions and ettringite formation in selected cementitious coal conversion by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious reactions and ettringite formation, which occur when water is added to high-calcium fly ash, to many dry flue gas desulfurization solids, and to two of the residues from the emerging clean coal technologies, fluidized bed combustion and limestone injection multiphase burner, have been studied. The parameters varied included water to solid ratio and curing time. Crystalline reactants and products were monitored by X-ray powder diffraction. The amount of ettringite, the principal crystalline cementitious reaction product, was determined after three months of curing. In this paper results are discussed in terms of available Ca, Al and S in each by-product and w/s ratio

  15. Eleventh annual international Pittsburgh coal conference proceedings: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical program featured over 300 papers in 39 separate sessions. These presentations are grouped into five topical areas: the technologies in pre- and post-utilization of coal, research and development in coal conversion, advanced coal combustion, environmental control technologies, and environmental policy issues related to coal use. The program has expanded its coverage in non-fuel use of coal. This is reflected in the three sessions on use of coal in the steel industry and a session on carbon products and non-fuel coal applications. Volume 1 contains two of these sessions as well as sessions on the following: coal resource characterization; coal by-products, properties, and utilization; indirect liquefaction of coal; combustion strategies to meet the Clean Air Act; cleanup technologies for advanced power systems; coal utilization--energy and environmental policy developments; fluidized bed combustion; petrochemicals from syngas; combustion models and bench scale combustion techniques; meeting emission requirements and improving combustion efficiencies; effect of coal chlorine content level on utility combustion performance; the effects of Clean Air Act amendments on by-product utilization; direct liquefaction; instrumentation and control of conventional coal boilers; hazardous air pollutants; legislative issues in the coal industry; pre-utilization/post-utilization processing; conversion technologies; and combustion systems. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  16. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion — Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Patrick E.; Allen, Robert; Delventhal, Rex

    2005-02-01

    To investigate and mature space based nuclear power conversion technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC). The conceptual design effort performed included BPCS (Brayton power conversion system) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass (with a target of less than 3000 kg), and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to operate in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments within the Jovian system. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NBP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future potential missions with a sound technology plan for TRL (Technical Readiness Level) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature ˜ 100C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues identified and an approach for resolution developed. Analyses and evaluations of six HRS (heat rejection subsystem) concepts and PMAD (Power Management and Distribution) architecture trades will be discussed in the paper.

  17. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Advanced pulverized-coal power plants: A U.S. export opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) power generation systems and its potential for generating power worldwide. Based on the fuel availability, power requirements, and environmental regulations, countries have been identified that need to build advanced, clean, efficient, and economical power generation, systems. It is predicted that ''more electrical generation capacity will be built over the next 25 years than was built in the previous century''. For example, China and India alone, with less than 10% of today's demand, plan to build what would amount to a quarter of the world's new capacity. For the near- to mid-term, the LEBS program of Combustion 2000 has the promise to fill some of the needs of the international coal-fired power generation market. The high efficiency of LEBS, coupled with the use of advanced, proven technologies and low emissions, make it a strong candidate for export to those areas whose need for additional power is greatest. LEBS is a highly advanced version of conventional coal-based power plants that have been utilized throughout the world for decades. LEBS employs proven technologies and doesn't require gasification and/or an unconventional combustion environment (e.g., fluidized bed). LEBS is viewed by the utility industry as technically acceptable and commercially feasible

  19. High performance materials in coal conversion utilization. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCay, T.D.; Boss, W.H. [ed.; Dahotre, N. [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the research conducted at the University of Tennessee Space Institute on high performance materials for use in corrosive environments. The work was supported by a US Department of Energy University Coal Research grant. Particular attention was given to the silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina matrix ceramic composite manufactured by Lanxide Corporation as a potential tubular component in a coal-fired recuperative high-temperature air heater. Extensive testing was performed to determine the high temperature corrosion effects on the strength of the material. A computer modeling of the corrosion process was attempted but the problem proved to be too complex and was not successful. To simplify the situation, a computer model was successfully produced showing the corrosion thermodynamics involved on a monolithic ceramic under the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) conditions (see Appendix A). To seal the material surface and thus protect the silicon carbide particulate from corrosive attack, a dense non porous alumina coating was applied to the material surface. The coating was induced by a defocused carbon dioxide laser beam. High temperature corrosion and strength tests proved the effectiveness of the coating. The carbon dioxide laser was also used to successfully join two pieces of the Lanxide material, however, resources did not allow for the testing of the resulting joint.

  20. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  1. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  2. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts

  3. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  4. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  5. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  6. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-28

    This thirteenth quarterly report describes work done during the thirteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  7. Development of coal conversion catalysts. Annual report, January-December 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel family of sulfur-resistant catalysts has been developed that promotes the direct methanation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to form methane and carbon dioxide. The chemistry of these catalysts is such that steam is not required to either suppress carbon formation or drive the water-gas shift reaction. The durability of these catalysts was demonstrated at high temperatures of up to 1200F and at low hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio as low as 0.1. Processing sequences for the direct methanation of a synthesis gas from a slagging Lurgi gasifier were developed and submitted to CF Braun and Co. for a technical and economic engineering evaluation. These studies showed that the employment of the chemistry can decrease both capital and operating costs for a coal to SNG plant

  8. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  10. Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Pines, D.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Significant improvements in efficiency for the conversion of coal into electricity can be achieved by cycles which employ a high temperature gas turbine topping cycle. The objective of this project is the development of an externally fired gas turbine system. The project computationally tested a new concept for a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) and high temperature heat exchanger with a proprietary design to reduce the problems associated with the harsh coal environment. The program addressed two key technology issues: (1) the HITAF/heat exchanger heat transfer through a 2-D computer analysis of the HITAF configuration; (2) 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model application to simulate the exclusion of particles and corrosive gases from the heat exchanger surface. The basic concept of this new combustor design was verified through the 2D and 3D modeling. It demonstrated that the corrosion and erosion of the exchanger material caused by coal and ash particles can be largely reduced by employing a specially designed firing scheme. It also suggested that a proper combustion geometry design is necessary to maximize the cleaning effect.

  11. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  12. Fundamental bioprocessing research for coal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this program is to gain a fundamental understanding and sound scientific technical basis for evaluating the potential roles of innovative bioprocessing concepts for the utilization and conversion of coal. The aim is to explore the numerous ways in which advanced biological processes and techniques can open new opportunities for coal utilization or can replace more conventional techniques by use of milder conditions with less energy consumption or loss. There are several roles where biotechnology is likely to be important in coal utilization and conversion. These include potential bioprocessing systems such.

  13. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report describes leach tests and groundwater monitoring.

  14. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  15. Commercial liquid-metal MHD conversion systems coupled to LMFBR and coal-fired fluidized bed combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constraints imposed on two-phase liquid-metal MHD (LMMHD) when employed in commercial power plants with practical heat sources have not previously been studied. The coupling of a LMMHD power system with an LMFBR and a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor are considered. Two MHD systems are considered. The first is a dual cycle where heat is added to both the liquid metal and the gas, and the gas may expand through a gas turbine after the MHD generator. The second system, a binary cycle, differs in that a significant portion of the sensible heat in the gas entering the compression loop is converted to useful power in a steam bottoming cycle. The effect of liquid-metal vapor carry-over into the gas loop is included. The couplings of the LMMHD system with the heat sources and with the steam plants were studied in depth. The results of the study of each interface are presented parametrically for each heat source and energy conversion system. Operating points have been selected and the complete schematic of each system considered is presented along with all thermodynamic state points and fluid flow rates. All system parameters and component efficiencies were selected to be consistent with near term technology and good engineering design principles. These criteria yielded a system performance of 37 percent for an LMFBR operating with a maximum reactor coolant temperature of 12000F when the pure LMMHD energy converter was used. A LMMHD/steam binary cycle is shown to be capable of achieving a thermal efficiency of 44.8 percent when used with the same heat source. Results with the coal fluidized bed combustor as a heat source show even higher performance levels (about 50 percent efficiency) since the maximum cycle temperature is increased

  16. Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Frei, H.; Park, J.Y.

    2009-07-23

    The challenge of chemistry in the 21st century is to achieve 100% selectivity of the desired product molecule in multipath reactions ('green chemistry') and develop renewable energy based processes. Surface chemistry and catalysis play key roles in this enterprise. Development of in situ surface techniques such as high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared methods, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the rapid advancement of three fields: nanocatalysts, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In materials nanoscience, synthetic methods have been developed to produce monodisperse metal and oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the 0.8-10 nm range with controlled shape, oxidation states, and composition; these NPs can be used as selective catalysts since chemical selectivity appears to be dependent on all of these experimental parameters. New spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed that operate under reaction conditions and reveal the dynamic change of molecular structure of catalysts and adsorbed molecules as the reactions proceed with changes in reaction intermediates, catalyst composition, and oxidation states. SFG vibrational spectroscopy detects amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces and monitors the change of surface structure and interactions with coadsorbed water. Exothermic reactions and photons generate hot electrons in metal NPs that may be utilized in chemical energy conversion. The photosplitting of water and carbon dioxide, an important research direction in renewable energy conversion, is discussed.

  17. Multi-functional electrospun nanofibres for advances in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengjie; Jin, Guorui; Li, Linlin; Li, Kai; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment are some of the most critical challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In order to address such challenges, one-dimensional (1D) materials are projected to play a key role in developing emerging solutions for the increasingly complex problems. Eletrospinning technology has been demonstrated to be a simple, versatile, and cost-effective method in fabricating a rich variety of materials with 1D nanostructures. These include polymers, composites, and inorganic materials with unique chemical and physical properties. In this tutorial review, we first give a brief introduction to electrospun materials with a special emphasis on the design, fabrication, and modification of 1D functional materials. Adopting the perspective of chemists and materials scientists, we then focus on the recent significant progress made in the domains of tissue regeneration (e.g., skin, nerve, heart and bone) and conversion & storage of clean energy (e.g., solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors), where nanofibres have been used as active nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review's scope also includes the advances in the use of electrospun materials for the removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in water treatment applications. Finally a conclusion and perspective is provided, in which we discuss the remaining challenges for 1D electrospun nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment. PMID:26727278

  18. Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge of chemistry in the 21st century is to achieve 100% selectivity of the desired product molecule in multipath reactions ('green chemistry') and develop renewable energy based processes. Surface chemistry and catalysis play key roles in this enterprise. Development of in situ surface techniques such as high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared methods, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the rapid advancement of three fields: nanocatalysts, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In materials nanoscience, synthetic methods have been developed to produce monodisperse metal and oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the 0.8-10 nm range with controlled shape, oxidation states, and composition; these NPs can be used as selective catalysts since chemical selectivity appears to be dependent on all of these experimental parameters. New spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed that operate under reaction conditions and reveal the dynamic change of molecular structure of catalysts and adsorbed molecules as the reactions proceed with changes in reaction intermediates, catalyst composition, and oxidation states. SFG vibrational spectroscopy detects amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces and monitors the change of surface structure and interactions with coadsorbed water. Exothermic reactions and photons generate hot electrons in metal NPs that may be utilized in chemical energy conversion. The photosplitting of water and carbon dioxide, an important research direction in renewable energy conversion, is discussed.

  19. Nondestructive inspection of plasma-sprayed metallic coatings for coal conversion equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.W.; Snyder, S.D.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the results of a project to develop nondestructive inspection techniques for metallic wear- and process-resistant coatings used in coal system components. Physical properties, especially porosity, and the nominal 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thickness complicate the inspection of these coatings. The class of coatings selected for laboratory evaluation were CoCrAlY (cobalt-chromium-aluminum-yttrium) types; the specific material used was a Union Carbide spray powder, UCAR LCO-7, which is Co-22.8% Cr-12.9% Al-0.6% Y, sprayed onto alloy 800 substrates. The desired inspection techniques were to: (1) detect cracks or holes in the coating; (2) measure the coating thickness from the coated side; and (3) detect lamellar flaws or separations within the coating layer or between the coating and the substrate. Surface methods (such as liquid penetrant), eddy currents, and radiography were investigated for crack and hole detection; eddy currents, x-ray fluorescence, and ultrasonics were investigated for thickness measurement; and ultrasonics and infrared thermography were investigated for lamellar flaw detection. In general, we determined that significant development effort was required to adapt even the more common and highly developed techniques to the coating inspection problems. Significant progress was made in a number of the investigations undertaken, but financial restraints prevented completion of the planned work.

  20. Application of the SULF-X process to coal conversion and utilization. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, E.; Bramer, H.C.; New, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Pittsburgh Environmental and Energy Systems, Inc. contracted with the Department of Energy to demonstrate the efficacy of an iron sulfide flue gas treatment system (FGT) for removing sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and to correlate process variables to system performance. Laboratory and bench-scale testing was conducted with the SULF-X process, using both synthesized gas and actual flue gas from a coal-fired furnace. Laboratory tests resulted in 95% SO/sub 2/ removal and up to 95% NO/sub x/ removal. The bench-scale system demonstrated similar SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies, but achieved only 39% NO/sub x/ removal due to relatively high oxygen concentrations in the flue gas and insufficient liquid-gas interfacial area within the absorber. Elemental sulfur was recovered during the regeneration steps. Total capital investment for the SULF-X system was estimated to be $91 to $103 per kilowatt (electric), compared to $90/kw for sodium solution scrubbing, $78 to $83/kw for magnesia slurry scrubbing and $74/kw for limestone slurry scrubbing. Annual operating costs for the SULF-X system were estimated to be 5.44 to 6.90 mills per kilowatt-hour, compared to 4.96 to 5.22 for sodium, 3.68 to 3.99 for magnesia and 3.73 to 4.25 for limestone. 6 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Projections of Northern Great Plains coal mining and energy conversion development, 1975 to 2000 A. D. Final report, Parts I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, T.M.; Duffield, J.W.; McBride, J.R.; Stroup, R.L.; Wheeling, T.D.; Tomlinson, W.D.; Thurman, W.J.; Silverman, A.J.

    1976-03-01

    This study projects the probable levels of coal development in Montana and adjacent Northern Great Plains (NGP) states in the next 5, 10, and 25 years under a variety of electric growth rate assumptions. The final report is in four parts. Part I provides an outline of the methodology and a summary of the projection. Part II is a detailed comparison of the results with other projections of NGP coal development, principally the Northern Great Plains Resources Program's National and Regional Energy Considerations Work Group Report and the Federal Energy Administration's Project Independence Report. Part III is a compilation of the fourteen working papers on which the final projections are based. Part IV is a listing of computer programs developed for the project and the printout for the price-sensitive projection model. This is the first step in developing a detailed price-sensitive study of demand for Northern Great Plains coal. The following are explored: the interfuel substitution problem, alternative coal-based technologies that may become commercial on a modest to large scale in the next twenty-five years (MHD, coal liquefaction, in-situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, and others) is not explored; neither are the restraints that a range of environmental, land use, and taxation laws and regulations may place on coal resource and conversion development.

  2. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  4. Fluidization of extremely large and widely sized coal particles as well as its application in an advanced chain grate boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.H.; Xu, G.W.; Gao, S.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-02

    A pyrolysis combustion technology (PCT) was developed for high-efficiency and environment-friendly chain grate boilers (CGBs). The realization of the PCT in a CGB requires that extremely large and widely sized coal particles should be first pyrolyzed in a semi-fluidized state before being transported into the combustion chamber of the boiler. This article was devoted first to investigating the fluidization of 0-40 mm coal particles in order to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the PCT. In succession, through mixing 0-10 mm and 10-20 mm coal particles in different proportions, multiple pseudo binary mixtures were prepared and then fluidized to clarify the effect of particle size distribution. With raw steam coal used as the feedstock, the superficial gas velocity of about 2.0 m/s may be suitable for stable operation of the fluidized-bed pyrolyzer in the CGB with the PCT. In the fluidization of widely sized coal particles, approximately half of the coal mass is segregated into the bottom section of the bed, though about 15% of 10-20 turn large particles are broken into 0-10 mm small particles because of particle attrition. The experimental results illustrate that an advanced CGB with the PCT has a high adaptability for various coals with different size distributions.

  5. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  6. Overview of recent advances in thermo-chemical conversion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy from biomass, bioenergy, is a perspective source to replace fossil fuels in the future, as it is abundant, clean, and carbon dioxide neutral. Biomass can be combusted directly to generate heat and electricity, and by means of thermo-chemical and bio-chemical processes it can be converted into bio-fuels in the forms of solid (e.g., charcoal), liquid (e.g., bio-oils, methanol and ethanol), and gas (e.g., methane and hydrogen), which can be used further for heat and power generation. This paper provides an overview of the principles, reactions, and applications of four fundamental thermo-chemical processes (combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction) for bioenergy production, as well as recent developments in these technologies. Some advanced thermo-chemical processes, including co-firing/co-combustion of biomass with coal or natural gas, fast pyrolysis, plasma gasification and supercritical water gasification, are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages, potential for future applications and challenges of these processes are discussed. The co-firing of biomass and coal is the easiest and most economical approach for the generation of bioenergy on a large-sale. Fast pyrolysis has attracted attention as it is to date the only industrially available technology for the production of bio-oils. Plasma techniques, due to their high destruction and reduction efficiencies for any form of waste, have great application potential for hazardous waste treatment. Supercritical water gasification is a promising approach for hydrogen generation from biomass feedstocks, especially those with high moisture contents.

  7. Nuclear/coal synergy early in the 21st century with advanced bi-modal MHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide a secure energy supply, and avoid large trade deficits, the U.S. must become more reliant on indigenous resources, namely coal and uranium that are in abundant supply. In this paper an advanced high-temperature modular helium reactor (MHR) plant concept would fully utilize these two resources, and with bi-modal operation would have the capability of generating electricity and producing synthetic fuels. Operating at a high level of reactor outlet temperature, the power generation would come from a direct cycle helium gas turbine with an efficiency on the order of 50%. In the high temperature process heat mode, with a coal feedstock, the plant would produce clean burning fuels primarily to meet transportation needs, namely methanol, synthetic natural gas or hydrogen. The enabling technologies necessary to make such a hybrid plant a reality are well understood, and in many cases have been partially demonstrated, and a perspective of these is discussed, with the projection that the realization of such a plant is possible early in the next century

  8. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.K. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  9. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  10. Final design of a free-piston hydraulic advanced Stirling conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D. A.; Noble, J. E.; Emigh, S. G.; Ross, B. A.; Lehmann, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Under the US Department of Energy's (DOEs) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating heat engines for solar distributed receiver systems. The final design is described of an engineering prototype advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) with a free-piston hydraulic engine output capable of delivering about 25 kW of electric power to a utility grid. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, has noncontacting bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. The ASCS is designed to deliver maximum power per year over a range of solar input with a design life of 30 years (60,000 h). The system includes a liquid Nak pool boiler heat transport system and a free-piston Stirling engine with high-pressure hydraulic output, coupled with a bent axis variable displacement hydraulic motor and a rotary induction generator.

  11. Final design of a free-piston hydraulic advanced Stirling conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D. A.; Noble, J. E.; Emigh, S. G.; Ross, B. A.; Lehmann, G. A.

    Under the US Department of Energy's (DOEs) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating heat engines for solar distributed receiver systems. The final design is described of an engineering prototype advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) with a free-piston hydraulic engine output capable of delivering about 25 kW of electric power to a utility grid. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, has noncontacting bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. The ASCS is designed to deliver maximum power per year over a range of solar input with a design life of 30 years (60,000 h). The system includes a liquid Nak pool boiler heat transport system and a free-piston Stirling engine with high-pressure hydraulic output, coupled with a bent axis variable displacement hydraulic motor and a rotary induction generator.

  12. Advanced CO{sub 2} Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO{sub 2}. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent to catalyst ratio used in the combined WGS and CO{sub 2} capture

  13. Inertial fusion reactors using Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFARII) MHD conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the potential performance (efficiency and cost) of inertial fusion reactors assumed capable of vaporizing blankets of various working materials to a temperature (10,000-20,000 K) suitable for economical MHD conversion in a Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) power cycle. Using a conservative model, 1-D neutronics calculations of the fraction of fusion yield captured as a function of the blanket thickness of Flibe, lithium and lead-lithium blankets are used to determine the optimum blanket thickness for each material to minimize CoE for various assumed fusion yields, 'generic' driver costs, and target gains. Lithium-hydride blankets are also evaluated using an extended neutronics model. Generally optimistic ('advanced') combinations of lower driver cost/joule and higher target gain are assumed to allow high enough fusion yields to vaporize and ionize target blankets thick enough to stop most 14 MeV neutrons, and to breed tritium. A novel magnetized, prestressed reactor chamber concept is modeled together with previously developed models for the CFARII Balance-of-Plant (BoP), consisting of a supersonic plasma jet, MHD generator, and 'raindrop' condensor. High fusion yields (20 to 80 GJ) are found necessary to heat and ionize the Flibe, lithium, and lead-lithium blankets for MHD conversion, with initial solid thicknesses sufficient to capture most of the fusion yield. Much smaller fusion yields (1 to 20 GJ) are required for lithium-hybride blankets. For Flibe, lithium, and lead-lithium blankets, improvements in target gain and/or driver cost/joule, characterized by a 'Bang per Buck' figure-of-merit of > or ∼20 joules yield per driver Dollar, would be required for competitive CoE, while a figure-of-merit of > or ∼1 joule yield per driver Dollar would suffice for lithium-hybride blankets. Advances in targets/driver costs would benefit any IFE reactor, but the very low CFARII BoP costs (contributing only 3 mills/kWh for CoE) allows this

  14. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Advanced Test Reactor LEU Fuel Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located in the ATR Complex of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), was constructed in the 1960s for the purpose of irradiating reactor fuels and materials. Other irradiation services, such as radioisotope production, are also performed at ATR. The ATR is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) matrix (UAlx) in an aluminum sandwich plate cladding. The National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) strategic mission includes efforts to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at civilian sites around the world. Converting research reactors from using HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) was originally started in 1978 as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Within this strategic mission, GTRI has three goals that provide a comprehensive approach to achieving this mission: The first goal, the driver for the modification that is the subject of this determination, is to convert research reactors from using HEU to LEU. Thus the mission of the ATR LEU Fuel Conversion Project is to convert the ATR and Advanced Test Reactor Critical facility (ATRC) (two of the six U.S. High-Performance Research Reactors (HPRR)) to LEU fuel by 2017. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification.

  15. Fractionation of coal extracts prior to hydrocracking: an attempt to link sample structure to conversion levels and catalyst fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suelves, I.; Lazaro, M.-J.; Begon, V.; Morgan, T.J.; Herod, A.A.; Kandiyoti, R. [University of London, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    2001-10-01

    Catalyst fouling during hydrocracking and conversions of larger molecular mass components has been investigated in terms of the structural features of a bituminous coal extract. The sample has been separated into two pairs of fractions: pentane-soluble (PS) and insoluble (PI); toluene-soluble (TS) and -insoluble (TI). Differences between hydrocracked products and levels of carbon-deposition on a commercial presulfided NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst have been examined. Size exclusion chromatograms (SEC) showed MM-distributions of the samples decreasing in the order: TI {gt} PI {gt} TS {gt} PS. This trend closely paralleled those given by TGA-derived boiling point distributions and the ordering of UV-fluorescence (UV-F) derived spectral shifts. In SEC, two different columns were used. The largest molecular mass material did not pass through the column with the smaller molecular size range and was lost for analytical purposes. Within the range where probe mass spectrometry is capable of observation, the hydrocracked products of all the fractions studied contains similar ranges of molecular species, in contrast with data from TGA, SEC, and UV-F. The differences between hydrocracked products from different fractions were confined to masses beyond the range of detection by probe mass spectrometry. A reliable correspondence was found between catalyst fouling levels and the concentration of {gt} 450{degree}C bp material in the feed. The results are consistent with a model of the larger extract molecules, where large ({gt} 300 u) polycyclic aromatic (PCA) ring systems are embedded within a matrix held together by several different structural types of bridges. During hydrocracking, bridging structures between PCA ring systems breakdown although. Larger PCA groups liberated by the hydrocracking process are more likely to deposit on catalyst surfaces. 42 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, George [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  17. Recent advances in the use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Two major coal combustion problems are the formation and build-up of slag deposits on heat transfer surfaces and the production and control of toxic species in coal combustion emissions. The use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products can play a role in the better understanding of both these phenomena. An understanding of the chemical composition of such slags under boiler operating conditions and as a function of the mineral composition of various coals is one ultimate goal of this program. The principal constituents in the ash of many coals are the oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, S, and Na. The analytical method required must be able to determine the functional forms of all these elements both in coal and in coal ash at elevated temperatures. One unique way of conducting these analyses is by x-ray spectroscopy.

  18. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The LEBS plant design will be based on a high-sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal. This coal meets program selection requirements of extensive reserves and production, sulfur content, and representativeness. Two alternate test coals have been selected to examine fuel effects, and to broaden the range of application of the technology being developed. The alternate coals are a medium sulfur, Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous, and a Wyoming subbituminous coal. The efficiency goals for the LEBS are challenging, particularly with the demands environmental controls are likely to place on auxiliary power. Table 1 shows estimates of overall plant efficiencies for three steam cycles: (1) a 2400 psi subcritical single reheat cycle typical of current plants; (2) a 3500 psi supercritical single reheat cycle; and (3) an advanced 4500 psi double reheat cycle. The plant heat rates are based on maximum boiler efficiency and minimum auxiliary power requirements consistent with conventional plant design for the design and alternate coals. The aggressive efficiency goals clearly require advanced steam conditions, as well as careful management of any added auxiliary power requirements for environmental controls. The EPRI SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) project has selected the 4500 psi cycle as maximizing plant efficiency while minimizing generating costs for a commercial plant to be constructed by the year 2000. This program will incorporate the SOAPP base case cycle. The LESS design will incorporate a high-efficiency, once-through boiler design known as the Benson. Significant improvements in availability and operating flexibility have made this boiler design the system of choice for European power generation over the last fifteen years.

  19. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  20. Making energy conversion efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in global environment problems, in particular the countermeasures to global warming, has heightened. Energy conversion field takes large proportion in CO2 emission, and by improving its efficiency, the restraint of CO2 emission is expected. From such viewpoint, the recent state of research and development is reported on high efficiency electric power generation technology such as fuel cells and coal gasification cogeneration, and fuel conversion technology such as coal liquefaction and methanol fuel, the development of which is advanced by NEDO. NEDO was founded in 1980 as the core promotion organization for new energy development based on the 'Law on the promotion of development and introduction of petroleum substitute energy', and since then, it has promoted the development of diversified new energies, such as solar energy, the technology and resources of coal and geotherm, fuel cells and electric power storage. Now, the restraint by environment in addition to the restraint by resources has become to be actualized, and the importance of new energies has heightened together with nuclear power and LNG. The technical development aiming at further high thermal efficiency in power plants is advanced. (K.I.)

  1. Advanced characterization of pores and fractures in coals by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates capabilities of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and microfocus X-ray computed tomography (μCT) in advanced, nondestructive, and quantitative characterization of pore types, producible porosity, pore structure, and spatial disposition of pore-fractures in coals. Results show that the NMR transverse relaxation time (T2) at 0.5–2.5, 20–50, and >100 ms correspond to pores of <0.1 μm, >0.1 μm, and fractures, respectively. A much higher T2 spectrum peak reflects a much better development of pores (or fractures) corresponding to the T2, and vice versa. Three basic components in coals, i.e., the pores (or fractures), coal matrix, and minerals have their distinctive range of CT numbers. Among these, the CT number of pores is commonly less than 600 HU. The producible porosity, which is a determination of permeability, can be calculated by T2 cutoff value (T2C) of coal NMR. The coal pore structure can be efficiently estimated by the newly proposed "T2C based model". Finally, μCT scan was proven capable of modeling and spatial visualization of pores and fractures.

  2. Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels. Final report. [1150 samples of US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P.L.; Lovell, H.L.; Vastola, F.J.; Given, P.H.; Suhr, N.H.; Jenkins, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    To further characterize the Nation's coals, the Penn State Coal Sample Bank and Data Base were expanded to include a total of 1150 coal samples. The Sample Bank includes full-seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and sub-seam sections. To the extent feasible and appropriate basic compositional data were generated for each sample and validated and computerized. These data include: proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, sulfur forms analysis, calorific value, maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance analysis, ash fusion analysis, free-swelling index determination, Gray-King coke type determination, Hardgrove grindability determination, Vicker's microhardness determination, major and minor element analysis, trace element analysis, and mineral species analysis. During the contract period more than 5000 samples were prepared and distributed. A theoretical and experimental study of the pyrolysis of coal has been completed. The reactivity of chars, produced from all ranks of American coals, has been studied with regard to reactivity to air, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and steam. Another area research has concerned the catalytic effect of minerals and various cations on the gasification processes. Combustion of chars, low volatile fuels, coal-oil-water-air emulsions and other subjects of research are reported here. The products of this research can be found in 23 DOE Technical Research Reports and 49 published papers. As another mechanism of technology transfer, the results have been conveyed via more than 70 papers presented at a variety of scientific meetings. References to all of these are contained in this report.

  3. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  4. An assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion as an advanced electric generation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt, Gerald T.

    1993-03-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a process that employs the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean water to alternately evaporate and condense a working fluid. In the open-cycle OTEC configuration, the working fluid is seawater. In the closed-cycle configuration, a working fluid such as propane is used. In this paper, OTEC is assessed for its practical merits for electric power generation, and the history of the process is reviewed. Because the OTEC principle operates under a small net temperature difference regime, rather large amounts of seawater and working fluid are required. The energy requirements for pumping these fluids may be greater than the energy recovered from the OTEC engine itself. The concept of net power production is discussed. The components of a typical OTEC plant are discussed with emphasis on the evaporator heat exchanger. Operation of an OTEC electric generating station is discussed, including transient operation. Perhaps the most encouraging aspect of OTEC is the recent experiments and efforts at the Natural Energy Laboratory in Hawaii, which are discussed in the paper. Remarks are made on bottlenecks and the future of OTEC as an advanced electric generation methodology.

  5. Cost estimates for advanced/innovative wind energy conversion systems /AWECS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, E. W.

    1981-12-01

    Three computer models for determining the economics of advanced wind energy conversion systems (AWECS) in production status are discussed. The SAMICS program, designed for estimating costs of production-line operations, includes details of expenses for a plant in steady-state operation, and yields results in terms of prices, quantities, and a breakdown of cost components. The PRICE model gives cost estimates for electromechanical hardware systems, and comprises design, manufacturing, and subassembly costs. The FAST program derives costs of energy systems in terms of construction and installation. All three models provide production costing, and it is noted that the FAST model can be used as an adjunct to the other two. Small WECS are viewed to become commercially viable at the 10,000 units/yr production level, using a one product job shop mode. Examples for existing 40 kW and 10 kW preproduction model SWECS are provided and a price lowering curve is generated which is similar to a learning curve.

  6. Preliminary design of an advanced Stirling system for terrestrial solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. A.; Noble, J. E.; Emigh, S. G.; Ross, B. A.; Lehmann, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design was generated for an advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) that will be capable of delivering about 25 kW of electric power to an electric utility grid. Stirling engines are being evaluated for terrestrial solar applications. A two-year task to complete detailed design, fabrication, assembly and testing of an ASCS prototype began in April, 1990. The ASCS is designed to deliver maximum power per year over a range of solar inputs with a design life of 30 years (60,000 h). The ACSC has a long-term cost goal of about $450 per kilowatt, exclusive of the 11-m parabolic dish concentrator. The proposed system includes a Stirling engine with high-pressure hydraulic output, coupled with a bent axis variable displacement hydraulic motor and a rotary induction generator. The major thrusts of the preliminary design are described, including material selection for the hot-end components, heat transport system (reflux pool boiler) design, system thermal response, improved manufacturability, FMECA/FTA analysis, updated manufacturing cost estimate, and predicted system performance.

  7. Preliminary design of an advanced Stirling system for terrestrial solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. A.; Noble, J. E.; Emigh, S. G.; Ross, B. A.; Lehmann, G. A.

    A preliminary design was generated for an advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) that will be capable of delivering about 25 kW of electric power to an electric utility grid. Stirling engines are being evaluated for terrestrial solar applications. A two-year task to complete detailed design, fabrication, assembly and testing of an ASCS prototype began in April, 1990. The ASCS is designed to deliver maximum power per year over a range of solar inputs with a design life of 30 years (60,000 h). The ACSC has a long-term cost goal of about $450 per kilowatt, exclusive of the 11-m parabolic dish concentrator. The proposed system includes a Stirling engine with high-pressure hydraulic output, coupled with a bent axis variable displacement hydraulic motor and a rotary induction generator. The major thrusts of the preliminary design are described, including material selection for the hot-end components, heat transport system (reflux pool boiler) design, system thermal response, improved manufacturability, FMECA/FTA analysis, updated manufacturing cost estimate, and predicted system performance.

  8. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Anbo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  9. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  10. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  11. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  12. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  13. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  14. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  15. Projections of Northern Great Plains coal mining and energy conversion development, 1975 to 2000 A. D. Summary volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, T.M.; Duffield, J.W.; McBride, J.R.; Stroup, R.L.; Wheeling, T.D.; Tomlinson, W.D.; Thurman, W.J.; Silverman, A.J.

    1976-05-01

    The Montana University Coal Demand Study attempts to do three things: Present a systematic way to evaluate what will influence Northern Great Plain (NGP) coal development; indicate the key ''swing variables determining development; and establish how, quantitatively, the level of development will vary if these variables change. The result is a projection that should remain true even through future changes in political or economic conditions, for such changes will simply shift the projection in a quantitatively specified way to different levels. This study is a first, fairly limited attempt to meet the above objectives. All the individual determinants of the demand for NGP coal have not been studied in equal depth. Throughout we have tried to indicate both the Study's limitations and the research that further refinement would require. Two primary sources of demand for NGP coal are analyzed--coal-fired electric generation and gasification of coal into synthetic natural gas. A variety of projections are presented, each dependent upon a particular set of assumptions. These projections are compared with each other and with previous projections--in particular those made by the Northern Great Plains Resources Program and the Federal Energy Administration's Project Independence Report. Finally, the differences among the various projections are critically analyzed.

  16. Advanced control and analysis of energy conversion systems for electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhen; 張鎮

    2014-01-01

    By utilizing the electric motor as the propulsion system, the electric vehicle (EV) establishes a new bridge between renewable energies and our daily life, which meanwhile has to face with a brand new technical issue, namely the energy management and conversion. Then, the performance of energy conversion systems has become a new evaluation criteria for EVs. Accordingly, this study works on the analysis and control of the EV energy conversion system, including the secure charging system via wi...

  17. Use of advanced chemical fingerprinting in PAH source identification and allocation at a coal tar processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced chemical fingerprinting analyses were used to determine source allocation at a former coal tar processing facility which had been converted to a petroleum recycling site. Soil samples from the site had high petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and elevated levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Comparisons of PAH distributions were used to differentiate the coal tar hydrocarbons from the petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. A more specific technique was needed to accurately allocate the contribution of the two sources to the observed PAH contamination in the soil. Petroleum biomarkers (steranes and triterpanes) which are present in crude oils and many refined petroleum products but are absent in coal tar were used to quantitatively allocate the source of the PAH contamination based on the relative ratio of the PAH to the biomarkers in soil samples. Using the resulting coal tar/petroleum source ratio the contribution of petroleum to the overall PAH contamination at the site was calculated. A multivariate statistical technique (principal component analysis or PCA) was used to provide an independent validation of the source allocation. The results of the source allocation provided a foundation for the site clean-up and remediation costs

  18. Coal conversion processes. Quarterly report, March 13, 1984-June 12, 1984. [N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidones and triethylene-tetraamine absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Biloen, P.; Holder, G.D.; Klinzing, G.E.; Tierney, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    Experimental work is continuing on four separate projects related to coal conversion processes. The direct digital control of exothermic multiphase reactions is being studied in an experimental adiabatic flow reactor. A paper based on earlier results has been submitted for publication. The effect of step changes of important process variables on reactor performance has been determined. Various absorbents for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ are being studied. Further data on the absorption of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ by a solution of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) have been obtained. Data on the absorption of NO in triethylene-tetraamine has also been obtained. Characterization of liquid membranes formed experimentally have been performed; the FeCl/sub 2//CHP system will be examined first. Isotopic switching is being used to study the way in which promoters affect supported metal catalysts. Non-statistical distributions of /sup 13/C in Fischer-Tropsch products have been observed experimentally. A model for the ingrowth of /sup 13/C in ethane has been developed. A program for the study of the extraction of coal and oil shale using supercritical fluids is being carried out. The effect of stirrer speed, density and reaction time on the amount of toluene solubles and tetrahydrofuran solubles produced by supercritical extraction of Bruceton coal with toluene. 2 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  20. Decarbonised coal energy system advancement through CO2 utilisation and polygeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, KS; Zhang, N.; Sadhukhan, J

    2012-01-01

    Development of clean coal technology is highly envisaged to mitigate the CO2 emission level whilst meeting the rising global energy demands which require highly efficient and economically compelling technology. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) system is highly efficient and cleaner compared to the conventional coal-fired power plant. In this study, an alternative process scheme for IGCC system has been proposed, which encompasses the reuse of...

  1. Ground Penetrating Radar Signal Processing Algorithm in Advance Detection of Coal Seam

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Shuqi; Wang Zhen

    2013-01-01

    According to the electromagnetic propagation characteristics of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in the medium, how to identify the target in coal seam using the relative permittivity of the dielectric object is studied, the identification algorithm of dielectric object based on electromagnetic echo field intensity with propagation loss and reflection loss are analyzed. The simulation results show that coal seam attenuation coefficient has extremely weak infl...

  2. Advanced Power Conversion and Distribution - Efficient Power for JPL Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop a power conversion solution that will increase end-to-end efficiency to 80% or more compared to the 30%-50% efficiency typically obtained through...

  3. Recent Advances in Power Conversion and Heat Rejection Technology for Fission Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Under the Exploration Technology Development Program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are jointly developing Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology for possible use in human missions to the Moon and Mars. A preliminary reference concept was generated to guide FSP technology development. The concept consists of a liquid-metal-cooled reactor, Stirling power conversion, and water heat rejection, with Brayton power conversion as a backup option. The FSP project has begun risk reduction activities on some key components with the eventual goal of conducting an end-to-end, non-nuclear, integrated system test. Several power conversion and heat rejection hardware prototypes have been built and tested. These include multi-kilowatt Stirling and Brayton power conversion units, titanium-water heat pipes, and composite radiator panels.

  4. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  5. Microstructural evolution in advanced boiler materials for ultra-supercritical coal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Quanyan

    The goal of improving the efficiency of pulverized coal powerplants has been pursued for decades. The need for greater efficiency and reduced environmental impact is pushing utilities to ultra supercritical conditions (USC), i.e. steam temperatures approaching 760°C under a stress of 35 MPa. The long-term creep strength and environmental resistance requirements imposed by these conditions are clearly beyond the capacity of the currently used ferritic steels and other conventional alloys. As part of a large DOE-funded consortium, new and existing materials based on advanced austenitic stainless steels and nickel base superalloys are being evaluated for these very demanding applications. In the present work, the nickel base superalloys of Inconel 617, CCA617, Haynes 230 and Inconel 740, and austenitic alloys Super 304H and HR6W, were evaluated on their microstructural properties over elevated temperature ageing and creep rupture conditions. The materials were aged for different lengths of time at temperatures relevant to USC applications, i.e., in the range from 700 to 800°C. The precipitation behaviors, namely of the gamma', carbides and eta phase in some conditions in nickel base superalloys, carbides in Haynes 230, Cu-rich precipitates in Super 304H and Laves phase particles in HR6W, were studied in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and related analytical techniques. Particular attention has been given on the structure, morphology and compositional distinctiveness of various phases (including gamma, gamma', carbides, secondary phase precipitates, and other types of particles) and their nature, dislocation structures and other types of defects. The results were presented and discussed in light of associated changes in microhardness in the cases of aged samples, and in close reference to mechanical testing (including tensile and creep rupture tests) wherever available. Several mechanical strengthening

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  7. Coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal- and gas-fueled cogeneration plants develop rapidly and according to all the scenarios will continue to grow with ever improving power generation effect in counterpressure mode. As there is no 'cooling water waste', a greater percentage of houses should be heated electrically. The coal combustion technologies mentioned here will probably converge around 53-55% coefficient of performance. Emission requirements can be fulfilled by use of modern coal technologies. Coal will stay as a competitive fuel for cogeneration as other more advanced technologies are often yet at the demonstration stage. (EG)

  8. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X.H. Wang; J. Wiseman; D.J. Sung; D. McLean; William Peters; Jim Mullins; John Hugh; G. Evans; Vince Hamilton; Kenneth Robinette; Tim Krim; Michael Fleet

    1999-08-01

    Dewatering of ultra-fine (minus 150 {micro}m) coal slurry to less than 20% moisture is difficult using the conventional dewatering techniques. The main objective of the project was to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactants in combination for the dewatering of ultra-fine clean-coal slurries using various dewatering techniques on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 0.5 to 2 tons per hour. The addition of conventional reagents and the application of coal surface modification technique were evaluated using vacuum filtration, hyperbaric (pressure) filtration, ceramic plate filtration and screen-bowl centrifuge techniques. The laboratory and pilot-scale dewatering studies were conducted using the fine-size, clean-coal slurry produced in the column flotation circuit at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, St. Charles, VA. The pilot-scale studies were conducted at the Mayflower preparation plant in St. Charles, VA. The program consisted of nine tasks, namely, Task 1--Project Work Planning, Task 2--Laboratory Testing, Task 3--Engineering Design, Task 4--Procurement and Fabrication, Task 5--Installation and Shakedown, Task 6--System Operation, Task 7--Process Evaluation, Task 8--Equipment Removal, and Task 9--Reporting.

  9. World market: A survey of opportunities for advanced coal-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, N.A.H.

    1995-06-01

    Although there is a wide range of forecasts for the future of World energy demand and consumption over the next 25 years, all forecasts show marked increases being required for all forms of fossil fuels even when optimistic projections are made for the future adoption of Nuclear and Renewable energy. It is also generally expected that coal usage will in this period experience its greatest growth (a doubling) in the Asia-Pacific region dominated demographically by China and India. In this paper, energy projections and the extent and nature of the coal reserves available worldwide are examined. While most coal technologies can handle a variety of feedstocks, there are often economic factors that will determine the preferred selection. The matching of technology to coal type and other factors is examined with particular reference to the Asia Pacific region. Oil usage is similarly forecast to experience a comparable growth in this region. Over 70% of the World`s oil reserves are heavy oils and refinery crudes are increasing in gravity and sulfur content. The clean coal technologies of gasification and fluid bed combustion can also use low value petroleum residuals as feedstocks. There is therefore a nearer term market opportunity to incorporate such technologies into cogeneration and coproduction schemes adjacent to refineries resulting in extremely efficient use of these resources.

  10. Polyhydrido Copper Clusters: Synthetic Advances, Structural Diversity, and Nanocluster-to-Nanoparticle Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayal, Rajendra S; van Zyl, Werner E; Liu, C W

    2016-01-19

    Metal hydride clusters have historically been studied to unravel their aesthetically pleasing molecular structures and interesting properties, especially toward hydrogen related applications. Central to this work is the hydride ligand, H¯, the smallest closed-shell spherical anion known. Two new developments in polyhydrido nanocluster chemistry include the determination of heretofore unknown hydride coordination modes and novel structural constructs, and conversion from the molecular entities to rhombus-shaped copper nanoparticles (CuNPs). These advances, together with hydrogen evolution and catalysis, have provided both experimentalists and theorists with a rich scientific directive to further explore. The isolation of hexameric [{(Ph3P)CuH}6] (Stryker reagent) could be regarded as the springboard for the recent emergence of polyhydrido copper cluster chemistry due to its utilization in a variety of organic chemical transformations. The stability of clusters of various nuclearity was improved through phosphine, pyridine, and carbene type ligands. Our focus lies with the isolation of novel copper (poly)hydride clusters using mostly the phosphor-1,1-dithiolato type ligands. We found such chalcogen-stabilized clusters to be exceptionally air and moisture stable over a wide range of nuclearities (Cu7 to Cu32). In this Account, we (i) report on state-of-the-art copper hydride cluster chemistry, especially with regards to the diverse and novel structural types generally, and newly discovered hydride coordination modes in particular, (ii) demonstrate the indispensable power of neutron diffraction for the unambiguous assignment and location of hydride ligand(s) within a cluster, and (iii) prove unique transformations that can occur not only between well characterized high nuclearity clusters, but also how such clusters can transform to uniquely shaped nanoparticles of several nanometers in diameter through copper hydride reduction. The increase in the number of low- to

  11. Clinical implication of negative conversion of predicted circumferential resection margin status after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Kwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Yong, E-mail: kcyro@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Je; Yang, Dae Sik; Yoon, Won Sup [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hahn; Kim, Jin [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic implication of the negative conversion of predicted circumferential resection margin status before surgery in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer with predicted circumferential resection margin involvement. Methods: Thirty-eight patients (28 men, 10 women; median age, 61 years; age range, 39–80 years) with locally advanced rectal cancer with predicted circumferential resection margin involvement who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by radical surgery were analyzed. Involvement of the circumferential resection margin was predicted on the basis of pre- and post-chemoradiotherapy magnetic resonance imaging. The primary endpoints were 3-year local recurrence-free survival and overall survival. Results: The median follow-up time was 41.1 months (range, 13.9–85.2 months). The negative conversion rate of predicted circumferential resection margin status after preoperative chemoradiotherapy was 65.8%. Patients who experienced negative conversion of predicted circumferential resection margin status had a significantly higher 3-year local recurrence-free survival rate (100.0% vs. 76.9%; P = 0.013), disease-free survival rate (91.7% vs. 59.3%; P = 0.023), and overall survival rate (96.0% vs. 73.8%; P = 0.016) than those who had persistent circumferential resection margin involvement. Conclusions: The negative conversion of the predicted circumferential resection margin status as predicted by magnetic resonance imaging will assist in individual risk stratification as a predictive factor for treatment response and survival before surgery. These findings may help physicians determine whether to administer more intense adjuvant chemotherapy or change the surgical plan for patients displaying resistance to preoperative chemoradiotherapy.

  12. Recent advances in remote coal mining machine sensing, guidance, and teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, J.C.; Hainsworth, D.W.; Reid, D.C.; Anderson, D.L.; McPhee, R.J. [CSIRO Exploration & Minerals, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2001-10-01

    Some recent applications of sensing, guidance and telerobotic technology in the coal mining industry are presented. Of special interest is the development of semi or fully autonomous systems to provide remote guidance and communications for coal mining equipment. The use of radar and inertial based sensors are considered in an attempt to solve the horizontal and lateral guidance problems associated with mining equipment automation. Also described is a novel teleoperated robot vehicle with unique communications capabilities, called the Numbat, which is used in underground mine safety and reconnaissance missions.

  13. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of catalytic ultrasound oxidation and membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Hou, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system integrating catalytic ultrasound oxidation (CUO) with membrane bioreactor (CUO-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. Results indicated that CUO with catalyst of FeOx/SBAC (sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) represented high efficiencies in eliminating TOC as well as improving the biodegradability. The integrated CUO-MBR system with low energy intensity and high frequency was more effective in eliminating COD, BOD5, TOC and reducing transmembrane pressure than either conventional MBR or ultrasound oxidation integrated MBR. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation, facilitation of substrate diffusion and improvement of cell enzyme secretion were the mechanisms for CUO-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated CUO-MBR was the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. PMID:25936898

  14. Current and advanced NO/sub x/-control technology for coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A NOx-control-technology assessment study of coal-fired industrial boilers was conducted to examine the effectiveness of combustion-modification methods, including low excess air, staged combustion, and burner modifications. Boiler types considered included overfed and underfed stokers, spreader stokers, pulverized-coal and coal-fired cyclone units. Significant variations in NOx emissions occur with boiler type, firing method, and coal type; a relative comparison of emission-control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. Baseline (as-found) emissions from grate-fired stokers were shown to be in the range of 200 to 300 ppM. Similarly, as-found emissions from suspension-fired units were quite low (350 to 600 ppM) as compared to comparably designed utility-sized units. Low excess air was shown to be the most effective method on existing units, reducing emissions by approximately 10%. Evaluation of staged combustion and burner modification, however, were limited due to current boiler designs. Major hardware modification/design and implementation are necessary before the potential of these techniques can be fully evaluated. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion-modification program, including energy considerations, incremental capital and operating costs, corrosion, secondary pollutants, and retrofit potential.

  15. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-20

    Research continued on coal cleaning technologies. The work plan for this period called for the completion of the suite of gravity separation models (seven in total). Two items concerning these models were to be investigated further: (1) incorporating an Aspen Plus algorithm for converging the estimated dp of separation on the user selected dp value, and (2) evaluating methods other than interpolation by cubic spline methods for estimating Ep from a set of composite partition numbers. The water-only cyclone, fine coal jig, and concentrating spiral models were to be transferred from ICF KE to AspenTech for incorporation as system models by the end of the reporting period. Model discrimination analysis for selecting the appropriate form of an equation for generating interval partition values was slated for completion. Coding and testing of several dewatering algorithms were scheduled to take place during the work period. Models for fine coal vacuum filters, coarse and fine coal centrifuges, thickeners, and thermal dryers were to be completed during the work period. Additionally, work was expected to continue in the areas of classification, comminution, and froth flotation modeling.

  16. Conversion of coal mine drainage ochre to water treatment reagent: Production, characterisation and application for P and Zn removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsford, Devin; Santonastaso, Marco; Thorn, Peter; Kershaw, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Coal mine drainage ochre is a ferruginous precipitate that forms from mine water in impacted watercourses and during treatment. With thousands of tonnes per annum of such ochre arising from mine water treatment in the UK alone, management of these wastes is a substantive issue. This paper demonstrates that the ochre from both active and passive treatment of coal mine drainage can be transformed into an effective water treatment reagent by simple acid dissolution and that the reagent can be used for the removal of dissolved phosphorous from municipal wastewater and zinc from non-coal mine waters. Ochre is readily soluble in H2SO4 and HCl. Ochre is more soluble in HCl with solubilities of up to 100 g/L in 20% (w/w) HCl and 68 g/L in 10% (w/w) H2SO4. For four of the eight tested ochres solubility decreased in higher concentrations of H2SO4. Ochre compositional data demonstrate that the coal mine ochres tested are relatively free from problematic levels of elements seen by other authors from acid mine drainage-derived ochre. Comparison to British Standards for use of iron-based coagulants in drinking water treatment was used as an indicator of the acceptability of use of the ochre-derived reagents in terms of potentially problematic elements. The ochre-derived reagents were found to meet the 'Grade 3' specification, except for arsenic. Thus, for application in municipal wastewater and mine water treatment additional processing may not be required. There was little observed compositional difference between solutions prepared using H2SO4 or HCl. Ochre-derived reagents showed applicability for the removal of P and Zn with removals of up to 99% and 97% respectively measured for final pH 7-8, likely due to sorption/coprecipitation. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that applying a Fe dose in the form of liquid reagent leads to a better Fe:P and Fe:Zn removal ratio compared to ochre-based sorption media tested in the literature. PMID:26081304

  17. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  18. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  19. Application of a validated gasification model to determine the impact of coal particle grinding size on carbon conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Mayank

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the implementation of a comprehensive, previously validated multiscale model of entrained flow gasification to examine the impact of particle size on the gasification process in two different gasifier designs; the MHI and the GE gasifier. We show that the impact of the particle size depends on whether the char conversion process is kinetically limited or boundary layer diffusion-limited. Fine grinding helps accelerate char conversion under diffusion-control conditions, whereas the impact is not as noticeable under kinetic-control operation. The availability of particular gasification agents, namely O2 in the earlier sections of the gasifier or CO2 and H2O in the latter sections, as well as the temperature, are shown to have an impact on the relative importance of kinetics versus diffusion limitation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of advanced, dry, SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} emission control technologies for high-sulfur coal. Final report, April 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrhein, G.T.

    1994-12-23

    Dry Scrubbing is a common commercial process that has been limited to low- and medium-sulfur coal applications because high-sulfur coal requires more reagent than can be efficiently injected into the process. Babcock & Wilcox has made several advances that extend dry scrubbing technologies to higher sulfur coals by allowing deposit-free operation at low scrubber exit temperatures. This not only increases the amount of reagent that can be injected into the scrubber, but also increases SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced, dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions while burning high-sulfur coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. The use of these technologies by utilities in and around Ohio, on new or retrofit applications, will ensure the future of markets for high-sulfur coal by creating cost effective options to coal switching.

  1. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  2. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  3. Future coal supply for the world energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenon, M. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The conference covered aspects of coal resources, exploration and mine planning; mining technology, hydraulic mining, and underground coal gasification; coal transport; evaluation of coal deposits; use of models in developing fuel and energy systems; short-term future of coal, future coal supply and demand; coal conversion; coal and atmosphere CO2; analytical approaches to coal-related systems, coal data systems. The papers have been abstracted separately.

  4. Fundamental bioprocessing research for coal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.; Scott, T.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this program is to gain a fundamental understanding and sound scientific and technical basis for evaluating the potential roles of innovative bioprocessing concepts for the utilization and conversion of coal. The aim is to explore the numerous ways in which advanced biological processes and techniques can open new opportunities for coal utilization or can replace more conventional techniques by using milder conditions with less energy consumption or loss. There are several roles where biotechnology is likely to be important in coal utilization and conversion. These include potential bioprocessing systems such as conversion of coal to liquids or gases; biocatalytic beneficiation of coal-derived liquids and conversion to useful chemical feedstocks; biocatalytic removal of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from coal combustion off-gas; environmental control technology for the removal or destruction of hazardous materials in process effluents and/or solid residues; and the removal and utilization of CO{sub 2} from combustion off-gas. Effective bioprocesses for such applications will require detailed knowledge of the biological process mechanisms and advanced bioreactor technology than can be optimized for high productivity, as well as supporting upstream and downstream processes that will allow an effective integrated bioprocess. Of particular interest is the development of predictive models that can be used for process design and scaleup. In this program, a generic approach is taken so that there will be utility over a broad range of applications. In conjunction with the generic approach, model experimental systems that address real-world problems are used to verify the results.

  5. Future mission opportunities and requirements for advanced space photovoltaic energy conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The variety of potential future missions under consideration by NASA will impose a broad range of requirements on space solar arrays, and mandates the development of new solar cells which can offer a wide range of capabilities to mission planners. Major advances in performance have recently been achieved at several laboratories in a variety of solar cell types. Many of those recent advances are reviewed, the areas are examined where possible improvements are yet to be made, and the requirements are discussed that must be met by advanced solar cell if they are to be used in space. The solar cells of interest include single and multiple junction cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous materials. Single crystal cells on foreign substrates, thin film single crystal cells on superstrates, and multiple junction cells which are either mechanically stacked, monolithically grown, or hybrid structures incorporating both techniques are discussed. Advanced concentrator array technology for space applications is described, and the status of thin film, flexible solar array blanket technology is reported.

  6. New Advances in Catalytic Systems for Conversion of CH4 and CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gengliang Chen

    2002-01-01

    One of the main goals for developing the C1 chemical industry is the direct conversion of methane and carbon dioxide to useful products. To realize this goal, researches on new catalytic systems are being globally focused. The exploration has been evolved from traditional heterogeneous catalysis into homogeneous catalysis. Coordinate complexes, biochemical and bionics, and photo- and electrochemical catalysis have been extensively studied in recent years. Tests in laboratories have verified for the direct conversion of CH4 to CH3OH that single-pass converstion of CH4 can reach over 70% in both Hg(Ⅱ) salt and Pt(Ⅱ) complex systems. The main problem of these systems is the obstacles involving reaction kinetics, so they must be solved before moving to pilot tests. Other catalytic systems discussed in the present article include explorations in the early stage. Among them, features of photo and enzymatic catalyst systems, such as mild reaction conditions, better selectivity and environmentally friendliness have been explored, and these researches are significant both in theory and in practical application.

  7. Fireside Corrosion Behavior of HVOF and Plasma-Sprayed Coatings in Advanced Coal/Biomass Co-Fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T.; Dudziak, T.; Simms, N. J.; Nicholls, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a systematic evaluation of coatings for advanced fossil fuel plants and addresses fireside corrosion in coal/biomass-derived flue gases. A selection of four candidate coatings: alloy 625, NiCr, FeCrAl and NiCrAlY were deposited onto superheaters/reheaters alloy (T91) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying. A series of laboratory-based fireside corrosion exposures were carried out on these coated samples in furnaces under controlled atmosphere for 1000 h at 650 °C. The tests were carried out using the "deposit-recoat" test method to simulate the environment that was anticipated from air-firing 20 wt.% cereal co-product mixed with a UK coal. The exposures were carried out using a deposit containing Na2SO4, K2SO4, and Fe2O3 to produce alkali-iron tri-sulfates, which had been identified as the principal cause of fireside corrosion on superheaters/reheaters in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The exposed samples were examined in an ESEM with EDX analysis to characterize the damage. Pre- and post-exposure dimensional metrologies were used to quantify the metal damage in terms of metal loss distributions. The thermally sprayed coatings suffered significant corrosion attack from a combination of aggressive combustion gases and deposit mixtures. In this study, all the four plasma-sprayed coatings studied performed better than the HVOF-sprayed coatings because of a lower level of porosity. NiCr was found to be the best performing coating material with a median metal loss of ~87 μm (HVOF sprayed) and ~13 μm (plasma sprayed). In general, the median metal damage for coatings had the following ranking (in the descending order: most to the least damage): NiCrAlY > alloy 625 > FeCrAl > NiCr.

  8. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  9. Advanced gas-to-liquids processes for syngas and liquid-phase conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, E.P.; Tijm, P.J.A.; Bennett, D.L. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Conventional technology options may lead to commercially viable gas-to-liquids (GTL) projects which are very large, have favorable site specific factors or very low natural gas costs. New and lower cost technology will be required to enable GTL, to be broadly useful for remote gas monetization as a liquid fuel. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is currently developing two separate technologies which would result in a significant reduction in the capital investment required for GTL, product plants. ITM Syngas is one of Air Products proprietary syngas technologies. It is in the early stages of development, but has the potential for very significant reductions in the cost of syngas, an important intermediate for GTL production. Air Products, along with its partners, have recently been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an $85MM, three phase program to develop this ITM Syngas technology. The program will take eight years and culminate in a 15,000,000 SCFD pre-commercial syngas demonstration plant. In addition to ITM Syngas, in April 1997 Air Products started up a commercial scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) plant which converts coal derived syngas to methanol using a slurry bubble column reactor. This technology is expected to reduce the cost of liquid synthesis. It also produces an environmentally superior alternative fuel and/or chemical feedstocks. 7 refs.

  10. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system. Technical progress report No. 1, August--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems`` Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  11. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  12. NREL Advancements in Methane Conversion Lead to Cleaner Air, Useful Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Researchers at NREL leveraged the recent on-site development of gas fermentation capabilities and novel genetic tools to directly convert methane to lactic acid using an engineered methanotrophic bacterium. The results provide proof-of-concept data for a gas-to-liquids bioprocess that concurrently produces fuels and chemicals from methane. NREL researchers developed genetic tools to express heterologous genes in methanotrophic organisms, which have historically been difficult to genetically engineer. Using these tools, researchers demonstrated microbial conversion of methane to lactate, a high-volume biochemical precursor predominantly utilized for the production of bioplastics. Methane biocatalysis offers a means to concurrently liquefy and upgrade natural gas and renewable biogas, enabling their utilization in conventional transportation and industrial manufacturing infrastructure. Producing chemicals and fuels from methane expands the suite of products currently generated from biorefineries, municipalities, and agricultural operations, with the potential to increase revenue and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Technological advances in CO2 conversion electro-biorefinery: A step toward commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMekawy, Ahmed; Hegab, Hanaa M; Mohanakrishna, Gunda; Elbaz, Ashraf F; Bulut, Metin; Pant, Deepak

    2016-09-01

    The global atmospheric warming due to increased emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) has attracted great attention in the last two decades. Although different CO2 capture and storage platforms have been proposed, the utilization of captured CO2 from industrial plants is progressively prevalent strategy due to concerns about the safety of terrestrial and aquatic CO2 storage. Two utilization forms were proposed, direct utilization of CO2 and conversion of CO2 to chemicals and energy products. The latter strategy includes the bioelectrochemical techniques in which electricity can be used as an energy source for the microbial catalytic production of fuels and other organic products from CO2. This approach is a potential technique in which CO2 emissions are not only reduced, but it also produce more value-added products. This review article highlights the different methodologies for the bioelectrochemical utilization of CO2, with distinctive focus on the potential opportunities for the commercialization of these techniques. PMID:27020396

  14. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) is proposed as a vapor power cycle that could potentially increase power generation and improve the utilization efficiency of renewable energy and waste heat recovery systems. A brief review of current advanced vapor power cycles including the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), the zeotropic Rankine cycle, the Kalina cycle, the transcritical cycle, and the trilateral flash cycle is presented. The premise and motivation for the OFC concept is that essentially by impro...

  15. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  16. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  17. Characterization and Gravimetric Analysis of the Dissolved Quartz in the Conversion of Coal Fly Ash to Sodalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a waste product produced from the electrical power plant and hazardous towards the environment. However, the high composition of silica and alumina in the CFA makes it useful as raw materials in the zeolite synthesis. However, the presence of silica in the form of quartz in the CFA does not facilitate the transformation of CFA to zeolite at 100 degree Celsius and autogeneous pressure. In this study, CFA was converted to zeolites in various NaOH concentrations by microwave heating at various heating time. All synthesized product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gravimetric analysis. XRD has shown that quite pure sodalite in nano size has been formed as early as 15 minutes and increase with time. Prolong heating up to 45 minutes has reduced the content of quartz to ca 20 %. Gravimetric analysis performed on the liquor of the reaction showed that the dissolved silica decrease with increase of heating time indicating that most of the dissolved quartz is used up to form sodalite framework. Hence, quartz of CFA did help in enhancing the crystallinity of the formed sodalite after prolong heating. (author)

  18. Performance prediction in advanced coal fired boilers - fluctuations in combustion systems - Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmgren, Alf; Nilsson, Torbjoern; Tao Lixin [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    Turbulence, unstable flow conditions or resonance phenomena can all cause fluctuations in combustion systems. The molecules of gas and fuel particles travel trough a combustion system along a large number of trajectories causing a residence time distribution characteristic for each configuration. The result of the fluctuations and residence time distribution is that the temperature, chemical composition of the gas, etc. in one point varies with time and can also be described by a distribution curve. Computer codes for the calculation of the residence time distribution curves, the dampening of fluctuations in combustion systems and the combustion of coal particles in a combustion chamber has been developed. The codes can be used to calculate the distribution curves for residence time, temperature and gas composition in different positions. The calculations are verified against measurements of residence time distributions and fluctuations of gas temperature in a coal flame in the IFRF furnace no 1. Measurements and calculations show good agreement. The frequency where the amplitude of fluctuations is halved during the passage of the investigated flame is calculated to 0.047 Hz (a period of 21 seconds) which agree with observations. The rapid dampening of fluctuations in this type of systems will not allow them to survive long enough to travel through the flame.

  19. Advanced atomization concept for CWF (coal-water fuel) burning in small combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Heaton, H.L.; Lippold, J.H. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    Atlantic Research has undertaken a program to design, fabricate and test this new concept in coal-water fuel atomizers. The device employs two diametrically opposed jets of CWF which impinge on each other at high velocity. An air blast is directed at the impact zone of the two jets and the resulting high energy collision of all streams serves to break up the slurry fuel into fine droplets which are then directed by the air blast into the combustion zone. Prototypes of this atomizer have been built and tested under cold flow conditions using both water and CWF sprays. Based on the cold flow result with the prototypes, an atomizer has been fabricated for installation in a 1 MMBTU/H research tunnel-type'' furnace. A comprehensive testing program was conducted to evaluate the atomizer under firing conditions. The parameters covered in the test plan included CWF firing rate, atomizing air pressure, secondary air preheat temperature, secondary air diffuser design, CWF viscosity and solid content, CWF preheat temperature, and coal type. The effects of these parameters on combustion efficiency have been determined. 3 refs., 20 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL-FIRED POWER PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon R. Glicksman; Michael Louge; Hesham F. Younis; Richard Tan; Mathew Hyre; Mark Torpey

    2003-11-24

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor an agency thereof, nor any of the their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, A combined-cycle High Performance Power System (HIPPS) capable of overall cycle efficiencies approaching 50% has been proposed and designed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). A pyrolyzer in the first stage of the HIPPS process converts a coal feedstock into fuel gas and char at an elevated pressure of 1.4 Map. (206 psia) and elevated temperature of 930 C (1700 F). The generated char serves as the feedstock for a Pulverized Coal (PC) boiler operating at atmospheric pressure, and the fuel gas is directly fired in a gas turbine. The hydrodynamic behavior of the pyrolyzer strongly influences the quality of both the fuel gas and the generated char, the energy split between the gas turbine and the steam turbine, and hence the overall efficiency of the system. By utilizing a simplified set of scaling parameters (Glicksman et al.,1993), a 4/7th labscale cold model of the pyrolyzer operating at ambient temperature and pressure was constructed and tested. The scaling parameters matched include solid to gas density ratio, Froude number, length to diameter ratio; dimensionless superficial gas velocity and solid recycle rate, particle sphericity and particle size distribution (PSD).

  1. Design of a pool boiler heat transport system for a 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. G.; Rosenfeld, J. H.; Noble, J.; Kesseli, J.

    The overall operating temperature and efficiency of solar-powered Stirling engines can be improved by adding a heat transport system to more uniformly supply heat to the heater head tubes. One heat transport system with favorable characteristics is an alkali metal pool boiler. An alkali metal pool boiler heat transport system was designed for a 25-kW advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS). Solar energy concentrated on the absorber dome boils a eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium. The alkali metal vapors condense on the heater head tubes, supplying the Stirling engine with a uniform heat flux at a constant temperature. Boiling stability is achieved with the use of an enhanced boiling surface and noncondensible gas.

  2. Reflooding phase after loss of coolant of an advanced pressurized water reactor with high conversion ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergency core cooling behaviour of an advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR) during the reflooding phase of the LOCA with double-ended break is analysed and compared to a common pressurized water reactor (PWR). The code FLUT-BS, its models and correlations are explained in detail and have been verified by numerous PWR-reflood experiments with large parameter range. The influence of core-design on ECC-behaviour as well as the influences of initial and boundary values are examined. The results show the essential differences of ECC-behaviour between PWR and APWR. (orig.)

  3. The NILE Project - Advances in the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Materials into Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NILE ('New Improvements for Lignocellulosic Ethanol') was an integrated European project (2005-2010) devoted to the conversion of lignocellulosic raw materials to ethanol. The main objectives were to design novel enzymes suitable for the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and new yeast strains able to efficiently converting all the sugars present in lignocellulose into ethanol. The project also included testing these new developments in an integrated pilot plant and evaluating the environmental and socio-economic impacts of implementing lignocellulosic ethanol on a large scale. Two model raw materials - spruce and wheat straw - both preconditioned with similar pretreatments, were used. Several approaches were explored to improve the saccharification of these pretreated raw materials such as searching for new efficient enzymes and enzyme engineering. Various genetic engineering methods were applied to obtain stable xylose- and arabinose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that tolerate the toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The pilot plant was able to treat 2 tons of dry matter per day, and hydrolysis and fermentation could be run successively or simultaneously. A global model integrating the supply chain was used to assess the performance of lignocellulosic ethanol from an economical and environmental perspective. It was found that directed evolution of a specific enzyme of the cellulolytic cocktail produced by the industrial fungus, Trichoderma reesei, and modification of the composition of this cocktail led to improvements of the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated raw material. These results, however, were difficult to reproduce at a large scale. A substantial increase in the ethanol conversion yield and in specific ethanol productivity was obtained through a combination of metabolic engineering of yeast strains and fermentation process development. Pilot trials confirmed the good behaviour of the yeast strains in industrial

  4. Advanced design nuclear power plants: Competitive, economical electricity. An analysis of the cost of electricity from coal, gas and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an updated analysis of the projected cost of electricity from new baseload power plants beginning operation around the year 2000. Included in the study are: (1) advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants; (2) low emissions coal-fired power plants; (3) gasified coal-fired power plants; and (4) natural gas-fired power plants. This analysis shows that electricity from advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants will be economically competitive with all other baseload electric generating system alternatives. This does not mean that any one source of electric power is always preferable to another. Rather, what this analysis indicates is that, as utilities and others begin planning for future baseload power plants, advanced-design nuclear plants should be considered an economically viable option to be included in their detailed studies of alternatives. Even with aggressive and successful conservation, efficiency and demand-side management programs, some new baseload electric supply will be needed during the 1990s and into the future. The baseload generating plants required in the 1990s are currently being designed and constructed. For those required shortly after 2000, the planning and alternatives assessment process must start now. It takes up to ten years to plan, design, license and construct a new coal-fired or nuclear fueled baseload electric generating plant and about six years for a natural gas-fired plant. This study indicates that for 600-megawatt blocks of capacity, advanced-design nuclear plants could supply electricity at an average of 4.5 cents per kilowatt-hour versus 4.8 cents per kilowatt-hour for an advanced pulverized-coal plant, 5.0 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gasified-coal combined cycle plant, and 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gas-fired combined cycle combustion turbine plant

  5. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS(regsign) and METHANE de-NOX(regsign) technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources

  6. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1,000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  7. Abstracts of the first ORNL workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: characterization and measurement with a view toward personnel protection. [PAH from coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R.B. (comp.)

    1976-11-01

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at a workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as those produced by coal conversion technologies. Their often carcinogenic nature imposes the obligation of providing adequate protection and measurement devices for workers and for the general public. The primary questions are as follows: What should be measured. Where and how should it be measured. What are the maximum permissible concentrations. This workshop and future workshops are intended to bring these problems into better focus and to help establish a consensus on what needs to be done in order to provide a dosimetry effort that will ensure the adequate protection of personnel. There were 32 attendees of this one-day meeting. The papers and discussions included current industrial hygiene practices, the development of government agency guidelines for worker protection, and a wide range of analytical techniques for PAH detection, some of which are still in the research stage and are unproven. The workshop was held at ORNL on February 26, 1976.

  8. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  9. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Final report, September 1989--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFCs for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-cm{sup 2} per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  10. Advanced Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators for Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostettler, Jacob

    Various environmental and economic factors have lead to increased global investment in alternative energy technologies such as solar and wind power. Although methodologies for synchronous generator control are well researched, wind turbines present control systems challenges not presented by traditional generation. The varying nature of wind makes achieving synchronism with the existing electrical power grid a greater challenge. Departing from early use of induction machines, permanent magnet synchronous generators have become the focus of power systems and control systems research into wind energy systems. This is due to their self excited nature, along with their high power density. The problem of grid synchronism is alleviated through the use of high performance power electronic converters. In achievement of the optimal levels of efficiency, advanced control systems techniques oer promise over more traditional approaches. Research into sliding mode control, and linear matrix inequalities with nite time boundedness and Hinfinity performance criteria, when applied to the dynamical models of the system, demonstrate the potential of these control methodologies as future avenues for achieving higher levels of performance and eciency in wind energy.

  11. On the challenge of developing advanced technologies for electrochemical energy storage and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Deog Yoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated production of sophisticated miniaturized mobile electronic devices, challenges such as the electrochemical propulsion of electric vehicles (EVs, and the need for large-scale storage of sustainable energy (i.e. load-levelling applications motivate and stimulate the development of novel rechargeable batteries and super-capacitors. While batteries deliver high energy density but limited cycle life and power density, super-capacitors provide high power density and very prolonged cycling. Lithium-ion batteries are the focus of intensive R&D efforts because they promise very high energy density that may be suitable for electrical propulsion. Here, we review research on batteries with an emphasis on Li-ion battery technology, examining its suitability for EV applications. We also briefly examine other battery systems that may be of importance for load-levelling applications, including rechargeable magnesium batteries. We give a short review of the status of technologies beyond Li-ion batteries, including Li–sulfur and Li–oxygen systems. Finally, we briefly discuss recent progress in the R&D of advanced super-capacitors.

  12. Effects of carbon capture on the performance of an advanced coal-based integrated gasification fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Rao, A.D.; Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, G.S. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants combining gasification and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies are very promising for highly efficient and environmentally friendly power generation from coal. IGFC plant amenability to carbon capture for sequestration makes the technology more attractive given the increasing concern over global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. With the support of the US Department of Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Advanced Power and Energy Program has conducted a study to identify promising conceptual designs for IGFC plants. The most promising IGFC concept identified so far is a system with catalytic hydro-gasification, a pressurized (operating pressure of 10 bar) SOFC followed by a turbo-expander and a steam cycle. The design requirement for recycling de-carbonized anode exhaust back to the gasifier for hydro-gasification not only produces a synergistic integration of SOFC and gasification subsystems, but also makes carbon separation a natural result. The current analyses of this system show an efficiency of 58.4 per cent (coal higher heating value basis) while capturing 94 per cent of the CO{sub 2}. Using this system as a baseline case, this work investigates the sensitivity of IGFC system performance on the extent of carbon capture. It is shown that the proposed IGFC system can achieve ultra-high carbon capture ({gt} 99 per cent) at small system efficiency expense while reducing carbon capture to below 90 per cent actually diminishes the system efficiency because less fuel is converted in the SOFC.

  13. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  15. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-07-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 tons of each of three project coals, by each process. During Quarter 11 (April--June, 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant with the installation and calibration of a refurbished 30-inch diameter column. The evaluation of toxic trace element data for column flotation samples continued, with preliminary analysis indicating that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements, and that significant reductions in the concentration of many elements were observed from raw coal, to flotation feed, to flotation product samples. Significant progress was made on Subtask 6.5 selective agglomeration bench-scale testing. Data from this work indicates that project ash specifications can be met for all coals evaluated, and that the bulk of the bridging liquid (heptane) can be removed from the product for recycle to the process. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module progressed this quarter with the completion of several revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Procurement of coal for PDU operation began with the purchase of 800 tons of Taggart coal. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU continued through this reporting quarter and is currently approximately 60% complete.

  17. Intelligent Control via Wireless Sensor Networks for Advanced Coal Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman Behal; Sunil Kumar; Goodarz Ahmadi

    2007-08-05

    Numerical Modeling of Solid Gas Flow, System Identification for purposes of modeling and control, and Wireless Sensor and Actor Network design were pursued as part of this project. Time series input-output data was obtained from NETL's Morgantown CFB facility courtesy of Dr. Lawrence Shadle. It was run through a nonlinear kernel estimator and nonparametric models were obtained for the system. Linear and first-order nonlinear kernels were then utilized to obtain a state-space description of the system. Neural networks were trained that performed better at capturing the plant dynamics. It is possible to use these networks to find a plant model and the inversion of this model can be used to control the system. These models allow one to compare with physics based models whose parameters can then be determined by comparing them against the available data based model. On a parallel track, Dr. Kumar designed an energy-efficient and reliable transport protocol for wireless sensor and actor networks, where the sensors could be different types of wireless sensors used in CFB based coal combustion systems and actors are more powerful wireless nodes to set up a communication network while avoiding the data congestion. Dr. Ahmadi's group studied gas solid flow in a duct. It was seen that particle concentration clearly shows a preferential distribution. The particles strongly interact with the turbulence eddies and are concentrated in narrow bands that are evolving with time. It is believed that observed preferential concentration is due to the fact that these particles are flung out of eddies by centrifugal force.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system consisting of wind turbine and advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation model consisting of wind speed, wind turbine and AA-CAES (advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage) system is developed in this paper, and thermodynamic analysis on energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system is carried out. The impacts of stable wind speed and unstable wind speed on the hybrid system are analyzed and compared from the viewpoint of energy conversion and system efficiency. Besides, energy conversion relationship between wind turbine and AA-CAES system is investigated on the basis of process analysis. The results show that there are several different forms of energy in hybrid system, which have distinct conversion relationship. As to wind turbine, power coefficient determines wind energy utilization efficiency, and in AA-CAES system, it is compressor efficiency that mainly affects energy conversion efficiencies of other components. The strength and fluctuation of wind speed have a direct impact on energy conversion efficiencies of components of hybrid system, and within proper wind speed scope, the maximum of system efficiency could be expected. - Highlights: • A hybrid system consisting of wind, wind turbine and AA-CAES system is established. • Energy conversion in hybrid system with stable and unstable wind speed is analyzed. • Maximum efficiency of hybrid system can be reached within proper wind speed scope. • Thermal energy change in hybrid system is more sensitive to wind speed change. • Compressor efficiency can affect other efficiencies in AA-CAES system

  19. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  20. An analysis of markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technology in Spain, Italy, and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placet, M.; Gerry, P.A.; Kenski, D.M.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the examination of potential overseas markets for using small-scale, US-developed, advanced coal-combustion technologies (ACTs). In previous work, member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) were rated on their potential for using ACTs through a comprehensive screening methodology. The three most promising OECD markets were found to be Spain, Italy, and Turkey. This report provides in-depth analyses of these three selected countries. First, it addresses changes in the European Community with particular reference to the 1992 restructuring and its potential effect on the energy situation in Europe, specifically in the three subject countries. It presents individual country studies that examine demographics, economics, building infrastructures, and energy-related factors. Potential niches for ACTs are explored for each country through regional analyses. Marketing channels, strategies, and the trading environments in each country are also discussed. The information gathered indicates that Turkey is a most promising market, Spain is a fairly promising market, and Italy appears to be a somewhat limited market for US ACTs. 76 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-19

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

  2. AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells. FINAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Di Donato, Antonello; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Velo García, Enrique; Nougués, José María; Pérez Fortes, María del Mar; Bojarski, Aarón David

    2010-01-01

    Informe Final del Projecte ECSC RFC-CR-04006: AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells

  3. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  4. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i

  5. Trends in Global Demonstrations of Carbon Management Technologies to Advance Coal- Based Power Generation With Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K. K.; Plasynski, S.; Feeley, T. J.

    2008-05-01

    conditions with geophysics. Borehole-based technologies include a novel geochemical two-phase reservoir sampler deployed at Otway, and thermal-based measurements at CO2SINK for coupled hydrologic-geochemical reservoir analyses. Seismic, geomechanical, hydrologic, geochemical, and core studies are used in a multidisciplinary approach to assess CO2 trapping and reservoir integrity at In Salah. With estimated lifetime storage of 17 MtCO2 at In Salah, this and other CCS demonstrations provide opportunities to gain commercial experience for advancing coal-based power generation-CCS for carbon management.

  6. Effects of fractal pore on coal devolatilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongli; He, Rong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cao, Liyong [Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu (China). Centre New Energy Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Coal devolatilization is numerically investigated by drop tube furnace and a coal pyrolysis model (Fragmentation and Diffusion Model). The fractal characteristics of coal and char pores are investigated. Gas diffusion and secondary reactions in fractal pores are considered in the numerical simulations of coal devolatilization, and the results show that the fractal dimension is increased firstly and then decreased later with increased coal conversions during devolatilization. The mechanisms of effects of fractal pores on coal devolatilization are analyzed.

  7. Iodine-catalyzed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, J.T.; Duffield, J.E.; Davidson, M.G. (Amoco Oil Company, Naperville, IL (USA). Research and Development Dept.)

    Coals of two different ranks were liquefied in high yields using catalytic quantities of elemental iodine or iodine compounds. Iodine monochloride was found to be especially effective for enhancing both coal conversion and product quality. It appears that enhancement in coal conversion is due to the unique ability of iodine to catalyze radical-induced bond scission and hydrogen addition to the coal macromolecule or coal-derived free radicals. The starting iodine can be fully accounted for in the reaction products as both organic-bound and water-soluble forms. Unconverted coal and the heavy product fractions contain the majority of the organic-bound iodine. The results of iodine-catalyzed coal reactions emphasize the need for efficient hydrogen atom transfer along with bond scission to achieve high conversion and product quality. 22 refs., 12 tabs.

  8. Optical Thin Films for Gas Sensing in Advanced Coal Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohodnicki, Paul; Brown, Thomas; Baltrus John; Chorpening, Benjamin

    2012-08-09

    Even for existing coal based plants, the opportunity for sensors and controls to improve efficiency is great. A wide range of gas species are of interest for relevant applications. Functional sensor layers for embedded sensing must be compatible with extreme conditions (temperature, pressure, corrosive). Au incorporated metal oxides have been looked at by a number of other authors previously for gas sensing, but have often focused on temperatures below 500{degree}C. Au nanoparticle incorporated metal oxide thin films have shown enhanced gas sensing response. In prior work, we have demonstrated that material systems such as Au nanoparticle incorporated TiO{sub 2} films exhibit a potentially useful optical response to changing gas atmospheres at temperatures up to ~800-850{degree}C. Current work is focused on sputter-deposited Au/TiO{sub 2} films. Au and Ti are multi-layered sputter deposited, followed by a 950{degree}C oxidation step. Increasing Au layer thickness yields larger particles. Interband electronic transitions significantly modify the optical constants of Au as compared to the damped free electron theory. A high temperature oxidation (20%O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment was performed at 700{degree}C followed by a reduction (4%H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment to illustrate the shift in both absorption and scattering with exposure to reducing gases. Shift of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak in changing gas atmospheres is well documented, but shift in the peak associated with diffuse scattering is a new observation. Increasing Au layer-thickness results in an increase in LSPR absorption and a shift to longer wavelengths. Diffuse scattering associated with the LSPR resonance of Au shows a similar trend with increasing Au thickness. To model the temperature dependence of LSPR, the modification to the plasmon frequency, the damping frequency, and the dielectric constant of the oxide matrix must be accounted for. Thermal expansion of Au causes

  9. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael; Luttrell, Gerald; Ripepi, Nino; Bratton, Robert; Dohm, Erich

    2014-06-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  10. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  11. Thermoelectric power plant conversion from fuel oil to coal with integration of a CO{sub 2} capture plant. Part 1; Conversion de una central termoelectrica de combustoleo a carbon con integracion de una planta de captura de CO{sub 2}. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huante Perez, Liborio; Rodriguez Martinez, J. Hugo; Arriola Medellin, Alejandro M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The major features in the design of power plant conversion from fuel oil to coal, considering the new technical characteristics of fuel and his transportation to plant, equipment required to comply with Mexican environmental standards and additional requirements of auxiliaries are described. In addition, changes needed on power plant design were considered according to integrates CO{sub 2} capture plant alternatives. [Spanish] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas principales en el diseno de la conversion de Centrales de combustoleo a carbon, considerando el nuevo combustible y su transporte hasta la central, los equipos requeridos para cumplir con las normas ambientales y los requerimientos adicionales de los servicios auxiliares. Adicionalmente, se lleva a cabo el analisis de los cambios requeridos en el diseno de la conversion considerando diferentes opciones para la integracion de una planta de captura de CO{sub 2}, la cual debera entregar este subproducto para su compresion y envio a su destino final para su almacenamiento.

  12. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  13. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  14. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  15. Co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, L.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU funded, international, R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding co-utilisation of biomass and/or waste in advanced coal conversion processes. The project comprises three main programmes, each of which includes a number of smaller subprogrammes. The three main programmes are: Coal-biomass systems component development and design; Coal-biomass environmental studies; Techno-economic assessment studies. (orig)

  16. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Company, Billings, MT (United States); Heintz, S.J. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  17. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  18. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  20. COAL OF THE FUTURE (Supply Prospects for Thermal Coal by 2030-2050)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The report, produced by Messrs. Energy Edge Ltd. (the U.K.) for the JRC Institute for Energy, aims at making a techno-economic analysis of novel extraction technologies for coal and their potential contribution to the global coal supply. These novel extraction technologies include: advanced coal mapping techniques, improved underground coal mining, underground coal gasification and utilisation of coalmine methane gas.

  1. LCC低阶煤转化提质技术的开发与应用%Development and Application for Upgrading Technology of LCC Low-rank Coal Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢; 黄学群

    2011-01-01

    Author has introduced the development process and application progress for LCC low-rank coal conversion up-gradation technology developed on basis of the American LFC technology;has described the process scheme,process flow,technical features and its main equipment,product property and usage of the LCC technology;has summarized the trial operation effect for the LCC demonstration plant with a capacity of 1000 t/d;has analyzed the engineering application prospect of the LCC low valence coal conversion up-gradation technology.%介绍了在美国LFC技术基础上开发的LCC低阶煤转化提质技术的研发过程和应用进展;阐述了LCC技术的工艺方案、工艺流程、技术特点以及主要设备、产品性质和用途;总结了1 000 t/d LCC示范装置的试运行效果;分析了LCC低阶煤转化提质技术的工程应用前景。

  2. Advance concepts for conversion of syngas to liquids. Quarterly progress report No. 4, July 30, 1995--October 29, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Shing Eugene Dai; Petty, R.H. [Texaco R& D, Port Arthur, TX (United States); Ingram, C.; Szostak, R. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substitution of transition metals for either aluminum and/or phosphorus in the AlPO{sub 4}-11 framework is found to afford novel heterogeneous catalysts for liquid phase hydroxylation of phenol with hydrogen peroxide. AlPO{sub 4}-11 is more active than SAPO-11 and MgAPO-11 for phenol conversion to hydroquinone. The Bronsted acid sites of SAPO-11 and MgAPO-11 may promote the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, thus leading to lower phenol conversions. Substitution of divalent and trivalent metal cations, such as Fe, Co and Mn appears to significantly improve the conversion of phenol. The activity follows the order of FeAPO-11>FeMnAPO-11>CoAPO-11>MnAPO-11{much_gt}ALPO{sub 4}-11. FeAPO-11, FeMnAPO-11 and AlPO{sub 4}-11 give similar product selectivities of about 1:1 hydroquitione (HQ) to catechol (CT). MnAPO-11 and CoAPO-11 favor the production of catechol, particularly at low conversions. FeAPO-11 and TS-1 (titanium silicate with MFI topology) are comparable for the phenol conversions with TS-1 giving higher selectivities toward hydroquinone. The external surfaces of the catalysts plays a significant role in these oxidation reactions. MeAPO molecular sieves may be complementary to the metal silicalite catalysts for the catalytic oxidations in the manufacture of fine chemicals.

  3. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF-solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented. (2 tables, 5 figs., 17 refs.)

  4. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented.

  5. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  6. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  7. Energy Conversion and Storage Program. 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-01-25

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by March, 1997. During Quarter 9 (October--December, 1995), parametric and optimization testing was completed for the Taggart, Sunnyside, and Indiana VII coal using a 12-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column. The detailed design of the 2-t/hr PDU grinding, flotation, and dewatering circuits neared completion with the specification of the major pieces of capital equipment to be purchased for these areas. Selective agglomeration test work investigated the properties of various industrial grades of heptane for use during bench- and PDU-scale testing. It was decided to use a hydrotreated grade of commercial heptane due to its low cost and low concentration of aromatic compounds. The final Subtask 6.4 CWF Formulation Studies Test Plan was issued. A draft version of the Subtask 6.5 Preliminary Design and Test Plan Report was also issued, discussing the progress made in the design of the bench-scale selective agglomeration unit. PDU construction work moved forward through the issuing of 26 request for quotations and 21 award packages for capital equipment.

  9. Experimental research on influencing factors of wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated in a self-designed UV-bubble reactor. Several main influencing factors (UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, initial pH value, solution temperature, NO initial concentration, liquid-gas ratio and O2 percentage content) on the NO removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, NO initial concentration and liquid-gas ratio are the main influencing factors. In the best conditions, the highest NO removal efficiency by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process could reach 82.9%. Based on the experimental study, the influencing mechanism of the relevant influencing factors were discussed in depth.

  10. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems: Technical progress report No. 16, July-September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcikowski, G.F.; Borio, R.W.; Bozzuto, C.R.; Burr, D.H.; Cellilli, L.; Fox, J.D.; Gibbons, T.B.; Hargrove, M.J.; Jukkola, G.D.; King, A.M.

    1996-11-27

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The Project is under budget and generally on schedule. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Status Report included as Appendix A. Under Task 7--Component development and optimization, the CeraMem filter testing was completed. Due to an unacceptably high flue gas draft loss, which will not be resolved in the POCTF timeframe, a decision was made to change the design of the flue gas cleaning system from Hot SNO{sub x}{sup {trademark}} to an advanced dry scrubber called New Integrated Desulfurization (NID). However, it is recognized that the CeraMem filter still has the potential to be viable in pulverized coal systems. In Task 8-- Preliminary POCTF design, integrating and optimizing the performance and design of the boiler, turbine/generator and heat exchangers of the Kalina cycle as well as the balance of plant design were completed. Licensing activities continued. A NID system was substituted for the SNO{sub x} Hot Process.

  11. Conversion of Chromium(III) Propionate to Chromate/dichromate(VI) by the Advanced Oxidation Process. Pretreatment of a Biomimetic Complex for Metal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn Rodman, D.; Carrington, Nathan A.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The use of H2O2 and UV irradiation to remove organic ligands in a chromium(III) complex for the subsequent chromium analysis is reported. The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) using a 5.5-W UV lamp, H2O2 and Fe2+/Fe3+ as catalyst (photo Fenton process) was found to give complete and quantitative Cr(III) → Cr(VI) conversion and removal of ligands in chromium(III) propionate [Cr3O(O2CCH2CH3)6(H2O)3]NO3, a biomimetic chromium species, as subsequent chromium analyses by the 1,5-diphenylcarbazide m...

  12. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  13. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. [Mainly, the effect of preteatment of coal with carbon monoxide and steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    CAER/UK: Detail coal and starting solvents from Wilsonville were analyzed to develop the data necessary to conduct process studies in the CO Pretreatment and Catalyst Evaluation segment of this program. A comparison of the solvent separation analysis with the distillation/separation used at Wilsonville showed that the residual solvent components contained a large amount of residual pentane soluble products. The ashy resid contained 3% iron and 400 ppM molybdenum. Although the iron content in the distillate and deashed resid was much less, namely about 200 ppM., the molybdenum concentrations in these fractions were not significantly reduced over the concentration in the ashy resid, i.e., 200 ppM in each. The pretreatment of coal with CO/H{sub 2}O in the presence of NaOH and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} has been shown to give a product which is lower in oxygen content and higher in hydrogen content compared to the raw coal. The atomic H/C ratios of the H{sub 2}O-insolubles, THF insolubles and the PA+A fractions of the products-together with the hydrogen consumption data suggested that the raw coal has been substantially depolymerized and hydrogenated via the WGS reaction during the pretreatment process. The extensive amount of molecular reconstruction that has occurred in the solid product was evident from the ease of solubilization of the product into pyridine. The result of the pretreatment process is a product which is highly reactive under hydroliquefaction conditions at 400{degrees}C. Reaction rates seem to be much faster than the raw coal, especially at shorter reaction times, providing the opportunity for major reductions in plant vessel sizes, and preliminary data has led us to believe that better efficiency in hydrogen utilization is achieved.

  14. Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  15. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

  16. High-Btu coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    This evaluation provides estimates of performance and cost data for advanced technology, high-Btu, coal gasification facilities. The six processes discussed reflect the current state-of-the-art development. Because no large commercial gasification plants have yet been built in the United States, the information presented here is based only on pilot-plant experience. Performance characteristics that were investigated include unit efficiencies, product output, and pollution aspects. Total installed plant costs and operating costs are tabulated for the various processes. The information supplied here will assist in selecting energy conversion units for an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES).

  17. Demonstration of advanced combustion NO(sub X) control techniques for a wall-fired boiler. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project represents a landmark assessment of the potential of low-NO(sub x) burners, advanced overtire air, and neural-network control systems to reduce NO(sub x) emissions within the bounds of acceptable dry-bottom, wall-fired boiler performance. Such boilers were targeted under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Testing provided valuable input to the Environmental Protection Agency ruling issued in March 1994, which set NO(sub x) emission limits for ''Group 1'' wall-fired boilers at 0.5 lb/10(sup 6) Btu to be met by January 1996. The resultant comprehensive database served to assist utilities in effectively implementing CAAA compliance. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. Five nationally competed solicitations sought cost-shared partnerships with industry to accelerate commercialization of the most advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The Program, valued at over$5 billion, has leveraged federal funding twofold through the resultant partnerships encompassing utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project was one of 16 selected in May 1988 from 55 proposals submitted in response to the Program's second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation's (FWEC) advanced overfire air (AOFA), low-NO(sub x) burners (LNB), and LNB/AOFA on wall-fired boiler NO(sub x) emissions and other combustion parameters. SCS also evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced on-line optimization system, the Generic NO(sub x) Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS). Over a six-year period, SCS carried out testing at Georgia Power Company's 500-MWe Plant Hammond Unit 4 in Coosa, Georgia. Tests proceeded in a logical sequence using rigorous statistical analyses to

  18. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  19. Domino instability effect of surrounding rock-coal pillars in a room-and-pillar gob

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chong; Xu Jinhai; Wang Zhongliang; Qin Shuai

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the domino instability effect and large area roof falling and roof accidents of surrounding rock-coal pillars in a room-and-pillar gob, the equilibrium equation for a roof-coal pillar-floor system with the influence of mining floor was developed based on the engineering conditions of the surrounding rock in a room-and-pillar gob in the 3-2 coal seam of Tanggonggou mine. The conditions of system instability and the relationship between system stability and system stiffness were analyzed from an energetic point of view. Numerical simulation using the discrete element software UDEC was also carried out to simulate conditions causing the domino effect on surrounding rock-coal pillars in a 3-2 room-and-pillar gob. The results show that:if we want the system to destabilize, the collective energy in roof-and-floor must be larger than that in the coal pillar. When the stiffness of the coal pillars and the roof-and-floor are both greater than zero, the system is stable. When the stiffness of the coal pillars is negative but the summed stiffness of the coal pillars and roof-and-floor is larger than or equal to zero, the system is statically destroyed. When the sum of the coal pillars and the roof-floor stiffness is negative, the system suffers from severe damages. For equal advance distances of the coal mining face, the wider coal pillars can reduce the probability of domino type instability. Conversely, the smaller width pillars can increase the instability probability. Domino type instability of surrounding rock-coal pillars is predicted to be unli-kely when the width of coal pillars is not less than 8 m.

  20. Integration of in-situ CO2-oxy coal gasification with advanced power generating systems performing in a chemical looping approach of clean combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Integration of CO2/O2 based UCG, CLC and CCS for clean coal utilization. • Incorporation of CLC system reduces the ASU load of the power plant. • Use of CO enriched UCG gas in Ni based CLC reduces the difficulty of heat balance. • Coupling of the proposed UCG with IGCC and IGST for the efficient power generation. • Demonstration of reduced CCS energy penalty in the advanced coupled system. - Abstract: Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a clean coal technology to utilize deep coal resources effectively. In-situ CO2-oxy coal gasification may eliminate the operational difficulty of the steam gasification process and utilize CO2 (greenhouse gas) effectively. Furthermore, it is necessary to convert the clean gasified energy from the UCG into clean combustion energy for an end-use. In order to achieve efficient clean power production, the present work investigates the thermodynamic feasibility of integration of CO2 based UCG with power generating systems operating in a chemical looping combustion (CLC) of product gas. The use of CO enriched syngas from O2/CO2 based UCG reduces the difficulty of the heat balance between a fuel reactor and an air reactor in a nickel oxygen-carrier based CLC system. Thermodynamic analyses have been made for various routes of power generation systems such as subcritical, supercritical and ultra-supercritical boiler based steam turbines and gas turbines for the UCG integrated system. It is shown, based on mass and energy balance analysis, that the integration of CO2 based UCG with the CLC system reduces the energy penalty of carbon capture and storage (CCS) significantly. A net thermal efficiency of 29.42% is estimated for the CCS incorporated system, which operates in a subcritical condition based steam turbine power plant. Furthermore, it is found that the efficiency of the proposed steam turbine system increases to 35.40% for an ultra-supercritical operating condition. The effect of operating temperature of the

  1. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 20, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1981-09-01

    Six tasks are reported: selective synthesis of gasoline range components from synthesis gas; electron microscopic studies of coal during hydrogenation; catalyzed low-temperature hydrogenation of coal; selective hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and alkylation of coal and coal liquids by organometallic systems; chemistry of coal solubilization and liquefaction; and coal conversion catalyst deactivation. (DLC)

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-11-04

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the 4th quarter of the project from July 1 to September 30, 1993.

  3. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  4. Chemical structures of coal lithotypes before and after CO2 adsorption as investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Mastalerz, Maria; Chappell, M.A.; Miller, L.F.; Li, Y.; Mao, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four lithotypes (vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain) of a high volatile bituminous Springfield Coal from the Illinois Basin were characterized using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR techniques included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS), cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, and recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing techniques. The lithotypes that experienced high-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analysis were also analyzed to determine possible changes in coal structure as a result of CO2 saturation at high pressure and subsequent evacuation. The main carbon functionalities present in original vitrain, bright clarain, clarain and fusain were aromatic carbons (65.9%-86.1%), nonpolar alkyl groups (9.0%-28.9%), and aromatic C-O carbons (4.1%-9.5%). Among these lithotypes, aromaticity increased in the order of clarain, bright clarain, vitrain, and fusain, whereas the fraction of alkyl carbons decreased in the same order. Fusain was distinct from other three lithotypes in respect to its highest aromatic composition (86.1%) and remarkably small fraction of alkyl carbons (11.0%). The aromatic cluster size in fusain was larger than that in bright clarain. The lithotypes studied responded differently to high pressure CO2 saturation. After exposure to high pressure CO2, vitrain and fusain showed a decrease in aromaticity but an increase in the fraction of alkyl carbons, whereas bright clarain and clarain displayed an increase in aromaticity but a decrease in the fraction of alkyl carbons. Aromatic fused-rings were larger for bright clarain but smaller for fusain in the post-CO2 adsorption samples compared to the original lithotypes. These observations suggested chemical CO2-coal interactions at high pressure and the selectivity of lithotypes in response to CO2 adsorption. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. ADECOS II advanced development of the coal-fired oxyfuel process with CO{sub 2} separation - a research project of the COORETEC programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Grahl; A. Hiller; J. Loeser; S. Weigl; R. Wilhelm; M. Beckmann [Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany). Department of Combustion, Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of Power Engineering Technische

    2009-07-01

    The ADECOS (Advanced Developement of the Coal-fired Oxyfuel Process with CO{sub 2} Separation) project has the objective to make a comprehensive assessment of the Oxyfuel technology with CO{sub 2} separation for coal. This includes experiments in laboratory and technical scale as well as theoretical investigation, modelling work and component design concerning: ignition an burn-out behaviour, fouling, slagging, NO reduction, start-up und shut-down behaviour, SO{sub 2} removal, CO{sub 2} separation by distillation, CFD modelling and validation at a 50 kWthermal combustion chamber, comparison and evaluation of different steam generator concepts (pulverised fuel combustion, circulating fluidised bed combustion, melting chamber combustion), Evaluation of the overall Oxyfuel process (EBSILON Professional) and suggestions for optimisation, with special focus on intrinsic energy demand, residual gas separation, position of the desulphurisation facility as well as design of the steam generator and the compressor circuit for CO{sub 2} compression. In the presented paper we will focus on the experimental results at the test facilities at the University of Technology Dresden. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  7. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a flue gas conditioning system was completed at PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. Performance testing was underway. Results will be detailed in the next quarterly and subsequent technical summary reports. Also in this quarter, discussions were initiated with a prospective long-term candidate plant. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning has been proposed here, but there is interest in liquid additives as a safer alternative

  8. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative

  9. Coal gasification and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, D.; Towler, B.

    2010-07-01

    This book approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, with topics chosen to aid the process engineer who is interested in a complete, coal-to-products system. It provides a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes. The first topic describes the nature and availability of coal. Next, the fundamentals of gasification are described, followed by a description of gasification technologies and gas cleaning processes. The conversion of syngas to electricity, fuels and chemicals is then discussed. Finally, process economics are covered. Emphasis is given to the selection of gasification technology based on the type of coal fed to the gasifier and desired end product: E.g., lower temperature gasifiers produce substantial quantities of methane, which is undesirable in an ammonia synthesis feed. This book also reviews gasification kinetics which is informed by recent papers and process design studies by the US Department of Energy and other groups. Approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, providing a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes - Describes the fundamentals of gasification, gasification technologies, and gas cleaning processes - Emphasizes the importance of the coal types fed to the gasifier and desired end products - Covers gasification kinetics.

  10. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, progress was made in obtaining an industry partner for a long-term demonstration and in technology transfer activities. Engineering and equipment procurement activities related to the long-term demonstration were also completed.

  11. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions have begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During the second reporting quarter for this project, design and development is continuing on an electrostatic tensiometer to measure cohesion of flyash layers. A dedicated test fixture to automate flyash electrical resistivity testing is also underway. Ancillary instrumentation to control gas humidification within these test fixtures is also under construction

  12. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report: First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, long-term testing of the LNB + AOFA configuration continued and no parametric testing was performed. Further full-load optimization of the LNB + AOFA system began on March 30, 1993. Following completion of this optimization, comprehensive testing in this configuration will be performed including diagnostic, performance, verification, long-term, and chemical emissions testing. These tests are scheduled to start in May 1993 and continue through August 1993. Preliminary engineering and procurement are progressing on the Advanced Low NOx Digital Controls scope addition to the wall-fired project. The primary activities during this quarter include (1) refinement of the input/output lists, (2) procurement of the distributed digital control system, (3) configuration training, and (4) revision of schedule to accommodate project approval cycle and change in unit outage dates.

  14. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  15. Advanced medium-voltage bidirectional dc-dc conversion systems for future electric energy delivery and management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haifeng

    2011-12-01

    The distributed renewable energy generation and utilization are constantly growing, and are expected to be integrated with the conventional grid. The growing pressure for innovative solutions will demand power electronics to take an even larger role in future electric energy delivery and management systems, since power electronics are required for the conversion and control of electric energy by most dispersed generation systems Furthermore, power electronics systems can provide additional intelligent energy management, grid stability and power quality capabilities. Medium-voltage isolated dc-dc converter will become one of the key interfaces for grid components with moderate power ratings. To address the demand of medium voltage (MV) and high power capability for future electric energy delivery and management systems, the power electronics community and industry have been reacting in two different ways: developing semiconductor technology or directly connecting devices in series/parallel to reach higher nominal voltages and currents while maintaining conventional converter topologies; and by developing new converter topologies with traditional semiconductor technology, known as multilevel converters or modular converters. The modular approach uses the well-known, mature, and cheaper power semiconductor devices by adopting new converter topologies. The main advantages of the modular approach include: significant improvement in reliability by introducing desired level of redundancy; standardization of components leading to reduction in manufacturing cost and time; power systems can be easily reconfigured to support varying input-output specifications; and possibly higher efficiency and power density of the overall system. Input-series output-parallel (ISOP) modular configuration is a good choice to realize MV to low voltage (LV) conversion for utility application. However, challenges still remain. First of all, for the high-frequency MV utility application, the low

  16. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  17. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the fourth reporting quarter, laboratory-screening tests of more than 20 potential additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. An initial field trial of three additive formulations was also conducted at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  18. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During the fourth reporting quarter, laboratory-screening tests of more than 20 potential additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. An initial field trial of three additive formulations was also conducted at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant

  19. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  20. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application this new development. To have better understanding of the membrane reactor, during this reporting period, we developed a two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model for steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in a tubular membrane reactor. In numerical solution of the reactor model equations, numerical difficulties were encountered and we seeking alternative solution techniques to overcome the problem

  1. Advanced reactors and novel reactions for the conversion of triglyceride based oils into high quality renewable transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Michael James

    Sustainable energy continues to grow more important to all societies, leading to the research and development of a variety of alternative and renewable energy technologies. Of these, renewable liquid transportation fuels may be the most visible to consumers, and this visibility is further magnified by the long-term trend of increasingly expensive petroleum fuels that the public consumes. While first-generation biofuels such as biodiesel and fuel ethanol have been integrated into the existing fuel infrastructures of several countries, the chemical differences between them and their petroleum counterparts reduce their effectiveness. This gives rise to the development and commercialization of second generation biofuels, many of which are intended to have equivalent properties to those of their petroleum counterparts. In this dissertation, the primary reactions for a second-generation biofuel process, known herein as the University of North Dakota noncatalytic cracking process (NCP), have been studied at the fundamental level and improved. The NCP is capable of producing renewable fuels and chemicals that are virtually the same as their petroleum counterparts in performance and quality (i.e., petroleum-equivalent). In addition, a novel analytical method, FIMSDIST was developed which, within certain limitations, can increase the elution capabilities of GC analysis and decrease sample processing times compared to other high resolution methods. These advances are particularly useful for studies of highly heterogeneous fuel and/or organic chemical intermediates, such as those studied for the NCP. However the data from FIMSDIST must be supplemented with data from other methods such as for certain carboxylic acid, to provide accurate, comprehensive results, From a series of TAG cracking experiments that were performed, it was found that coke formation during cracking is most likely the result of excessive temperature and/or residence time in a cracking reactor. Based on this

  2. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  4. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.

  5. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1994, April 1994--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NOx combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NOx burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters. Results are described.

  6. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the

  7. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains paper on the following topics: coal combustion/coal processing; advanced electric power generation systems; combined nitrogen oxide/sulfur dioxide control technologies; and emerging clean coal issues and environmental concerns. These paper have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  8. A novel integration of three-dimensional electro-Fenton and biological activated carbon and its application in the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun

    2015-11-01

    A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and <20 times, allowing discharge criteria to be met. The integrated system was efficient, cost-effective and ecological sustainable and could be a promising technology for engineering applications. PMID:26227570

  9. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW. PMID:25934578

  10. Advanced Stochastic Optimization Modeling of the Water-energy-food Nexus for Robust Energy and Agricultural Development: Coal Mining Industry in Shanxi province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, J; Sun, C.; Xiangyang, X.; Cao, G.-Y.; Yermoliev, Y.; Ermolieva, T.; Mosnier, A; Rovenskaya, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, we discuss a modeling framework able to carry out an integrated systems analysis of interdependent energy-food-water-environmental systems while accounting for the competition to those systems posed by restricted natural resources under inherent uncertainties and systemic risks. The case study focuses on developments of coal industry in water-scarce regions of China. Coal is the main energy source in China responsible for country’s energy security. However, coal-based in...

  11. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  12. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems. First quarterly report, FY94, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The major task during this quarter was testing and evaluation of the 25 MBtu/hr Toroidal Vortex Combustor (TVC) at Textron Defense Systems`` (TDS) Haverhill laboratories. The tests were completed and the results are being evaluated along with other scale up and integration issues. The preliminary conclusion is that the NOx performance and current design uncertainties do not justify the development risk within the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) timetable. Further program effort will focus on advanced U-firing arrangements. The second major effort during the period was the engineering development of the moving bed copper oxide system for SOx/NOx control. Through application of a DOE-developed model and the team`s engineering analysis, significant progress was made on developing an improved process design. Work began on a small scale test of the moving bed concept under realistic temperature and dust loading conditions. Work continued through the quarter on finalizing the Preliminary Engineering Design, Design Deficiency Analysis, and Research, Development, and Test Plan. The Design and Development Report containing these three deliverables was released in March. Sargent & Lundy printed and distributed the report to team members, as well as to the advisory panelists. The advisory panel numbers approximately fifteen organizations as of the end of the period.

  13. Power electronics advanced conversion technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Symbols and Factors Used in This Book AC/DC Rectifiers DC/DC Converters DC/AC Inverters AC/AC Converters AC/DC/AC and DC/AC/DC Converters Uncontrolled AC/DC Converters Single-Phase Half-Wave Converters Single-Phase Full-Wave Converters Three-Phase Half-Wave Converters Six-Phase Half-Wave Converters Three-Phase Full-Wave Converters Multiphase Full-Wave Converters Controlled AC/DC Converters Single-Phase Half-Wave Controlled Converters Single-Phase Full-Wave Controlled Converters Three-Phase Half-Wave Controlled Rectifiers Six-Phase Half-Wave Controlled Rectifiers Three-Phase Full-W

  14. Coal desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  15. Advanced development of fine coal desulfurization and recovery technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1976--December 31, 1976. [53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.W.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1977-02-01

    The improvement and technical development of promising methods for desulfurizing and recovering fine coal underway includes froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration, pelletization, and a chemical desulfurization process which involves leaching fine coal with a hot dilute solution of sodium carbonate containing dissolved oxygen under pressure. A preliminary assessment of the state of the art and review of the technical literature has been made. Equipment and apparatus have been assembled for small-scale laboratory experiments in froth flotation, oil agglomeration and chemical desulfurization. Preliminary froth flotation tests have been carried out on an Iowa coal to establish baseline data. Quite unexpectedly these tests indicated that aluminum nitrate may be an activator for coal because it served to increase the recovery of coal. Several potential flotation depressants for pyrite have been screened by measurement at the zeta potential and floatability of pyrite or coal in aqueous suspensions containing the potential depressants. The following reagents show some promise as pyrite depressants: ferric chloride, sodium cyanide, ammonium thiocyanate, and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Preliminary plans have been prepared for a continuous flow bench-scale system to demonstrate the process. This system will include equipment for grinding and pretreating the coal as well as equipment for demonstrating froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration and pelletization. An investigation of coal microstructure as it relates to coal beneficiation methods has also been initiated. The distribution of various forms of pyrite by size and crystal structure has been determined for two cannel samples of coal through application of scanning electron microscope techniques.

  16. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  17. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  18. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  19. Thermocatalytical processing of coal and shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the questions of thermocatalytical conversion of organic mass of coal (OMC, it is shown that in the absence of a catalyst process is carried out by a radical process. Accumulated data on the properties for radicals of different structure and therefore different reaction capacity enables us to understand and interpret the conversion of OMC. Thermal conversion of OMC regarded as a kind of depolymerization, accompanied by decomposition of the functional groups with the formation of radicals, competing for hydrogen atom. Catalyst can change the direction and conditions of the process. Modern catalysts can reduce the process pressure up to 50 atm., with a high degree of coal conversion. We consider examples of simultaneous conversion of coal and shale, shale and masut, shale and tar.

  20. Coal marketing in Asia: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Asia, coal currently accounts for over 40 percent of the fossil fuel used for commercial energy. This paper briefly surveys the forces that are likely to decide the future role coal will play as a prime source of energy in the vigorous economies of Asia. As Australia is well placed to profit from Asia's growing need for coal, the challenge to Australian coal suppliers is how to maximize its potential contribution. Four-fifths of all new coal fired electrical generating capacity in the world in the next decade will be located in Asia. Three-quarters of Australia's coal exports are to Asian customers and, conversely, 40 percent of Asian imports are from Australia. Australian coal suppliers have established ties and a depth of marketing experience in the region on which to build. However, pricing policies, and the emergence of the private power producers, together with environmental pressures, will present challenges for the future. (author). 1 fig

  1. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  2. Relationships of coal characteristics to coal reactivity for direct hydrogenation liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Voorhees, K.J.; Durfee, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Two suites of coals from the US have been liquefied in a batch stirred autoclave reactor under a set of standard conditions. Data from the reactor have permitted both the rate and extent of conversion to be measured. Rate of reaction and extent of conversion of coal have then been used as dependent variables for development of correlations for reactivity with basic coal chemical, geochemical, and structural properties. In general, use of a kinetic definition for reactivity has been shown to be superior in ranking relative reactivities among closely related coals, and for developing correlations with compositional parameters such as volatile matter, reactive macerals, and vitrinite reflectance. Carbon aromaticity as determined by /sup 13/C-NMR and structural parameters as determined by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry have also been found to be useful in providing insight into the relationship between coal structure and coal reactivity. 17 references.

  3. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NOx removal. Most other plants are using low NOx burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  4. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110359 Feng Lijuan(Graduate School,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,China);Guo Dali Experimental Study on the Stress Sensitivity of Coal and Its Impact on the Filtration of the Fracturing Fluid(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(2),2010,p.14-17,4 illus.,5 tables,9 refs.)Key words:coal seam,stressIn the paper,the relationship between the stress and permeability in the coal r

  5. Underground coal gasification and the ways of their admission

    OpenAIRE

    Beáta Jágerová; Ján Pinka; Mariana Mihočová

    2006-01-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is the conversion of coal in the seam into a combustible gas. UCG is conceptually very simple but controlling the reaction and producing a consistent gas quality under a variety of geological and coal conditions is difficult to achieve. The basic concept has two boreholes, one for the injection of oxidants and the other for the removal of the product gas.UCG requires boreholes to access the coal, and three methods have been developed to connect them, namely...

  6. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  7. A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasbir Gill

    2010-08-30

    Nalco Company is partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in this project to jointly develop advanced scale control technologies that will provide cost-effective solutions for coal-based power plants to operate recirculating cooling water systems at high cycles using impaired waters. The overall approach is to use combinations of novel membrane separations and scale inhibitor technologies that will work synergistically, with membrane separations reducing the scaling potential of the cooling water and scale inhibitors extending the safe operating range of the cooling water system. The project started on March 31, 2006 and ended in August 30, 2010. The project was a multiyear, multi-phase project with laboratory research and development as well as a small pilot-scale field demonstration. In Phase 1 (Technical Targets and Proof of Concept), the objectives were to establish quantitative technical targets and develop calcite and silica scale inhibitor chemistries for high stress conditions. Additional Phase I work included bench-scale testing to determine the feasibility of two membrane separation technologies (electrodialysis ED and electrode-ionization EDI) for scale minimization. In Phase 2 (Technology Development and Integration), the objectives were to develop additional novel scale inhibitor chemistries, develop selected separation processes, and optimize the integration of the technology components at the laboratory scale. Phase 3 (Technology Validation) validated the integrated system's performance with a pilot-scale demonstration. During Phase 1, Initial evaluations of impaired water characteristics focused on produced waters and reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents. Literature and new data were collected and evaluated. Characteristics of produced waters vary significantly from one site to another, whereas reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents have relatively more uniform characteristics. Assessment to date confirmed that calcite and silica

  8. The coal industry and its greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian coal industry is actively involved in greenhouse gas emission management and abatement issues. An Australian Coal Association (ACA) position paper on greenhouse in November 1989, recommended a number of strategies to minimise the greenhouse effect, including the enhancement of energy utilisation efficiency, improved energy conversion efficiency at coal-fired power stations, expanded use of solar heating, and improved recycling. All of the strategies have been implemented to various degrees. The management and abatement of greenhouse gas emissions within the coal industry has been approached from an individual operational level, and a 'higher' industry level

  9. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  10. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  11. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  12. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF6 and UF4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  13. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111830 Cai Hou’an(State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safety Mining,China University of Mining and Technology,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin The Discovery of Thrust Nappe Structure in Zhangwu-Heishan Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance for Coal-Searching(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(5),2010,p.1-6,5 illus.,31 refs.)Key words:coalfield prediction,nappe structure,Liaoning Province Zhangwu-Heishan area in west Liaoning Province is an important perspective area for alternative resources in the periphery of Fuxin Basin.Based on r

  14. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122522 Guo Dongxin ( School of Energy Resource,China University of Geosciences,Bei-jing 100083,China );Tang Shuheng Sequence Strata and the Coal Accumulation of Wunite Coafield,Inner Mongolia ( Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155 / P,39 ( 6 ), 2011,p.1-5,5illus.,16refs. ) Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Inner Mongolia Based on the study of the stratigraphy sequence of the Bayanhua Formation of Lower Cretaceous in Wunite coafield ,

  15. Fuel production from coal by the Mobil Oil process using nuclear high-temperature process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have several variants in which nuclear process heat may be used; in most cases, the nuclear heat is introduced in the gas production stage. The following gas production processes are compared: LURGI coal gasification process; steam reformer methanation, with and without coal hydrogasification and steam gasification of coal. (orig./EF)

  16. Intersociety energy conversion engineering conference, 20th, Miami Beach, FL, August 18-23, 1985, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2, and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics related to aerospace power are discussed, taking into account trends and issues of military space power systems technology, space station power system advanced development, the application and use of nuclear power for future spacecraft, the current status of advanced solar array technology development, the application of a parabolic trough concentrator to space station power needs, life test results of the Intelsat-V nickel-cadmium battery, and metal hydride hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen batteries. Other subjects explored are concerned with alternative fuels, biomass energy, biomedical power, coal gasification, electric power cycles, and electric propulsion. Attention is given to an advanced terrestrial vehicle electric propulsion systems assessment, fuel cells as electric propulsion power plants, a sinewave synthesis for high efficiency dc-ac conversion, steam desulfurization of coal, leadless transfer of energy into the body to power implanted blood pumps, oil production via entrained flow pyrolysis of biomass, and a New Zealand synthetic gasoline plant

  17. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  18. Forecast of long term coal supply and mining conditions: Model documentation and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A coal industry model was developed to support the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in its investigation of advanced underground coal extraction systems. The model documentation includes the programming for the coal mining cost models and an accompanying users' manual, and a guide to reading model output. The methodology used in assembling the transportation, demand, and coal reserve components of the model are also described. Results presented for 1986 and 2000, include projections of coal production patterns and marginal prices, differentiated by coal sulfur content.

  19. Systematic analysis of impact factors and level of coal miners’ safety behavior

    OpenAIRE

    He Gang; Qiao Guo-tong; Li Tian-bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper indicates that coal miners’ unsafe behavior is the major internal reason causing coal mine accidents. Factors affecting coal miners’ unsafe behavior were identified. The relatively entire system of coal miners’ safety behavior was built accordingly. Coal miners’ unsafe behavior system was analyzed quantitatively. Path and divergence of impact factors within the system were explained in detail. Management decision can be formulated to advance management level in coal mine industry....

  20. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132555 Bao Yuan(School of Resources and Geosciences,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Wei Chongtao Simulation of Geological Evolution History of the Upper Permian Coal Seam No.8in Shuigonghe Syncline,Zhina Coalfield,Guizhou Province(Coal Geology&Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,40(6),2012,p.13-16,23,1illus.,1table,17refs.)

  1. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-28

    This project is concerned with the development of an a coal-fired low-emission boiler system. During march, separate kick-off meetings were held with PSI Powerserve, Raytheon and B&W`s Environmental Equipment Division to begin work on Phase I Task 5, the Commercial Plant Design. In addition, a meeting was held with MIT to discuss and review work completed and schedule work remaining on the project.

  2. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  3. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  4. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  5. Coal 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  7. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  8. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of the proposed study was the study and analysis of, and design recommendations for, a novel radiatively-conductively stabilized combustion (RCSC) process for pulverized coal, which, based on our prior studies with both fluid fuels and pulverized coal, holds a high promise to reduce NO{sub x} production significantly. We have primarily engaged in continuing and improving our process modeling and analysis, obtained a large amount of quantitative information about the effects of the major parameters on NO{sub x} production, conducted an extensive exergy analysis of the process, evaluated the practicalities of employing the Radiatively-Conductively Stabilized Combustor (RCSC) to large power and heat plants, and improved the experimental facility. Prior experimental work has proven the feasibility of the combustor, but slagging during coal combustion was observed and should be dealt with. The primary outcomes and conclusions from the study are: (1) we developed a model and computer program that represents the pulverized coal combustion in the RCSC, (2) the model predicts that NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by a number of methods, detailed in the report. (3) the exergy analysis points out at least a couple of possible ways to improve the exergetic efficiency in this combustor: increasing the effectiveness of thermal feedback, and adjusting the combustor mixture exit location, (4) because of the low coal flow rates necessitated in this study to obtain complete combustion in the burner, the size of a burner operating under the considered conditions would have to be up to an order of magnitude, larger than comparable commercial burners, but different flow configurations of the RCSC can yield higher feed rates and smaller dimensions, and should be investigated. Related to this contract, eleven papers were published in journals and conference proceedings, and ten invited presentations were given at university and research institutions, as well as at

  10. Use of North Dakota lignite in advanced power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, W.G.; Hurley, J.P.; Sharp, L.

    1992-12-01

    In order to develop critical data for Department of Energy (DOE) and private industry for advanced high-efficiency power systems using North Dakota lignite in pressurized gasification and combustion systems, tests were performed in bench-scale equipment at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The primary objectives were to (1) determine the conversion levels for Center ND lignite under pressurized fluid-bed gasification conditions with sorbent addition as a function of temperature, (2) determine the sulfur capture using limestone or dolomite under gasification conditions giving 90% or higher carbon conversion, (3) evaluate char/coal conversion and sulfur capture in a pressurized fluid-bed combustor, (4) assess the potential for bed agglomeration under the preferred operating conditions for both systems.

  11. Application of microorganisms in coal cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure energy supply is one of the basic pre-requisites for a sound economic system, sustained standard and quality of life and eventually for the social well-being of each individual. For a progressive country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which given the relatively large resources available, is considered to be one of the major options for the next few hundred years. Bioprocessing of coal in an emerging technology which has started to receive considerable research attention. Recent research activities involving coal cleaning, direct coal conversion, and indirect conversion of coal-derived materials have generated a plethora of facts regarding biochemistry, chemistry, and thermodynamic behavior of coal, in that its bioprocessing is on the verge of becoming and acceptable means to great coals. In this research report, investigations pertaining to the various aspects of coal bio processing, including desulfurization and depyritization are discussed. Bituminous coals varying in total sulfur contents of 3-6% were depyritized more than 90% by mesophilic acidophiles like Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thio oxidans and thermophilic Sulfolobus brierleyi. The archaebacterium, Sulfolobus brierleyi was found to desulfurize inorganic and organic sulfur components of the coal. Conditions were established under which it can remove more than 30% of the organic sulfur present in the coals. Heterotrophic microorganisms including oxenic and soil isolates were also employed for studying sulfurization. A soil isolate, Oil-2, was found to remove more than 70% dibenzothiophenic sulfur present in an oil-water emulsion (1:20 ratio). Pseudomonas putida and the bacterium oil-2 also remove 60-70% organic sulfur present in the shale-oil. Preliminary results indicate the presence of putatively known Kodama's pathway in the oil-2. The mass balance for sulfate indicated the possibility of the presence

  12. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  13. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  14. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO2 and NOx as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NOx cleaning system. Most other plants use low NOx burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  15. Zero emission coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  16. The NILE Project — Advances in the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Materials into Ethanol Le projet NILE et la conversion des matériaux lignocellulosiques en éthanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monot F.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available NILE ("New Improvements for Lignocellulosic Ethanol" was an integrated European project (2005-2010 devoted to the conversion of lignocellulosic raw materials to ethanol. The main objectives were to design novel enzymes suitable for the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and new yeast strains able to efficiently converting all the sugars present in lignocellulose into ethanol. The project also included testing these new developments in an integrated pilot plant and evaluating the environmental and socio-economic impacts of implementing lignocellulosic ethanol on a large scale. Two model raw materials – spruce and wheat straw – both preconditioned with similar pretreatments, were used. Several approaches were explored to improve the saccharification of these pretreated raw materials such as searching for new efficient enzymes and enzyme engineering. Various genetic engineering methods were applied to obtain stable xylose- and arabinose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that tolerate the toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The pilot plant was able to treat 2 tons of dry matter per day, and hydrolysis and fermentation could be run successively or simultaneously. A global model integrating the supply chain was used to assess the performance of lignocellulosic ethanol from an economical and environmental perspective. It was found that directed evolution of a specific enzyme of the cellulolytic cocktail produced by the industrial fungus, Trichoderma reesei, and modification of the composition of this cocktail led to improvements of the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated raw material. These results, however, were difficult to reproduce at a large scale. A substantial increase in the ethanol conversion yield and in specific ethanol productivity was obtained through a combination of metabolic engineering of yeast strains and fermentation process development. Pilot trials confirmed the good behaviour of the yeast strains

  17. Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing; Parasher, Sukesh; Hare, Jeffrey J.; Harding, N. Stanley; Black, Stephanie E.; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2008-04-15

    An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

  18. Proceedings of the Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-26

    This proceedings includes papers presented at the Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar held at Terrigal, Australia in November, 1996. Keynote addresses, three sessions for discussions, and presentations by members economies are included. `Future investment requirements for coal in the APEC region,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC region coal chain,` `International commercial financier`s perspective on coal,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment issues affecting the uptake of clean coal technology (CCT),` `Role of multilateral development banks in financing CCT to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,` and `Strategies for addressing regional coal issues` were presented as keynote addresses. In the sessions, investment issues facing coal power development, financing coal and investment, and investment strategies for CCT were discussed. 58 refs., 42 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  20. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vol.9. No.1. Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Third APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Coal Flow Seminar was held featuring regional investment strategies for coal, power infrastructure, and technology transfer in Terrigal, Australia in 26-28, November, 1996. This publication introduces the summary and the papers presented for the keynote speeches and the panels of this seminar. For the keynote speeches, `Investment requirements for steaming coal supplies in APEC member economies,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC regional coal chain,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment in clean coal power plants,` and `Role of multilateral development banks in financing clean coal technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emission` were presented. In addition, summary and papers describing individual situations of APEC member economies are introduced. 59 refs., 42 figs., 37 tabs.

  1. The use of NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.; Hurtubise, R.J.

    1995-02-01

    Western Research Institute has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The objectives of this study were to develop a combined chemical dehydration/nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the moisture content of coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during drying, and to determine the effects of different drying methods on liquefaction reactivity of coals. Different methods of drying were investigated to determine whether coal drying can be accomplished without reducing the reactivity of coals toward liquefaction. Drying methods included thermal, microwave, and chemical dehydration. Coals of rank lignite to high volatile bituminous were studied. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. These results are supported by the solvent swelling measurements in which the swelling ratios of thermally dried and microwave-dried coals were lower than those of premoisturized coals, indicating a greater degree of cross linking in the dried coals. The swelling ratios of the chemically dried coals were greater than those of the premoisturized coals because the pore structure remaining unchanged or increased when water was removed. These results are consistent with the NMR results, which did not show significant changes in coal chemical structure.

  2. The molecular structure of selected South African coal-chars to elucidate fundamental principles of coal gasification / Mokone Joseph Roberts

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Mokone Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the knowledge of chemical structure of coal and development of high performance computational techniques led to more than hundred and thirty four proposed molecular level representations (models) of coal between 1942 and 2010. These models were virtually on the carboniferous coals from the northern hemisphere. There are only two molecular models based on the inertinite- and vitrinite-rich coals from the southern hemisphere. The current investigation is based on the ...

  3. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  4. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater. PMID:23735800

  5. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, October-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    DOE's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of DOE's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and ERDA. The Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, had started work in the 1930's. Current work is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and noncatalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, especially boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, and gasoline, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, DOE is supporting the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Each of these processes are described briefly.

  6. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  7. La conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Béatrice Bakhouche; Billier, Jean-Cassien; Cuvillier, Elian

    2009-01-01

    Le numéro 6 des Cahiers ouvre le champ d’étude sur la conversion, thème que le CIER a décidé de parcourir pendant deux ans. Fidèle à sa tradition d’interdisciplinarité, ce numéro expose des points de vue philosophique, théologique et littéraire. En guise de présentation introductive, le philosophe Jean-Cassien Billier offre un large panorama des différents domaines concernés par le phénomène de conversion, au premier rang desquels se situe le point de vue politique. Suivent deux réflexions su...

  8. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone. Phase two: analysis of research advances. Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-08-01

    The initial objective of this work was to develop a methodology for analyzing the impact of technological advances as a tool to help establish priorities for R and D options in the field of biocatalysis. As an example of a biocatalyzed process, butanol/acetone fermentation (ABE process) was selected as the specific topic of study. A base case model characterizing the technology and economics associated with the ABE process was developed in the previous first phase of study. The project objectives were broadened in this second phase of work to provide parametric estimates of the economic and energy impacts of a variety of research advances in the hydrolysis, fermentation and purification sections of the process. The research advances analyzed in this study were based on a comprehensive literature review. The six process options analyzed were: continuous ABE fermentaton; vacuum ABE fermentation; Baelene solvent extraction; HRI's Lignol process; improved prehydrolysis/dual enzyme hydrolysis; and improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity. Of the six options analyzed, only improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity had a significant positive effect on energy efficiency and economics. This particular process option reduced the base case production cost (including 10% DCF return) by 20% and energy consumption by 16%. Figures and tables.

  9. Coal technology program progress report for November 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    This report, the 28th of a series, is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal as a source of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion process development, materials engineering, alkali metal vapor topping cycles, a Critical Components Test Facility, engineering and support studies, environmental assessment studies, and coal-fueled MIUS.

  10. Underground coal gasification and the ways of their admission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is the conversion of coal in the seam into a combustible gas. UCG is conceptually very simple but controlling the reaction and producing a consistent gas quality under a variety of geological and coal conditions is difficult to achieve. The basic concept has two boreholes, one for the injection of oxidants and the other for the removal of the product gas. (authors)

  11. Quantum conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic momentum transferred transfered to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ($\\hbar k$) does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the transformation, including units, of the classical fields to wave-function equivalent fields.

  12. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  13. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  14. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment

  15. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  16. Catalytic conversion of biomass to fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, R. L.; Ushiba, K. K.; Cooper, M.; Mahawili, I.

    1978-01-01

    This report presents an assessment and perspective concerning the application of catalytic technologies to the thermochemical conversion of biomass resources to fuels. The major objectives of the study are: to provide a systematic assessment of the role of catalysis in the direct thermochemical conversion of biomass into gaseous and liquid fuels; to establish the relationship between potential biomass conversion processes and catalytic processes currently under development in other areas, with particular emphasis on coal conversion processes; and to identify promising catalytic systems which could be utilized to reduce the overall costs of fuels production from biomass materials. The report is divided into five major parts which address the above objectives. In Part III the physical and chemical properties of biomass and coal are compared, and the implications for catalytic conversion processes are discussed. With respect to chemical properties, biomass is shown to have significant advantages over coal in catalytic conversion processes because of its uniformly high H/C ratio and low concentrations of potential catalyst poisons. The physical properties of biomass can vary widely, however, and preprocessing by grinding is difficult and costly. Conversion technologies that require little preprocessing and accept a wide range of feed geometries, densities, and particle sizes appear desirable. Part IV provides a comprehensive review of existing and emerging thermochemical conversion technologies for biomass and coal. The underlying science and technology for gasification and liquefaction processes are presented.

  17. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E. Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  18. Analysis of PROTEUS LWHCR [light water high conversion reactor] Phase II experiments performed using the AARE [advanced analysis for reactor engineering] modular system and JEF [joint evaluated file] based libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of the AARE [advanced analysis for reactor engineering] modular code system and JEF-1 [joint evaluated file] based nuclear data libraries to analyze LWHCR [light water high conversion reactor] lattices is investigated by calculating the wet and dry cells of the PROTEUS-LWHCR Phase II experiment. The results are compared to those obtained using several cell codes. Main features of AARE, such as the self-shielding of resonance cross sections in the whole energy range, the generation of adequate fission source spectra, the accurate calculation of migration areas, and the efficiency of the elastic removal correction are investigated. In particular, it is shown that AARE can predict the k∞ void coefficient well with a 1% deviation from experiment, whereas the other codes give larger deviations

  19. Pragmatic choice in conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Raymond W; Van Orden, Guy

    2012-01-01

    How do people decide what to say in context? Many theories of pragmatics assume that people have specialized knowledge that drives them to utter certain words in different situations. But these theories are mostly unable to explain both the regularity and variability in people's speech behaviors. Our purpose in this article is to advance a view of pragmatics based on complexity theory, which specifically explains the pragmatic choices speakers make in conversations. The concept of self-organized criticality sheds light on how a history of utterances and subtle details of a situation surrounding a conversation may directly specify language behavior. Under this view, pragmatic choice in discourse does not reflect the output of any dedicated pragmatic module but arises from a complex coordination or coupling between speakers and their varying communicative tasks. PMID:22253174

  20. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Prediction and assessment of the disturbances of the coal mining in Kailuan to karst groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Honglei; Jiao, Jian

    Coal resources and water resources play an essential and strategic role in the development of China's social and economic development, being the priority for China's medium and long technological development. As the mining of the coal extraction is increasingly deep, the mine water inrush of high-pressure confined karst water becomes much more a problem. This paper carried out research on the hundred-year old Kailuan coal mine's karst groundwater system. With the help of advanced Visual Modflow software and numerical simulation method, the paper assessed the flow field of karst water area under large-scale exploitation. It also predicted the evolution ofgroundwaterflow field under different mining schemes of Kailuan Corp. The result shows that two cones of depression are formed in the karst flow field of Zhaogezhuang mining area and Tangshan mining area, and the water levels in two cone centers are -270 m and -31 m respectively, and the groundwater generally flows from the northeast to the southwest. Given some potential closed mines in the future, the mine discharge will decrease and the water level of Ordovician limestone will increase slightly. Conversely, given increase of coal yield, the mine drainage will increase, falling depression cone of Ordovician limestone flow field will enlarge. And in Tangshan's urban district, central water level of the depression cone will move slightly towards north due to pumping of a few mines in the north.

  2. Advanced zinc phosphate conversion and pre-ceramic polymetallosiloxane coatings for corrosion protection of steel and aluminum, and characteristics of polyphenyletheretherketone-based materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R.

    1992-07-01

    Anhydrous zinc phosphate (Zn{center_dot}Ph) coatings deposited by immersing the steel in transition Co, Ni, and Mn cation-incorporated phosphating solutions were investigated. Two features for the anhydrous 340C-heated (Zn{center_dot}Ph) were addressed; one was to determine if electron trapping of adsorbed CO{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions acts to inhibit the cathodic reaction on the (Zn{center_dot}Ph), and the second was to determine the less susceptibility of the {alpha}-Zn{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase to alkali-induced dissolution. The factors governing film-forming of pre-ceramic polymetallosiloxane (PMS) coatings for Al substrates were investigated. Four factors were important in obtaining a good film: (1) formation of organopolymetallosiloxane at sintering temperatures of 150C; (2) pyrolytic conversion at 350C into an amorphous PMS network structure in which the Si-O-M linkage were moderately enhanced; (3) noncrystalline phases; and (4) formation of interfacial oxane bond between PMS and Al oxide. Formation of well-crystallized polyphenyletheretherketone (PEEK) in vicinity of silica aggregates was found in the molted body made in N{sub 2}. Crystalline PEEK contributed to thermal and hydrothermal stabilities of mortar specimens at temperatures up to 200C, and resistance in 5 wt % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 80C.

  3. The Produce Technics Research about the Fabric Component on Advanced Downfall Coping Coal Hydraulic Pressure Support%放顶煤高端液压支架结构件制造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鹏

    2014-01-01

    The text is according as advanced downfall coping coal hydraulic pressure support fabric component in recent years ,by controlling armor plate jointing ,fag end stress ,fag end distortion ,and its assort clearance ,we expatiated how to choose plate jointing ,logically choose fixing tolerance etc several pivotal advice ,lately we sumed up of the produce impact about advanced hydraulic pressure support .%对高强度低合金结构钢焊接、支架结构件残余应力及焊接残余变形的控制、高端液压支架结构件间配合间隙的合理选择板材下料、结构件拼装尺寸允差的合理选择等高端放顶煤液压支架制造过程中的几个关键问题进行了阐述,总结了高端放顶煤液压支架制造工艺。

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  5. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  6. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  7. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  8. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  9. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  10. The effect of temperature and oxygen content on coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Milenkova; A.G. Borrego; D. Alvarez; J. Xiberta; R. Menendez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    In this study chars from six coals differing in rank and maceral composition have been prepared at 1100 and 1300{sup o}C in a drop tube reactor using four oxygen concentrations (0, 2.5, 10 and 21% oxygen). Char burnout, reactivity, morphology and optical texture have been considered in an attempt to understand the effect of temperature and oxygen concentration in relation to coal characteristics. Temperature has shown to have a different effect on conversion depending on coal rank. The high volatile coals showed similar conversions at 1100 and 1300{sup o}C at the various atmospheres tested, whereas higher rank coals showed higher conversions at 1300 than at 1100{sup o}C. The presence of oxygen in the reacting gas appears to have two opposite effects on coal combustion. On the one hand it prevents swelling and devolatilisation and on the other it enhances combustion. The burnout will depend on which process dominates. In addition, this effect appears to be temperature dependant and the inhibiting effect of oxygen on coal devolatilisation has shown to be higher at higher temperature, since at low temperature it only affects the lowest ranked coals. The presence of oxygen also affects the structure of carbonaceous material since the lower the oxygen concentration the higher the anisotropy development. The difference in temperature separating the two series of experiments (1000 and 1300{sup o}C) did not have a positive effect on the conversion of coals yielding highly porous chars whereas for coals yielding more dense structures higher conversions were achieved at higher temperatures. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  12. Coal wizards of Oz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornsby, D.T.; Partridge, A.C. [Australian Coal Preparation Society, Indooroopilly, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    The first of two parts of a paper discusses how the Australian coal industry has grown to become the world`s largest coal exporter. Bar charts show coal product, exports, and consumption of metallurgical and steaming coal for the years 1987 to 1996. The importance of coal preparation is discussed. 8 figs., 2 photos.

  13. The Status quo and outlook of Chinese coal geology and exploration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Cheng, A.G.; Cao, D.Y. [China National Administration of Coal Geology, Beijing (China)

    2008-06-15

    Coal is China's dominant energy resource. Coal geological exploration is the basis of sustainable development of coal industry. Since the late 1990s, the advances in Chinese coal geology and exploration techniques have been shown in the following aspects. (1) The basic research of coal geology has changed from traditional geological studies to earth system science; (2) Breakthroughs have been achieved in integrated exploration techniques for coal resources; (3) Evaluation of coal and coalbed methane resources provides important basis for macropolicy making for China's coal industry and construction of large coal bases; (4) Significant advances have been made in using information technology in coal geological exploration and 3S (GPS, GIS, RS) technology. For the present and a period of time in the future, major tasks of Chinese coal geological technology are as follows: (1) solving resources replacement problem in eastern China and geological problems of deep mining; (2) solving problem of integrated coal exploration of complex regions in energy bases of central China, and resources problems induced by coal exploitation; (3) making efforts to enhance the level of geological research and resources evaluation of coal-accumulation basins in western China; (4) strengthening geological research of clean coal technologies; (5) strengthening geological research of the problems in modern coal mining and safe production; (6) promoting information technology in coal resources and major geological investigations.

  14. The Status Quo and Outlook of Chinese Coal Geology and Exploration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shuishi; CHENG Aiguo; CAO Daiyong

    2008-01-01

    Coal is China's dominant energy resource. Coal geological exploration is the basis of sustainable development of coal industry. Since the late 1990s, the advances in Chinese coal geology and exploration techniques have been shown in the following aspects. (1) The basic research of coal geology has changed from traditional geological studies to earth system science; (2) Breakthroughs have been achieved in integrated exploration techniques for coal resources; (3) Evaluation of coal and coalbed methane resources provides important basis for macropolicy making for China's coal industry and construction of large coal bases; (4) Significant advances have been made in using information technology in coal geological exploration and 3S (GPS, GIS, RS) technology. For the present and a period of time in the future, major tasks of Chinese coal geological technology are as follows: (1) solving resources replacement problem in eastern China and geological problems of deep mining; (2) solving problem of integrated coal exploration of complex regions in energy bases of central China, and resources problems induced by coal exploitation; (3) making efforts to enhance the level of geological research and resources evaluation of coal-accumulation basins in western China; (4) strengthening geological research of clean coal technologies; (5) strengthening geological research of the problems in modern coal mining and safe production; (6) promoting information technology in coal resources and major geological investigations.

  15. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  16. Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean energy fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1976. [2 appendices; 19 refs. Dryflo separation tests data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P. L.; Lovell, H. L.; Essenhigh, R. H.; Vastola, F. J.; Given, P. H.

    1976-05-01

    Responses to the questionnaire, which was distributed to determine the extent to which the nation's coal seams have been sampled and characterized, are being received. Early comparisons indicate a mathematical relationship between average random reflectance (Rapid Scan) and the mean-maximum reflectance as obtained by standard reflectance analysis. Results obtained so far show support of a diffusion dominance mechanism in the oxidation region of a combustion pot and a chemical kinetic mechanism in the gasification region. Values of reaction rates in coke beds have been calculated from experiments with a fixed bed shaft gasifier. Devolatilization of a North Dakota lignite in a laminar flow reactor and subsequent treatment of the resulting char has shown that weight loss is strongly dependent upon the isothermal decomposition time. Although gasification rates increase with increase in partial pressure of oxygen, the mechanism for gasification of a given char is independent of partial pressure of oxygen. Study of the reactivity of ion-exchanged lignite chars to steam shows that increased heat treatment decreases reactivity and ion exchange increases reactivity. Use of the DSC technique to study the thermal effects involved during chemisorption of oxygen on Saran carbon has yielded information on the activation energy (EA) of the reaction. Work on the infinite parallel plane char combustion computer model has determined that low volatile chars and coals can be suitable fuels if adequate available internal surface area is present.

  17. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140318Chen Xinwei(Reserves Evaluation Center of Xinjiang,Urumqi 830000,China);Li Shaohu Analysis on Sequence Stratigraphy Based on Jurassic Outcrop in Kuqa-Bai Coalfield(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,32(1),2013,p.77-82,2illus.,12refs.,with English abstract)Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Xinjiang

  18. Coal-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1992. Some information about technics, environmental questions and markets are also given. The use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced by about 10 percent during 1992 to the level of 1.1 million ton. This is the case for both heat generating boilers and co-generation boilers. On the other hand, the electricity production in the cogeneration plants have increased, mainly for tax reasons. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. During 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 cogeneration plants. For 1992 these figures are 5 and 9. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The industry has reduced its use of steamcoal by 140 000 tons to about 700 000 tons. The reason is a cut down of production in particularly the cement industry and the mineral wool industry. The steamcoal import was 1.2 million tons during 1992, the same as the year before. The import has been lower than the consumption during the last years. The companies have reduced their stocks because of changed laws about emergency stocks. The average price of steamcoal imported in Sweden in 1992 was 272 SEK/ton or 25 SEK/ton lower than in 1991. The coal market during 1992 was affected by smaller consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. Among other things independent mines in Russia and Poland have dumped low quality coals. A structuring of both process and quality has now begun. Western companies have for instance started joint ventures with Russian companies and supplied washing- and classifying equipments. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. 13 tabs

  19. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  20. Energy supply technologies. Thermal fuel conversion pyrolysis, gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Flemming J.; Jensen, Anker; Jensen, Peter A.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K. [DTU (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    The basic idea in thermal conversion of fuels is to transform and utilize chemical energy bound in the fuel to e.g. supersaturated steam in steam cycle, from which electricity may be produced upon passage of a steam turbine. Anyhow, thermal conversion of solid fuels occur, in principle, either in one strongly exothermic step from fuel to fully oxidized species, or in multiple steps, initiated by an endothermic step, in which a calorific gas is produced, followed by multiple exothermic conversion steps. The difference between these extremes provides possibilities of heat and power production, combined with application of gaseous products for production of liquid fuels. Recently, several opportune concepts of combined thermal conversion and fuel production have been introduced. Recommendations for future research areas: 1) Further development of pressurized gasifiers to handle biomass and waste as well as co-gasification of biomass and coal. 2) Work on integration of the gas-to-liquid (GLT) technology with power production so that waste heat can be used efficiently for power and central heat production. Integration with other advanced technologies so outlet CO{sub 2}-sequestration can be obtained and that the gasification can be integrated with combined cycle power production. 3) Increase of plant efficiency by improving the efficiency of both the gasification and synthesis process. 4) Development of new catalysts, with higher tolerance towards poisoning, and improved control over product composition. 5) Development and test of motors, and distribution systems, for new fuel types. There are several incitements to provide alternative transport fuels based on biomass as a raw material. It will be a CO{sub 2}-neutral transport fuel, it will reduce the dependence on imported fossil fuels in the Western world, and it is possible to further develop a domestic industry based on liquid fuels. (BA)

  1. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  2. Studies on separation, conversion and transmutation of long-living radionuclides. A contribution to advanced disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    via spallation is today regarded as more of a special method for direct transmutation. The primary aim of this study was therefore to expand the incomplete data set with new experimental reaction cross sections. The last chapter concentrates on the conversion of separated actinides into ceramic materials. Two of the most promising materials investigated in this work are yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and thorium oxide. Ceramic materials are an extremely promising base material both for final storage and for transmutation. This habilitation thesis closes with a conclusion and an outlook for the further development of P and T.

  3. The European Coal Market: Will Coal Survive the EC's Energy and Climate Policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    at international coal prices and their competitiveness compared with competing fuels. Chapter 4 provides an overview of EC regulations that are likely to shape the future demand of coal. Chapter 5 gives an overview of CCT and CCS development in Europe, while Chapter 6 presents the outlook of future coal demand and scenarios developed by the International Energy Agency and the European Commission. The second part of the report gives a detailed picture of the three largest European coal markets (Germany, Poland and the United Kingdom). It also looks at the Spanish coal market. Although coal in this country accounts for a small share of total energy consumption, recent austerity measures and their social impact put the sector into the public spotlight. A description of the coal market is given for each country. Then, key developments and issues pertaining to each country and its coal market are discussed. Chapter 7 analyses the impact of the phase-out of nuclear energy in Germany. Chapter 8 provides an overview of Poland's energy policy to 2030 and the CCS road-map prepared by the Bellona Foundation. Chapter 9 focuses on market reform of electricity in the United Kingdom and its impact on coal-fired power generation. Chapter 10 looks at coal subsidies in Spain and the impact of the drastic cut in coal mining subsidies decided by the government in May 2012. Annex 1 explains what the nature coal is and the main differences between steam coal (mainly used in power generation) and coking coal (used in the iron and steel industry). Annex 2 briefly analyses the use of coal in the steel industry. Annex 3 provides some useful unit conversions

  4. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booras, George [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Powers, J. [General Electric, Schenectady, NY (United States); Riley, C. [General Electric, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hendrix, H. [Hendrix Engineering Solutions, Inc., Calera, AL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  5. Ninth annual coal-fueled heat engines, advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Welcoming address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for retrofit and new capacity in the electric utility is expected to be very large: 250 gigawatt (GW) and 500 GW by the year 2030--an amount which equals the presently installed capacity in the US Overseas, the market is even larger exclamation point This large market will be driven by a number of key ''drivers.'' In order for power generation systems to compete in this market, they will have to satisfy the market drivers. This will lead us inevitably to modular, low cost, super clean, efficient, and reliable products which are fuel flexible and can meet either retrofit, repowering, or new capacity applications. I believe clean coal technologies that we are developing will meet these market demands and will penetrate--and eventually dominate--the power generation market of the next century. But for this market penetration and widespread deployment to take place, the products we are jointly developing must be continuously improved. We must together set our goals on a rapid march down the learning curve from the present high ''projected costs'' of these systems to an acceptable market clearing price on the order of $1000 to $1200 per kilowatt (kw) and with heat rates approaching 7500 Btu per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The projected learning curve for integrated gasification combined cycle systems is a good illustration of the aggressive goals we need to achieve

  6. Coal mining in Ramagundam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraberty, S.

    1979-07-01

    The Ramagundam area in the South Godavari Coalfield is one of the most promising coal-bearing belts in India. It contains total coal reserves of about 1,132,000,000 tons in an area of approximately 150 square kilometers, and holds high potential for development into a vast industrial center. During the past four years production has doubled to 3,500,000 tons in 1978 to 1979. By 1983 to 1984, the total output per year is planned to be doubled again. Increased mechanization and the introduction of more advanced mining techniques will help to achieve this goal. In addition to the present face machinery, i.e., gathering arm loaders/shuttle cars and side dump loaders/chain conveyor combinations, the latest Voest-Alpine AM50 tunneling and roadheading machines have been commissioned for development work. Load-haul-dump machines will be introduced in the near future to ensure higher loading/transport capacities. A double-drum shearer loader with self-advancing supports is due to be commissioned shortly for faster, more efficient longwall mining to supplement conventional bord and pillar mining. In addition, a mechanized open cast mine has come on stream, and a walking dragline will soon be delivered to the mine for removing overburden. The projected annual output from this mine will be about 2,000,000 tons. (LTN)

  7. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-07-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  11. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  12. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  13. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  14. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx. Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO2-removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 40% reduction

  15. Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Storage Support Bulgaria's Low Carbon Energy Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie Christine Nakaten; P. Kötting; R. Azzam; Thomas Kempka

    2013-01-01

    Underground coal gasification facilitates the utilization of deep-seated coals that are economically not exploitable via conventional mining. This study examines UCG as an approach for coal conversion into a synthesis gas as substitute for natural gas or to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with CO2 capture and storage. Modelling results show that implementing UCG-CCS into the Bulgarian energy system depicts a low carbon alternative to coal fired power generation and can potentially decrease ...

  16. Coal blending and coal homogenisation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toerslev Jensen, P. [I/S ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Blending is becoming increasingly important as a way of improving the quality of coal fired in power plants. This paper gives a basic description of the purposes of coal blending. Although indices for estimating (properties, slagging and fouling propensity, reactivity, etc.) of coal and coal blends exist, these are not considered reliable for coals of widely different origin, and experience will be emphasised as a better tool. The pros and cons of different blending methods are discussed together with the environmental impact of coal blending facilities. Finally, the blending facilities of ELSAM, a power pool serving the western part of Denmark, are described. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  18. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    ERDA's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and noncatalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Responsibility for the design, construction, and operation of these facilities is given and progress in the quarter is summarized. Several supporting or complementary projects are described similarly. (LTN)

  19. Reactor Physics Methods and Preconceptual Core Design Analyses for Conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor to Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Sean R. Morrell

    2012-09-01

    several obsolete components of the current analytical tool set used for ATR neutronics support. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). It will also greatly facilitate the LEU conversion effort, since the upgraded computational capabilities are now at a stage where they can be, and in fact have been, used for the required physics analysis from the beginning. In this context, extensive scoping neutronics analyses were completed for six preconceptual candidate LEU fuel element designs for the ATR (and for its companion critical facility, ATRC). Of these, four exhibited neutronics performance in what is believed to be an acceptable range. However, there are currently some concerns with regard to fabricability and mechanical performance that have emerged for one of the four latter concepts. Thus three concepts have been selected for more comprehensive conceptual design analysis during the upcoming fiscal year.

  20. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in